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Improvement of existing airport - Airport site selection

Airport size - Airport obstructions
Clear zone - Turning zone - Zoning laws
• Airport plan has satisfy local needs of airport and also it
should fit into the overall development of the entire region,
state or country.
• Airport planning mainly concerned with 3 aspects
Adequate process to metropolitan area
Securing sufficient airspace for aircraft access
Sufficient land for ground operations
• Improvement of existing airport can be carried out on
following considerations
Capacity of existing airport
Improving the existing capacity
Traffic forecast
Planning a new airport
Capacity Of Existing Airport
• To make sure whether the existing airport can handle the
anticipated air traffic w.r.to
o Adequacy of apron and servicing facility
o Adequacy of terminal building for passenger and cargo
o Capacity of runway and taxiway at peak hour
o Suitable approaches
Improving The Existing Capacity
• The possible methods to improve the present capacity of
airport include various criteria such as
Construction of new runway
High speed exit taxiways
Improving traffic control devices
Rearranging the plan of terminal building and loading
Traffic Forecast
• Future volume of traffic including new aircrafts likely to
visit the airport should be studied
• It should be calculated such traffic can be accommodated
by improvements in existing airport
• Period of traffic forecast may be 15 to 20 years
Planning A New Airport
• If the above 3 considerations are not favourable for
improvement of existing airport, proposal for new airport
has to be made.
• Selection of site for new airport is based on certain criteria
to determine the location and size.
• Same considerations are applicable for expansion of
• Data and details are studied from various airport surveys
before site selection.
• Atmospheric and meteorological • Presence of other airport
conditions • Regional plan
• Availability of land for expansion • Soil characteristics
• Availability of utilities • Surrounding obstructions
• Development of the surrounding • Topography
area • Use of airport
• Economy of construction
• Ground accessibility

Atmospheric and meteorological conditions Availability of utilities

• Presence of fog, haze, smoke • Airport has to be provided

reduces the visibility with utilities like water, electric
• Poor visibility lowers traffic capacity power, telephone, sewer etc
• Detailed analysis of weather
• Airports located far away from
records of site will help
recommending the site available sewers, sewage
• Wind data should be studied so
disposal plant has to be
that the site shall be located on constructed
wind direction.
Availability of land for expansion Development of surrounding area

• It is necessary to acquire land • Study of development of

in advance or to be able to surrounding area is very
acquire sufficient land in the important
future for expanding the • Airport activity (Noise) is
airport objectionable to neighbor to
• As the volume of traffic airport
increases it is necessary to • Proximity of airport site to the
lengthen the runway, and to residential areas, schools,
expand terminal facility. hospitals should be avoided
Economy of construction Ground accessibility

• If alternative sites are available and • Location of airport should have

equally well suited, site which is shortest ground access time
more economical to construct
should be given preference • With the introduction of jet aircrafts
the air time is reduced
• Waterlogged areas or reclaimed
lands are costly to develop. • The location of airport at a
considerable distance from the
• Uneven terrain requires more centre of population may cause
grading than even terrain inconvenience to the users
• Availability of local materials • All the modes of transport should
be considered for easy ground
Presence of other airport Use of airport

• Airports should be located at a • Site is decided by the use of

sufficient distance apart.
• To prevent the aircraft which are airport (civil / military)
manoeuvring for landing at one • In case of an emergency like
airport from interfering with
movements of aircraft at other war, civil airports will be taken
airports. over by military.
• The minimum distance between • Therefore airport site has to
airports depend on volume and
type of air traffic, operating facility, grant natural protection.
Regional plan Soil characteristics

• Airport site should be selected • Favourable soil reduces the

such a way that it fits in region cost of grading and the
plan drainage
• Such airport will form an • The area should be as far as
integral part of the national possible be self drained
airport network • A valley site requires less
grading but there are
possibilities of flood
• An elevated site provides
better drainage and visibility
Surrounding obstructions Topography

• Site should be clear of • A raised ground is

obstructions considered to be an ideal
• If existing it should be site for airport
possible to clear them • It gives better visibility due
easily to less fog
• Obstructions like tree, • It permits natural drainage
sloping ground buildings, • Approach and turning
grid /cell phone towers, zones are less obstructed
etc has to be removed
• 4 factors affect size of an airport
Elevation - Site above sea level influences runway
requirements and performance varies with altitude due to
temperature and density of air
Meteorological conditions – wind and temperature
influence size of airport, wind direction and velocity
determines the number of runways, temperature influence
runway length. Temperature increases air density
decreases, hence aircraft require larger run to take off
Aircraft performance characteristics – knowledge of this
determines the run way length. Aircraft requiring long run
for take off and land decides the runway length and
Airport size is determined by aircraft manufacturers,
airlines, and other users of airport
Traffic volume – volume of air traffic at airport influence
number of runway required, taxiways and ramp area.
Airport obstructions
• Airport obstructions considered for safe navigation are
1. Imaginary surfaces
2. Objects with actual height
Imaginary surfaces
• Established surfaces in relation to airport and to runway above
which no obstruction should project
• Size of imaginary surface depend on category of runway and type
of approach.
• Types of imaginary surfaces are
1. Approach surface
2. Conical surface
3. Horizontal surface
4. Take off and climb surface
5. Transitional surface
Objects with actual heights
• Any object which exceeds limiting height above the ground is
considered as an obstruction.
I. Any object within 4.5 km distance from the runway end is
considered as an obstruction, if height is more than 30 m above
II. Any object located beyond a distance of 4.5 km from the runway
end, if its height above 30m increase by more than 7.5 m for
each additional 1.5 km distance from runway end
III. Any object which projects above the minimum approach flight
altitude or which height exceeds 150 m above the ground is
also considered as obstruction
Clear Zone
• The innermost portion of the approach zone and it is to be
provided at the end of runways
• It should be a level area except for fences, ditches, other
minor obstructions, all the major obstructions should be
• The length of clear zone is determined by the distance
required to reach a height of 30 m from the approach
Turning Zone
• The area of airport other than approach area and it is intended for
turning operations of the aircraft in case of emergency (engine
failure, troubles faced while take off)
• Aircraft operates at low height in the turning zone and its
necessary that the area should be free from any obstructions
• Any object located within a distance of 4.5 km from airport
reference point is considered as an obstruction, if its height
exceeds 51 m above the ground
• Any object located beyond a distance of 4.5 km from airport
reference point is considered as an obstruction, if its height
exceeds 51 m plus 30 m for each additional 1.5 km distance from
the ARP
Zoning Laws
• These laws are implemented as soon as the final selection of the
airport site is made
• Airports are involved in two types of zoning
1. Height zoning – aimed to protect the approaches to the airport
from obstruction. It regulates the heights of structures on land
surrounding the airport
2. Land use zoning – the closely related uses include terminal
building, parking, aprons, runways, taxiways, and maintenance
facilities. Non aviation uses relate to the commercial, industrial
and recreational activities. This zoning do not interfere with
aircraft operations.