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4/2/2019 Foundation

Piling Productivities

Details Category: Foundation Published: February 19, 2016 Hits: 11915

Bored Piles CFA Bored Driven H Piles

Advantages Bored pile are used to They are quick to install Driven piles are driven to
support multi-story and have a set in variable site
building or bridges which no requirement for conditions to achieve
uniform minimum
can producing heavy temporary or
capacity with high
vertical loads permanent casings reliability

Methodology Pile drilled / soil removed Auger drilled into Steel section driven into
and replaced with ground and replaced the ground
reinforced concrete with concrete as the
auger is removed

Design Effect on No displacement of the Typically no Small cross sectional

adjacent soil but the potential for displacement with good area and hence minimal
ground relaxation / softening construction controls soil displacement or
Localised densification potential improvement
adjacent ground, of loose non-cohesive
dependant upon the soil soils.
and bore support used

Typical size 450-2500mm diameter 450 – 1200 mm 150 – 350 UC’s, UBPs
ranges diameter depths up to

- Shaft friction Medium Medium Medium

- End bearing Very high with enlarged Medium High


- Structural Very high structural Cage insertion can limit Driving stresses often
capacity and tensile govern the steel section
stiffness achievable and flexural capacity at required

Durability Conventional concrete in Conventional concrete Sacrificial thickness of

the ground design in the ground design steel above
Permanent liner in highly low groundwater level
aggressive conditions

Construction Typical / Plant Hydraulic or crane Hydraulic piling rig, Crane, vibro hammer or
mounted piling rig, concrete pump and hydraulic hammer with
handling crane, casing, possible handling crane powerpack or drop
vibro with powerpack and hammer and leaders or
/ or drilling support fluid guide frame

Piling 16m deep - 600dia @ 16m deep - 600dia @ 16m deep - 350 UC’s @
productivity 2No/day in soft material 11No/day in soft 22No/day in soft material
including a 3m soft rock material including a 3m
socket depth. Detailed soft rock socket depth
production rates

Material to Concrete, reinforcement Concrete and Steel sections

Plant cages and method reinforcement cages

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dependant material

Materials Casing and cage lay Cage lay down area H pile lay down area
storage down area

Noise Machine only unless Machine only Yes, if vibro used

driven casing hammer used to obtain
pile set

Vibration No, unless driven casing No Yes


Spoil 100% Nett volume 100% Nett volume None

Other Plunged columns can be Fast installation Full strength welded

placed into the top of the process with real time splice used at
pile to structural monitoring systems for connections
positional tolerances Predrilling can be used
construction control and
to overcome
records obstructions

Driven Tubes Precast Vibro replacement

Piles Concrete Piles
They are ideally suited Precast driven piles can Stone piles are a very
Advantages effective technique, for
for marine and other be environmentally
near shore applications friendly when construct resolving issues with
liquefiable soils, that fall
with a very high end temporary trestles in
within the typical grain
bearing capability wetland size range

Methodology Tube driven using Pre cast section driven Soil displaced or removed
external or internal into the ground and replaced with stone
hammer and filled with
reinforced concrete

Design Effect on Large displacement of Large displacement Large displacement with

adjacent resulting in
plugged tubes resulting densification of non-
ground densification of non-
in densification of non- cohesive soils and cohesive soils
cohesive soils and enhanced capacity surrounding the stone
enhanced capacity column which enhances
the capacity

Typical size 350 – 750 mm diameter 250 – 600 mm square 600 – 1200 mm diameter

- Shaft friction Medium Medium Low

- End bearing Very high Very High Low

- Structural Tubes can be Lifting, driving and Stone quality &

reinforced concrete jointing can limit confinement in the soil
filled to enhance capacity limit the capacity

Durability Sacrificial thickness of Conventional concrete Weathering / degradation

steel and of stone typically not an
in the ground design
internal reinforced issue
concrete Review potential
corrosion at joints

Construction Typical / Plant Crane, vibro hammer or Crane, hydraulic Crane, vibro probe with
hydraulic hammer with hammer with power pack,
powerpack or drop powerpack or drop water pumps, compressor
and front loader
hammer, leaders hammer, leaders or
or guide frame guide frame

Piling 16m deep - 600mm Dia 16m deep - 300mm 12m deep @ 6No/day in
productivity piles @ 22No/day square piles @ soft material

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Material to Steel tubes, Precast concrete piles Stone

Plant reinforcement cages unless manufactured
and concrete on site

Materials Tube and cage lay Precast pile lay down / Stone stockpiles
storage down area curing area

Noise Yes if top driven but Yes Machine only

limited if bottom driven

Vibration Yes Yes Yes

Spoil None, but ground None, but ground 20 - 100% Nett volume
heave possible heave possible

Other Predrilling can be used Variable pile founding Top feed “Wet” process
to overcome depth can lead to high requires water circulation
obstructions Enlarged wastage levels and system and settlement
bases can be formed to jointing expensive ponds to contain silts
enhance capacity

Sheet Pile Wall Secant Pile Wall Diaphragm Wall

Advantages Sheet piles are best This is a permanent Diaphragm walls tend to
suited for the following solution which provides be used for retaining
applications temporary increased wall stiffness very deep excavations
as they can be designed
retaining walls, compared to sheet
to take very high
cofferdams and other piles structural loads
temporary structures

Methodology Clutched sheet piles A series of piles A series of interlocking

driven into position. installed so that they reinforced concrete
overlap to form a wall. panels.

Construction Establishment Cranes, vibros and 50-60T self erecting 50T crane + grab,
hammers and / or pile hydraulic drilling rigs handling crane,
jacking plant and handling crane. mud conditioning plant,
mud storage

Piling productivity 16m deep - 600mm 16m deep - 600dia @ 16m deep by 800mm
wide sheet piles @ 4No/day in soft wide @ 14-40m3/day of
22No/day (in clay or material including a 3m completed wall per rig
per day
sand materials) soft rock socket depth.
Detailed production Detailed production
rates rates

Materials to site Sheet Piles Concrete, Bentonite, reinforcement

reinforcement cages cages or concrete

Work face Plant & Materials Plant & Materials Plant materials and
access delivery delivery pipelines for mud

Noise Yes, unless jacked in Machine only Machine only

Vibration Yes, unless jacked in No No

Spoil No 100% nett volume 100% nett volume

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Product Wall Movement Flexible, can be In-situ wall with ground Ground supported
increased with supported throughout excavation.
clutched throughout Stiffest option given wall
king piles. More props construction. Very stiff. thickness
or anchors can be
used to reduce

Watertightness Good with joint Groundwater control Excellent over full depth
treatment over pile length and of the wall with
satisfactory waterbar across panel
performance with joints.
some seepages

Connections Welded below capping Drilled & grouted bars Full moment & shear
beam level into piles, connection via box-out
shear & bending and pull-out bars
capacity possible

Durability Internal painting and Conventional concrete Conventional concrete in

sacrificial in the ground design. the ground design. No
thickness of steel Internal lining for long- internal lining necessary
term seepage

Load Capacity Low end bearing Capacity can be Wall has a large bearing
capacity enhanced by area and individual
increasing the length panels can be extended
of some piles

Soldier Pile Bored Pile Wall Soilmix/Slurry

Wall Wall

Advantages Soldier pile and lagging Low cost and speed Excellent resistance to
walls are the most of construction for contaminated
inexpensive systems temporary and groundwater. They have
abilityto adapt to ground
compared to other permanent retaining movements such as
retaining walls. They walls and soil earthquakes
are also very easy and support
fast to construct

Methodology Constructed using Series of bored piles Steel or precast concrete

piles timber infill panels installed relatively elements placed in fluid
(timber, steel or close together with soilmix / slurry
concrete) shotcrete arches

Construction Establishment 50-60T self erecting 50-60T self erecting 50T crane + grab / CSM,
hydraulic drilling rigs hydraulic drilling rigs, handling crane / grout
and handling crane handling crane and plant with screw feed
concrete pumps silos, high pressure

Piling 16m deep - 300mm 16m deep - 600dia @ 16m deep by 800mm wide
productivity square piles @ 4No/day in soft @ 20-50m3/day of
18No/day material including a completed wall per rig per
3m soft rock socket
depth. Detailed
production rates

Materials to site Concrete, Concrete, Cement, bentonite, steel

reinforcement cages, reinforcement cages or precast concrete panels
steel or precast
concrete panels

Work face Plant & Materials Plant & Materials Plant, materials and

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access delivery delivery pipeline delivery of slurry

Noise Yes, if driven sections Machine only Machine only

Vibration Yes, if driven sections No No

Spoil Dependant on 100% nett volume 30%-80% Nett volume

installation method

Product Wall Movement Ground unsupported Ground unsupported Ground supported with
allowing relaxation allowing relaxation stiffness dependant on
prior placement of prior to concrete steel section.
panels and backfilling Finished product stiff Precast panels can
Stiffness depends on increase stiffness.
structural section
and backfill

Watertightness Permeable with no Permeable until Good temporary

groundwater control shotcrete in place performance due to
below excavation. with no replacement with CB
Seepages long term groundwater control slurry but some seepages
below. Seepages
long term

Connections Numerous connection Drilled and grouted Welded to steel sections,

options dependant on bars into piles, shear shear & bending capacity
materials used and bending capacity possible.

Durability Conventional concrete Conventional Sacrificial thickness of

in the ground concrete in ground steel and internal
design or sacrificial design lining wall for long-term
steel thickness given groundwater seepage
long term seepage

Load Capacity Capacity can be Capacity can be Capacity limited by

enhanced by enhanced by penetration of steel beams
increasing the length of increasing the length
piles. of some piles.

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