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ABSTRACT

The objective of the experiment is to determine the concentration of chloride in liquid sample. The
Mohr method uses chromate ions as an indicator in the titration of chloride ions with a silver nitrate
standard solution. After all the chloride has been precipitated as white silver chloride, the first excess
of titrant results in the formation of a silver chromate precipitate, which signals the end point. By
knowing the stoichiometry and moles consumed at the end point, the amount of chloride in an unknown
sample has been determined. Then, the result show that the concentration of Cl- is found by divide the
molar mass of Cl with the no. of mole Cl- of unknown to get the mass of Cl- and subtract it with no of
volume. The resulting show that the objective of the experiment has been achieved.
INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this report is to show how the concentration of chloride in liquid sample by titration.
Titration is the analytical procedure in which the titrant from the burette is added to another substance.
Stoichiometric reaction happens as the titrant is added until it will reach to the end point. The purpose
of titration is to determine concentration of the unknown substance (From, 1997). One type of titration
is precipitation titration which started in the early 18th century and was considered as the oldest
analytical techniques. Precipitation titrations are based on reactions that yield ionic compounds of
limited solubility. Only limited precipitating agents are used because of the slow rate of appearance of
precipitate. In this reaction, the analyte and titrant form an insoluble precipitate that can serve as a basis
for a titration

Silver nitrate is an important precipitating reagent which can also be used for the determination of the
halogens, halogen like anions, mercaptans, fatty acids, and several divalent inorganic anions. When
silver nitrate is used in titrations, it can be called as argentometric titrations. Potassium chromate can
serve as indicator in titrating chloride, bromide and cyanide ions by reacting with silver ions to form a
brick-red silver chromate precipitate in the equivalence point region. As the silver nitrate solution is
slowly added, a precipitate of silver chloride forms

Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) --> AgCl(s)

According to the University of Canterbury, the indicator used is dilute potassium chromate solution.
When all the chloride ions have reacted, any excess silver nitrate added will react with chromate ions
to form a red-brown precipitate of silver chromate. This procedure is known as Mohr’s method.

2Ag+(aq) + CrO42-(aq) --> Ag2CrO4(s)


CHEMICALS/APPARATUS/EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT/APPARATUS PURPOSE
Burette Delivering the volumes of liquid
Pipette 25 mL Transfer a measurable amount of liquid
Pipette bulb Control the flow of liquid
Erlenmeyer flasks 250 mL Filled the solution
Volumetric flask 250 mL Preparation of standard solutions
Graduated cylinder 100 mL Measure the volume of a liquid

REAGENTS/CHEMICALS PURPOSE
NaCl Unknown sample
K2CrO4 Indicator
AgNO3 Titrant
METHODOLOGY

The 4.25 of AgNO3 The stock solution of 25 mL of NaCL has


has been weighed and NaCl has been prepared been placed into
has been transfered to by dissolve 0.2500 g conical flask and
250 mL volumetric portions of NaCl in 100 1mL of K2CrO4 has
flask as stock solution mL of distilled water been added.

The solution has been


The blank solution The volume of titrated untill first
has been titrated and AgNO3 used has permanent appearance
the volume of been recorded of red Ag2Cr2O4 and
AgNO3 used has
has been repeated for 2
been recorded
times

The concentration of
Cl- has been
determined by
perform a
calculation

Flow chart 1:Methodology of experiment


RESULT

Standardization of AgNO3

Replicate Sample, g NaCl Volume of AgNO3 Concentration of


used, mL AgNO3, M

Blank - 0.6 -

1 0.25 10.15 0.1059

2 0.25 11.10 0.0968

3 0.25 11.00 0.0977

Table 1: Result of titration


DISCUSSION

The chloride content of a sample has been determined by using Mohr’s Method. In Mohr’s method,
sodium chloride react with silver nitrate in the presence of the indicator potassium chromate (K2CrO4)
for chloride determination. In this experiment, Mohr titration was used to determine the amount of
chloride in the unknown sample and the reaction are:

2Ag+ + CrO42- → Ag2CrO4 (s)

The chromate indicator added to the concentration developed the red precipitate as it reached the
equivalence point. The end point takes place when the chloride ions react and forms a precipitate. Lower
concentrations of chromate are generally used because high concentrations of chromate ion could cause
misdetection of red silver chromate. Blank determination was also used. Blank titration was conducted
to find the unknown of sodium chloride sample. All steps of the chemical analysis are performed
without the presence of the analyte in blank determination. As indicated in the results, the resulting
average molarity of the standardized silver nitrate solution was 0.1001 M. Then, the molarity of the
standardized silver nitrate solution are used for the determination of concentration of Cl in the sample,
which is the objective of this experiment, the calculation has been done by divide molar mass of cl- with
no of mole Cl- (unknown). As stated in the results, the concentration of chloride in the sample were
258.014 mg/L. The calculations were done according to the formula presented. The silver nitrate reacts
with chloride ion in a 1:1 ratio. This reaction forms silver chloride and the precipitate forms in the
bottom of the flask. As the end point takes place, the extra silver ions react with chromate ions to form
the brownish red precipitate of silver chromate.
CONCLUSION

The experiment in overall proved that the concentration of the unknown can be calculated using the
stoichiometry of the reaction and the number of moles of standard solution needed to reach the so called
end point. Then the concentration of Cl- is found 258.014 mg/L by find the mass of Cl- at first by using
no. of mole Cl- of unknown and subtract it with volume used. For this experiment, it is recommended
to first carry out a “rough” titration in order to become familiar with the colour change at the end point.
REFERENCE

a. Books

1.SKOOG D.A., WEST D.M and HOLLER F.J, Fundamentals of analytical chemistry,
6th ed., 1992.

2.W. H. Freeman , Quantitative Chemical Analysis Sixth Edition edition (July 15, 2002)

3. Douglas A. Skoog, Donald M. West , Analytical Chemistry: An Introduction

4. David Harvey Modern Analytical Chemistry, 1999

5. Reference Materials in Analytical Chemistry, original 1st ed. 2000 edition (31 Dec. 2013)
APPENDIX

Picture 1: addition of Ag+ ions leads to formation of silver chloride precipitate, making the solution cloudy