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Biology 101 Fall 2013

Study Guide for Exam 1 covering Unit 1 Cellular Life

Lecture 1 Introduction to Biology

1. Define biology

Lecture 2 Scientific Thinking

1. Define the different parts of the scientific method, and be able to identify and generate
each: observations, hypotheses, predictions, tests for the predictions, and conclusions
based on those tests.

2. Explain the difference between a hypothesis and a theory

3. Explain the characteristics of a well-controlled experiment

4. Explain the difference between causation and correlation

5. Explain what was done in the article “High Blood Sugar is Linked to Dementia”

Lecture 3 Essential Chemistry for Biology

1. Each element is made up of a specific type of __?

2. What are the three components of an Atom? Which are charged?

3. Which of the three components of an Atom determines the type of atom?

4. How are the components of the Atom arranged – which components sit in the nucleus,
which sit in energy levels?

5. Which component of an Atom determines how many covalent bonds are formed?

6. How are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds formed? Which bond is the weakest?

7. Water has important properties that make it critical for life. What is special about the
covalent bonds in a water molecule? What type of bond do water molecules form with
each other that give water these unique properties? And what are these properties?

8. What is pH?

Lecture 4 Molecules of Life

1. Describe the four major biological

macromolecule function subunit
macromolecules inside cells?
In the chart fill in:
- The type of macromolecule.
- The function of each macromolecule.
- The name of the subunit that
each macromolecule is built from.
2. What are fats, sterols and
3. What is an enzyme? How does it
work? What different factors in
the environment affect the rate of a
4. What are the similarities and
differences between RNA and DNA?

A, T, G or C

Lecture 5 A Tour of the Cell
1. What are the two categories of cells in life?

2. Compare and contrast the two categories of cells.

3. Define cell theory.

4. All cells have an outer layer called the ____. This outer layer is composed of what
biological molecule?

5. In the diagram below fill in the name of the major components of eukaryotic cells. State the
function of each.

6. Identify whether cellular components are in plant cells, animal cells, or both.

Lecture 6 The Working Cell
1. Define kinetic and potential energy, and be able to identify each.

2. Define the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

3. The potential energy in cells is converted into what molecule? This molecule drives
chemical reactions by transferring energy from one reaction to the next.

4. What types of molecules can freely pass through the cellular membrane?

5. Small molecules are transported across membranes in 3 different ways.

They are passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport.
In which process do molecules move down a concentration gradient?

In which process are molecules moved against a concentration gradient?

Which process requires an input of energy?

Which requires a transport protein to form a channel for passage across the membrane?

6. Large molecules are transported across the plasma membrane of a cell by endocytosis
and exocytosis. How are these processes different?

7. What are the different types of endocytosis?

Lectures 7 and 8 Photosynthesis

1. Below is a diagram of a plant cell. What are the 3 features that distinguish it from an
animal cell? What is the purpose of these 3 features?

2. What is the overall chemical reaction for photosynthesis? What are the reactants? What
are the products? Where does the energy come from, and what is it converted to throughout
this process?

3. What is the molecule in the thylakoid membrane that absorbs the energy from sunlight?
What wavelengths of sun are absorbed and reflected?

4. What is the molecule that is taken up from the atmosphere and used to build sugars?

5. Photosynthesis is divided into two parts, light dependent and light independent reactions.
What are the products of the first part of photosynthesis?
What are the products of the second part of photosynthesis?

6. When is carbon dioxide needed during photosynthesis?

7. What are the roles of ATP and NADPH in photosynthesis?

8. Compare and contrast CAM, C4, and C3 plants.

Lectures 9 and 10 Cellular Respiration

1. What is the basic chemical reaction that represents cellular respiration? What are the
reactants? What are the products? What is the purpose of this metabolic process?

2. Cellular respiration takes place in which organelle? Is this organelle present in the cells of
all organisms?

3. Cellular respiration is divided into three steps : glycolysis, the krebs cycle, and electron
transport. When is carbon dioxide released during this process? When is oxygen used?
What part of cellular respiration generates the most ATP?

4. How do glycolysis and the krebs cycle contribute to electron transport?

5. During electron transport potential energy is converted into ATP. How is the potential
energy created in the mitochondria? How is that potential energy converted into ATP?

6. Describe how cells produce ATP in the absence of oxygen.

7. Why do mitochondria need multiple compartments?

8. What did researchers learn in “How exercise can strengthen the brain”?