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Methods of Heat Transfer

Budiao, Andres S., Bilo, Toni Yzabelle B., Flores, Jeannifer L., Padica, Sherylyn F.*

Abstract – Heat flow is what we call in the I. INTRODUCTION

energy that is constantly flowing from the
Heat can be transferred in three various
object to another object. It moves the
ways – Conduction, Radiation and
temperature from higher to lower
Convection. Conduction is through solids,
temperature. When you observe that
radiation through anything that allows the
there is no change in temperature that
radiation to pass and convection through
means there is no heat flow happens
fluids like liquids or gases. Energy is what
between the objects. The three methods of
we called in the process of heat transfer; it is
heat transfer are conduction, radiation
constantly flowing into one object to another
and convection. Conduction is the most
object and it all requires the existence of
popular in our nature. It is a type of heat
temperature difference.
flow when the two objects with different
temperature touch each other. Radiation Conduction happens when the two
is where the heat transfers through air or object with different temperature are in
space. Earth receives radiation from the contact with each other. It is a heat transfer
sun; some of it helps the processes in the through matter, just like when you
atmosphere like photosynthesis. accidently touched the hot pan when you are
Convection transfers heat through liquid cooking and burned yourself. The object or
and gases; it is by the movement of mass living objects that has higher temperature
from one object to another. The heat transfer its molecules to the one with lower
gained from the process of conduction temperature. There must be an atoms or
and radiation moved about the planet by molecules making contacting with other
convection. It is described in vertical molecules in order for there to be
motion that’s why the redistribution of conduction. Conduction can’t be done in a
thermal energy is from the equatorial vacuum because there are no atoms or
regions up to the Polar Regions. Heat molecules inside of a vacuum.
always flows from the higher temperature
to lower temperature. This paper aims to Radiation doesn’t need any contact with
determine how energy is transferred the object to transfer its energy. It can be
through conduction, radiation and transferred through empty space by thermal
convection. radiation; the energy from the sun is one
major source of radiation. While
Keywords – Conduction, Convection, Heat electromagnetic radiation like infrared
Transfer, Radiation ultraviolet and visible light can transfer
energy from one object to another object.
Lastly, convection is useful in Instead of using the candle replace it with
transferring heat energy through liquids and soldering iron. Attached the temperature
gases. It occurs when warmer areas of liquid sensor to the PASCO Spark and to the rods;
or gas rises its temperature. There are other you will create a temperature v time graph
types of convection – forced convection and indicated as temperature 1(aluminum)
which is induced an external source such as and temperature 2 (brass). Get the initial
pump and compressor; natural convection temperature of the rods first before clicking
which is induced by natural means and the the start button. Turn on the soldering iron
flow is initiated by a change in the density and observe the temperature change for 5-10
of fluids. minutes and record their final temperature.

This paper aims to determine how energy is

transferred by conduction through two
different types of metal and if different
materials transfer energy better than others,
and to determine how metal cans with
different surfaces (black paint and
unpainted) are able to absorb radiation from
a light source.

A. Conduction

B. Radiation

Figure 1. Set-up 1, Convection

Use a soldering iron, two different

metal rods (brass and aluminum) and Buret Figure 2. Set-up 2, Radiation
clamps and arrange it according to figure 1.
My prediction was the aluminum will
Use two radiation cans painted in increase its temperature faster than the brass
black and silver and put a temperature because of the differences of their heat
sensor arranged as in figure 2. 150 watts conductivity. Aluminum has 118 thermal
lamp is place about 20 cm in front of the two conductivity while brass has only 64. You
should know that the rods conducted heat
cans; the lamp should be the same distance
energy because of the temperature changes
from each can so that they will receive the from initial to final. As you can see from
same amount of radiation. Attach the graph 1, temperature 1 (Aluminum), starts to
temperature sensor to the PASCO Spark and rise its temperature from 150s with 24.5 ˚C
create a temperature v time graph and while temperature 2 (Brass), starts to rise its
indicated as temperature 1 (Silver) and temperature from 150s with 24.3 ˚C only
temperature 2 (Black). Get the initial and their final temperature stops at 360.5s
temperature of the two cans. Turn on the with 33.0 for aluminum and 29.3 for Brass.
lamps and leave it for 5-10 minutes, observe B. Radiation
the changing of temperature and record its
final temperature. Table 2. Temperature changes for Radiation.
Silver Can Black Can
Starting Temp 27.4 26.0
A. Conduction Ending Temp 28.0 28.4
Change in 1.4 2.4
Table 1. Temperature changes for Temp
Metal Initial Final Time Slope
Temp. Temp. to final of the
(˚c) (˚c) Temp. Line
Brass 24.0 29.3 360.50 0.1
Al 23.2 33.0 360.50 0.1

Graph 1. Temperature v time graph for


According to the data, the black can

absorbs the radiation more efficiently than
silver can. Because of their color, black
absorbs all the light coming from the source
while the silver didn’t absorb it all, there are
some that are just reflected back, that’s why
Graph 1. Temperature v time of brass and the black can rises its temperature first than
aluminum. the silver can.

For conduction, the aluminum

increases its temperature first because it has
high heat conductivity and we know that the
aluminum conducted heat energy because it
changes its temperature from 23.2˚C to
33.0˚C. For radiation, the black heats up
faster than silver because color black
absorbs the radiation coming from the light
source and the silver only absorbs limited
radiations and reflected the others.


Leinhard, John H., 1930, “Heat Transfer”, in

A Heat Transfer Textbook, 4th ed.
Cambridge, MA, Phlogiston Press, c 2017

Introduction to. Thermodynamics and Heat.

Transfer, Second Edition. II. Heat Transfer.
Introduction. 375. The McGraw−Hill.