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Kathleen A.

Ranay
MSMSE-1

Assignment:
1. Give 2 examples of corrosion occurrences and describe using the following:
A. CORROSION IN AN OIL PIPELINE
a) The corrosion reaction of iron with acid is described by the equation

This reaction is made up of two individual processes, which are

[the generation of soluble iron and electrons (this is the “anodic” process—the oxidation
of the metal)] and

[the consumption of the electrons by acid to generate hydrogen gas (this is a “cathodic”
process—the reduction of protons)].
Acid is not the only corrodant possible. Another common cathodic process is the
reduction of oxygen, which is written as

This reaction can also take place at a location different from that of iron dissolution.

b) Corrosion because of oxygen is found with surface equipment and can be found
downhole with the oxygen introduced by waterflooding, pressure maintenance, gas lifting,
or completion and/or workover fluids. It is the major corrodant of offshore platforms, at
and below the tide line.
“Sweet” corrosion is generally characterized first by simple metal dissolution followed
by pitting. The corrodant is H+, derived from carbonic acid (H2CO3) and the dissolution
of CO2 in the produced brine. The pitting leaves distinctive patterns (e.g., “mesa”
corrosion), attributable to the metallurgical processing used in manufacturing the tubing.
“Ringworm” corrosion is caused when welding is not followed by full-length
normalizing of the tubular after processing. Corrosion inhibitors and CRAs are effective
in mitigating sweet corrosion. Naphthenic acids and simple organic acids indigenous to
crude oil also contribute to corrosion.

“Sour” corrosion (H2S) results in the formation of various insoluble iron sulfides on the
metal surface. Not only is H2S an acidic corrodant, it also acts as a catalyst for both the
anodic and cathodic halves of the corrosion reaction. Galvanic corrosion (bimetallic
corrosion) is caused by the coupling of a corrosive and noncorrosive metal in the
presence of a corrodant. Erosion is yet another category of corrosion. Erosion corrosion is
the acceleration of corrosion because of the abrasion of metal surfaces by particulates
(e.g., sand). Finally, there is corrosion caused by acids—those used to stimulate wells
(HCl and HF)..
c) Severely corroded pipelines will force to shut down its oil field company.
B) CORROSION OF REINFORCING BARS IN CONCRETE
a) Exposed steel will corrode in moist atmospheres due to differences in the electrical
potential on the steel surface forming anodic and cathodic sites. The metal oxidises at
the anode where corrosion occurs according to:

Fe (metal) --> Fe2+ (aq.) + 2e-


Simultaneously, reduction occurs at cathodic sites, typical cathodic processes being:

½O2 + H20 + 2e-(metal) --> 2OH-(aq.)

2H+(aq.)+ 2e- (metal) --> H2(gas)


metal involved and the probable anodic cathodic reaction

b) All large concrete structures contain steel reinforcing bars ("rebars") that help ensure
structural integrity under varying load conditions and especially during earthquakes.
Intrusion of water, even in the form of fog or mists, can lead to serious corrosion
damage, The factors which determine the corrosion rate of steel in concrete are; the
presence of an ionically conducting aqueous phase in contact with the steel (i.e. pore
water), the existence of anodic and cathodic sites on the metal in contact with this
electrolyte and the availability of oxygen to enable the reactions to proceed. The
permeability of the concrete is important in determining the extent to which aggressive
external substances can attack the steel. A thick concrete cover of low permeability is
more likely to prevent chloride ions from an external source from reaching the steel
and causing depassivation.
c) This would eventually cause the weakening of the reinforecement bars, thus
contributing to a large damage to the concrete structures.
2. Economics of corrosion. Get an estimate (not older than year 2000) on the cost of
corrosion for a certain industry, both direct and indirect
Infrastructure
$22.6 billion/yr
The U.S. infrastructure and transportation system allows for a high level of mobility and
freight activity for the nearly 270 million residents and 7 million business establishments.
In 1997, over 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroad cars were used
on 6.4 million km (4 million mi) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways.
The transportation infrastructure also includes over 800,000 km (approximately 500,000
mi) of oil and gas transmission pipelines, and 18,000 public and private airports. The
annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category is estimated at $22.6 billion,
which is 16.4 percent of the total cost of the sector categories examined in the study.
INFRASTRUCTURE
Airports
Gas & Liquid Transmission Pipelines
Hazardous Materials Storage
Highway Bridges
Railroads
Waterways & Ports
The infrastructure category is divided into the following industry sectors:
(1) highway bridges, (2) gas and liquid transmission pipelines, (3) waterways and ports,
(3) hazardous materials storage, (5) airports, and (6) railroads.

Reference: (www.corrosioncost.com,
http://petrowiki.org/Corrosion_problems_in_production,
http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/elchem/ec7.html)

3. Review electrochemistry and Pourbaix Diagram


(Reviewer attached)