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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Copyright TNO, 2013

MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Dr. Antoine Schmeitz

Copyright TNO, 2013 Dr. Antoine Schmeitz


MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Introduction

TNO’s tyre modelling toolchain

tyre (virtual) testing parameter fitting


+ tyre model
signal tyre MBS
database MF-Tyre
processing TYDEX files property solver
file MF-Swift
MF-Tool

Measurement Identification Simulation

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Copyright TNO, 2013 Dr. Antoine Schmeitz


MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Introduction

What is MF-Tyre/MF-Swift?
MF-Tyre/MF-Swift is an all-encompassing tyre model
for use in vehicle dynamics simulations

This means:
emphasis on an accurate representation of the generated (spindle) forces
tyre model is relatively fast
can handle continuously varying inputs
model is robust for extreme inputs
model the tyre as simple as possible, but not simpler for the intended
vehicle dynamics applications

Copyright TNO, 2013 Dr. Antoine Schmeitz


MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Introduction

Model usage and intended range of application

All kind of vehicle handling simulations:


e.g. ISO tests like steady-state cornering, lane changes, J-turn, braking, etc.
Sine with Dwell, mu split, low mu, rollover, fishhook, etc.
Vehicle behaviour on uneven roads:
ride comfort analyses
durability load calculations (fatigue spectra and load cases)
Simulations with control systems, e.g. ABS, ESP, etc.
Analysis of drive line vibrations
Analysis of (aircraft) shimmy vibrations; typically about 10-25 Hz
Used for passenger car, truck, motorcycle and aircraft tyres

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Modelling aspects and contents (1)

1. Basic tyre properties and constitutive relations


for tyre radii, contact patch size, stiffness, rolling resistance
nonlinear, effects of loads, velocity, inflation pressure
2. Inclusion of measured tyre steady-state slip characteristics
described by load and inflation pressure dependent Magic Formula
responses to sideslip, longitudinal slip, camber and turn slip
3. Tyre transients / relaxation length properties
carcass compliance
proper contact transient properties due to finite contact length
4. Inclusion of belt dynamics
primary natural frequencies (rigid ring modes) and gyroscopic effects
5. Tyre rolling over uneven road surface
tyre deformation on obstacles, arbitrary uneven roads

Copyright TNO, 2013 Dr. Antoine Schmeitz


MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Modelling aspects and contents (2)

6. Model usage and availability


selection of complexity level
road definition
7. Model parameterisation
measurement requirements
MF-Tool
8. Concluding remarks

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Copyright TNO, 2013 Dr. Antoine Schmeitz


MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

1. Basic tyre properties and constitutive


relations

Copyright TNO, 2013 Dr. Antoine Schmeitz


MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Some definitions
For a freely
normal to the road
rolling wheel:
• free tyre radius RΩ Vx
RΩ Re =
• loaded radius Rl Ω
Ω γ
• effective rolling radius Re ρ = RΩ − Rl
• tyre deflection ρ
Vx Fz Re Rl
• forward velocity Vx
Mz
• wheel spin velocity Ω ρ
• longitudinal slip velocity Vsx C
Fx Mx
• lateral slip velocity Vsy S Fy M
Vsx Vsy y
• longitudinal force Fx
• lateral force Fy
• vertical force Fz
• overturning moment Mx • self aligning moment Mz
• rolling resistance moment My • inclination angle γ

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Constitutive relations

Tyre radii, stiffness, contact patch dimensions, rolling resistance, etc. are non-
constant for different operating conditions (load, velocity, etc.)
In MF-Swift nonlinear empirical relations are used to describe these basic tyre
properties

coefficient from curve fitting


Examples:
vertical force
Fz = f (ρ ,Ω, Fx , Fy , pi )
Fz

 R q F  q F  
2 2

Fz = 1 + qv 2 0 Ω −  Fcx x  −  Fcy y   ⋅
 V0  Fz 0   Fz 0  

 2

 q ρ + q  ρ  (1 + p dp )F
Fz 2  
 Fz1
R0  R0  
Fz1 i z0

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Constitutive relations

effective rolling radius coefficient from curve fitting

Fz 0   F  F 
Re = RΩ −  Dreff arctan Breff z  + Freff z 
cz   Fz 0  Fz 0 

  ΩR0  
2

RΩ = R0  qre 0 + qv1  
  V0  

Fz

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

2. Inclusion of measured tyre steady-state


slip characteristics (magic formula)

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Magic Formula

Descriptions are available for the three steady-state modes of slip


Equations depend on vertical load Fz, inclination angle γ and inflation
pressure pi ; [Fx, Fy, Mx, My, Mz] = MF (Fz, κ, α, γ, ϕ, pi, V)
+ combinations
V
side slip Vsy ψ&
α  Vsy 
turn slip
ϕt = −
α = arctan  

+ camber V
Vx
Mz  Vx  spin ψ&
R
Fy
Fy Ω V
Vx
Vsx V − Vr Mz
Fy
κ =− =− x
Vx Vx Fx Fy
t
0
V − ΩRe Vsx Mz
Mz
=− x
Vx Fx
α
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0 0.1 0.2 0.3
aϕ = a/R
longitudinal slip
0 0.1
κ 0.2 0.3

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Magic Formula

Notion: the base tyre characteristics Fx=f(κ), Fy=f(α) and Mz=f(α) have a
sinusoidal shape, with a “stretched” horizontal axis for large values of slip
This consideration is the basis for a tyre model known as “Magic Formula”
Some notes:
First versions developed by Egbert Bakker (Volvo) and prof. Pacejka (TU
Delft, TNO)
MF-Tyre software developed and distributed by TNO since 1996
Probably the most popular tyre model for vehicle handling simulations
(worldwide!)

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Base Magic Formula

f = D sin[ C arctan { Bx – E( Bx – arctan(Bx) )} ]

F(x) = f(x) + SV X : input, e.g. α or κ D : peak factor


x = X + SH F : output, e.g. Fy or Fx C : shape factor
f F B : stiffness factor
SH E : curvature factor
SH,V : hor./vert. shift
D f∞
x Note:
SV X • C determines the limit value when x→∞
arctan(BCD)
• BCD determines the slope near the origin
• B, E & C determine the location of the peak

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Stretching the sine…


parameters in this example:
B=8, C=1.5, D=5500, E=-2

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Example: pure longitudinal slip characteristics

where:
• coefficients p are
determined in curve
fitting process
• scaling coefficients λ:
• equal 1 during fitting
process
• may be used to adjust
tyre characteristics
note:
• vertical load increment:
• Kx = Cfκ: longitudinal slip stiffness F − Fz 0
df z = z
• Bx is calculated from Cx, Dx and Kx Fz 0
• Fz0 is nominal load
• equations simplified for educational reasons…

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Example: pure longitudinal slip characteristics

result after fitting coefficients: ⇒


data reduction:
495 measurement points ⇒ 11 coefficients
interpolation/extrapolation (load, braking/driving):

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Magic Formula

Similar equations exist for Fx, Fy, Mx, My and Mz


Combined slip: reduction of Fx and Fy by applying a
weighting function G to the ‘pure’ characteristics
Example: Fx = Gxα ⋅ Fx 0
In total 144 parameters that are curve fitted
using an automated process;
typical fit errors of a few percent
vertical force Fz
longitudinal slip κ Fx longitudinal force
side slip angle α Fy lateral force
Magic
inclination angle γ Mx overturning moment
Formula
turn slip ϕt My rolling resistance moment
forward velocity Vx Mz self aligning moment
inflation pressure pi

parameters: general (4), Fx (29), Fy (50), Mx (15), My (8), Mz (38)

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3. Tyre transients / relaxation length


properties

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Tyre transients

Measure step response to


side slip angle

Procedure:
1. Apply steering angle of 1 deg.
2. Load the tyre
3. Start rolling the track at low
velocity (e.g. 0.05 m/s)

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Tyre transients

• Tyre cannot instantaneously react to changes in slip


• Travelled distance required to build up forces ϕ γ
.
• Relaxation effects exist for all modes of slip -ψ wheel plane

This is due to:


belt
1. carcass compliance
2. finite contact length
_
Vc _*
In MF-Swift both are considered: α V
1. carcass stiffness → springs α*
C
2. contact patch slip model
ϕ*
(Magic Formula (MF) slip model and
contact patch transients)

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Simplified example carcass stiffness

• Assume linear tyre model for small slip angles:


v
Fy = Cα α =−
u
• Create dynamic tyre model by accounting for tyre sidewall stiffness:
. .
Fy = Cα ′ = kε C α ′ = kε
.
v+ε
• Dynamic side slip angle: ′
α =− wheel plane
u
C1 v
α& ′ + α ′= − = α
ku u
contact patch

• Introducing the relaxation length σ (=C/k) and V≈u:


σ .
α′ +α′ = α Fy = Cα ′
V

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Simplified example carcass stiffness

• First order dynamics between lateral force and side slip angle input, transfer
function:
C σ
H Fy ,α ( s ) = time constant:
σ V
s +1
V
• Relaxation length σ does not depend on forward velocity V:
• response time reduces when increasing V;
• travelled distance required to build up the lateral force remains the same.

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Simplified example carcass stiffness

step response (α = 1 deg, C = 1000 N/deg, σ = 0.5 m)

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Tyre relaxation effects

• Experiments show that relaxation length processed measurements:


depends on: relaxation lengths σα from
small changes in side slip
• vertical load Fz
angle (∆α = 0.5°)
• slip level
• inflation pressure
• Thus also relaxation effects when Fz is
changed at e.g. constant side slip

Modelling
Slip and vertical load dependency can be
included by using nonlinear slip characteristics
(MF) and load and inflation pressure
dependent carcass stiffness

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Contact patch slip model

• For shorter wavelengths λ (0.1 < λ < 5 m) of e.g. side slip, the finite length of
the contact patch needs to be considered
• Important for aligning torque response to sideslip and for turn slip

MF-Swift contact patch slip model:


• Contact patch has stiffness (stiffness of tread elements)
• From physical brush model derived differential equations for contact patch
transients (relaxation lengths depend on slip and tread stiffness)
• Nonlinear slip characteristics from Magic Formula model
(basically the brush model slip characteristics are replaced by the more
accurate Magic Formula characteristics)

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Contact patch slip model

In total 7 nonlinear 1st-order differential equations (derived from brush model):


• one 1st-order differential equation for κc’
• two 1st-order differential equations for αc’ and αt’ κc’, αc’, αt’, ϕc’
• four 1st-order differential equations for ϕc’ inputs into
Magic Formula
contact patch step responses
κ α ϕ

Fx Fy -Mz Fy Mz

0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s
κ α α ϕ ϕ

0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Contact patch slip model V


α

αc
-Mz Fy
contact patch
carcass slip quantities
forces, contact κc
moments patch
dynamics αc first-order
contact
Fx + transient
Fy tyre carcass -β st slip
equations
compliance deflection
Mz angle
κ'c
α'
transient slip
slip forces
Magic quantities
and moments
Formula

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Wheel load oscillations at constant side slip

Fz = Fzo +Fzv sin(2π s/λ) Fzo = 4000N Fzv = 2000N α = 5o V = 0.6 m/s

side force λ= moment


6 0.3150
0.6
Fy 1.2 -Mz
5 2.4m
100
[kN]
4 [Nm]
50
3 model

2 0
6 150
Fy -Mz
5 test
100
[kN]
4 [Nm]
50
3

2 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
s/λ s/λ

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4. Inclusion of belt dynamics

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MF-Swift: inclusion of belt dynamics

• First mode shapes are rigid belt vibrational modes


• Below about 100 Hz we can suffice considering these modes

Rigid ring / tread band

Rim Sidewall stiffness &


damping (6 DOF)

Residual
stiffness &
damping Road surface (flat)

Magic Formula
slip model

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Residual stiffness

Residual stiffness elements (ccz, ccy, ccΨ, ccx) between belt and contact patch
• assure correct overall tyre stiffness resulting in correct loaded radius vs.
vertical force and correct relaxation lengths
• describe the effects of the modes that lie above the maximum frequency of
interest (high-frequency modes, i.e. non rigid belt modes)
vertical lateral tangential
rim and yaw
belt rim
wheel
belt
plane
contact Msy Fsy Fsx
-zcr patch r
ccz belt ψ Msx
c ccx
ccψ xcr
ccy FN Msz
ycr

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In-plane modes and natural frequencies

featured by model at stand-still


after having fitted parameters from tests on loaded and rolling tyre

free

rotational 0Hz vertical 74Hz torsional 78Hz longitudinal 74Hz

loaded

in-phase 33Hz vertical 80Hz anti-phase 76Hz longitudinal 100Hz

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Out-of-plane modes and natural frequencies

featured by model at stand-still


after having fitted parameters from tests on loaded and rolling tyre

free

lateral 42Hz yaw 46Hz camber 46Hz

loaded

camber 44Hz yaw 46Hz lateral 103Hz

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Validation: dynamic braking

longitudinal force response

V = 25 km/h
Fz = 4000 N

to brake torque variations to wheel slip variations


30 200
belt
slip stiffness
Fx dynamics Fx
MB κ
[1/m] [N]
0 0
180 180
relaxation length
90 90

φ 0 φ 0
experiment
-90 -90
model
-180 -180
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
n [Hz] n [Hz]

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Validation: yaw oscillation

side force and moment


response to yaw Note: splitting of single peak at
low velocity into two peaks
oscillations at (camber and yaw mode) due to
different speeds gyroscopic action

amplitude ratio Fy ψ amplitude ratio Mz ψ


6
10 106

Experiment
105
Simulation
5
10 104
V = 110 km/h
V = 110 km/h
103

4
V = 20 km/h V = 20 km/h
10 102
100 101 100 101
Frequency [Hz] Frequency [Hz]

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Validation: yaw oscillation

side force and moment response to yaw


oscillations at different speeds
Note: splitting of single peak at
Vx = αo = 0 low velocity into two peaks
25 km/h (camber and yaw mode) due to
59 km/h gyroscopic action
92 km/h experiments simulations
6 6 6 6
10 10 10 10

Fy side force Mz moment Fy side force Mz moment


ψ ψ ψ ψ
5 4 5 4
10 10 10 10

N Nm N Nm
rad rad rad rad
4
10
4
10
2
10 102
180 180 180 180

φMψ
90 90
φFψ
90
φMψ
90
φFψ
0 0 0 0
[o ] [o ] [o ] [o ]
-90 -90 -90 -90

-180 0 1
-180 0 1
-180 0 1 -180 0 1
10 n 10 [Hz] 10 n 10 [Hz] 10 n 10 [Hz] 10 n 10 [Hz]

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Validation: yaw oscillation

side force and moment response to yaw


oscillations at different slip angles

α0 = Vx =59km/h
0o
1o
o
3
5
o experiments simulations
106 106 106 106

Fy side force Mz moment Fy side force Mz moment


ψ ψ ψ ψ
5 4 5 4
10 10 10 10

N Nm N Nm
rad rad rad rad
4 2 4 2
10 10 10 10
180 180 180 180

φFψ φMψ φFψ φMψ


90 90 90 90

0 0 0 0
[o ] [o ] [o ] [o ]
-90 -90 -90 -90

-180 0 1 -180 0 1 -180 0 -180 0


10 n 10 [Hz] 10 n 10 [Hz] 10 n 101 [Hz] 10 n 101 [Hz]

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Validation: step changes in brake pressure

responses to Fz = 4000N, Vx= 25km/h


successive step brake force wheel speed of rev.
3000 23
changes in brake

simulation
-Fx
pressure versus time simulation
2000 22 23
Note: [N]
• steps in brake pressure [rad/s]
up to wheel lock; then 1000 21 22
brake released
• vibrations (about 28 Hz) experiment
attributed to the in- 20
0 21
phase rotational mode experiment
of the system with the
brake and axle inertia
included 0 20 20
0 time [s] 2.5 0 time [s] 2.5

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Validation: step changes in brake pressure

responses to successive step changes in brake pressure versus longitudinal


wheel slip Note:
• similarity with longitudinal slip characteristics
• maximum friction in experiment earlier reached
brake force
3000

simulation
-Fx
experiment
2000

[N]

1000 Fz = 4000N, Vx= 25km/h

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12
[%]
wheel slip

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Validation: step changes in steering angle

time
side force response to 0 1 2 [s] 3 4

successive step changes in 4000 side


force
steer angle versus time Fy o
o
o
7 8
3000 experiment o 6 4000
5
Note: 4
o
Fy
• vibrations attributed to o
2000 3 3000
yaw/camber mode with
frequency of about 40 Hz [N] o
2
• decrease overall relaxation 1000 simulation 2000
length at larger sideslip o
1 [N]
angles
0 1000
Fz =3700N, Vx=25 km/h
ψ =0o
0
0 1 2 [s] 3 4
time

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Validation: step changes in steering angle

0 1 time 2 [s] 3 4
aligning moment response to
200
successive step changes in steer -Mz experiment
100
angle versus time
0
[Nm]
-100 200
-Mz
-200 100

0
[Nm]
moment -100
simulation
-200

0 1 2 3 4
time [s]

Fz =3700N, Vx=25 km/h

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5. Tyre rolling over uneven road surface

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Summarising

So far:
excitation of the tyre via axle motions or braking/steering on a flat road
surface
Next:
tyre dynamics can also be excited via the road;
for short wavelength unevenness (e.g. short obstacles/cleats) the tyre
enveloping behaviour is important:

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Enveloping example: rolling over short obstacle

Constant axle height experiment

Three distinct responses:


• variations in vertical force
• variations in longitudinal force
• variations in wheel spin velocity

Note:
• tyre touches obstacle before and after
wheel centre is above the obstacle!
• shape of the response is totally
different from obstacle shape

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Phenomena enveloping behaviour

lengthening swallowing
response obstacles

filtering
unevenness
filtered response
at axle

road profile

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The effective road surface

Assumptions
• The tyre contact zone, where the large deformations due to envelopment of
the unevenness occur, dynamically deforms mainly in the same way as it
does quasi-statically
• Local dynamic effects can be neglected
• Rigid ring model takes care of the tyre dynamics

Approach
• A special road filter has been developed to take care of the enveloping
properties
• This filtered road surface is called the effective road surface
• Instead of the actual road surface, this effective road surface is the input of
the rigid ring model

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The effective road surface

The concept of the effective road surface constant


is that for each axle position an 2-D
effective road plane can be defined the position
F
V
z axle
and orientation of which is governed by the
resulting tyre force.
FH
βy
Definition
• Vertical position w of eff. road plane
varies according to vertical axle movement zaxle
w F
at constant vertical load FV. = ∆ z axle N µ=0

• Slopes βy (and βx for 3D) of the eff. road plane


according to orientation of the resulting tyre force
FN when moving over frictionless surface (µ = 0).

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Tandem-cam enveloping model

F
cam
cam
wheel
centre
cam
cam
ls
w
ls -βy

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3D Tandem-cam enveloping model

Four effective road input quantities


Road curvature dβy /dx used for extra variation of the eff. rolling radius

dβ y
+ contact patch width
dx

ISO z

y x

w −βx
−βy

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3D Tandem-cam enveloping model

For higher accuracy on short obstacles one might introduce:

• for w and βy:


• more parallel
tandems
(multi-track) '6x5' cams
= 18 cams

• for βx:
• intermediate
cams at the
side edges

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Example of validation result

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Example of validation result

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Low speed perpendicular and inclined cleat tests

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MF-Swift: 3D road unevenness

Enveloping model with elliptical cams

ff

Rigid ring (6 DOF)


Cleat

Sidewall stiffness
Rim & damping

Residual
stiffness &
damping Effective road plane

Slip model

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Validation: various obstacle shapes

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Validation: 10 15 15 10

100 290 105mm 237 120 221 50

4000 200

2000 150 vertical mode

PSD √(SFzFz)
∆Fz
∆Fz [N]

0 100

-2000 50

-4000 4
simulations 0
-0.05
x 10 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 50 100 150
1 measurements 500

400
0.5
in-phase rotational mode

PSD √(S FxFx)


∆Fx
∆Fx [N]

300
0
200
-0.5
100

-1 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 50 100 150
10 0.8

5 0.6

)
in-phase rotational mode
ΩΩ
∆Ω [rad/s]

∆Ω 0 PSD √(S 0.4

-5 0.2

-10 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 50 100 150
Time [s] Frequency [Hz]
time [s] Fz0 = 4000 N, V = 39 km/h frequency [Hz]

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Validation: Strip 10x50 mm, 34°, Fz0 = 4 kN


measurement model
1500 40

1000 30
Vdrum= 39 km/h
∆Fz
∆ Kz [N]

√(SKzKz)

500 20

0 10

-500 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
4000 150

2000
rotational mode
∆Fx
100
∆ Kx [N]

)
KxKx

0
√(S

50
-2000

-4000 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
4 0.2

2 0.15
rotational mode
∆Ω
Ω [rad/s]

√(SΩΩ )

0 0.1

-2 0.05

-4 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time [s] Frequency [Hz]
time [s] frequency [Hz]

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Validation: Strip 10x50 mm, 34°, Fz0 = 4 kN


measurement model

500 20

15

∆Fy
∆ Ky [N]

√(SKyKy)
0 10

5 camber mode
-500 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
100 3

50
camber
2
∆ Tz [Nm]

∆Mz

√(STzTz)
0
yaw mode
1
-50

-100 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
100 6

50
4
∆ Tx [Nm]

∆Mx
√(STxTx)

0 camber mode
2
-50

-100 0
-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
Time [s] Frequency [Hz]
time [s] frequency [Hz]

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Validation: running over pothole while braking

constant axle height 15mm 500mm

constant speed
medium brake large brake
free rolling torque
torque
3
measurements

∆FX
simulations 2

1
[kN]
0

-1
FVo= 4000N
-2
V = 35km/h
-3

-4
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2
time [s]

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Road load simulation example

Durability load calculation at Nissan, Japan


SAE paper 2011-01-0190

durability road OpenCRG file Adams model


digitised 4x4 mm grid 4x4 mm grid size flexible body
9.7 GB binary, 273 MB rigid suspension
MF-Swift 6.1.2

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Road load simulation example

Validation: front left shock absorber force

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MF-Tyre/MF-Swift

Road load simulation example

Validation: lower link ball joint forces

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6. Model usage and availability

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Using the tyre model

Tyre model parameters


Tyre property file (*.tir)
Result of MF-Tool

Road surface definition


Road data file (*.rdf, *.crg)

Select model complexity


Operating or use mode

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Complexity level of the model can be changed

The most complex model is not always needed (dynamics mode)


Within validity range simulation results are identical

< 1 Hz < 10 Hz, linear < 10 Hz, nonlinear < 60-100 Hz, nonlinear
massless tyre model tyre model includes
mass of the belt

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Complexity level of the model can be changed

The most complex contact model is not always needed

single point 2D enveloping 3D enveloping

• Depending on the wavelength of the obstacles/unevenness a contact method


can be selected
• For enveloping the number of contact points and cams can be chosen
• 2D/3D enveloping is generally combined with rigid ring dynamics because of
the high frequency excitation

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Road definition

• Road definitions inside the tyre model


• predefined road profiles with limited set of parameters
(e.g. flat, plank, sine, polyline, drum + cleat)
• 3D measured road profiles (OpenCRG®)

• In many packages it is also possible to use the native road definition, coming
along with the simulation package.
OpenCRG® is on:
http://www.opencrg.org

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Model availability

MF-Tyre/MF-Swift is available for all major simulation packages used in


vehicle dynamics

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7. Model parameterisation

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Tire modelling toolchain

savings $
cost $
Virtual Prototyping

measurement parameter simulation


identification

accumulating error determines accuracy

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Measurement requirements

MF-Tyre can be parameterised using the following tests:


Geometry, mass and inertia measurements
Force and moment measurements (Magic Formula dataset)
Loaded radius and rolling radius measurements
Footprint measurements
Stiffness measurements

Additionally for MF-Swift


(enveloping and rigid ring components)
Cleat experiments

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Measurement requirements
geometrical data, specific data for
force & moment stiffnesses, complex tire models. e.g. belt
Source: and transient tests cleat tests, inertias angle, cord stiffness...
German OEM
AK 3.5.1

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MF-Tool

Fitting of current and


historical tyre models
(including MF 5.2)
Database and
plotting functionality
Software is able to
make estimates
Available at all major
tyre manufacturers
Due to the model’s semi-empirical nature different aspects of the tyre
behaviour can be handled separately in (relatively) small optimisation steps
and represented with maximum accuracy

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8. Concluding remarks

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Concluding remarks

The TNO Delft-Tyre toolchain (MF-Tyre/MF-Swift and MF-Tool) offers a


versatile, high quality and cost efficient solution for tyre modelling:
MF-Tyre leading Magic Formula implementation and unique features
MF-Swift extension of MF-Tyre (rigid ring, enveloping, turn slip)
MF-Tool provides independent parameter identification possibilities

MF-Tyre/MF-Swift is one model for many applications


implementations for all main simulation packages
little measurements required
computationally efficient
MF-Tyre (Magic Formula) part is free of charge for many packages
TNO provides parameter identification, training and consultancy
well validated and open/accessible theory (many scientific publications)

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Roles & responsibilities and contact information

• Model development is done by TNO (large independent research and


technology organisation in The Netherlands)
• Worldwide sales and distribution of Delft-Tyre products (MF-Tyre/MF-Swift
and MF-Tool) is done by TASS (TNO Automotive Safety Solutions), which is a
TNO subsidiary

Website:
http://www.tassinternational.com/delft-tyre

TNO, Delft-Tyre, P.O. Box 756, Helmond, The Netherlands


Willem Versteden (product manager) willem.versteden@tno.nl
Dr. Antoine Schmeitz (technical leader) antoine.schmeitz@tno.nl

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Further reading

MF-Swift theory extensively described in book:

Hans Pacejka, Tire and Vehicle Dynamics,


third edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2012

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