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T H R O U G H BOLT CONNECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE C O L U M N S

BY
ANDREW BRUCE McLELLAN

B.A.SC., The University of Toronto, 1989

A THESIS SUBMITFED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F
T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF
MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE

in

T H E F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

We accept this thesis as conforming

to the required standard

T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A

November 1992

(c) Andrew Bruce McLellan, 1992


In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced
degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it
freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive
copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my
department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or
publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written
permission.

Department of CiVij B.ricyr\e.€.f^\y\

The University of British Columbia


Vancouver, Canada

Date

DE-6 (2/88)
ABSTRACT

The use of concrete filled hollow structural sections as columns in buildings and
bridges has many advantages and is steadily becoming more popular. The coimection of
steel beams to such columns has been a controversial issue, mainly because the transfer
of the beam shear to an axial load in the concrete core is not well understood. Friction
is often relied upon to transfer loads although some design codes require direct bearing
on the concrete.

The development of an inexpensive connection which bears directly against the

concrete was embarked upon to improve the versatility and cost-effectiveness of composite
columns in buildings. Connections typically used in steel construction were studied. From

this study, the concept of "through bolt connections" evolved, resulting in a system with

great versatility that can be used for many different configurations of connections and

structural types.

An experimental study was undertaken to examine the shear load transfer to the

concrete core. Square hollow sections, 305x305x12 mm and 1500 mm long, were filled

with 30 MPa concrete, to which W460x61 beams were attached with 25 mm high strength

steel bolts using a standard end plate connection. A l l tests were conducted in a cruciform

configuration with monotonically applied load, varying the moment-to-shear ratio, the bolt

tensioning and the bolt embedment conditions.

From the experimental results two types of transfer mechanism were identified: bearing

of the bolt on the concrete and friction between the concrete core and the steel shell.

The friction capacity, without post-tensioning of the bolts, was found to be substantial for

the particular specimens tested. This was further increased proportionally as bolt

tensioning was applied. Yielding of the bolts during advanced load stages, however, caused

relaxation of the applied bolt tension, thus reducing the benefits of enhanced friction. On

the other hand, relatively small beam end moments applied to the connection were found

ii
to increase the friction capacity by a substantial amount. The major load transfer, however,

occurred through direct bearing of the bolts on the concrete. This bearing capacity was

found to be much higher than anticipated with the result that bolt shear at the

beam-to-column interface became the governing failure mode.

Based on the observed behaviour of the connections, several design philosophies are
proposed. Several quantitative parameters have been identified to require further
research.

This study indicates that the through bolt connection provides a practical and reliable
load transfer mechanism, while also being adaptable and easy to fabricate. From the results
presented here, it will be possible to focus further research on the development of
simplified code formulations which represent a realistic estimate of the connection
capacity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT m
T A B L E OF CONTENTS w
USTOFHGURES yii
U S T OF T A B L E S ix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 CONNECTING B E A M S TO COMPOSITE C O L U M N S 1
1.2 B E H A V I O U R OF B E A M TO C O L U M N CONNECTIONS 2
1.2.1 H E A D E R P L A T E CONNECTION 4
1.2.2 F L U S H E N D P L A T E CONNECTION 6
1.2.3 E X T E N D E D E N D P L A T E CONNECTION 7
1.2.4 TOP A N D SEAT A N G L E S 8
1.2.5 B O T T O M F L A N G E A N D WEB A N G L E CONNECTION 10
1.2.6 D O U B L E WEB A N G L E CONNECTION 10
1.2.7 SINGLE W E B A N G L E CONNECTION 12
1.2.8 WEB SIDE P L A T E CONNECTION 12
1.2.9 C O N C R E T E F I L L E D RHS C O L U M N TO H - B E A M
CONNECTIONS 14
1.2.10 SEMI RIGID COMPOSITE CONNECTIONS 15
1.2.11 STRAP A N G L E CONNECTIONS 16
1.3 T H E T H R O U G H B O L T CONNECTION 17
1.3.1 P R O B L E M S ASSOCIATED WITH T H E POST-TENSIONING
OF T H E BOLTS 18
1.3.2 P R O B L E M S ASSOCIATED WITH L O A D T R A N S F E R F R O M
B E A M S H E A R TO AXDVL L O A D OF T H E C O N C R E T E 19
1.3.3 POSSIBLE F A I L U R E MODES OF CONNECTION 21
1.4 R E S E A R C H OBJECTIVES 23

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 25
2.1 S H E A R T R A N S F E R TO T H E C O N C R E T E C O R E 25
2.2 N O N B E A R I N G CONNECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE C O L U M N S 26
3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 28
3.1 CONNECTION DESIGN 28
3.2 L O A D I N G C O N F I G U R A T I O N 35
3.3 DEFINITION OF N O N - B E A R I N G A N D B E A R I N G SPECIMENS 39
3.4 A S S E M B L A G E OF SPECIMENS 39
3.5 DEFINITION OF TEST DESCRIPTION C O D E 40
3.6 INSTRUMENTATION 44
3.6.1 CONNECTION R O T A T I O N M E A S U R E M E N T 46
3.6.2 SLIP M E A S U R E M E N T 48
3.6.3 STRAIN G A U G E S 48
3.6.4 L O A D C E L L S 49
3.6.5 D A T A ACQUISITION 49
3.7 L O A D I N G D E V I C E 50
3.8 RELATIONSHIPS OF SPECIMENS 54
3.8.1 D E T E R I O R A T I O N OF SLIP L O A D 57
3.8.2 SLIP L O A D V E R S U S PRESTRESSING RELATIONSHIP 58
3.8.3 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING VERSUS
E N D M O M E N T RELATIONSHIP 58
3.8.4 ESTABLISHING U N A C C E P T A B L E S H E A R L E V E L S 58

fv
3.8.5 FACTORS A F F E C T I N G B E A R I N G RESPONSE 59
3.8.5.1 PRESTRESSING L E V E L 59
3.8.5.2 E N D - M O M E N T 60
3.8.6 FACTORS A F F E C T I N G M O M E N T - R O T A T I O N 60
3.8.6.1 B E A R I N G O N BOLTS 60
3.8.6.2 PRESTRESSING O F BOLTS 61
3.8.6.3 H I G H S H E A R L E V E L S 61
3.9 P R E L I M I N A R Y SPECIMEN 62

4 E X P E R I M E N T A L P R O C E D U R E A N D RESULTS 65
4.1 A U X I L I A R Y TESTS 65
4.1.1 C O N C R E T E C Y L I N D E R TESTS 65
4.1.2 BOLT TESTS 73
4.2 P R E L I M I N A R Y SPECIMEN 78
4.3PSB000 83
4.4PSN0001 86
4.5PSN0002 88
4.6PSN100 90
4.7PSN050 93
4.8PSB050 95
4.9PSB100 97
4.10M2N000 99
4.11 M3N000 102
4.12M5N100 104
4.13M5B100 106

5 DISCUSSION O F E X P E R I M E N T A L RESULTS 110


5.1 PROBLEMS WITH T H E B-SLIP M E A S U R E M E N T 110
5.2 DETERIORATION O F SLIP L O A D 110
5.3 SLIP L O A D B E H A V I O U R Ill
5.4 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING 112
5.5 SLIP L O A D VERSUS PRESTRESSING A N D B E A M E N D
MOMENT 114
5.6 BENDING O F T H E BOLTS 116
5.7 C H A N G E S IN B E A R I N G RESPONSE WITH V A R Y I N G
PRESTRESSING 122
5.8 B E A R I N G FORCES O N T H E BOLTS 124
5.8.1 C A L C U L A T I O N O F B O L T M O M E N T 128
5.8.2 B E A R I N G FORCES A N D STRESSES ESTIMATION 130
5.9 DESIGN P R O C E D U R E 131
5.9.1 B E A R I N G A N D FRICTION RESISTANCE OF T H E B O L T 132
5.9.2 P U R E B E A R I N G RESISTANCE OF T H E B O L T 133
5.10 FACTORS A F F E C T I N G M O M E N T - R O T A T I O N STIFFNESS 134
5.10.1 PRESTRESSING 134
5.10.2 B E A R I N G A N D N O N - B E A R I N G CASES 134
5.11 INITL\L STIFFNESS OF T H E M O M E N T ROTATION
RELATIONSHIP 135
5.12 C A L C U L A T E D M O M E N T - R O T A T I O N INITIAL STIFFNESSES
VERSUS E X P E R I M E N T A L V A L U E S 142

6 CONCLUSIONS 144
7 RECOMMENDATIONS A N D F U T U R E RESEARCH 146
7.1 E N D P L A T E THICKNESS 146
7.2 B E A M SIZE 146
7.3 POST-TENSIONING V A L U E 146
7 4 B E A R I N G CAPACITIES 147
7^5 L O A D C A P A C I T Y PERPENDICuE^JR TO TO "Z 149
7.6 B E A R I N G B E H A V I O U R OF BOLTS 151
7.7 CONNECTIONS TO C I R C U L A R C O L U M N S 153

8 REFERENCES 154
9 APPENDIX A : CONNECTION DESIGN 158
9.1 S E L E C T E D B E A M SIZE-W460x61: 158
9.2 T Y P I C A L S H E A R FORCES O N TOE B E A M 158
9.3 BOLT SIZE 159
9.4 P L A T E SIZE 160
9.5 O U T OF P L A N E S H E A R RESISTANCE OF E N D P L A T E 161

10 APPENDIX B: C O N C R E T E C Y L I N D E R TEST RESULTS 163

11 APPENDIX C: B O L T TENSION TEST RESULTS 167

12 APPENDIX D: P R E L I M I N A R Y SPECIMEN TEST RESULTS 170

13 APPENDIX E: SPECIMEN PSBOOO TEST RESULTS 172

14 APPENDIX F: SPECIMEN PSNOOOl TEST RESULTS 173

15 APPENDIX G: SPECIMEN PSN0002 TEST RESULTS 176

16 APPENDIX H : SPECIMEN PSNIOO TEST RESULTS 177

17 APPENDIX I: SPECIMEN PSN050 TEST RESULTS 179

18 APPENDIX J: SPECIMEN PSB050 TEST RESULTS 181

19 APPENDIX K: SPECIMEN PSBIOO TEST RESULTS 182

20 APPENDIX L: SPECIMEN M2N000 TEST RESULTS 184

21 APPENDIX M : SPECIMEN M3N000 TEST RESULTS 185

22 APPENDIX N : SPECIMEN M5N100 TEST RESULTS 186

23 APPENDIX O: SPECIMEN M5B100 TEST RESULTS 187


U S T O F FIGURES

F I G U R E 1: Typical and experimental connection types 3


F I G U R E 2: Bearing configuration 20
F I G U R E 3: Failure modes 22
F I G U R E 4: Connection assembly 30
F I G U R E 5: Hss details 31
F I G U R E 6: Plate details 32
F I G U R E 7: Beam details 33
F I G U R E 8: Bolt details 34
F I G U R E 9: Test set-up: Loading arrangement 37
F I G U R E 10: Reaction box: Used for pure shear case 38
F I G U R E 11: Instrumentation for rotation measurement : 47
F I G U R E 12: Loading device 51
F I G U R E 13: South view of loading device 52
F I G U R E 14: North view of loading device 53
F I G U R E 15: Preliminary Specimen 64
F I G U R E 16: Concrete cylinder test set-up 67
F I G U R E 17: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 76 -1) 68
F I G U R E 18: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 76 - 2) 68
F I G U R E 19: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 102 -1) 69
F I G U R E 17: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 102-2) 69
F I G U R E 21: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 137 -1) 70
F I G U R E 22: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 137 - 2) 70
F I G U R E 23: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 150 -1 ) 71
F I G U R E 24: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 150 - 2) 71
F I G U R E 25: Concrete strength versus time 72
F I G U R E 26: Bolt testing configuration 74
F I G U R E 27: Bolt stress-strain (non-marked - double nutted) 75
F I G U R E 28: BoU stress-strain (non-marked - single nutted) 75
F I G U R E 29: Bolt load-defl. (non-marked - single nutted) 76
F I G U R E 30: Bolt stress-strain (red-marked - single nutted) 76
F I G U R E 31: Bolt load-defl. (red-marked - single nutted) 77
F I G U R E 32: Preliminary specimen -16 tight bolts - 4 plates 79
F I G U R E 33: Preliminary specimen - 8 tight bolts - 2 plates 79
F I G U R E 34: Preliminary specimen - 8 lose bolts - 4 plates 80
F I G U R E 35: Preliminary specimen - 4 tight bolts - 2 plates 80
F I G U R E 36: Preliminary specimen - 4 lose bolts - 2 plates 81
F I G U R E 37: Preliminary specimen - no plates - first test 81
F I G U R E 38: PreHminary specimen - no plates - second test 82
F I G U R E 39: PSBOOO: B-end slip vs. load 84
F I G U R E 40: PSBOOO: T-end slip vs. load 85
F I G U R E 41: PSBOOO: Bolt strains vs. load 85
F I G U R E 42: PSNOOOl: B-end slip vs. load 86
F I G U R E 43: PSNOOOl: T-end slip vs. load 87
F I G U R E 44: PSNOOOl: Bolt strains vs. load 87
H G U R E 45: PSN0002: B-end slip vs. load 88
F I G U R E 46: PSN0002: T-end slip vs. load 89
F I G U R E 47: PSN0002: Bolt strains vs. load 89
F I G U R E 48: PSNIOO: B-end slip vs. load 91
F I G U R E 49: PSN100: T-end slip vs. load 91
F I G U R E 50: PSNIOO: Bolt strains vs. load 92

vt i
nGURE51:PSN050:B-endslipvs. load 93
F I G U R E 52: PSN050: T-end slip vs. load 94
F I G U R E 53: PSN050: Bolt strains vs. load 94
F I G U R E 54: PSB050: B-end slip vs. load 95
F I G U R E 55: PSB050: T-end slip vs. load 96
F I G U R E 56: PSB050: Bolt strains vs. load 96
F I G U R E 57: PSBIOO: B-end slip vs. load 97
H G U R E 58: PSBIOO: T-end slip vs. load 98
F I G U R E 59: PSBIOO: Bolt strains vs. load 98
F I G U R E 60: M2N000: Moment-rotation curve 100
F I G U R E 61: M2N000: B-end slip vs. load 100
H G U R E 62: M2N000: T-end slip vs. load 101
F I G U R E 63: M2N000: Bolt strains vs. load 101
F I G U R E 64: M3N000: Moment-rotation curve 103
F I G U R E 65: M3N000: Bolt strains vs. load 103
F I G U R E 66: M5N100: Moment-rotation curve 105
F I G U R E 67: M5N100: Bolt strains vs. load 105
F I G U R E 68: Endplate damage 107
F I G U R E 69: M5B100: Moment-rotation curve 108
F I G U R E 70: M5B100: Bolt strains (T-end) vs. load 108
F I G U R E 71: M5B100: Bolt strains (B-end) vs. load 109
F I G U R E 72: Slip load vs. orthogonal load 113
F I G U R E 73: Slip load vs. end-moment & post-tensioning 115
F I G U R E 74: T-side strain of bolt 4 (pure shear, 100% PT) 117
F I G U R E 75: T-side strain of boh 3 (pure shear, 100% PT) 117
F I G U R E 76: T-side strain of bolt 2 (pure shear, 100% PT) 118
F I G U R E 77: T-side strain of boh 4 (pure shear, 50% PT) 118
F I G U R E 78: T-side strain of bolt 2 (pure shear, 50% PT) 119
F I G U R E 79: T-side strain of bolt 1 (pure shear, 50% PT) 119
F I G U R E 80: T-side strain of boh 4 (pure shear, 0% PT) 120
F I G U R E 81: T-side strain of bolt 3 (pure shear, 0% PT) 120
F I G U R E 82: T-side strain of bolt 2 (pure shear, 0% PT) 121
F I G U R E 83: T-side strain of bolt 1 (pure shear, 0% PT) 121
F I G U R E 84: Relative bearing response 125
F I G U R E 85: BoU tension of pure shear bearing specimens 126
F I G U R E 85: Assumed bearing force configuration & F B D of bolt 127
F I G U R E 87: Rotational stiffness parameters 141
F I G U R E 88: Future research: Maximum bearing stress 148
F I G U R E 89: Future research: Load perpendicular to HSS 150
F I G U R E 90: future research: Bearing behaviour of bolt 152
F I G U R E 91: Future research: Circular columns 153

vi i i
UST OF TABLES

T A B L E 1: Test descriptions 42
T A B L E 2: Instrumentation 45
T A B L E 3: Test relationships 54
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The guidance and encouragement provided by Professor H.G.L. Prion is gratefully


acknowledeged. The author is also indebted to Bemie Merkli, Guy Kirsch, Max Nazar,
Harold Schrempp, Paul Symons, John Wong, Ronald Dolling, Richard Postgate and
Howard Nichol for all their help and expertise in the laboratory.

TTie author would also like to thank Steve Kuan for his patience in the Laboratory

and his help with the data acquisition system. Jim Greig and Thomas Wong provided

invaluable help in the Graphics laboratory. The author is indebted to the staff at Inter

Library Loans who were instrumental in retrieving an extensive quantity of research

material.
1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 CONNECTING BEAMS TO COMPOSITE COLUMNS

The idea of fiUing steel tubes with concrete is not new. Concrete-filled hollow
structural sections (composite columns) are widely accepted in China and Japan and are
becoming steadily more popular in both Europe and North America. The composite
section provides a much higher axial load resistance, moment capacity and longer fire
resistance time than a plain hollow structural section (HSS). Composite columns generally
have a smaller cross-section and thus use less floor space than typical reinforced concrete
columns. There are also construction benefits: there is no form work and fewer iron
workers are required than for a reinforced concrete structure.

There are also disadvantages to using composite columns. The placement of the

structural frame becomes crucial and more accurate surveying is required. It is uncertain

whether the HSS-concrete interface can effectively transfer axial load from the HSS to

the concrete core of the column. Some design codes require a means of bearing on the

concrete at the location of connections. Such connections are typically complex and

expensive. In general, however, codes do not address this issue and leave it to the engineer

to devise a sufficient load transfer mechanism.

The complexity and expense of such coimections is a major drawback to the use of

composite columns. It is thus important to develop a coimection which provides direct

bearing on the concrete yet still be inexpensive and simple to construct. To this end several

steel connections, joints in reinforced concrete structures, and connections to composite

colunms and to composite floor systems were studied. From these studies, a concept for

a connection to a composite column was developed and tested.


1.2 BEHAVIOUR OF BEAM TO COLUMN CONNECTIONS

There has been very Httle research regarding the connection of beams to composite
columns. Ansorian [ANS074] studied connections that did not provide direct bearing on
the concrete and were complex in nature. Roik and Breit [ROIK81] studied web side
plates which penetrated and went straight through the HSS. Although such connections
provide effective bearing, they are expensive to produce and are too rigid to be considered
flexible [WHIT65]. Dunberry, Leblanc, and Redwood [DUNB87] studied flexible
connections to composite columns. These connections did not provide direct bearing onto
the concrete.

It was decided to develop a new concept of connecting beams to composite columns

because of the problems with the connections studied sofar. This required, a general

background of typical connections which would be helpful to identify desirable features

for designers and fabricators.

Several characteristics must be considered when designing a connection. Those which

immediately come to mind are the cost, strength, stiffness, ductility, design assumptions,

hysteretic behaviour and ease of design. Several researchers have examined the basic

behavioural characteristics of typical connections.

For the sake of gaining a thorough insight of connections, typical connections in

steel frames and composite columns are examined. These connection types are shovra in

Figure 1, which is followed by a detailed description of each connection and a discussion.

In these descriptions, the moment-rotation behaviour of the different connections types

are examined and the parameters which tend to control the behaviour are identified.

Detailing problems associated with fabrication, construction, transportation and

susceptibility to damage are also investigated.


header plate flush end plate

extended end plate top and seat angels

bottom flange and web angle double web angle

single web angle web side plate

concrete filled RHS column to H-beam concrete filled RHS column to H-beam
end plate type T-section type

F I G U R E 1: Typical and experimental connection types


1.2.1 HEADER PLATE CONNECTION

The header plate connection utilizes a flexible end plate which is fillet welded to
the web only and typically extends over forty to eighty percent of the beam depth. It is
very popular for the following reasons: very few pieces need to be handled; modern
technology allows beams to be cut more accurately to length and with square ends; most
fabricators prefer to shop weld instead of using a completely bolted coimection; it is easy
to fabricate a header plate cormection where a beam intersects another beam or column
at a skewed angle; fabricators have the choice of punching or drilling holes into thin
header plates and; damage to the header plate during transportation tends to be minimal.
If standardization of the connection parameters is employed as suggested by several
reasearchers [BENN78] [HOGA83] [MANS81], the result would be the most cost-effective
design-construction of joints in steel structures.

The intial portion of the moment-rotation curve is rounded. It eventually flattens to

a near plateau. Once the lower beam flange, contacts the column face, the stiffness of the

curve increases instantaneously and dramatically. Shear on the connection appears not to

affect the moment-rotation characteristics. It was found, however, that the shear capacity

is influenced significantly by end-rotations. Some test results showed failures at 35% of

the calculated shear capacity of the connection [KRIV85]. This was found to be the result

of secondary stresses caused by end moments. It is particularly important to take note of

these test results since header plate connections are typically designed to resist shear forces

only while the moment transferred at the connection is ignored by the designer. This

problem can be overcome by considering the end stiffness, which is available from

analytical curves describing the moment-rotation behaviour for header plates [ANG84].
Many structural analysis packages also include the option to model non-linear semi-rigid

connections. A computer program for designing the connection, taking into account the
secondary stresses, was developed by Kriviak and Kennedy [KRIV85]. The tools are

available to analyze and design the connection for both the shear force and secondary

effects.

Somner (1969) [KENN84] examined the effect of varying the geometric parameters
of the connection. The connection stiffness and strength were found to be affected
primarily by the plate thickness, plate depth, and the gauge distance of the column flange
bolts [MORR87].

Mansell and Pham reported considerable variations in slip response in seven different
tests [MANS81]. The slip load appeared to be independent of the number of bolts and
it was thus concluded that the resistance resulted mainly from bearing which depended
on the initial position of the bolts in the holes and also by a possible difference in
pretensioning of the bolts. Mansell and Pham also reported that the beam web appeared
to be the most distressed element of the connection. The test results indicated that the
connection attracted very little moment.

Pillinger [PILL88] summarized the design assumptions, principal design checks, and

also described some of the practical problems with the connection. Designers usually make

the following assumptions: Only shear is transferred at the face of the header plate; all
local deformation occurs at the top row of bolts; the center of rotation is located at the

bottom edge of the header plate. No study could be found to confirm the validity of the

design assumptions of the header plate connection or any other flexible connection.

Designers should allow for flexibility by using a sufficiently thin plate, while at the

same time providing sufficient clearance between the beam flange and column flange to
allow for the anticipated rotation at yield. Other design checks include: strength of the
bolt groups; strength of the fillet welds; local shear strength of the beam web; bending
and shear strength of the notched beam [PILL88].

Pillinger describes a "rule of thumb",stipulating that the thickness of a plate should


be 8mm for beam sizes up to 457x191 UBS (Universal Beam Section) and 10mm for
beams 533x210 UBS and over. Pillinger also mentions that the plate height should be
limited to assist flexibility, although shorter plate heights tend to be impractical for beams
shallower than about 200mm. Typically, plates must run the full length of the web height
for smaller beams, to accommodate the required number of bolts and length of weld to
develop the connection capacity.

If the header plate is too thin, it may warp during the welding process which may

result in gaps between the connecting surfaces. Another consideration for connection

design is the possible presence of a tensile load from the beam. The beam web and weld

seem to be more critical under tension loads than the bolts. The plate thickness should

also be checked for tension. If the header plate is connected to the column web instead

of the column flange, the column web should also be checked for a tension or compression

force transmitted by the beam.

1.2.2 FLUSH END PLATE CONNECTION

Flush end plate connections are considered to be semi-rigid with high moment

capacity, yet they are cheaper to fabricate and construct than other full moment

cormections. All welds are shop welded. As mentioned for the header plate connection,

the required length and squareness tolerances can be accommodated by modern cutting

technology. A further advantage is that relatively few pieces have to be handled. Typically,

moments as high as the yield moment, and some times the plastic moment, can be
transferred through this connection, while maintaining its capacity through large rotations.
The simplicity and ductile response make this connection a popular choice for many
applications.

Experiments have shown that the moment-rotation curve is normally linear up to

60% of the ultimate capacity followed by a rounded knee and a second linear portion

with about l/40th of the initial stiffness. The extent of the rounded portion was found to

depend mainly on joint detailing such as the endplate thickness and the existence of

column stiffening. The inital stiffness can be enhanced by using a thicker plate, by placing

bolts as close as possible to the tension flange, or by minimizing the gauge distance. The

capacity is largely influenced by end plate thickness and column web stiffening. In some

cases, the designers can use short backing plates instead of conventional full web stiffeners.

Often the full design moment cannot be developed by bolts within the depth of the
beam and it is necessary to extend the endplate beyond the flange to accomodate
additional bolts.

1.2.3 EXTENDED END PLATE CONNECTION

The extend end plate connection has a very similar moment-rotation behaviour as

the flush end plate and has many of the same advantages. In many cases the plastic

moment of the beam can be resisted and sustained through large rotations [NETH85a].

The extended end plate helps to increase both the initial stiffness and the strength of the

connection. The moment-rotation behaviour is dependent on many different parameters

and is one of the most heavily researched connections. Extensions on either or both sides

of the connection have been studied and tested. Nethercot examined a total of 106 tests

carried out in 17 different studies [NETHSSa].


Increases in both plate and column flange thicknesses tend to increase the stiffness
and ultimate capacity of the connection. Beyond a certain point, however, a further
increase in the plate thickness does not affect the connection behaviour. Axial loads of
up to about 30 to 40 percent of the column yield appear not to affect the moment-rotation
characteristics of the joint. Column web stiffeners usually enhance the stiffness of the
connection but do not affect the strength. Other factors which affect joint stiffness are:
preload of bolts, full depth column web doubler plates and deeper haunches. Factors that
have been shown not to affect joint stiffness significantly include: an endplate with a higher
yield strength, column stiffness (as long as failure of the column does not occur), presence
of flange backing plates, column web doubler plates in the compression zone only. High
strength end plates and column stiffening beyond what is required to prevent premature
failure of the colunm, usually does not affect the strength of the connection [NETH85a].
The influence of detailing of the connection on the beam moment-rotation characteristics
(especially at moment levels where a significant loss in rotational stiffness is experienced)
has not yet been investigated [NETH85a].

1.2.4 TOP AND SEAT ANGLES

This coimection provides good torsional end restraint and would typically be used
for eccentrically loaded beams. This may occur when the beam line is slightly offset from
the column line and the beam web is thus a small distance from the column web. Erection
and alignment of the bolt holes is easier since the beam is supported by the seat angle.
This connection type is only used in cases of relatively low shear because of the small
effective bearing area.

The moment-rotation relationship is smooth and nonlinear. Ang and Morris have

developed analytical relationships for these connections [ANG84]. The connection can
typically reach 50% of the beam moment capacity. The unloading stiffness is approximately
equal to the initial tangent stiffness. Deformations in the connection are primarily caused
by cleat distortion and the beam-flange bolt slip. Cleat deformation can be reduced by
increasing the thickness of the top angle and by decreasing the distance between the heel
of the top angle and the column-flange bolts. This will also help to increase the moment
capacity of the connection. Torquing the bolts on the tension flange of the beam will
increase the slip load and help increase the stiffness of the connection. Increasing the
length of the top angle and also increasing the number of bolts attaching the top angle
to the column, have a small to insignificant effect on the rotational stiffness and strength
of the connection. Studies of this connection also showed that the amount of shear on
the connection had relatively little effect on the moment-rotation characteristics. The use
of welds instead of bolts and the use of untorqued bolts on the beam flange to further
increase the flexibility, have still not been examined.

White conducted tests on numerous framing connections to square and rectangular

HSS sections [WHIT65]. In this study, one of these connections was the top and seat angle

connection. White's results seem to vary considerably from other top and seat angle

connection tests. A cruciform test configuration was used. HSS sections 6 x 6 x 3 / a n d


6x6x1/2 were tested for this particular type of connection. Moments achieved were only

6.6 and 8.0% of the calculated moment for a perfectly rigid connection. Out of all the

connections White tested, the top and seat angle coimection had the highest factor of

safety of 4.15 and 3.5. Shear capacities were comparable to other shear connections tested

by White even though this type of connection is usually associated with connections with

low shear loads. White also claims that the connection behaviour seems to be independent

of the column size and thickness and produces no undesirable deformations on the column

face.
Shear on the connection is assumed to be carried by the bottom cleat, while the top
cleat stabilizes the beam laterally. The beam is assumed to rotate about the bottom cleat
and all deformation and yielding occurs in the top cleat. Additional flexibility is achieved
by using a relatively thin top cleat. Pillinger [PILL88] suggests the same "rule of thumb"
as for the header plate connection. A 8mm top cleat should be used for beams up to and
including 457x191 UBS and 10mm for beams 533x210 UBS and over. The suggested
maximum end beam clearance should be 3mm. Pillinger recommends a 15mm thick seating
angle which will usually assure reasonable capacity for the beam shear [PILL88]. The
seating angle thickness is frequently too thick for punching.

Pillinger [PILL88] suggests the following design checks for the shear force: strength

of angle seat bolt group, bearing strength of the seat angle, bearing strength of the beam

web and buckling of the beam web. Pillinger also points out that the tension forces on

the connection may govern the size of the top cleat and the design of the fasteners.

1.2.5 BOTTOM FLANGE AND WEB ANGLE CONNECTION

Nethercot [NETH85a] found no experimental data on this connection despite the

fact that 80% of respondents in a small survey conducted in the U.K. claimed to have

used this connection. The web angle is designed to resist twist while the bottom angle is

designed for vertical shear.

1.2.6 DOUBLE WEB ANGLE CONNECTION

The double web angle connections may be more desirable for fabricators who have

numerically controlled drilling lines or may have other facilities which make drilling or

punching holes favourable over welding. The connection also has greater erection

tolerances than for a header plate connection. Bolt hole alignment of the cleats and beam
can overlap by several millimeters. The ends of the beam do not have to be perfectly
square with the columns as is necessary for a header plate connection. Cleats can be
fabricated separately and this can help to increase the fabricators output since they can
have two lines working on one connection. This connection is not suitable for torsional
loads.

The moment-rotation characteristics are very similar to that of the header plate

connection. The initial stiffness tends to be smaller and the moment capacity is lower.

The connection exhibits excellent ductility. Morris and Packer [MORR87] examined a

total of 33 tests. The minimum rotational capacity out of those tests was 0.08 radians.

Connections can typically reach capacities of 5 to 15% of the beam plastic moment.

Maximum moment capacities are reached when the angles are welded to the beam web

and bolted to the column flange. The moment-rotation behaviour of the connection is

dependent on the thickness and depth of the angle, bolt gauge, and column flange

thickness. The stiffness of the connection seems to be proportional to the square of the

angle thickness. It decreases with an increase in bolt gauge and increases with an increase

in connection depth. Bergquist [BERG77] found that welding the cleats (the heel of the

angle is not welded) to the column instead of bolting, will help make the connection much

more flexible. The distance from the weld to the heel of the outstanding leg is longer in

a welded coimection than in a typical bolted connection. Shear on the connection does

not affect the moment-rotation characteristics. Ang and Morris have developed an

analytical moment-rotation curve for the connection [ANG84].

The design of these connections is simple. No moment is assumed to be transferred


at the face of the outstanding legs of the angles. The cleats are presumed to be an
extension of the beam. Web bolts must be designed for both shear and moment. The
flexibility of the connection is achieved through limiting the cleat depth and thickness.
Pillinger points out the same "rule of thumb" for the cleat thickness in this connection as
was used for the thickness of the header plate in the header plate connection [PILL88].
Other design checks which Pillinger mentions are: "strength of the outstanding leg bolt
group", "bending and shear strength of the angle cleat" and "bending and shear strength
of [a] notched beam". The cleat strength is typically critical if the connection is in tension.
The minimum suggested angle cleat projection is 10mm. It is difficult to achieve
recommended angle depths for smaller beams of depths of 203mm and less. Usually the
full depth of the web must be used to accommodate the required number of bolts.

1.2.7 SINGLE WEB ANGLE CONNECTION

This connection has many of the same advantages as the double web angle

connection. It is very ductile with maximum rotations in tests consistently exceeding .025

radians. The connection is very flexible if it is shallow (containing fewer than six bolts),

but the stiffness sharply increases for an increase in angle depth and number of bolts.

Parameters which affect the moment-rotation characteristics are: angle thickness, angle

depth, column flange thickness, number and size of beam web bolts. Most of the

deformation is due to angle deformation and slip of bolts. Moment capacities can be as

high as 10% of the plastic capacity of the beam. It has been found that welding the toe

of the angle to the column instead of the heel leads to premature failure.

1.2.8 WEB SIDE PLATE CONNECTION

This connection is commonly used for HSS sections, where bolting may be impossible

or very difficult. Large tension or torsion forces may prohibit the use of this connection.

Special consideration must be given to the transportation of the column since a higher

shipping volume is required and care must be taken to avoid damage of the web plate.
As pointed out by White [WHIT65], this connection can exhibit undesirable
deformations of the HSS wall if the web side plate is welded to the flat section of the
HSS. These deformations reduced column capacities by as much as 40%. White suggests
to only use this connection for hghtly loaded secondary connections or if the column load
immediately below the connection is less than 60% of the column capacity. Columns
should also be laterally braced at the location of the connection.

White also conducted tests on web side plates where the plate was welded to the

corner of the HSS section. This helped to reduce column deformations and it is believed

that this variation of the connection has some potential as a practical flexible connection.

One obvious objection to the connection is the necessity to rotate the column orientation

450.

Tests were also conducted by White where the web plate penetrated all the way

through the HSS column. This was done primarily to reduce the deformations of the

column face but also stiffened the connection to the extent that it cannot be considered

flexible anymore. The cormection did, however, exhibit great vertical and rotational

ductility.

The web side plate connection has a similar behaviour to the single web angle

connection although it tends to be stiffer, stronger and has less rotational capacity. Transfer

moments as high as 37% of the elastic end moment have been recorded [RICH80]. Factors

which tend to affect the moment rotation characteristics are: depth and thickness of plate,

thickness of beam web, bolt configuration, number, size and method for tightening bolts,

flexibility of supporting structure. Rotational behaviour seems to depend on the thinner


of the beam web and the web plate. Even though the design of this connection type tends
to be straight forward, its behaviour is not well understood and the adequacy of the design
assumptions has not been proven or disproven.

No moment is assumed to be transferred at the centroid of the bolts. Strength of


the bolt group, bending and shear of the plate, combined shear and moment of the weld
and strength of the beam web must be checked in the design of the connection. The
designer should attempt to keep the centroid of the bolt group within 100mm of the
column face. Additional checks for local bending on the column may be necessary. The
beam should be kept a minimum of 15mm away from the column face to prevent the
bottom flange from bearing against the column. FlexibiHty is assumed to come from the
2mm bolt hole tolerance and bearing deformations of the bolt hole. This, however, is
contradictory to experimental observations reported by Mansell and Pham [MANS81]
where the plate yielded in combined shear and moment and only the bolt holes closest
to the column yielded. Experiments also showed that there was virtually no difference in
the behaviour of connections with slotted holes versus round holes as long as the
connection bolts are torqued [RICH80]. These experiments are an indication that plate
depth should be minimized to assist in the flexibility of the connection.

1.2.9 CONCRETE FILLED RHS COLUMN TO H-BEAM CONNECTIONS

Some research has been performed in Japan on connections between H-beams

(W-sections) and RHS columns [KANA87]. The researchers wanted to develop a full

moment coimection where field welds were not required and local deformations in the

RHS wall were prevented. This was accomplished by filling the RHS with concrete just

at the connection and attaching endplates or cast steel split tees with long high strength

prestressed bolts. No reports were found where the column was completely filled with
concrete.

The prestressing of the bohs helps to increase the initial rotational stiffness of the
connection. The concrete effectively acts like a diaphragm to transfer flange forces from
the beams and helps to transfer joint panel shear. These connections were found to be
stiffer and stronger than other connections that are typically considered to be full moment
connections. The coimections also exhibited excellent ductiHty and hysteretic behaviour
after losing some capacity after the maximum strength was reached in the first cycle. In
tests performed, the reduced capacity was still higher than the maximum strength of
common full moment connections connecting similar members.

The end plate connection does, however, require greater accuracy for construction.

Beam ends must be parallel and the length of the beam must be cut within 1/32 of

inch. Underrun and overrun of columns can not exceed V l 6 of an inch. This makes the

placing of columns crucial. However, the concept of end plates is not new and the problems

encountered with such connections can be overcome. Using a bolted split tee connection

avoids the tolerance problems but more parts must be handled and the fabrication may

take longer.

1.2.10 SEMI RIGID COMPOSITE CONNECTIONS

Composite floor systems are a common construction method used today. The

additional strength and stiffness gained at the coimection is ignored in the design of these

buildings. Cruciform tests performed by Dalen and Godoy [DALE82] showed that the

moment capacity of the composite beam could be reached for connections typically

assumed to be flexible. The rotational capacity of tested composite connections was greater

than tested non-composite connections typically assumed to be rigid.


Leon tested full scale frames with both gravity and lateral loads. There were two
bays with pins at mid-column height to represent assumed inflection points [LEON88].
Again these tests showed that using semi-rigid design made economical sense. Little
changes would have to be incorporated into the design. However, the major drawback to
these connections is the development of a model for the connection behaviour. As pointed
out by Leon, there are many parameters involved and it would be unlikely that a single
feasible model could be established. This ultimately means that extensive research would
have to be performed before these connections become a viable option.

1.2.11 STRAP ANGLE CONNECTIONS

The HSS has become very popular over the years since it was introduced. These
sections are sensitive to forces perpendicular to the relatively flexible member walls, which
makes it difficult to construct practical moment connections. Strap angle coimections
introduce the beam forces into the side walls of the HSS instead of the "flanges" of the
HSS. This helps to alleviate problems of the flanges buckling. Picard and Gioux examined
strap angle connections between wide flange beams and square tubular columns [PICA76].

This connection type still has some problems such as its semi-rigid behaviour. A n

extra side web plate is needed during construction so the strap angles can be aligned

during the field welding process. For connections where the beam flanges are about the

same width as the column, the web side plate is not required. Shear is carried by the

bottom strap angles, which can be shop welded to the colunm and used to support the

beam while the top strap angles are field welded. This is not an appropriate solution

where the beam flange width is considerably less than the column width. Shear forces

from the beam cause local torsion and bending in the strap angles, in which case a web

side plate is required.


1.3 THE THROUGH BOLT CONNECTION

A design similar to the end plate connection described by Kanatani et al. [KANA87]
was chosen to be investigated further. For convenience, the configuration will be referred
to as a "through bolt" coimection. Details of the connection are described in section 3.1.
The connection was also discussed in section 1.2.9 " C O N C R E T E F I L L E D R H S TO
H - B E A M CONNECTIONS".

The columns investigated in this report are completely filled with concrete. The
fundemental difference from the previously tested connections [KANA87] is that in those
tests the columns were only filled with concrete at the location of the connection to prevent
local buckling or crushing of the hollow section. In a composite column the concrete core
carries a large proportion of the axial load and the transfer of the vertical shear from the
beam loads to the concrete core is thus a major concern. However, this was not a
consideration for the previously studied connections.

The connection was chosen since previous experimental programs demonstrated that
the joint showed favourable behaviour. The joint's moment rotation behaviour was stiffer
than others which were considered to be full moment connections and which joined the
same member sizes. The connection also had a higher moment capacity than other typically
used configurations.

A connection which bares on the concrete was also desirable. This is especially

important for thin walled steel sections since non-bearing connections can lead to

premature failure of the tube walls. The only way to accomplish bearing on the concrete

is by penetrating the HSS wall, the cheapest method of doing so is by drilling holes. The
cost of drilling holes in the column is already associated with a typical steel structure. The

only extra cost over a typical steel connections would be the cost of the extra long bolts.

These economic factors make the configuration advantageous.

The concept of through bolts can also be used for flexible connections. Bolts going
through the HSS can attach double angles, single angles, top and seat angles, or header
plates. Any configuration which can normally be bolted to the column can be used as a
through bolt connection. This gives the possibility of using the concept of the coimection
for a wide variety of structural types.

There are still problems associated with the connection which require further
investigation. Some problems are associated with the post-tensioning of the bolts. Other
problems of concern are associated with the beam shear load transfer to the axial load
of the concrete.

1.3.1 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE POST-TENSIONING OF THE BOLTS

In seismic design, to prevent a possible brittle failure at the joint during an

earthquake, the moment connection should be able to withstand 1.2 times the unfactored

plastic moment capacity of the beam. This is a very stringent requirement that generally

results in an extended endplate connection to accommodate the large number of bolts


required. The bolts in the connection transfer the tension flange forces across to the

opposite side of the column and this generally requires large bolts, depending on the

capacity of the beams. The bolts are prestressed to enhance the moment rotation stiffness

of the connection. Post-tensioning of the bolts has to be done to a fairly high strain so

that creep and shrinkage of the concrete will not cause too much relaxation of the steel.

Since the required bolt diameter is large, a high post-tensioning load will be applied.
which subjects the concrete to very high stresses.

There are several different solutions to the problem. The flexibility of the bolts can
be increased by adding collapsible washers which could have a linear load deflection
behaviour or a non-linear buckling behaviour. The more expensive buckling washers would
allow a more accurate post-tensioning value to be maintained. For either type of washer,
large displacements from creep and shrinkage could occur before the post-tensioning of
the bolts would be released.

Another solution would be to use a concrete with a very high compressive strength

so the bolts could be tightened by turn of the nut method without over stressing the

concrete. The advantage to this solution is the increased column strength.

The calculated stresses on the concrete core induced by post-tensioning have been
found to be very close to the uniaxial cylinder compressive strengths. The concrete in the
column, however, is very well confined and the stresses that are achievable at the collapse
of the section may be much higher than the cylinder strength.

1.3.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH LOAD TRANSFER FROM BEAM SHEAR

TO AXIAL LOAD OF THE C O N C R E T E

For the composite section to be effective, the gravity shear loads from the beams

must be transferred to axial load on the column's concrete core. There are two possible

load transfer mechanisms.

The bolts going through the concrete will bear on the concrete as shown in Figure

2, which may have a deleterious effect on the behaviour of the connection. This is

especially true for the moment connection where bolts would be loaded in combined

moment and tension.


The second load transfer mechanism is friction. For the bolts to bear on the concrete,
there must first be slip between the HSS and the concrete core. This makes the slip load
an important factor and it is a value the designer should known. In past research, however,
the slip load was shown to be a highly variable value [VIRD75].

Bearing applied to the bolts is suspected to effect the rotational behaviour of the

connection which implies a moment-shear interaction at the connection. It is important

to find the additional load above the slip load which will start to significantly effect the

rotational behaviour of the connection.

P load on concrete

B-end

bolts end plate

F I G U R E 2: Bearing configuration
1.3.3 POSSIBLE FAILURE MODES OF CONNECTION

There are primarily three possible failure modes; the simplest to analyze is a shear

failure through the shank of the bolts. This failure mode is very well understood and is

no different than for common bolted connections. The failure mode is shown in figure 3.

A more general failure of the concrete is also possible. The concrete develops a
diagonal crack and a tension field across the HSS, transverse to the longitudinal axis, is
developed. This failure mode was observed in specimens tested at the University of
Toronto [McLE89]. The failure mode is shown in Figure 3. This mode of failure is still
not well understood.

A splitting action of the concrete may also occur and the bolts may bend from
bearing on the concrete. For the bolts to bend, concrete must be displaced, which is
possible only by pushing the concrete and HSS walls outward. The shape and thickness
of the HSS obviously play an important role here. Bending on the bolts is important in
the case of the moment connection since the bolt will be loaded in combined tension and
bending. The failure mode is shown in Figure 3.
typical bolt general bearing-bending
shear failure concrete failure
failure

F I G U R E 3: Failure modes
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

A research project was initiated to examine some of the problems associated with
through bolt connections. The program encompasses both flexible and moment
connections with the following objectives:

- Examine previous research on the load transfer from the HSS to the

concrete core of the column.

- Establish an optimal post-tensioning value to avoid premature slippage,

separation between the tension side of the endplate and HSS (early

separation causes a significant reduction of rotational stiffness), or early

crushing of the concrete.

- Establish the shear level at which bearing on the bolts begins to effect

the overall behaviour of the connection.

- Determine the effects on the bearing response associated with different

post-tensioning values.

- Examine the effect of end-moment from a beam on the bearing

response.

- Find the relationship between slip load, post-tensioning, and

end-moment of the beam.

- Determine the overall feasibihty of through bolt connections and to


establish which future research should be performed.
- Develop an analytical method for determining the initial stiffness of the
moment-rotation relationship.

-Although it is not expected that a design procedure can fully be

developed within the confines of this research project, a strategy for

design can be suggested based upon the observed behaviour.


2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Although connections have always been the major difficulty in composite


construction, very little research has been reported in this area, especially in the field of
concrete-filled HSS. The research which has been performed, however, has provided
important guidlines for further research.

2.1 SHEAR TRANSFER TO THE CONCRETE CORE

Several experimental programs have investigated the axial load transfer to the
concrete core of composite columns. From these investigations different load transfer
mechanisms have been identified. Included in these mechanisms are chemical bonding,
mechanical bonding and capillary action. It has been determined that mechanical bonding
plays the most significant roll in bond stiffness and strength.

Virdi and Dowling [VIRD75] conducted push out test on a series of circular seamless

mild steel tubes filled with concrete. They suggested that mechanical bonding be divided

into two categories: microlocking and macrolocking. Microlocking is developed from the

smaller irregularities or surface roughness between the steel tube and the concrete surface.

Macrolocking is developed from the undulating irregularities and out of straightness of

the steel tube walls. Microlocking appears to determine the initial stiffness and resistance

of the slip between steel and concrete at small relative deflections between the two

materials whereas macrolocking determines the behaviour at larg deflections.

Macrolocking is activated at an advanced loading stage, along the flat section on the

load-deflection curve.

Virdi and Dowling [VIRD75] investigated different factors which could have

significant effects on the strength and behaviour of the bond between the two surfaces.
The parameters investigated include: the influence of concrete age, concrete strength,
concrete-steel interface length, tube size and diameter to wall thickness ratio, compaction,
and steel surface treatment. Even though specimens with similar conditions had greatly
variable strengths, definite trends were observed. Longer concrete-steel interface lengths
slightly but not significantly increased the bond strength (per unit area). Tube size and
diameter-to-wall thickness ratio, concrete strength and age, were found not to have a
significant effect on the load deflection curves. Varying degrees of compaction of the
concrete and surface treatment of the steel tubes had the most significant effect on the
load deflection curves. Specimens with more compacted concrete had stronger bond
strengths. Machined surfaces had very much reduced strengths with almost nonexistent
macrolocking resistance.

2.2 NONBEARING CONNECTIONS FOR COMPOSITE COLUMNS

Most codes require the concrete to be loaded directly in bearing for connections to

composite columns. However, connections which do load the concrete directly in bearing

tend to be more complicated and expensive. For this reason, Dunberry, Leblanc, and

Redwood [DUNB87] investigated flexible connections for composite columns without

loading the concrete directly in bearing. Web plate type coimections and tee section type

connections were tested for various geometric and loading parameters.

While geometric parameters and connection type did play a minimal role in the

amount of load transferred to the concrete, loading parameters played a more significant

role. The column capacity was reduced in cases where a significant proportion of the load

was carried at a single tier level. Redwood et al. developed an empirical method to account

for the reduction in strength.


Load transfer depends on micro and macro bonding and also on the connection
rotation [ANS074] [VIRD75] [DUNB87], which causes a pinching action on the concrete.
Even though the column failure loads were never less than 92% of the squash load of
the columns, the bond strength between the steel and concrete can be quite variable as
demonstrated by Virdi and Dowling [VIRD75]. The effect of concrete shrinkage, the
amount of concrete compaction, and surface treatment of the inside of the tube were not
studied. These factors may deter some engineers from utilizing these connection types.

Ansourian [ANS074] studied rigid-frame connections to concrete-filled tubular steel


columns. The columns were partially loaded from a beam which extended on one side of
the column, inducing shear and moments. Additional axial loading in the column was
concentric. The connections had no bearing mechanism and load was transferred by
friction. Normal forces on the concrete induced by the applied moment, enhanced the
friction capacity. Load was also transferred by curvature interlock, micro and macro
interlocking.

The columns appeared to behave compositely since the deflections and capacities

of the tested columns were close to predicted values. However, no sensitivity analysis was

presented to study the change in the analytical results if some slip between the steel and

the concrete were to occur. The ratio between the applied beam load at failure and the

predicted squash load was never more than 11%. This is an indication that any slip which

may have occurred between the two materials may not have significantly changed the

predicted deflections and capacities.


3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

An experimental program was designed to answer some of the fundamental questions


about the behaviour of the through-bolt connection. The shear transfer mechanism to the
concrete core was identified to be the most pressing problem which and the focus of the
experimental program. In the case of the moment connection, the factors affecting the
rotational stiffness and behaviour were studied. A total of eight connections were built as
part of the experimental program. One preliminary specimen was used to determine the
bearing and slip capacities that could be anticipated. As a result of higher than anticipated
capacities, some of the planned tests described in the experimental program could not be
performed. The beam shear and moment capacities of the loading beam were not sufficient
to fail the connections as planned.

3.1 CONNECTION DESIGN

Design drawings for specimens are shown in Figures 4,5,6,7 and 8. Columns were

304.8 X 304.8 x 12.7 mm (12 x 12 x 1/2 in.) HSS. The need for access to the insides of

the steel sections to apply protective covering material on strain gauges, dictated colunm

dimensions. The HSS wall thickness was chosen to be I/2 in. to avoid local buckling of

the HSS wall which would have added an unnecessary degree of complexity to the

behaviour of the connection.

A W460x61 (W18x41) section was chosen for the beam. Availability and weight were

important considerations to avoid delays and ease handling in the laboratory. For the case

of an endplate connection, the flange width of the beam had to be smaller than the flat

portion of the HSS face. The bolt configuration and end plate size were designed for 1.2

times the plastic moment of the beam. Design calculations are shown in appendix A . A

reduction of the bolt capacity was expected in the presence of significant beam shear. For
this reason, it was not expected that the beam's plastic moment could be reached during
testing. (Preliminary tests showed that the bearing and slip load capacities were higher
than expected. To help alleviate the problem, only four bolts were used in the connection
design instead of eight, as indicated in Figures 4 and 5).

The mechanism of shear transfer to the concrete core of the column was still largely
an unknown. To avoid excessive deformations in the beam, its shear capacity had to be
higher than the transfer capacity. In the case of overload, it was decided that doubler
plates could be added later to the beam webs. Unfortunately, localized buckling of the
beam web and time constraints prevented the use of doubler plates.

Although a 1 in. end plate thickness would have been adequate for design purposes,

a 1 V2 iïi- plate was used. This was done since V4 x V4 in- conduits (required for strain

gauge wires) were bored into the back surface of one of the plates. The end plates were

reused from test to test and significant plastic deformations of the plates were undesired.

(despite these precautions, slight plastic deformations of both end plates were observed)
T-end

These holes were never drilled


since a preliminary test
indicated that the capacity
of an eight bolt connection was
too high for testing

B-end

layout for holes on east and west sides of H S S


-there are no holes on north and south sides

(1-1/16 in.)
- - 27 —
T-side (1/4 in.)
27 - * ^ . 4 ^

B-side
details of H S S hole details of HSS hole
on east side of column on west side of column

F I G U R E 5: HSS details
62.5

(1/4 in.)
T 6.4

i
I (©)
T

<©)

stiffener plates 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)

-250
detail of west plate
(1-1/16 in.)
27
-there are two sets of plates
-one set of plates do NOT have
beams attached
-there is only one set of beams
-symm. about center line unless
otherwise noted
-east plate has same center line
detail of east plate hole
dimensions as west plate
-note difference in east there are no grooves or
detail of west plate hole plate hole detailing over-drilling on east plate
grade 8
nuts
6 mm
fillet welds—r B-side
-ABS tubing extends
through the length
of the HSS. The
bolt does not concrete
thouch the concrete
U1
concrete
T-side
section a-a as placed in the non-bearing specimen

-Foam rubber is placed


over a 75 mm length —-duct tape
along the bolt. The
foam rubber is
centred over the h'i
strain gages concrete
u
Ol
o concrete Plastic

section a-a as placed in the bearing specimen


o
3
3 strain gage B-Side
( only on the^
bearing case)

0.127mm

0>
o
machined
down
surface
T-side
25.4mm (1 In.) diameter rod
4340 steel section a-a
3.2 LOADING CONFIGURATION

A cruciform loading arrangement was used as shown in Figure 9 and 10. Only the
concrete core of the column was loaded for all tests. This was done to clearly determine
the total amount of load transferred to the concrete core. For convenience, the test
specimens were loaded in an upside-down position. The following conventions were
adapted for the report:

- T-end: Top end of the connection or column as it would be orientated in


a building. (Bottom end as oriented in the test)

- B-end: Bottom end of the connection or column as it would be orientated

in a building. (Top end as oriented in the test)

- T-side: Top side of a bolt or endplate as it would be orientated in a

building. (Bottom side as oriented in the test)

- B-side: Bottom side of a bolt or endplate as it would be orientated in a

building. (Top side as oriented in the test)

- T-flange: Top flange of the beam as it would be orientated in a building.

(Bottom flange as oriented in the test)

- B-flange: Bottom Flange of the beam as it would be orientated in a building.

(Top flange as oriented in the test)


- T-slip: Slip between the concrete core and the HSS at the T-end of the
column.

- B-slip: Slip between the concrete core and the HSS at the B-end of the
column.

The locations of the beam loads were varied from test to test. A l l loading
arrangements were symmetrical. Moment arms were measured from the HSS-concrete
interface to the centre of the beam load. The moment at the interface of the two materials
affect the transfer of shear to the concrete core.

The test specimens were divided into two categories. Half the specimens were loaded
on the T-side of the endplates, which are referred to as the "pure shear case" tests and
best represent the behaviour of flexible connections. The moment arm resulting from the
geometric eccentricity was estimated to be 38mm (1 I/2 in.). The other category of tests
are referred to as the "moment cases". Moment arms varied from test to test for these
cases.
only the concrete is loaded LVDT
to B-slip
loading
B-end head

en
o
1500 mm _B-side of end plate 3
B-flange 3

HSS
beam
T-flange

T-side I
of endplate-
LVDT
T-end
i_ 1 T-slip
V////
// ///// T
load cell I clearance load cell
^epoxied
to

concrete

variable distance

F I G U R E 9: Test set-up: Loading arrangement


914 mm
838 mm

- steel Is 25.4 mm stock


- all seams are fillet welded
- welds between plates are 13 mm
- angles are tack welded

F I G U R E 10: Reaction box: Used for the pure shear case


3.3 DEFINITION OF NON-BEARING AND BEARING SPECIMENS

To isolate the individual load transfer mechanisms it was important to determine


the pure slip load. To eliminate bearing of the bolts on the concrete, two of the specimens
were made with ABS tubes, forming concentric sleeves for the bolts as shown in Figure
8. The tubes had an inside diameter of 44.5mm (1-^/4 in.) and an outside diameter of
50mm (2 in.). This allowed the concrete core to move relative to the HSS without bearing
on the bolts. These specimens are referred to as "non-bearing" whereas specimens without
tubes are referred to as "bearing".

One non-bearing specimen was used for the moment case while another was used
for the pure shear case. The tests were nondestructive for the non-bearing specimens to
allow for a variation of post-tensioning and moment arm. Four tests were conducted in
the pure shear case with varying bolt post-tensioning. Nine tests were planned as moment
cases with three different post-tensionings and three different moment arms. (Not all tests
were performed for the moment case since the shear and moment capacities of the beams
were too low to achieve the slip load. See Table 1.).

3.4 ASSEMBLAGE OF SPECIMENS

End plates and beams were assembled after pouring the concrete. This allowed for

the use of only one set of endplates for the pure shear case and one set of endplates and

beams for the moment case. Bolts used for bearing specimens were positoned with snuggly

fitting templates and the bolts were cast in place.


In the non-bearing specimens, bohs were inserted after the curing of concrete. Strain
gauge wires were routed along the bolts, through slots in the HSS (provided for avove
the bolt holes) and then along conduits provided in the backside of one of the endplates.
Bearing specimens were wired in a similar way.

To avoid damage to the strain gauges and wires that could occur due to rotation of

the rods in the concrete, the nuts on one side of the specimen were welded to the rods

and endplate. The bolts were then tightened from the opposite side of the cormection.

Snug fitting plywood (^/^ in.) templates were used as dummy endplates to hold bolts

in place during pouring of the concrete. Correct placement of the bolts was crucial since

misalignment could necessitate further machining of the endplates.

3.5 DEFINITION OF TEST DESCRIPTION CODE

A code description for the different tests was developed and it consists of a series

of letters and numbers as follows:

M or PS: The first letter(s) indicate the moment or pure shear case

respectively.

05, 10 or 15: The first number(s) (only for the moment case) indicate

nominal moment arms of 500, 1000, and 1500 mm

respectively.

N or B: The second letter indicates a nonbearing or bearing specimen

respectively.
000, 050 or 100: The second group of numbers indicate a nominal percentage
of full post-tensioning of 0%, 50%, and 100% respectively.

1, 2 or nothing: The last number indicates the first or second of two identical

tests.

Test descriptions are summarized in Table 1. (It should be noted that not all tests
were performed since the beam shear and moment capacity was too low to attain a slip
and/or bearing failure of some connections).
T A B L E 1: Test description

TEST BEARING POST TENSIONING MOMENT ARM PERFORMED REMARKS

{mn)

PSNOOOl NO 0% 38 mm * YES The first of two

identical tests

PSN0002 NO 0% 38 * YES The second of two


identical tests

PSN050 NO 50% 38 * YES

PSNIOO NO 100% 38 * YES 100%) post-


tensioning
constituted 180kN
per bolt.

PSBOOO YES 0% 38 * YES

PSB050 YES 50% 38 * YES

PSBIOO YES 100% 38 * YES

M05N000 NO 0% 500 ALIERED Test designation


**
(M2N000) (178) was changed to

M2N000

MIONOOO NO 0% 1000 ALIERED

(M3N000) (254) **

M15N000 NO 0% 1500 NO ***


T A B L E 1: Test description (continued)

TEST BEARING JPOST TENSIONING MOHENT ARM


jPERFORMED jREMARKS
(mm)

M05N050 NO 50% 500 NO ***

M10N050 NO 50% 1000 NO ***

M15N050 NO 50% 1500 NO ***

M05N100 NO 100% 500 YES

MIONIOO NO 100% 1000 NO ***

M15N100 NO 100% 1500 NO ***

M05B000 YES 0% 500 NO ***

M05B050 YES 50% 1000 NO ***

M05B100 YES 100% 1500 YES

*All "pure shear" tests had a moment arm of 38 mm (see Figure 10)

**moment arm was shortened from 500 mm to 178 mm and 254 mm in order to lower

the slip capacity since beam shear and moment capacities were too low. Altered designations

are shown in brackets.

***tests could not be performed since slip and/or bearing failure of the specimen

exceeded the beam shear and bending capacities.


3.6 INSTRUMENTATION

Instrumentation was chosen for measuring the following quantities:

(a) bolt strains (T-side and B-side at vertical centre line of connection)

(b) moment-rotation of the connection

(c) applied load (for all specimens)

(d) slip between the concrete core and the HSS (for all specimens)

Instrumentation used for each test is shown in Table 2.


T A B L E 2: Instrumentation

TEST ROTATIONAL STRAIN MESUREMENT STRAIN MESUREMENT T-END AND B - E N D SLIP

MEASUREMENT OF B-SIDE OF BOLT OF T-SIDE OF BOLT

PSNOOOl NO NO YES YES

PSN0002 NO NO YES YES

PSN050 NO NO YES YES

PSNIOO NO NO YES YES

PSBOOO NO YES YES YES

PSB050 NO YES YES YES

PSBIOO NO YES YES YES

M05N000 YES NO YES YES

MIONOOO YES NO YES YES

M15N000 YES NO YES YES

M05N050 YES NO YES YES

M10N050 YES NO YES YES

M15N050 YES NO YES YES

M05N100 YES NO YES YES

M ION 100 YES NO YES YES


T A B L E 2: Instrumentation (continued)

TEST ROTATIONAL STRAIN HESUREMENT STRAIN MESUREMENT T-END AND B - E N O SLIP

MEASUREMENT OF B-SIDE OF BOLT OF T-SIDE OF BOLT

M15N100 YES NO YES YES

M05B000 YES YES YES YES

M05B050 YES YES YES YES

M05B100 YES YES YES YES

3.6.1 CONNECTION ROTATION MEASUREMENT

Four 6.4 mm (V4 in.) Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) attached
to the HSS with magnetic bases were used to measure the connection rotation. The
instrument set-up is shown in Figure I L
19 mm

stand

west B-flange east B-flange

ALrtA
o o
•~N A
M S
o
d o o

magnetic ^
beam bases

O O b
O

O o
west T-flange east T-flange

LVDT
centre line
of LVDT
is aligned
with
centre line
HSS of flange

F I G U R E 11: Instrumentation for rotation measurement


3.6.2 SLIP MEASUREMENT

Two 12.5 mm (V2 in.) LVDT's attached to the HSS with magnetic bases were used
for measuring T-shp and B-shp. The instrument set-up is shown in Figure 9.

3.6.3 STRAIN GAUGES

A l l bolts of all specimens were instrumented with strain gauges. Dimensions and
detailing for both the bearing and non-bearing cases are shown in Figure 8. All tests were
conducted at room temperature. The strain gauges were manufactured by
Micro-Measurements Division of the Measurements Group, Inc. and had the following

characteristics:

type: CEA-06-125UN-350

resistance: 350 ohms ± 0.3 % at 240C

gauge factor: 2.090 ± 0.5% at 240C

Kt: +0.5 ± 0.2 %

excitation: 4.8 mA

Non-bearing specimens had a single strain gauge attached in the middle on the

T-side of the boh. Bolts of the bearing specimens were suspected to bend substantially

and two strain gauges on opposite sides, were attached to measure the combined bending

and tension strains. The strain gauges were attached to the middle of the B-side and

T-side.
All strain gauges had three layers of "M-coat A" applied for water proofing. A layer
of "five minute epoxy" was applied to protect the strain gauges against small impacts due
to installation. Strain gauges and wires were wrapped with one layer of Duct tape to avoid
abrasions.

Since normal pressure on the strain gauges could cause false readings, 75 ,mm long
strips of 12 mm (1/2 in.) foam padding was wrapped around the bolt. Plastic was then
wrapped around the padding and all seams were covered with Duct tape. It was relized
that the presence of the padding would influence the behaviour of the bolt and it's bearing
response to some extent. The bolt strains were considered important enough to warrant
the inclusion of this extra protection. The surrounding concrete in the middle would
invariably help to restrain the bolt from bending, while bearing was expected to be
concentrated at the ends of the bolt (closer to the inside edges of the HSS). For this
reason, it was assumed that bolt strain measurements in the presence of the foam would
be slightly increased.

3.6.4 LOAD CELLS

Two 2220 kN (500 Kip) load cells were used for measuring the reaction loads. Load

cells are shown in Figure 9 and 10. The east and west load cells had excitation inputs of

10 and 15 volts respectively.

3.6.5 DATA ACQUISITION

A 16 bit computer controlled automatic data acquisition system (Optilog) was used

for collecting data. The Optilog has 9 different modes for data collection. Mode 1 is the

slowest but it compensates for wire resistance. Since the tests were quasi-static and high

speeds were not required, mode 1 was used .


The Optilog has high and low speed data collection. High speed collection stores
information in a buffer and periodically sends the information to the computer. While the
system sends information to the computer, the data logging operation is interrupted,
resulting in gaps in the dataset. During low speed operation, information is sent to the
computer on a continual basis. Although no data is lost, this process is much slower than
the high speed data collection. The low speed operation was considered to be the most
appropriate option for these experiments.

3.7 LOADING DEVICE

A 1780 kN (400 Kip) servo-controlled actuator, combined with a cantilever


arrangement for mechanical advantage was used for loading the specimens. The cantilever,
salvaged from a previous research program, was modified to accommodate the specimen
as proposed. The orientation and assembly of the frame are shown in Figures 12, 13 and
14. TTie entire loading frame was found to be relatively flexible. This was not a concern
since tests were static in nature, all measurements were taken relative to fixed points on
the specimens, and the actuator was displacement-controlled.

The rotation of the cantilever caused the specimens to lean during testing, which

was compensated for by providing the cantilever with a rotating loading head. The load

cell bearing plates were also able to rotate to some degree. These precautions helped to
maintain a concentric load relative to the longitudinal axis of the specimen.
actuator
supporting plate
beam \ ,

threaded
n
rod
O

o o o o
o o o o
o o channel o o
o o

mechano
set

VIEW F R O M S O U T H

F I G U R E 13: South view of loading device


52
plate

diagonal
support

VIEW F R O M EAST

F I G U R E 14: North view of loading device


3.8 RELATIONSHIPS OF SPECIMENS

Eight different specimens with differing post-tensioning, bearing and non-bearing

conditions, and different moment to shear ratios were chosen to study the responses. Table

3 summarizes the relationships and purposes of the different tests. (It should be noted

that not all the tests were performed. See Table 1)

T A B L E 3: Test relationships

TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP

PSNOOOl To examine the change in slip load from test to test.

PSN0002

PSNOOOl To determine the relationship between slip load and

PSN0002 post-tensioning

PSN050

PSNIOO

M05N000 * To determine the relationship between slip load, post-tensioning

MIONOOO * and end-moment.

M15N000 **

M05N050 **

M10N050 **

M15N050 **

M05N100

MIONIOO **

M15N100 **
T A B L E 3: Test relationships (continued)

TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP

PSNOOOl Bolt strains compared to establish unacceptable shear levels.

PSN0002

PSBOOO

PSN050

PSB050

PSNIOO

PSBIOO

PSBOOO Comparison of bearing responses for different post-tensionings.

PSB050

PSBIOO

M05B000 **

M05B050 **

.M05B100

PSBOOO Comparison of bearing responses of the pure shear case relative

M05B000 ** to the moment case.

PSB050

M05B050 **

PSBIOO

M05B100
T A B L E 3: Test relationships (continued)

TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP

M05N000 * Examine the change in moment-rotation behaviour for different


M05N050 ** post-tensionings.
M05N100

MIONOOO *
M10N050 **
MIONIOO **

M15N000 **
M15N050 **
M15N100 **

M05B000 **

M05B050 **

M05B100

M05N000 * Bolt strains compared to estabHsh unacceptable shear levels. To


M05B000 ** examine changes in moment-rotation behaviour from bearing

and non-bearing specimens.

M05N050 **

M05B050 **

M05N100

M05B100
T A B L E 3: Test relationships (continue)

TESTS PURPOSE - RELATIONSHIP

M05N000 * Moment-rotation behaviour compared for varying


MIONOOO * moment-to-shear ratios.

M15N000 **

M05N050 **
M10N050 **
M15N050 **

M05N100

MIONIOO **

M15N100 **

ALL M O M E N T The calculated initial stiffnesses of the moment rotation


CASES relationships will be compared to calculated values.

*moment arm wasshortened to lower slip capacity since beam shear and moment

capacities were too low (see table 1).

**tests could not be performed since slip and/or bearing failure of the specimen exceeded

the beam shear and bending capacities.

3.8.1 DETERIORATION OF SLIP LOAD

Tests PSNOOOl and PSN0002 were performed with a single specimen under identical

conditions to determine the change in slip load from test to test. Both tests were

non-bearing and loaded in "pure shear" with no post-tensioning.


3.8.2 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING RELATIONSHIP

Three different non-bearing pure shear tests (PSNOOO, PSN050, PSNIOO) were
performed with a single specimen to determine the relationship between shp load and
post-tensioning.

3.8.3 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING VERSUS ENDMOMENT

RELATIONSHIP

Nine different non-bearing moment tests (M5N000, M5N050, M5N100, MIONOO,


M10N050, MIONIOO, M15N000, M15N050, M15N100) were planned on a single specimen
to determine the relationship between slip load, post-tensioning and end-moment.
However, the end-moment was suspected not to have a significant influence on the slip
load unless the precompression of the concrete had been relieved. Figure 74 shows the
anticipated relationship to be achieved. (The relationship could not be established
experimentally, since all the tests could not be performed.)

3.8.4 ESTABLISHING UNACCEPTABLE SHEAR LEVELS

Endplate and flexible connections are widely used in typical steel construction. Bolts

are generally designed for combined tension and shear and moments on the bolts caused

by eccentricities between connecting plates are usually ignored. The non-bearing

connections in the experimental program were similar to those used in routine construction

and could be designed in the same way as common connections. The bearing connection

added complexity to the design and it was felt that moments on the bolts could not be

ignored.

In the bearing case, the bolt is restrained from bending by the surrounding concrete

while the bearing stresses exerted by the concrete in turn cause bending in the bolt. The
concrete is highly confined and has a non-linear behaviour. A detailed analysis would be
formidable. Therefore, it was decided to extract this information by comparing the
behaviour of the bearing connection relative to the non-bearing connection. Unacceptable
loads for the bearing case could be established by comparing longitudinal bolt strains of
the bearing case relative to the non-bearing case. If strains were significantly higher than
those of the non-bearing case, bending of the bolts would have to be considered in the
design process.

3.8.5 FACTORS AFFECTING BEARING RESPONSE

The bearing response is defined as the behaviour of the connection at loads beyond

the slip load. This study measured bearing response in terms of T-end slip and bolt strains.

The bearing strength is defined as the load at bearing failure minus the slip load. This

additional resistance could be seen as a backup in case of slippage and thus bearing is of

interest to study the behaviour.

The following factors were anticipated to affect the bearing response: concrete

strength, steel wall thickness, column dimensions and shape, steel strength of bolt, diameter

of bolt, steel strength of HSS, post-tensioning of bolt, end-moment on the coimection.

This study concentrated on the effects of prestressing level and end-moment on bearing
response. In these cases, the bolts were loaded in combined tension, bending and shear.

3.8.5.1 PRESTRESSING LEVEL

It was not expected that the prestressing alone would affect the ultimate bearing

strength since yielding of the bolts would relieve the prestressing. However, the initial

bearing response might be changed. The bearing responses of specimens PSBOOO, PSB050

and PSBIOO would be compared to identify any significant trends.


3.8.5.2 END-MOMENT

A moment applied to the connection was anticipated to cause a change in bearing


response. For this reason, the bearing responses of specimens PSBOOO and M5B000 would
be compared. The two specimen groups PSB050, M5B050 and PSBIOO, M5B100 would
also be compared.

3.8.6 FACTORS AFFECTING MOMENT-ROTATION

There are conceivably many factors which could affect the moment-rotation
behaviour of connections. This is especially true for endplate connections which have many
contributing parameters. In the case of concrete-filled HSS, the bending of the bolts caused
by bearing may tend to complicate the moment-rotation behaviour. On the other hand,
the behaviour is also simplified since the deformations of a column flange no longer have
to be considered. In this experimental program, three factors which could potentionally
affect the moment rotation were studied: bearing on the bolts, prestressing of the bolts,
and moment-to-shear ratio.

3.8.6.1 BEARING ON BOLTS

If the bolts are loaded beyond the elastic range in combined tension and bending

in the bearing case, the moment-rotation behaviour would be affected. A comparison of

specimen groups M5N000-M5B000, M5N050-M5B050, and M5N100-M5B100 would

indicate any significant changes.


3.8.6.2 PRESTRESSING OF BOLTS

The level of prestressing was not expected to affect the intial part of the
moment-rotation curve. However, the load at which the prestressing would be relieved
depended on the level of prestressing. The following four different groups of varying
prestressing levels were to be studied independently: (not all tests were completed)

M5N000 MIONOOO M15N000 M5B000

M5N050 M10N050 M15N050 M5B050

M5N100 MIONIOO M15N100 M5B100

3.8.6.3 HIGH SHEAR LEVELS

High shear levels might affect the moment-rotation behaviour, which would be
especially true for the bearing case. The higher shear levels would increase the bearing
on the bolts, causing them to bend, which in turn would affect their tension capacity and
general longitudinal deformation behaviour. Although the behaviour of the bolt plays a
fundamental role in the moment-rotation characteristics of a joint, no bearing tests with
different moment to shear ratios were planned. However, several non-bearing cases with
varying moment-to-shear ratios were plaimed.
The tests were not specifically planned to address the different moment-rotation

responses for varying moment to shear ratios. Since this information was available, it was

another variation which could be examined. Any differences in moment-rotation behaviour

for the non-bearing cases would likely also appear for the bearing cases. The following

tests were intended for comparison:

M5N000 M5N050 M5N100

MIONOOO M10N050 MIONIOO

M15N000 M15N050 M15N100

3.9 PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN

The bearing response and slip load values were difficult to predict. A salvaged

specimen from a previous test program presented an opportunity to investigate the

expected behaviour. The specimen is shown in Figure 15.

Bolts were tightened to approximately 180 kN each, which represents 33% of the

ultimate bolt capacity. Subsequently the specimen was loaded in a 1780 kN (400 Kip)

universal testing machine by pushing the concrete through the HSS. The load and B-slip

were recorded. The bolts were manufactured from 4340 steel rod with a 25 mm (1 in.)

diameter. 100x200mm (4x8 in.) concrete cylinders yielded an approximate compressive

strength of 35 MPa. The results were recorded on an X Y plotter: B-slip was measured

with a 1/2 in. stroke LVDT, while the load was measured with a L V D T attached to a

dial mechanism on the Baldwin testing device.


The preliminary specimen was tested under the following conditions:

- Two perpendicular sets of endplates with 8 bolts per set of endplates

(a total of 16 bolts). The bolts were tightened.

-One set of endplates with 8 tightened bolts.

-One set of endplates with 8 finger tightened bolts

-One set of endplates with 4 tightened bolts.

-One set of endplates with 4 untightened bolts

-Two identical tests with no plates or bolts.


B-end

bolts

plates

T-end

F I G U R E 15: Preliminary specimen


4 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE AND RESULTS

In this chapter all the tests are briefly described and results are given. As mentioned
in the previous chapter, not all the tests were carried out. Besides the main experiments,
tests were also carried out on the bolts and concrete. Furthermore, a preliminary specimen
was tested to give an estimate of the actuator forces that would be required for the main
tests.

4.1 AUXILIARY TESTS

Material tests were performed on the bolts and concrete only. The HSS material
was not tested as it was not expected to have a significant effect on the results. Removing
of the HSS material would have been a difficult task since the concrete made it virtually
impossible to use a cutting torch or saw.

4.1.1 CONCRETE CYLINDER TESTS

Concrete test cyhnders were crushed throughout the period of the experimental

program to establish the variations of strength and elastic modulus with time. A total of

twelve cylinders were cast, two of which were saved for possible future testing together

with the untested specimens.

Four inch diameter by 8 in. long brass moulds were used instead of the usual 6 X

12 moulds. The concrete was poured in three layers and prodded 25 times per layer.

Cylinders were cured in a moist room and were not removed until the day of testing. Two

cylinders were crushed on each day of concrete testing. Testing as shown in Figure 16,

was done on the 1780 kN (400 kip) Baldwin universal testing machine. The load was
measured by a L V D T connected to the mechanical dial of the testing machine to an

accuracy of 4kN or better. Displacements were not measured on the the first two cylinders.
For later tests, data was recorded on a X Y plotter and subsequently digitized. Results are
shown in Figures 17-24, and Appendix B. Even though there was a clear correlation
between age and elastic modulus, the average modulus of 22200 MPa was used for
calculation purposes.

The stress-strain relationship was calculated from the displacement and load
readings. The relatively ductile behaviour was found to be quite different from that of
typical concrete. The post-ultimate segment of the curve was unusually long at relatively
high load levels for concretes with added fibres. The loading rate after post-ultimate was
rapid yet slow enough for an analogue X Y plotter to record the information. Unlike most
concrete cylinders, the cylinders remained intact after testing but could be broken apart
by a slight twisting action. Some suspicions were raised regarding the testing procedure.
During the same time, a set of 6 X 12 cylinders from another experimental program were
tested with the same set-up, and these behaved in the usual brittle manner. For this reason,
it is believed that the unusual post-ultimate behaviour recorded is a real characteristic of
the concrete that was used in this study.
F I G U R E 16: Concrete cylinder test set-up
30

20 h

10

—I—. l _ J

4 6 8 10 12 14

MICRO STRAIN (xio")

F I G U R E 17: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 76 - Cylinder 1)


10

MICRO STRAIN (xlO")

F I G U R E 19: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 102 - Cylinder 1)

(0
Q.

CO
CO
111

CO

4 6 8 10 12 14
MICRO STRAIN (xio')
F I G U R E 21: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 137 - Cylinder 1)

50

40 h

30

w
CO
m
ce 20

10

6 8 10 12 14
MICRO STRAIN (x10')
40 h

30 h

MICRO STRAIN (xio")

F I G U R E 23: Concrete stress-strain curve: (Day 150 - Cylinder 1)


51
50

TIME (DAYS)

F I G U R E 25: Concrete strength versus time


4.1.2 BOLT TESTS

Upon close inspection of the bolt material, it was found that two different stocks of

rod were used for the manufacturing of the bolts. One batch was marked with red paint

while the other was unmarked. Test results showed, however, that the two different batches

were virtually identical.

Three bolts were tested to failure under uniaxial tension in the 400 Kip Baldwin
universal testing machine. They were tested with both single and double nuts.
Instrumentation for the two different cases is shown in Figure 26. Data was collected with
the Optilog data aquisition system.

One red stock bolt was tested with a single nut. The non-marked stock bolts were
tested with both a single and double nut. The single nut tests provided information of
how a bolt may deform (including the thread deformations) in the specimen. The double
nut specimen was used to develop the full stress-strain curve of the material.

Results of the tests are shown in Figures 27 to 31 and appendix C. The red stock

bolt threads failed in shear (stripped). The non-marked bolts both failed in tension. L V D T

readings over the 2 inch gauge length gave strain results that cosely approximated the
strain gauge readings. The modulus of the steel was calculated to be 180 000 MPa for all

three bolts. Tangent slopes were varied on the stress-strain curve to establish the sensitivity

of the measured modulus. Lines with slopes of 185 000 MPa and 175 000 MPa were

clearly not tangent to any part of the "linear" portion of the stress-strain curve.
to grips on *
Baldwin - LVDTs and bolt gripping
devices were secured with
ropes to avoid collapse
after rupture of the bolt

pin

LVDT was not


used tor the
red marked
bolt stock

Double Nutted Case Single Nutted Case

F I G U R E 26: Bolt testing configuration


CO

1 1 1 1 L—I 1 1 I I [ I I I I r I I I

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
MICRO STRAIN (xio')

F I G U R E 27: Bolt stress-strain curve (non-marked stock - double nutted)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
MICRO STRAIN (xlO')

F I G U R E 28: Bolt stress-strain curve (non-marked stock - single nutted)


600 r

F I G U R E 29: Bolt Load-deflection curve (non-marked stock - single nutted)


600

DISPLACEMENT (mm)

F I G U R E 31: Bolt Load-deflection curve (red-marked stock - single nutted)


4.2 PRELIMINARY SPECIMEN

The load versus B-slip relationships are shown in Figures 32 to 38. Results from the
X Y plotter were digitized and reported in appendix D. Due to limited load capacity of
the Baldwin testing machine, the bolts could not be failed in bearing.

The load resistances obtained from the preliminary tests were significantly higher
than initially anticipated. This lead to capacity problems for the beams in later tests, and
it was decided to perform the experimental program with four bolts instead of eight to
simulate a flush endplate instead of an extended endplate connection. TTie changes to the
connection design are shown in Figures 4 and 5.

Repeated tests without bolts showed slip loads of 512 kN and 516 kN respectively.
This was an indication that repeated testing on non-bearing specimens could be done
without significant deterioration of the pure slip capacity.
1.8

B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 32: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (16 tightened bolts - 4 plates)

0 1 2 3 4
B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 33: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (8 tightened bolts - 2 plates)


F I G U R E 34: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (8 lose bolts - 2 plates)

F I G U R E 35: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (4 tightened bolts - 2 plates)


B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 36: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (4 lose bolts - 2 plates)

600

B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 37: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (no plates - first test)
600

B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 38: Preliminary specimen - B-slip vs. load - (no plates - second test)
PSBOOO was the first specimen of the program to be tested. Data was scanned every
5 seconds. The actuator displacement rate was set at 2 inches per hour. It was found that
the majority of the displacement originated from the deformation of the testing device,
which resulted in a longer testing period than anticipated. The resulting quantity of data
collected was overwhelming and it was decided to scan future tests at 10 second intervals
and change the displacement rate of the actuator to 4 inches per hour for loading and
16 inches per hour for unloading.

The configuration of the testing device was such that the supporting beam for the

actuator could deflect toward the north, which produced an undesireable P-delta effect.

The threaded rods securing the supporting beam were permitted to deflect to equilibrate

horizontal forces the actuator may have produced. Horizontal forces would then be

transferred to the bracing of the testing device. As the applied load was increased, the

deflections increased, causing a higher horizontal force, which in turn increased the

deflections. At failure of the specimen, the beam abruptly returned towards its original

position. Before testing the next specimen, it was thus necessary to realign the plates,

supporting beam and actuator. Also, one of four supporting brackets of the actuator failed

and minor modifications were made to avoid problems with later tests. The base of the

actuator was secured directly to the bracing of the testing device and the supporting system

was changed to avoid future failures.

The specimen reached its maximum capacity when the bolts abruptly failed in shear

at 2980 kN. This load was slightly higher than the predicted value:
Results are shown in Figures 39 to 41 and data is presented in appendix E.

F I G U R E 39: PSBOOO: B-end slip vs. load


3.2
3
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
i 1.6
Q 1.4
<
O
1.2
1
0.8 -
0.6 -
0.4 -
0.2 -
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.4
T-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 40: PSBOOO: T-end slip vs. load

3.2
3
2.8
2.6 -
2.4 -
• £ 2.2 -
5. 2
— 1.8
i ,.6

•J 1.2
1 B-side
0.8 strains

0.6
0,4
0.2 I-
0
-2 0 2 4
MICROSTRAIN (xltf)
Assembly and testing of the specimen went as planned. Bolts were finger tightened

only. Slip load was measured at 947 k N . Results are shown in Figures 42 to 44 and data

is presented in appendix F.

B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 42: PSNOOOl: B-end slip vs. load


F I G U R E 43: PSNOOOl: T-end slip vs. load
4.5 PSN0002

When setting up, it was found that some residual tension was present in the bolts

after the previous test (PSNOOOl). It was therefore necessary to remove the specimen from

the testing device to loosen the bolts. The bolts were then finger tightened and the

specimen was placed back in the testing device. Results are shown in Figures 45 to 47

and data is presented in appendix G .

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6


B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 45: PSN0002: B-end slip vs. load


1.1

0.8 h

•£ 0.7 -

0.6 -

0.5
Q
O 0.4 -

_i
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
T-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 46: PSN0002: T-end slip vs. load

1.1

MICROSTRAIN (xltf)

F I G U R E 47: PSN0002: Boit strains vs. load


Test PSNIOO was performed before PSN050 to estimate the maximum
post-tensioning possible with the available torquing devices. This value was approximately
180 kN, which was much lower than desired.

Bolts were tightened with the specimen removed from the testing device. The
specimen was placed on its side and the strain gauges were connected to the data
acquisition system. Longitudinal tension strains of the bolts were measured during the
tightening process. The specimen was then placed back in the testing device and the strain
gauges were reconnected to the data acquisition system. Slight changes in the strain
readings were observed which were possibly due to handling and shifting of the specimen.
The initial strain readings presented in the data are those obtained after the specimen
was placed back into the testing device. The procedure as described above was used for
all the prestressed specimens. Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 48 to
50 and appendix H .

The occurrence of slip was audible. The jolt upon slipping caused the L V D T
magnetic base to shift. This offset was taken into account in the data by comparing with

measurements of the total deflected amount with a ruler after testing. It may be noted

that the measured quantity does not significantly affect the shape of the T-slip versus load

curve, since the unknown deflection occured on a relatively flat portion of the curve

(between scan 835 and 836).


0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2
B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 48: PSNIOO: B-end slip vs. load


1.9 r-
1.8

MICROSTRAIN (xlCf)

F I G U R E 50: PSNIOO: Bolt strains vs. load


Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 51 to 53 and appendix I. Each

occurance of slip was audible.

-> -I r 1 \ 1 1 \ I I I I I I -Ji I I

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2


B-END SLIP (mm)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
T-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 52: PSN050: T-end slip vs. load

1.5

0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5


MICROSTRAIN (xltf)
Experimental results and data are shwon in Figures 54 to 56 and appendix J.

2.8

0 1 2 3 4
B-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 54: PSB050: B-end slip vs. load


0.6
0.4 -
0.2 -
0
-0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1
T-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 55: PSB050: T-end slip vs. load

2.8
B-side strains T-slde strains
2.6

2.4

2.2

1.8 -

1.6

1.4 -

1.2

1 -

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2 -

0
-2 0 2
MICROSTRAIN (xltf)
Experimental results and data are shwon in Figures 57 to 59 and appendix K .

2.8 r-
2.6
2.4 -

B-END S U P (mm)

F I G U R E 57: PSBIOO: B-end slip vs. load


0.6 h
0.4 -
0.2 -
Q I I I I I I I I I I 1_

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4


T-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 58: PSBIOO: T-end slip vs. load

MICROSTRAIN (xltf)
4.10 M2N000

The slip loads were higher than anticipated. To reduce this load, the moment arm
of the beam reactions was reduced to within the region of the first shear panel. No extra
stiffeners could be placed in the first shear panel since this would have been too close to
the bolts and would have made the tightening procedure impossible. Fortunately, slip
occured befor failure of the beam web. The moment arm for this test was 178mm.
Experimental results and data are shown in Figures 60 to 63 and Appendix L. The slip
load and maximum moment were 1366 kN and 122 kNm respectively. The intial
moment-rotation stiffness was 42000 kNm/rad.
160 -i-

ROTATION (RADIANS x10E-3)

F I G U R E 60: M2N000: Moment-rotation curve

B-END SLIP (mm)


0.2 -
0.1 -
Q i 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I i I 1 I I i \ Li

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1,6


T-END SLIP (mm)

F I G U R E 62: M2N000: T-end slip vs. load

1.5

MICROSTRAIN (xio')
4.11 M3N000

The rotation of the cantilever of the loading device caused a slight tilt of the
specimen. The bearing plates on the load cell did not rotate adequately to compensate
for the lean. Furthermore, the out-of-plane bending capacity of the beam web was
inadequate. The combined bearing and bending caused the web of the beam to buckle
leading to premature plastic deformations. The slip load could thus not be reached. The
moment arm of the beam loads was 254mm. Experimental results and data are shown in
Figures 64 and 65 and appendix M . The maximum load and moment were 1336 kN and
170 kNm respectively. The intial moment-rotation stiffness was 49000 kNm/rad.

At this stage it was decided to eliminate some of the tests from the experimental

program since the beams were clearly inadequate. It was felt, however, that the difference

in moment rotation behaviour for the bearing and non-bearing specimens could still be

studied. Therefore, tests M5N100 and M5B100 were conducted as planned.


ROTATION (RADIANS x10E-3)

F I G U R E 64: M3N000: Moment-rotation curve

1.5 -
1.4 -

MICROSTRAIN (x^d)
4.12 M5N100

The beam webs and T-flange were sHghtly damaged from test M3N000. However,
the damage was thought not to effect the moment-rotation behaviour. Experimental results
and data are shown in figures 66 and 67 and Appendix N . The maximum load and moment
were 1352 kN and 369 kNm respectively. The initial moment-rotation stiffness was 109000
kNm/rad.
ROTATION (RADIANS x10E-3)

F I G U R E 66: M5N100: Moment-rotation curve

MICROSTRAIN (xlO^
4.13 M5B100

After assembly of the specimen, it became apparent that the endplate had been bent

on the T-flange side during test M5N100. The damage was not obvious and could not be

seen unless a straight-edge was placed against the endplate. A schematic of the damage

is shown in Figure 68. While the damage appeared to be minor, it could have a significant

effect on the moment-rotation behaviour. Improper mating of the endplate and column

surface could significantly reduce the initial moment-rotation stiffness. Experimental

results and data are shown in Figures 69 to 71 and Appendix O. The maximum load and

moment were 1439 kN and 392 kNm respectively. The intial moment-rotation stiffness

was 55000 kNm/rad.


column

beam
M M

•0.5 mm

F I G U R E 68: Endplate damage


F I G U R E 69: M5B100: Moment-rotation curve

_J I I I I I I I L I I I L_

1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3


MICROSTRAIN {x^d)
F I G U R E 71: M5B100: Strains of bolts 3 and 4 (B-end) vs. load
5 DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In this chapter, the results of the experimental program are summarized and
discussed in general. During the course of the study, various unknown quantities influenced
the progression of the project leading to a shift in emphasis from the originally set goals.
These matters are discussed, followed by design recommendations based on the observed
behaviour.

From the tests which could be performed, some unexpected results were obtained,
the most surprising being the high load carrying capacity of the connections. The
confinment of the concrete prevented the centre of the bolt from bending significantly
and also geneated an extremely high concrete bearing stress capacity. Slip loads were
higher than expected.

5.1 PROBLEMS WITH THE B-SLIP MEASUREMENT

T-slip was chosen as the most appropriate parameter for the comparison between

specimens. The B-slip would often appear to decrease as the load increased as shown in

Figure 51. This was likely caused by a slight rotation of the bearing plate on the concrete.

This lead to inconsistent B-slip readings since only one L V D T attached to one side of
the HSS was used for this measurement. The concrete core did not rotate relative to the

HSS at the T-end of the specimen, which made the T-slip measurements more consistent.

The B-slip was also compHcated by relatively large elastic deformations of the concrete

core and bearing plates.

5.2 DETERIORATION OF SLIP LOAD

Tests PSNOOOl and PSN0002 showed little variation in slip load. T-slip versus load

relationships for the tests are shown in Figures 43 and 46. Similar results were obtained
from the prehminary tests (Figure 37 and 38). There was no obvious damage to the

columns or deterioration of slip capacity from test to test. It was thus concluded that no

significant change in results were to be expected by reusing specimens for several tests.

The only significant difference between the two tests was the initial section of the
T-slip versus load ^prve. The maximum slip load in test PSNOOOl was reached after an
initial T-slip of approximately 0.7 mm. For test PSN0002, however, no measurable T-slip
occurred before the slip load was reached.

5.3 SLIP LOAD BEHAVIOUR

The following bearing and Non-bearing tests are used for comparison: PSBOOO,
PSB050, PSBIOO, PSNOOOl, PSN0002, PSN050, PSNIOO. For the bearing cases, slip
between the HSS and the concrete core was continuous with no sudden changes in load
or slip deflection (Figures 40, 55 and 58).

In the case of non-bearing specimens, slip between the concrete core and the HSS

occurred abruptly. Once the slip load was reached, there was a sudden movement between

the concrete and the HSS, accompanied by a decrease in load. The load then increased

again until another occurrence of slip took place, with each successive occurrence of slip

taking place at a higher load. This behaviour is illustrated in Figures 49 and 52. The

increase in slip load is believed to be a result of an increase in bolt tension. The undulating

deformities of the wall surfaces of the HSS are pushed outward as the concrete core

travels through the HSS, causing an increase of the bolt tension. The occurrence of slip

was audible during tests PSN050 and PSNIOO. The higher the prestressing, the louder was

the occurrence of slip.

Ill
5.4 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING

The relationship between slip resistance and orthogonal load was established with

tests PSNOOOl, PSN0002, PSN050, and PSNIOO, which were all conducted on the same

specimen. The slip load was taken at the first occurrence of slip. The relationship, as

shown in Figure 72, indicates a constant ratio between pretensioning and slip load.

For the purpose of clarity, the following definitions are used:

-Orthogonal load (F The compression load on the exterior of the specimen

perpendicular to the centroidal axis of the concrete

core. In the pure shear case, the orthogonal load is:

-Base slip load ( B ^i) Is the slip load value with no prestressing of the bolts.

-Friction coefficient ( C^;) Is the increase in slip load per unit increase in

orthogonal load.

Previous research showed the base slip load to be a highly variable parameter [VIRD

75] and to establish a reasonable design value would be difficult to accomplish. The friction

coefficient itself may, however, prove to be less variable (more research is needed to

establish the variabiHty of the friction coefficent). For design purposes, the base slip load

is ignored and the design slip load could be determined by using the friction coefficient

alone.
1.8

1.7

1.6

1.5

SLIP 1.4
LOAD
(kNX10=) 1.3
0.53
1.2 X 2 surfaces
X 4 bolts

1.1

_l I I I 1 1 L.
0.9
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
BOLT F O R C E (kN)

F I G U R E 72: Slip load vs. orthogonal load


5.5 SLIP LOAD VERSUS PRESTRESSING AND BEAM END MOMENT

Although initially intended, the influence of the beam end moment and bolt
prestressing could not be established experimentally. The beams that were used in the
experimental program were not able to carry the high loads required to induce slip. The
relationship can, however, be estimated by using the friction coefficient obtained from the
pure shear case as follows, assuming a symmetrical cruciform loading arrangement.

First, the orthogonal load is calculated:

Without prestressing:

( 2 M J

where
d = depth of beam

M e = beam endmoment

With prestressing:

F, = 2ne E^A,

where

e p , = prestressing strain

£" 6 = elastic modulons of bolt material

Ah= cross-sectional area of bolt

Then, the slip load:

P si ^ P si

This relationship is shown in Figure 73.


A = A,

2400

2200 R = 4000 kN

2000

1800
Fo = 3000 kN
1600

^ 1400 different levels


of p o s t t e n s i o n i n g

D 1200
< F = 2000 kN
o
1000

^ 800 -
F = 1000 kN
600 -

400

200
200 400 600 800

BEAM END MOMENT (kNm)

F I G U R E 73: Slip load vs. end-moment and post-tensioning (Predicted)


5.6 BENDING OF THE BOLTS

Bending of the bohs is a concern when combined with shear and tension. Strain

gauges on the bohs were used to give an indication of the stress levels experienced for

embedded bolts and those in clearance sleeves.

The non-bearing specimens were instrumented with single gauges, measuring the

strain on the T-side of the bolt. The bolts were, however, strained from both bending and

axial tension which would have required gauges on both the T-side and B-side of the bolt.

Without measuring bending directly, a comparison between the bearing and non-bearing

specimens can, however, be demonstrated by examining the strain on the T-side, which

was the side with the highest tension strain.

In Figures 74 to 83, T-side strains of bolts during tests PSNOOOl, PSN050 and PSNIOO

are compared to those of PSBOOO, PSB050 and PSBIOO respectively. At equal load levels,

the strain of the bearing specimen was less than that of the non-bearing specimen. The

embedded bolts bent considerably less at the mid-section of the bolt which, however, does

not necessarily imply that the maximum bending forces of the bearing case are less than

those of the non-bearing specimen. In the case of the bearing specimen, the maximum

bending forces would probably occur at a location away from the mid-section of the bolt,

since confinement by the concrete would reduce the curvature near the mid-section.

Additional research is needed to determine the bending strain distribution along the length

of the bolts. From the results presented here, it is evident, however, that the critical region

for bolt failure seems to be at or near the interface of the concrete and steel casing. If

this is the case, it may be stated that bending at the centre of the bolts is not a contentious

issue for the design of flexible connections.


•to

MICROSTRAIN (xlrf)

F I G U R E 74: T-side strain of bolt 4 (100% post-tensioning)

5.

MICROSTRAIN (xicf)
F I G U R E 76: T-side strain of bolt 2 (100% post-tensioning)
"to
T-

a<
o

MICROSTRAIN (xicf)

F I G U R E 78: T-side strain of bolt 2 (50% post-tensioning)

MICROSTRAIN (xl(f)
MICROSTRAIN (xltf)

F I G U R E 80: T-side strain of bolt 4 (0% post-tensioning)

MICROSTRAIN (xltf)
F I G U R E 82: T-side strain of bolt 2 (0% post-tensioning)
5.7 CHANGES IN BEARING RESPONSE WITH VARYING PRESTRESSING

By defintion, the bearing response is the total response minus the slip load.
Therefore, to compare the bearing responses of specimens PSBOOO, PSB050 and PSBIOO
it was necessary to subtract the slip load from the total load. For test PSBOOO, the load
versus T-slip curve clearly indicated the onset of slip (Figure 40) which, unfortunately,
was not evident in tests PSB050 and PSBIOO. Some other means are thus required for a
comparison between the three bearing responses.

It was decided to compare the specimen T-slip responses with respect to a point of

a common tangent slope. The bearing response of specimen PSBOOO begins with a linear

portion with a slope of 8200 kN/mm which is the logical choice for a common tangent

slope. The load and T-slip at the last point of tangency of the common slope, are subtracted

from the total response to produce "the relative bearing response" which was done with the

test results of the three specimens. Even though the relative bearing response is defined

differently from the bearing response, some conclusions can be drawn about the bearing

response by comparing the relative bearing response of the different specimens. The new

load and slip values of the relative bearing response will be referred to as relative bearing

load and relative T-slip respectively. The relative bearing responses are shown in Figure

84. If the bearing responses of the three different specimens were similar in shape then
the relative bearing responses must also be similar. In this case, the relative bearing responses

are not similar and it may be concluded that the bearing responses are also not similar.

As shown in Figure 84, there is a decrease in relative bearing load at common

relative T-slip values with an increase in post-tensioning. Therefore, the bearing responses

must also decrease. The decrease is believed to be caused by a reduction of bolt tension

as loading progressed and hence a decrease in slip resistance at larger slip displacements.
This has been confirmed by examining the strains of the boUs. The increase in strain
readings on the T-sides of the bolts of specimen PSBOOO was more than the decrease in
strains on the B-side, indicating an increase in overall tension in the bolts. The converse
is true for specimen PSBIOO which exhibits a decrease in overall bolt tesion. Bolt tension
did not change significantly for the case of test PSB050. Relative bolt strains are shown
in Figure 85.

Two opposing factors seem to contribute to this phenomenon. As the concrete core
is pushed through the HSS, the walls of the HSS are pushed outward which, in turn,
increases the tension on the bolts. At the same time, the bolts are subjected to extremely
high shear and bending stresses, causing them to deform plastically and to release some
of the post-tensioning. this decreases the slip resistance. PSBIOO was most affected by the
plastic deformations, since initial slip coincided with a relatively high shear level. The
bolts of specimen PSBIOO were only post-tensioned to 2000 microstrain which is less than
the more typical pre-loads applied in construction. The relaxation of bolt tension due to
plastic deformations is expected to be significantly more for connections post-tensioned
to higher (more typical) levels.

This expected relaxation will affect design procedures since the ultimate capacity of

the connection is the sum of the slip load and bearing capacity. Either the reduced slip

load capacity has to be considered or some means of maintaining the initial tension has

to be introduced. Using cone shaped washers may help maintain the tension on bolts.

These are essentially flexible springs that allow the bolts to undergo larger deformations

before all the post-tensioning is released. Cone shaped washers would also help maintain

post-tensioning levels when the concrete shrinks and creeps.


5.8 BEARING FORCES ON THE BOLTS

The exact distribution of bearing forces on the tested bohs is unknown. By comparing
the bearing and non-bearing cases, however, one can make some inferences, leading to a
rational model. It is also known that bearing forces consist of both confining and load
carrying components.

The bearing capacity of the test connections was much higher than predictions from
typical code bearing equations. The maximum experimental bearing resistance can be
calculated by subtracting the slip load from the failure load. For specimen PSBOOO, the
load at slip was easily determined as 800 kN and the failure load as 2980kN (Figure 40).
Therefore, the bearing load achieved at failure was 2180 kN (failure was the result of
bolt shear).

A rough estimate of the bearing forces and stresses at failure of specimen PSBOOO

can be calculated by making some of the following assumptions:

- Bearing force configuration was assumed to take the form shown in


Figure 86.

-The moments on the bolt are approximated from the strain readings at

the failure load.

-The eccentricity between the HSS wall and end plate is assumed to be

13 mm. The value was estimated by examining the yielding pattern

produced by the bearing of the bolt on the endplate.

-The increased slip load caused by the additional tension on the bolts

(during loading) is ignored.


F I G U R E 84: Relative Bearing Response
PSBOOO
3.2
3
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
AN AVERAGE
1
0.8 INCREASE
0.6 IN T E N S I O N
0.4

z
Q
<
O

0 2

PSBIOO

MICROSTRAIN ( X 1C?)

F I G U R E 85: Boit tensions of pure shear bearing specimens


p
s

8 y—*

75 mm

\ foam
rubber 13 mm

Ils
-M h M,

:TTtT.T.Î t.
: i un

100 mm

Free Body Diagram


of Left Half of Bolt

FIGURE 86: Assumed bearing force configuration & FBD of bolt


5.8.1 CALCULATION OF BOLT MOMENT

The moments on bolts 1 and 3 are calculated and averaged by using strain

measurements. (Strain readings at failure could not be obtained from strain gauges on

bolts 2 and 4.) Bolt cross-section is shown in Figure 8. It was found that strains on the

bolts were in the elastic range at the failure load, leading to the following calculations:

For bolt 1:

M,; = ES

S = section modulus at location of strain gauges

= 1617mm^

E b = elastic modulus of bolt material

= ISOOOOMPa

(from bolt tests)

G ( = strain on T-side of bolt

= 2706x10"*

= strain on B-side of bolt

= -261x10""''

M j,^ =0A32kNm
For bolt 3:

M b3 = — ^

E= ISOOOOMPa

e, = 3 4 6 0 X 1 0 ' ' '

G(, = - 1810X 10 "*

M = 0.767kNm

Average for bolts 1 and 3:

(Mb, +A^b3)
Mb =

Mfc = O.ÔOOkNm

My- l.ôkNm
5.8.2 BEARING FORCES AND STRESSES ESTIMATION

A free body diagram of the boh is shown in Figure 86. There are three unknowns

and three equations:

X + Y = lOOmm

(F,/8)(13mm) + ( / ^ b X ) ( . r / 2 + \9mn\)-{F ^X){X/2 +Y + 19mm)-^^ =0

F,y-F,X^P,/Q = P,/Q

X = unknown distance
y = unknown distance

F b = unknown bearing load (line load)

P s = slip load

= 300kN

P, = total load

= 2930kN

X = 34.3mm

r = 65.7

= 8.66/c A / / m m

The unknown values were recalculated with the parameter M ^ set to zero:

X = 34.7mm

Y = 65.4

f J, = 8 . 8 8 A : A ^ / m m
The assumption that the bolt carries no moment at mid-section makes little
difference to the calculated bearing forces on the bolt. This may thus be a reasonable
assumption to simplify calculations for future purposes.

It is also apparent that bearing forces on the bolt are extremely high. In considering
only the vertical component of bearing stresses over a 25 mm width, the bearing stress is
approximately 340 MPa. This bearing stress is a much higher value than the uniaxial
concrete cylinder strength, which was approximately 40 MPa. It should be noted that the
specimen did not fail in bearing and the bearing stresses at failure could be much higher
than those calculated.

The initial assumption of the bearing stress pattern (see Figure 86) can now be

evaluated. The calculated internal moment of the bolt cannot exceed the plastic moment

capacity of the bolt, in this case 2.73 kNm. If it is assumed that the nut of the bolt does

not develop an end moment, the maximum internal moment (calculated from equilibrium)

of the bolt would be 10.6 kNm. If it is assumed that the nut develops the plastic moment

capacity of the bolt, then the maximum calculated internal moment of the bolt would be

7.9 kNm. The assumed bearing stress pattern can thus not be correct. However, the error

is conservative in nature. Close to the HSS wall, a higher bearing stress is required with

lower levels towards the centre. Future research may include developing a more realistic

bearing stress pattern.

5.9 DESIGN PROCEDURE

In this section a design procedure is being proposed based on the observations and

results of this experimental study. The most rational approach to establish such a

procedure for connections would be to adopt a limit states philosophy and assess the

prescribed behavioural constraints on an individual basis. The main criterion is to ensure


that the appropriate portion of the load is being transferred from the beams to the concrete
core. A transfer is necessary to insure the column to behave compositely and maintain
strain compatibility between the concrete and HSS. The lack of capability to transfer the
total load to the core does not necessarily imply a catastrophic failure of the connection.
The shear load is initially transferred to the concrete through shear and bending action
of the bolt. After large deformations, the tension resistance of the bolts, caused by second
order effects contribute significantly to the load transfer [MCLE89].

A few possible design procedures are developed henceforth, based on the transfer
of load through the bending action of the bolt. Some of the parameters that are required
for the procedures have not been established as yet and are to be investigated in future
research. The feasibility of these procedures will have to be verified through future testing.

5.9.1 BEARING AND FRICTION RESISTANCE OF THE BOLT

One possible design procedure relies on the bearing and friction resistance of the

connection. The maximum bearing stress is a key parameter and must be established.

Then a simplified bearing stress pattern, similar to the one assumed earlier, must also be

established. Subsequently, the maximum internal moment of the bolt can be calculated.

The slip load capacity can be calculated by using the prestressed bolt tension and
appropriate friction coefficient. The moment-tension strength interaction requirements of

the bolt have to be satisfied. Additional slip load can be calculated from the lesser of the

maximum permissible tension on the bolt and the prestressed value.

The calculated bearing resistance can then be added to the slip load to determine

the total resistance. A similar procedure can also be developed for moment connections.
5.9.2 PURE BEARING RESISTANCE OF THE BOLT

A n alternative design procedure which can be developed which is based on the pure
bearing resistance of the bolt. It is assumed that the bearing stresses can be redistributed
since the bolts are typically ductile and are able to achieve relatively high curvatures, e.g.
rupture strains obtained from the auxiliary bolt tests were approximately 20000 to 30000
microstrain. These bolts were 25 mm in diameter resulting in a rupture radius of
approximately 400 to 600 mm (a relatively tight curvature). The inherent ductility permits
the use of a lowerbound type of design procedure where the load paths are chosen by
the designer. This is convenient since the designer can assign certain bolts to resist the
bearing force and can also choose the bearing stress pattern. This is important for moment
carrying flush and extended endplate connections. The bolts on the compression side of
the connection can be assumed to resist all the bearing force, while the tension bolts are
assumed to yield under axial stresses. It can be assumed that they will not be weakened
by internal moments and hence the calculated moment capacity of the connection is not
reduced. This may not be so unrealistic since a bolt plastified in tension will have no
moment resistance even if subjected to a curvature.

The nut is assumed to provide adequate fixity to develop the plastic capacity of the

bolt. This helps to raise the drape of the moment diagram of the bolt. Furthermore, The
maximum permissible bearing stresses are assumed to act on the bolt in a uniform pattern

at the edges of the concrete core. This bearing stress pattern is chosen to minimize the

bending moment applied to the bolt. The bearing stresses can be extended further toward

the centre of the column until the limit of the bolt's moment capacity is reached. The

total bearing resistance is then simply the maximum permissible bearing stress multiplied

by the area over which the bearing stresses act. It should be noted that the internal bending
stresses of the bohs seemed to have no effect on the shear resistances of specimens
PSBOOO, PSB050, and PSBIOO. If this is true in general, the shear and bearing capacities
of the bolt may be treated independently in the design process.

5.10 FACTORS AFFECTING MOMENT-ROTATION STIFFNESS

Although many tests that were aimed at obtaining the M - 9 response could not be

performed, some interesting results were observed. As expected, the non-prestressed


connections were more flexible than the prestressed ones. Furthermore, the proper mating
of the endplate surfaces to those of the column proved to be a very important factor
affecting the stiffness of the connection.

5.10.1 PRESTRESSING

Prestressing the connection resulted in a dramatic increase of intial

moment-rotational stiffness. Tests M2N000 and M3N000 (finger-tight bolts) had stiffnesses

of 42000 kNm/rad and 49000 kNm/rad respectively while specimen M5N100

(post-tensioned) had a stiffness of 109000 kNm/rad. Even though these specimens had

different moment to shear ratios, this is believed not to have a negligible influence on

the stiffness.

5.10.2 BEARING AND NON-BEARING CASES

When comparing the bearing and non-bearing specimens a significant difference in

rotational stiffness was observed. For example, specimens M5N100 and M5B100 which

had similar pretensioning applied, had intial stiffnesses of 109000 kNm/rad and 55000

kNm/rad respectively. This, however, is unlikely to be caused by the bearing on the bolts.

The difference is attributed to improper mating between the endplate and column surfaces.
When assembling specimen M5B100 it was apparent that the endplates had
plastically deformed during the previous test (M5N100). The nature of the damage (Figure
68) was not visible unless a straight edge was laid across the surface of the endplate. It
is concluded that the mating of the beam endplate to the column surface is extremely
important to ensure a stiff connection. The mating of the surfaces is affected by the
perpendicular fit, any warps in the plate and by the post-tensioning of the bolts.

Other researchers have also reported great difficulties in predicting the


moment-rotation behaviour of endplate connections [GOVE83]. Fabrication errors and
distortions are unavoidable, resulting in improper mating of the surfaces, which make the
connection behaviour highly variable between specimens with identical loadings, materials
and geometric parameters.

5.11 INITIAL STIFFNESS OF THE MOMENT ROTATION RELATIONSHIP

The initial moment-rotation stiffness of both a moment and flexible coimection is

an important design parameter for approximating the distribution of forces within a

structure. These values also effect the rotational restraint of columns at the joint location,

which is important for estimating stability loads. A simplified process of calculation is

being proposed here to approximate the initial stiffness of moment connections based on

the following assumptions:

-Behaviour is linear elastic.

-The out of plane bending deformations of the plates is ignored' since they can

be complex and difficult to predict [GOVE83]. The significance of this extra

flexibility can be interpreted by comparing the experimental values with the

calculated values.
-The surfaces of the endplates completely mate with the surface of the HSS
since improper mating can drastically reduce the intial stiffness of the
connection.

-Bending moments across the column and connection are constant.

-An effective height of the connection is assumed for the present calculations

and is shown in Figure 87. This value is somewhat arbitrary and can be verified

by correlating it with experimental results.

-Plane sections of the beams, endplates and over the effective height of the

concrete core are assumed to remain plane.

An equivalent sectional stiffness (£"/cc) is calculated from the assumed sectional

properties and geometry through the width of the column. The effective width of the

column (Wc as shown in Figure 87) is taken as the distance between the inside surfaces

of the HSS. The moment-rotational flexibihty of the concrete core can then be taken as
UJ
7-7—. However, deformations of the beam and endplate also have to be taken into account.
^ c' cc

The flexibihty of the plates and beams is added to that of the column portion of the
connection. The sum of the flexibilities can be inverted to find the rotational stiffness of

the connection. Calculations are presented for the particular connection used in the

experimental program:
Where:
/ ce = effective moment of interia of concrete core

= 3.47X lO'^mm*

= column width

H eff = effective height


= 530 mm

/,„„ = 2 « , „ , 2 / l , / i ^

Where:
I bou = effective moment of interia of bolts

= 0.39X l O ' m m ^
h = half the vertical distance between bolts
= I64mm

A b = area of a single bolt

= 506.7mm^

E bolt
nboll = —p. 1
^c
= 7.1

E e = elastic modulus of concrete


= Z2200MPa

E bo„ = elastic modulus of bolt


= ISOOOOMPa
Where:
I HSS = effective moment of inertia of HSS walls

= 2.52xl0'm/7i*

t = thickness of HSS wall


= 12.7mm

Es ,

= 8.0
E s = elastic modulons of beams, plates and HSS
= 200000M/^a

^ cc

Where:
a: ec = rotational stiffness of concrete core

= Z.VoxlO^ kNm/rad

A. ,HSS

Where:
K HSS = rotational stiffness of HSS wall

= 2 . 0 0 X 10^/cA^m/rad
_ FçIboU
^ boit

Where:
^^bo); = rotational stiffness of bolts
= 0.31 X 10^/cA'm/rad

^c"" ^cc~^ ^ HSS'^ ^bolt

Where:
K c = rotational stiffness of column portion of connection
= 5.06X lO^/c/v'/n/rad

Where:
F c = rotational flexibility of column portion of connection

= l.98xlO'6rad/kNm

" 12
Where:
/ p = effective moment of inertia of plate
= 3.10x l O ' m m ^
w p = width of end plates
= 250mm
Where:
F p = rotational flexibility of plates and HSS walls

= 0.184x 10 "Vad/A;AAm
t s = thickness of end plates
= 38.1 mm

Where:
F 6 = rotational flexibility of beams

= 0.734xl0'6rad//cA/m
/ 6 = moment of inertia of beam
= 0.259X lO^'mm*
I b = length of the beam which is included in the moment rotation measurement.
= 19 mm

f A^_e =E,+ F p ^ F ,

Where:
F M - e = calculated rotational flexibihty of coimection over measured dimensions.

= 2.90x lO'6rad/kNm

K - ^
M-9 r-

r M-e

Where:
K M-Q = calculated intial stiffness of the moment-rotation relationship
= 3.45x lO^fcA/m/rad
length over which rotation

is measured

HSS I

F I G U R E 87: Rotational stiffness parameters


5.12 CALCULATED MOMENT-ROTATION INITIAL STIFFNESSES VERSUS

EXPERIMENTAL VALUES

The calculated stiffness of 345000 kNm/rad is significantly higher than the


experimental value of 109000 kNm/rad which, in a way, is not surprising. Bending of the
endplate is not included in the calculations; plane sections of the beam near the end plate
do not remain plane; the HSS walls contributed significantly to the calculated stiffness,
however, the bending loads may not be effectively transferred to the walls of the HSS of
the prototype. All these factors reduce the stiffness of the connection. The effective height
is a significant parameter and the value used in the calculations was only approximated.
Obviously, a great deal of work still must be done before reliable means of predicting the
rotational stiffness of the connection are developed.

Despite the flaws with the proposed method, the bending within the column
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, is still a contributing factor to the flexibility of the
connection. The other flexibilities of the connection can then be added to that of the
bending perpendicular to the column axis. Reliable methods for calculating the other
flexibihties within the connection still do not exist.

Many individuals have tried to establish a means of estimating the moment-rotation


behaviour of end plate cormections with relatively little success [GOVE83]. The interaction
between the end plate and the beam is complex; even computatively exhaustive finite
element models have failed to adequately predict the initial stiffness of end plate
connections. Parameters such as the size of weld and bolt heads have been found to
influence results. As shown in this study, any gaps left between the column and end plate
can significantly change the initial stiffness of the connection. Much work still needs to
be done in this area although end plate connections have been in common use for a long
time.
Methods for predicting the moment-rotation behaviour of all types of connections
have been sought for many decades. End plate connections are not the only contentious
ones in use. Most engineers simply ignore the rotational behaviour, although it effects
column stability, member force distributions and the extent of the P - A effect. There also
does not exist a standardized method for measuring moment-rotation which makes it very
difficult to compare analytical results with previous experimental results.
The through-bolt end plate connections that were investigated showed very promising

behaviour and are deserving of future research. Several positive conclusions can be drawn

from the research program:

-The confined concrete can sustain high bearing stresses apphed by the bolts.

-Slip resistance between the concrete and the steel tube contribute significantly
to the transfer of shear from the beam to the concrete core.

-High shear loads will relieve the post-tensioning and therefore reduce shp

capacities.

-Bolt tension increases as the concrete core slips through the HSS. This
behaviour increases the slip capacities.

-Bending at the centre section of bolts is reduced by the confinement of the


surrounding concrete.

-Shear failure of the bolts was induced before bearing and bending failure.

-Small gaps between the end plate and mating surfaces of the HSS significantly
reduce the rotational stiffness of the connection.

-Post-tensioning the bolts significantly increases the rotational stiffness of the

connection.

-For the suggested bearing force distribution on the bolt, the bearing stresses

on the bolt were not significantly effected by the internal or applied moments

on the bolts. From this conclusion, a possible design procedure was suggested.
-The moment-rotation behaviour for the moment connection is extremely

difficult to predict. The proposed method of calculating the initial

moment-rotation stiffness did not compare well with experimental results.

However, this method of calculation could be combined with future means of

calculating the other flexibilities of the connection.


The experimental program showed positive results for both the moment and flexible
type connections. Research should continue for both types of configurations. The
non-bearing specimens were not destroyed during testing and can be used for future
research. Two bearing specimens were also left untested.

7.1 END PLATE THICKNESS

If moment cormections are to be tested in the future and the end plates are to be
reused, it is suggested to increase the thickness, use stronger steel or machine the surface
of the end plate flat between tests. Any plastic deformation of the end plates will have a
pronounced influenced on the initial portion of the moment-rotation relationship for
subsequent tests.

7.2 BEAM SIZE

Now that more is known about the slip load capacities, it will be easier to size beams

for any future experiments. A n estimated slip load, end moment and post-tensioning

relationship was presented earlier. The relationship could not be confirmed by experiment

since the capacity of the beams was too low. Higher capacity beams could be used to

estabHsh the relationship.

7.3 POST-TENSIONING VALUE

It is also suggested to carry out future tests at higher bolt post-tensioning. The values
used in this program were relatively low because of the limitations of the torqueing device.
Higher post-tensionings are required to ensure proper mating of the end plate with the
face of the column and to prevent premature separation of the end plate from the column
early in the moment-rotation relationship. Higher post-tensioning strains are required to
reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage of the concrete.

7.4 BEARING CAPACITIES

The ultimate bearing stress capacity is an important value to obtain. The value is
likely to be affected by the following factors:

-cross-sectional shape of tube (circular, square, rectangular)

-tube wall thickness

-outer dimension of column

-concrete cylinder strength

-steel strength of tube

-bolt diameter

-compression load perpendicular to the axis of the column

A steel plate with a rounded edge (to simulate the shape of a bolt) across the length

of the tube could be used to determine the ultimate bearing capacity. The plate would

ensure a more even distribution of bearing forces. The proposed experimental set-up is

shown in Figure 88.


case with case with
one plate -B
two plates

rounded tip
to simulate
shape of the
bolt

«2B

side view
B

±±

plate

- BA ratio is varied
-concrete strength is varied
-round and square HSS are used
-HSS steel strength is varied

Experiments will help to determine the maximum


bearing stresses applied to the bolts

HSS

front view

F I G U R E 88: Future research: Maximum bearing stress


;48
7.5 LOAD CAPACITY PERPENDICULAR TO THE COLUMN AXIS

It is important to know the compressive capacity perpendicular to the longitudinal


axis of the column to determine the maximum post-tensioning value possible. It is also a
determining factor for the moment capacity of the connection. The proposed set-up is
shown in Figure 89. The capacity could be affected by the following parameters:

-concrete cylinder strength

-tube strength

-tube wall thickness

-outer dimension of tube

-cross sectional shape of tube (circular, square, rectangular)

-axial load in the column


p
4 4

end plates
side view front view

-Experiments can be conducted with varying concrete cylinder strengths


-B/t ratio can also be varied
-Experiment can be conducted with different cross sectional shapes

F I G U R E 89: Future research: Load perpendicular to HSS


7.6 BEARING BEHAVIOUR OF BOLTS

More tests are required for determining the bearing behaviour of the bolts. The
bearing force configuration on the bolts suggested earlier could be changed to suit the
results of a wide varity of tests with varing parameters. Specimens could be shorter than
the ones used for this experimental program. To reduce the capacities, either a single bolt
or two bolts could be tested per specimen. The suggested configuration is shown in Figure
90. The capacities could be affected by the following factors:

-cross-sectional shape of tube (circular, square, rectangular)

-tube wall thickness

-outer dimension of column

-concrete cylinder strength

-steel strength of tube

-bolt diameter

-post-tensioning level

-applied tension on bolt

-compression load perpendicular to the axis of the column

-axial load of the column


p
-load is applied to only concrete

bolts
-To better understand the bearing distribution
a series of tests with varing parameters
can be performed

concrete
core HSS

gap

F I G U R E 90: Future research: Bearing behaviour of bolts


Circular columns provide an additional challenge for detailing. Some details are

suggested m Figures 91. Future research should also include the possibility of a circular

column.

HSS

bent plate
^ \angle witti heel
machined to round
shape

top view

bent plate

wedge washer

side view

F I G U R E 91: Future research: Circular columns


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circular steel tubes. Enginering Structures Laboratories, Civil Engineering
Department, CESLIC Report CCII, Imperial College, London, England.

[WHIT65] WHITE, R.N. 1965. Framing connections for square and rectangular
structural tubing. AISC Engineering Journal, July, pp. 94-102.
The connection is designed according to the beam size. This is common practice for
earthquake design. The connection should be able to withstand 1.2 times the unfactored
moment resistance of the beam. In this particular case, it is not expected that the
connection will achieve the designed moment capacity since the bearing of the concrete
will cause the bolts to bend. The connection is an extended end plate and design drawings
are shown in Figures 4, 5 and 6.

The selected beam was chosen to be a W460x61. The beam was light enough to be
manipulated in the lab. The width was also small enough so a moment connection could
be fitted to a one foot wide HSS section. The bearing and slip load capacities of the
connection were unknown. Therefore, it was difficult to approximate the required shear
resistance of the beam.

It should be noted that the final connection design only utilized four bolt to simulate
a flush end plate design. The calculations presented here are for the original design: an
extended end plate with eight bolts.

9.1 SELECTED BEAM SIZE - W460x61:

M r = factored moment resistance of beam

\.2Mp
= 1.2(393kNm)
= 472kNm
M 0 = nominal moment resistance of beam
M p = plastic moment resistance of beam

9.2 TYPICAL SHEAR FORCES ON THE BEAM

Calculation of approximate shear forces:

d = depth of beam
L = beam length
d- 1/25
A-25xd
« 25x450mm
- 11m

For a uniformly distributed load on the beam:


Shear _ wl/2.
Moment wL^/12
= 6/1

Let the end moment = M,

Vf = M , 6 / 1
6 X 354 k N m
11m
= \ 9Ç)kN applied to one side of the connection
V f = factored beam shear

The typical shear for this sort of connection is relatively low.

9.3 BOLT SIZE

Flange forces:

F/ = M / / ( d - ^ , )
I, = flange thickness
M f = applied factored moment

For the case of earthquake design, the factored moment will be taken as the
nominal moment resistance.

F f = 472/cA^m/( 4 5 0 m m - 1 0 . 8 m m )
= 1075/cN
T, = Ff/4
= l075kN/4
=270kN
T f = factored tension on bolt

Try a one inch diameter bolt:

7 , = 0.75(1)/I,
= 0.75(0.67) ( 5 0 7 m m 2 ) ( I OOOMPa)
= 255/c/V
T r = tension resistance of bolt
At, = cross sectional area of bolt
F u = ultimate strength of bolt material
= 0 . 6 ( 0 . 6 7 ) ( 1)( 1 ) ( 5 0 7 m m ' ' ) ( l O O O M / ^ a )
= 204/cA/
n = number of bolts
m = number of shear planes
V r = factored shear resistance

V f/V r = 24kN/204kN
= 0.12

A one inch diameter bolt is inadequate. However, the connection is only used for
experimental purposes and the size is still realistic. The machine shop does not have the
facilities to thread a 1 l / s inch diameter bolt.
The typical beam shear apphed to the bolts will not significantly effect the tensile
resistance of the bolts.

9.4 PLATE SIZE

The L R F D edition of the AISC steel design manual was used for sizing the plate thickness.
The design procedure is only intended for static loading but here the cormection is sized
according to earthquake requirements. However, only realistic sizes are required for the
prototype. Therefore, the design procedure was utilized.

F f = l075kN âs, calculated previously

P, = P f-(d^/4)-0.707w
= 40 m m
P e = effective span
P, = 50mm distance from center line of bolts to the closest surface of the
tension flange
w = fillet weld size or reinforcement of groove weld
= 6.4mm
dfc = nominal bolt diameter
= 25.4mm
= \0.6kNm
M e = out of plane moment applied to end plate.

= 0.982
C a = constant, see table A of AISC handbook.
= 1.14

= 0.932
b f = width of beam flange
= 189mm
b ^ = width of end plate or effective width, in.
= 217mm
6 , < 1.156^
<217mm
AI = area of flange
A^ = area of web
/1^//1^ = 0 . 5 5 5

i , = ((4MJ/(6,(t)f-y))
= 27 mm
= end plate thickness
F y = end plate steel strength
= 300MPa
({> = material factor
= 0.9

A 27 mm endplate is required to resist the apphed end moment of the beam. For
this particular case, the endplates are being reused from test to test. Any permanent
deformations in the end plates will effect the results of subsequent tests. There will also
be grooves in the plates to accomodate strain gauge wires. For these reasons the plates
will be made from 38.1 mm stock instead of 27 mm stock.

9.5 OUT OF PLANE SHEAR RESISTANCE OF END PLATE

V f = 0.'3F,
= 0 . 5 x 1075/cA/
= 540/cN
V , = factored shear force
= 0(5/6)b,<,O.66f y
= 0.9x ( 5 / 6 ) x 2 17m/nx38.1 mm A'0.66x300 M P a
= 1230/cA/
.4^ = ( 5 / 6 ) 6 ,
Auj= shear area of plate
F , = 0.66fy
F s = shear yield strength of plate
F y = axial yield strength of plate
V r = factored shear resistance
10 APPENDIX B: CONCRETE CYLINDER TEST RESULTS

DAY 7 6 CYLINDER 1

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.0635 13.92224 312.8079 1.717245
0.127 50.04 625,6158 6.172205
0.1905 97. 32224 938.4236 12.00425
0.254 152.9222 1251.232 18.86226
0.381 266.88 1876.847 32 . 91843
0.4445 319.7222 2189.655 39.43628
0.508 358.6422 2502.463 44.23688
0.5334 369.7622 2627.586 45.60848
0.5588 373.632 2752.709 46.0858
0.5842 372.52 2877.833 45.94864
0.6096 369.7622 3002.956 45.60848
0. 635 368.6502 3128.079 45.47132
1.8669 339.16 9196.552 41.83384
1.8669 0 9196.552 0

DAY 76 CYLINDER 2

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.0635 6.672 312.8079 0.822961
0.08255 12.232 406.6502 1.508761
0.08255 20.016 406.6502 2.468882
0.127 38.92 625.6158 4.800604
0.254 117.872 1251.232 14.53897
0.381 225.736 1876.847 27.8435
0.508 329.708 2502.463 40.66798
0.5334 355.84 2627.586 43.89124
0.5588 369.184 2752.709 45.53716
0.5842 373.632 2877.833 46.0858
0.61722 378.08 3040.493 46.63444
0.6731 375.856 3315.764 46.36012
2.286 322.48 11261.08 39.77643
2.286 0 11261.08 0
DAY 102 CYLINDER 1

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.0635 2.224 312.8079 0.27432
0.127 14.456 625.6158 1. 783082
0.1905 35.584 938.4236 4.389124
0.254 66.72 1251.232 8.229607
0.3175 108.976 1564.039 13.44169
0.508 264.656 2502.463 32.64411
0.5715 306.912 2815.271 37.85619
0.6096 320.256 3002.956 39.50211
0.6223 324.704 3065.517 40.05076
0.635 320.256 3128.079 39.50211
0.6985 306.0224 3440.887 37.74647
0.8255 280.224 4066.502 34.56435
1.397 261.5424 6881.773 32 . 26006
1.4605 257.984 7194.581 31.82115
1.524 249.088 7507.389 30.72387
1.5494 242.416 7632.512 29.90091
1.5748 224.624 7757.635 27.70634
1.5875 200.16 7820.197 24.68882
1.59512 177.92 7857.734 21.94562
1.6129 24.464 7945.32 3.017523
7507.389 1.536193
1.524 12.4544
1.397 4.448 6881.773 0.54864
6256.158 0
1.27 0

DAY 102 CYLINDER 2

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.127 2,6688 625.6158 0.329184
0.254 8.896 1251.232 1.097281
0.3175 19.1264 1564.039 2.359154
0.381 33.36 1876.847 4.114804
0.4445 60.048 2189.655 7.406646
0.508 100.08 2502.463 12.34441
0.762 315.808 3753.695 38.95347
0.8255 335.824 4066.502 41.42236
0.8763 342.496 4316.749 42.24532
0.889 341.6064 4379.31 42.13559
0.9017 340.272 4441.872 41.971
0.9398 338.048 4629.557 41.69668
1.016 324.704 5004.926 40.05076
1.9431 298.016 9571.921 36.75891
1.9812 282.448 9759.606 34.83867
2.032 275.776 10009.85 34.01571
2.0828 260.208 10260.1 32.09547
2.1082 231.296 10385.22 28.5293
2.1082 0 10385.22 0
DAY 137 CYLINDER 1

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0. 127 26.688 625.6158 3 . 291843
0.1905 59.1584 938.4236 7.296918
0.3048 133.44 1501.478 16.45921
0.508 311.36 2502.463 38.40483
0.5842 366.96 2877.833 45.26284
0.5969 369.184 2940.394 45.53716
0.6096 366.96 3002.956 45.26284
0.635 360.288 3128.079 44.43988
0.762 346.944 3753.695 42.79396
1.7526 322.48 8633.498 39.77643
1.8161 309.136 8946.305 38.13051
1.8288 302.464 9008.867 37 . 30755
1.8288 298.016 9008.867 36.75891
1.778 278 8758.621 34.29003
1.7018 266.88 8383.251 32 . 91843
1.7399 177.92 8570.936 21.94562
1.7399 0 8570.936 0

DAY 137 CYLINDER 2

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.127 20.016 625.6158 2.468882
0.1778 46.704 875.8621 5.760725
0.2413 91.184 1188.67 11.24713
0.3175 155.68 1564.039 19.20242
0.508 333.6 2502.463 41.14804
0.5715 380.304 2815.271 46.90876
0.5969 386.976 2940.394 47.73172
0.635 380.304 3128.079 46.90876
0.7366 358.064 3628.571 44.16556
2.2606 313.584 11135.96 38.67915
298.016 11323.65 36.75891
2.2987
222.4 11423.74 27.43202
2.31902
0 11323.65 0
2.2987
DAY 150 CYLINDER 1

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.0635 4.448 312.8079 0.54864
0.127 35.584 625.6158 4.389124
0.1905 86.736 938.4236 10.69849
0.4445 315.808 2189.655 38.95347
0. 508 364.736 2502.463 44.98852
0.5461 386.976 2690.148 47.73172
0.5842 395.872 2877.833 48.829
0.5969 395.872 2940.394 48.829
0. 635 393.648 3128.079 48.55468
1.905 360.288 9384.236 44.43988
2.032 351.392 10009.85 43.3426
2.0955 344.72 10322.66 42.51964
2.159 326.928 10635.47 40.32508
2.1717 311.36 10698.03 38.40483
2.17932 266.88 10735.57 32.91843
2.17932 0 10735.57 0

DAY 150 CYLINDER 2

DISPLACEMENT LOAD MICRO STRESS


(mm) (kN) STRAIN (MPa)
0 0 0 0
0.0635 6. 672 312.8079 0.822961
0.127 28.912 625.6158 3.566163
0.254 117.872 1251.232 14.53897
0.3175 175.696 1564.039 21.6713
0.4699 322.48 2314.778 39.77643
0.5334 373.632 2627.586 46.0858
0.5715 398.096 2815.271 49.10332
0.5969 404.768 2940.394 49.92628
0.6223 400.32 3065.517 49.37764
2.54 353.616 12512.32 43.61692
2.603 5 346.0544 12825.12 42.68423
2.667 333 . 6 13137.93 41.14804
2.6924 311.36 13263.05 38.40483
2.7051 266.88 13325.62 32.91843
2.7051 0 13325.62 0
NON-MARKED STOCK AREA AT STRAIN GAGE= 506.6
SINGLE NUTTED
FAILURE THROUGH SHANK

TOTAL BOLT STRAIN C A L C . STRESS


BOLT ELONG. FROM AT STRAIN
ELONG. OVER BOLT LOAD GAGE
MICRO- (mm) 2 INCHES ELONG. (kN) (MPa)
SCAN STRAIN
1 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 523 . 795 0. 50292 0. 02794 550 40.57179 80.08644
20 1367. 211 1. 24206 0. 07112 1400 116. 6995 230. 3584
30 2 0 9 7 . 089 1. 83388 0. 10922 2150 187. 3685 369. 8548
40 2342 .29 2. 02692 0. 11938 2350 211. 4164 417. 3242
50 2512 . 118 2. 16662 0. 12954 2550 228 . 6778 451. 3971
60 2 6 5 9 . 048 2. 29362 0 .1397 2750 244 . 4641 482. 5583
70 2820. 289 2 . 42316 0. 14986 2950 259'.955 513. 1366
80 2994. 888 2 . 57048 0. 15494 3050 277. 6594 548 . 084
90 3135. 139 2. 69748 0. 16256 3200 292 . 1174 576. 6234
100 3288. 747 2 . 83464 0. 16764 3300 308i.494 608. 9498
110 3418. 504 2 . 95656 0 .1778 3500 321. 7719 635. 1597
120 3517 . 729 3 . 05308 0. 18288 3600 331. 5091 654. 3803
130 3572. 112 3. 10642 0. 18288 3600 337. 7055 666. 6116
140 3699 .96 3 .2258 0. 19304 3800 350. 6885 692. 2394
150 3839. 258 3 . 36042 0. 19812 3900 364 . 9993 720. 4882
160 3916. 539 3 .4417 0 .2032 4000 372 . 5239 735. 3413
170 4052. 019 3 .5687 0. 21336 4200 385. 8019 761. 5512
180 4294. 358 3. 80238 0. 22352 4400 409. 4072 808. 1469
190 4542 . 422 4. 05892 0. 23368 4600 433. 6029 855. 9078
200 4723 . 699 4 . 25196 0. 24384 4800 449. 6841 887. 6512
210 4 7 9 9 . 072 4 . 3434 0. 24638 4850 456. 0282 900 .174
220 4904. 022 4 . 46024 0. 25146 4950 465..175 918. 2295
230 5 0 3 7 . 594 4. 60756 0. 25654 5050 475. 2076 938. 0331
240 5211. 239 4. 82092 0 .2667 5250 490. 1087 967 .447
250 5 4 0 7 . 781 5 . 1308 0. 27178 5350 503. 3866 993 . 6569
260 5591 .92 5 . 5118 0 .2794 5500 514. 4516 1015 .499
270 5821. 856 6. 12902 0. 28956 5700 525. 9591 1038 .214
280 6128. 119 7. 38632 0 . 3048 6000 536. 7291 1059 .473
281 6150. 063 7 . 53872 0 .3048 6000 537. 0245 1060 .056
284 6183. 456 8. 04926 0. 30734 6050 535. 4013 1056 .852
287 6118. 578 8 .7122 0. 30734 6050 528. 0249 1042 . 2 9 1
289 6045. 113 9. 11606 0 . 3048 6000 520. 9433 1028 .313
NON-MARKED STOCK AREA AT STRAIN GAGE= 524.55
DOUBLE NUTTED
FAILURE THROUGH SHANK

BOLT STRAIN CALC. STRESS


ELONG. FROM AT STRAIN
MICRO OVER BOLT LOAD GAGE
SCAN STRAIN 2 INCHES ELONG. (kN) (MPa)

27 0 0 0 0 0
30 56, 291 0 0 4.131064 7.875386
40 6 6 1 . 184 0. 03048 600 59.16135 112. 7841
50 1217, 419 0. 05842 1150 114. 7815 218. 8174
60 1876. 695 0 .0889 1750 178. 8114 340. 8829
70 2 4 3 5 . 792 0. 11938 2350 234 . 5797 447 . 1985
80 2670 . 497 0. 12954 2550 257. 5948 491. 0741
90 2 7 9 5 . 483 0. 13716 2700 269. 8403 514. 4187
100 2868 . 948 0. 13716 2700 276. 3316 526. 7936
110 2953 . 862 0. 14224 2800 284 .446 542 . 2628
120 3 0 5 9 . 767 0. 14732 2900 293. 7406 559. 9818
130 3124 . 644 0. 14986 2950 299. 3471 570.67
140 3 2 0 6 . 696 0M 5 2 4 3000 306. 4287 584. 1702
150 3262 . 034 0. 15748 3100 311. 2973 593 . 4515
160 3 3 2 5 . 003 0. 16002 3150 316. 7561 603 . 8582
170 3 3 8 5 . 111 0. 16256 3200 321. 7719 613 . 4203
180 3431. 861 0. 16764 3300 326. 1984 621. 8587
190 3527 .27 0. 16764 3300 334 . 3124 637. 3271
200 3 5 5 4 . 939 0. 17018 3350 335. 7878 640. 1399
210 3612 . 184 0. 17272 3400 340. 8041 649. 7028
220 3 6 9 4 . 236 0M 7 7 8 3500 348. 4759 664 . 3283
230 3 8 3 9 . 258 0. 18542 3650 360. 8687 687. 9536
240 4004 . 315 0M 9 0 5 3750 373 . 9994 712. 9858
250 4 1 8 1 . 776 0. 20066 3950 388. 1625 739. 9861
260 4 2 6 1 . 919 0. 20574 4050 394. 6538 752 . 361
270 4348 . 742 0. 21082 4150 4 0 1 . 1456 764 . 7367
280 4 5 2 7 . 157 01.2159 4250 415. 3087 7 9 1 . 7371
290 4 7 0 7 . 479 0. 22606 4450 428 .882 817 .613
300 4902 . 114 0. 23368 4600 4 4 3 . 4877 845. 4571
310 5128. 233 0. 24892 4900 460. 3069 877. 5209
320 5309 . 5 1 0. 25908 5100 472 .552 900. 8647
330 5 4 6 2 . 164 0. 26416 5200 482 . 4368 919. 7089
340 5 6 5 2 . 982 0. 27432 5400 492 . 4693 938. 8348
350 5 8 8 7 . 688 0. 28194 5550 5 0 1 . 9116 956. 8353
360 6 2 4 5 . 472 0. 29464 5800 512. 0913 9 7 6 . 2418
370 6584 . 174 0. 30734 6050 519. 7632 990. 8673
380 7852 . 159 0. 33782 6650 532 . 7462 1015 .618
390 9 7 4 6 . 986 0. 38608 7600 543. 2209 1035 .587
400 12437 .52 0. 44958 8850 550 .745 1049 . 9 3 1
410 17332 . 9 5 0. 55372 10900 559. 7447 1067 . 087
420 14451.6 5. 40512 347 . 2954 662 . 0777
427 14445i . 88 5. 40766 1.918073 3.656581
RED MARKED STOCK AREA AT STRAIN GAGE=
SINGLE NUTTED BOLT
FAILURE THROUGH THE THREADS

BOLT LOAD STRESS


MICRO LVDT LVDT AT STRAIN
SCAN STRAIN (mm) (kN) GAGE
(MPa)
1 0 0 0 0
10 174. 251 0. 135795 15.08572 29.75487
20 388. 494 0. 236852 34.09786 67.25417
30 563. 698 0. 317909 50.83681 100.2699
40 682. 722 0. 372648 61.78946 121.8727
50 796. 032 0. 429492 73.15542 144.2908
60 931. 244 0. 495811 85.96795 169.562
70 1086. 451 0. 570551 100.847 198.9093
80 1248. 323 C1. 65266 116.966 230.7022
90 1435. 905 0. 746348 135.3582 266.9787
100 1630. 152 0. 849511 154.9903 305.7008
110 1786. 311 c1.93162 170.696 336.6784
120 1942 .47 1. 015834 185.9883 366.8409
130 2102. 439 1. 104259 202.314 399.0414
140 2237 . 6 5 1. 177946 215.7465 425.5355
150 2372 . 861 1. 253739 229.179 452.0295
160 2526. 164 1. 337953 244.4713 482.192
170 2719. 458 1. 447432 263.4835 519.6913
180 2915i . 6 1 1. 567437 283.3222 558.821
190 3117 . 474 1. 693758 302.541 596.7279
200 3310. 769 1. 828501 320.9332 633.0044
210 3487. 877 1 .95377 336,8456 664.3897
220 3644. 988 2 . 082196 351.3113 692.9217
230 3787. 817 2 . 202202 363.9172 717.7854
240 3923 . 028 2. 324312 375.6965 741.0187
250 4 0 5 5 . 383 2 . 451686 387.2691 763.8443
260 4184. 881 2 . 573797 398.2217 785.4472
270 4 3 0 5 . 809 2 . 700118 408.3477 805.4196
280 4 4 2 3 . 881 2. 833808 418.2671 824.9845
290 4536. 239 2. 967498 427.7732 843.7341
300 4660. 976 3 . 110662 438.3125 864.5218
310 4828. 562 3 . 310671 452.5716 892.6462
320 4993. 291 3 . 520154 466.6241 920.3631
330 5151. 355 3 . 763322 480.0566 946.8572
340 5300. 848 4. 066494 492.0425 970.498
350 5429. 394 4 . 440194 501.3419 988.8401
352 5448. 438 4. 534935 502.3752 990.8781
353 12 .84161 401.9415 792.784
2 PLATES 2 PLATES 4 PLATES
8 BOLTS 8 BOLTS 16 BOLTS
BOLTS WERE UNTIGHT BOLTS WERE TIGHTEN BOLTS WERE TIGHTEN

B-END LOAD B-END LOAD B-END LOAD


SLIP SLIP SLIP
(mm) (kN) (mm) (kN) (mm) (kN)
0 24.71234 0 24.71234 0 0
0.254 34.59728 0.254 44.48222 0. 127 9.884938
0. 381 54.36716 0.508 79.0795 0. 381 54.36716
0.5207 84.02197 0. 635 128.5042 0.5588 93.90691
0.762 187.8138 0.7493 197.6988 0.7112 153.2165
1.2192 444.8222 0.8509 296.5481 0.7874 217.4686
1.9812 790.795 0.9144 395.3975 0. 889 345.9728
2.5781 1087.343 1.0414 593.0963 1.7018 1779.289
3.1115 1383.891 1.4732 1482.741 1.6256 1383.891
3.683 1734.807 1.6764 1779.289 1.4859 889.6444
3.7338 1764.461 1.6256 1482.741 1.3462 593.0963
3.7719 1779.289 1.5494 1186.193 1.2446 395.3975
3.7719 1690.324 1. 397 790.795 1.0922 197.6988
3.81 1779.289 1.2319 494.2469 0.9652 98.84938
3.8989 1779.289 1.0795 296.5481 0.889 69.19456
3.7846 1285.042 0.9398 158.159 0. 635 39.53975
3.6068 790.795 0.8255 98.84938 0.381 19.76988
3 .429 504.1318 0.6858 54.36716 0 0
3.2385 296.5481 0.508 34.59728
3.0734 172.9864 0 4.942469
2.921 103.7918
2.794 69.19456
2.667 44.48222
2.413 24.71234
2.032 0
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSBOOO S C A N EVERY 5 S E C .
B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S l O N E D T O 0000 MICROSTRAIN

S T R I A I G A G
•••••BOLT2*** — ***"BOLT3**"" •""BOLT4****** B-END T-END TOTAL
— "BOLTI******
NORTH B - E N D SOUTHT-END NORTHT-END SLIP SUP LOAD
SOUTH B - E N D
T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE mm mm (kN)
SCAN T-SIDE B-SIDE
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N
0 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 0 0
-1.9082 1.9082 0.04064 0.01016 12.1214
10 2.863 0 7.632 -4.7704 6.679
- 1 5 . 2 6 5 5 3.8164 0.17526 0.01778 49 33479
20 18.128 -2.862 41.98 - 1 4 . 3 1 1 3 21.944
0.25654 0.01778 112.2433
30 40O72 -0.954 84.914 - 1 8 . 1 2 7 7 39.118 - 4 5 . 7 9 6 4 9.5409
0.35052 0.01524 185.82
40 60.108 4.771 125,94 - 1 9 . 0 8 1 7 57246 -65.8323 152654
0.40894 0.01524 272.3677
50 91.593 15266 185.093 - 1 8 . 1 2 7 7 81 .098 - 8 8 7304 30 5309
0.47244 0,01778 345.9449
60 133.573 20.036 261,42 - 2 6 , 7 1 4 4 111.629 - 1 2 0 2 1 5 45.7963
-146.93 62 9699 0.52832 0.0127 430.1889
70 186.048 27.669 356.829 - 3 6 . 2 5 5 4 151.7 565.2209
B2flS17 0.61468 0.01524
80 267.146 45.797 512,346 - 5 5 . 3 3 7 1 215.624 - 1 8 7 . 9 5 6 649.4653
992254 0.67056 0.01524
90 320.575 57246 614.434 - 7 9 . 1 8 9 4 260.467 - 2 0 6 . 0 8 3 727.6491
118.3071 0.72644 0,0127
100 370.187 72.5112 711.751 - 1 0 2 . 0 8 8 307217 - 2 2 2 3 0 3 785.3474
131.6644 0.74422 0.0127
106 401.672 81.098 776.629 - 1 1 8 . 3 0 7 338.702 - 2 3 4 . 7 0 6 799.7721
136.4349 0.75438 0.0254
107 409.305 83.9602 789.986 - 1 2 1 ,160 346.335 - 2 3 9 . 4 7 7 0.0381 923.5332
180.323 0.83058
120 486.586 107.8126 944.549 - 1 6 2 . 1 9 6 430.295 - 2 7 8 . 5 8 4 0.05588 1046.841
234.7061 0.9271
130 571.5 134.5271 1101019 - 2 1 1 . 8 0 8 522.842 - 3 1 7 . 7 1 2 0,06604 1127.179
279,5483 0.97536
140 628.746 141.2057 1207 878 - 2 5 7 , 6 0 4 590,582 - 3 5 5 . 8 7 6 0.07366 1205 3 6 3
332.9774 1.03378
150 680.266 147.8843 1298.516 - 2 9 2 . 9 0 6 653.552 - 3 8 9 2 6 9 0,08128 1270.822
390.2227 1.08458
160 730.833 149.7925 1377.706 - 3 2 7 2 5 3 713.659 - 4 2 3 . 6 1 6 0.09398 1359.673
476.0909 1,143
170 788.079 155.517 1463.574 - 3 5 9 . 6 9 2 787.124 - 4 5 7 . 9 6 3 0.11176 1441011
573.408 1.20904
180 843,416 153.6088 1546.579 - 3 9 1 . 1 7 7 868.222 - 4 9 5 . 1 7 3 0.1397 1554.955
-541.923 722.246 1.29032
190 919.743 161.2416 1654.392 - 4 1 9 . 7 9 9 981.759 0.16002 1649.867
-587.719 853.9104 1,36906
200 990.346 157.4252 1745.984 - 4 5 7 . 0 0 9 1083.848 0.1905 1727.448
-629.699 983.6664 1.43784
210 1058.086 149.7925 1826.128 - 4 8 6 . 5 8 6 1180209 0.2159 1795514
-669.771 1100.065 1.49352
220 1120.102 141.2057 1894.822 - 5 1 8 . 0 7 1 1267.986 1222.189 0.24638 1864.18
-708.889 1.57226
230 1183.072 137.3894 1964.471 - 5 3 8 , 1 0 7 1357.67 134622 0.27432 1930 2 4 3
-748.961 1.63576
240 1246.996 133.5729 2033.165 - 5 6 1 . 0 0 5 1453.079 1479 793 0.31242 1997.156
-794.757 1,70434
250 1316.644 127.8484 2104.722 - 5 8 9 , 6 2 7 1553 259 1613.366 0.35052 2066 fl75
-840.553 1.77292
260 1390.109 124.0321 2175.325 - 6 1 5 . 3 8 8 1659.162 1804.183 0.40386 2148313
-902.569 1.88468
273 1487.426 116.3994 2275,504 - 6 4 6 ^ 7 3 1799.414 1902.455 0.43434 2187.83
107.8126 - 6 5 9 276 1871.925 - 9 3 7 87 1.9304
280 1537.993 2040.798 0.47498 2247 5 3 2
- 9 8 4 . 6 2 1 2.00406
290 1608.596 973176 -685.036 1973.058 219536 0.52324 2312.442
2.08026
300 1687.785 90.6389 -710.797 2084.887 - 1 0 3 3 2 8 2348 3 6 9 0.5715 2367.836
2.159
310 176125 76 3 2 7 6 -740.374 2194.407 - 1 0 8 7 . 6 6 2494 S 4 5 0.61468 2421.778
2.23266
320 1832.807 62.9703 - 7 6 8 042 2298.403 - 1 1 3 9 . 1 8 2638.058 0.6604 2471.963
2.29362
330 1899.593 47.705 -796.665 2398 5 8 2 - 1 189.75 2785 S 4 2 0.7112 2519.843
340 1968288 33393 -821.471 2494.945 - 1 2 4 0 3 2 2937.642
2.3749 0.75946 2571.482
350 2035.074 1622 -850.094 2593217 - 1 2 9 3 . 7 5 3092205
2.44348 0.81026 2617.059
360 2101^6 -0.954 -877.763 2689.579 - 1 3 4 6 2 2 3237 2 2 6
2.5273 0.86106 2660333
-1396.79 2.5908 0.90932 2708215
370 2166.738 -21.944 -905.431 2777356 3378.432
-1445.45 2.65938 0.96012 2743 B75
380 2228.754 -41.98 - 9 2 9 283 2861316 3517.729
-1497.92 2.73304 0.99822 2781.188
390 2288.862 -66.786 -955.044 2943368 3633.174
-1548.49 2.794 1.05156 2824.462
400 2339.429 -94.455 -984.621 3011.108 3763 B84
-1589S1 2.86766 1.0G474 2860222
410 2402399 -109.72 -997,024 3090 2 9 7 3885.054
-163722 2.92608 1.14046 2886.768
420 2454 £74 -135.48 -1016.11 3158.037 3992 5 6 6
-16792 2.98196 1.17856 2914.164
430 2506 394 -160287 - 1 0 3 3 28 .•V??fl16 4086366
3.04546 2946.77
440 2551 237 -185.093 -1051.41 3283 B77 - 1 7 1 9 2 7 4170326 121666
- 1 7 5 1 . 7 1 3 09626 1.23698 2963.498
450 2596.079 -206.083 -1064.76 .1339315 4222 5 0 1
- 1 7 6 7 ^ 3 3.12928 1.24206 2961.195
456 2621.839 -216.578 -1069,53 3370B 4231388
-219.44 -1070.49 3376524 - 1 7 7 0 . 7 9 4239.021 3.1242 1.2446 1503 947
457 2624.702
-221349 - 1 0 7 1 44 rm'249 - 1 7 7 2 . 7 4334.43 3.13182 1.2954 3000.711
458 2630.426
- 1 8 0 1 . 3 2 4359 2 3 6 3.19786 1.30556 3010.529
470 2684.809 - 2 4 4 247 - 1 0 9 2 43 3448.081
- 1 8 0 8 . 9 5 4378318 321564 1.31826 3001 315
473 2697 212 -250.925 -1093.39 344331
3.21564 - 1 8 1817
476 2705.799 - 2 6 1 42 -1110.56 3460.484 - 1 8 0 9 . 9 1
477
14 APPENDIX F: SPECIMEN PSN0001 TEST RESULTS
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSNOOOl S C A N EVERY 10 S E C .
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 0000 MICROSTRAIN
FIRST TEST

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS BOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
SOLTTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH SLIP SUP LOAD
B-END B-END T-END -END mm mm (kN)
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3
10 249.971 308.171 1 66.786 -20.036 0.18796 0.00508 49 33479
20 256.65 317.7121 70.603 -20.036 0.18542 0.00254 49.33479
30 264.2B3 328.2071 75 3 7 3 -20.036 0.18288 0.00508 51.83807
40 273.823 338.7021 80.143 -21.944 0.18034 O.U01?54 55 39504
50 282.41 349.1971 82 052 -22.898 0.17526 0.00254 55 39504
60 298.63 365.4161 92547 -24.806 0.17272 O.on.508 81.45575
70 312.941 386.4061 99225 -26.714 0.17018 0.00508 63.75948
80 332.023 407.3961 107.812 - 2 7 669 0.1651 0 69.81929
90 351.105 427.4321 116.399 -26.714 0.1651 0.00508 69.81929
100 384.498 470.3661 133.573 -22.898 0.16256 0.00508 79.63696
110 422.662 514.2541 152.654 -22.898 0.1651 0.00508 91.75792
120 459.871 557.1881 171.736 -20.036 0.1651 0.00506 100.1224
130 500.897 602.9851 190.818 -18.128 0.1651 0.00508 103.8793
140 540.969 652.5971 21 1.808 -15.265 0.17018 0.00508 116.0003
150 581.041 702.2101 234.706 -13.357 0.17526 0.00508 123.5142
160 819.204 758.5011 257.604 -4.77 0.1778 0.00508 125.818
170 653.551 810.0221 278 594 0 0.18796 0.00762 140.2422
180 686.944 866.3131 302.446 5.725 0.19558 0.00762 154.6669
190 7232 924.5131 326.299 10.495 0.21082 0.01016 163.0313
200 764.226 980.8041 353.967 1622 0.2286 00127 169.0916
210 820.517 1049.499 386.406 23.852 0.24384 0.0127 183.5163
220 880.625 1122.01 420.754 30.531 0.26162 0.01524 200.2443
230 948.365 1202.153 463.688 39.118 0.28702 0.01778 212.3652
240 1000.84 1260.353 494.218 43.888 0.29718 0.02032 222.1829
250 1063.81 1333.818 534.29 54.383 0.32004 0.02286 238.9113
260 1125.826 1402.512 573.406 60.106 0.33528 0.0254 255.6393
270 1180209 1468.344 607.755 67.74 0.35306 0.03048 264.0038
280 1245.087 1543.717 650.689 77281 0.3683 0.03556 276.1247
290 1312.827 1619.09 695.532 88.73 0.381 0.0381 296.6101
300 1383.43 1698 2 8 741.328 103.042 0.39878 0.04826 308.7311
310 1454.033 1777.469 788.078 130.71 0.41656 0.05334 331.5193
320 1521.773 1849.026 828.15 161.241 0.42926 0.05588 339.8837
330 1604.779 1938.711 880.625 203.221 0.43942 0.06096 362.6724
340 1696.372 2037.936 941.687 254.742 0.46228 0.06604 383.1578
350 1759341 2105.676 983.667 287.181 0.4699 0.06604 392.9751
360 1835.669 2182.003 1031.371 328.207 0.48768 0.06858 412.0072
370 1912.95 2265.009 1082.892 371.141 0.50038 0.07366 426.4319
380 1988323 2342 291 1131.551 414.075 0.51816 0.0762 444.6136
390 2071.329 2426 2 5 1186.888 459.871 0.5334 0.08128 461.3416
400 2158.151 2514S81 1246.041 510.438 0.54864 0.08636 479.5228
410 2245 527 2600.849 1304 241 563.867 0.56642 0.09144 497.7044
420 2327.979 2683.855 1367211 615.388 0.57912 0.09652 515.8861
430 2402.398 2755.411 1423 5 0 2 664.047 0.59944 0.09906 531.1613
440 2482.542 2838.417 1489.334 721.292 0.61976 0.10414 549.343
450 2572226 2925 2 3 9 1566.616 783.308 0.64008 0.11176 572.1316
480 2647 5 9 9 3003.475 1636264 838.645 0.6604 0.11684 590.3129
470 2722.018 3076.94 1710.683 894.936 0.68072 0.12446 609.3446
480 2802.162 3152313 1787.964 950.274 o.Rsas 0.13208 625.223
490 2882 3 0 5 323U548 1870.97 1012289 0.7239 0.1397 650.3154
500 2948.137 3295.426 1941573 1059.04 0.74422 0.14986 664.7401
510 3034.96 3378.432 2043.66 1125fl26 0.77724 O.IWXW 683.7718
520 3130369 34643 2149 564 1194521 0.80772 0.1778 708.8642
530 3190.476 3523.454 2219213 1240317 0.83312 0.18796 720.9852
540 3271 574 3595.965 2309.851 1302.333 0.86614 0 20066 743.7734
550 3348 855 3667 521 2395.72 1363395 0.90678 0.22098 766.5625
560 3418.504 3732.4 2475B63 1417.778 0.94234 0.23876 783.2905
570 3495.785 3fla3.002 2560.777 1481.702 0.98298 0.26416 80 1 4722
580 3572.112 3870.742 2646.645 1546.58 1.03124 0.28702 825.1114
590 3644 823 3934.667 2725 835 1606.687 1.07442 0.32004 839.5361
600 3709 501 .39aq.049 2794 5 2 9 1660.117 1.12014 0.34798 851.667
610 3761.976 4035B 2854.637 1707.821 1 17348 868.3855
620 3816.359 4077.78 2914.745 1759 3 4 2 1.2319 0.42418 885.1139
630 3870 742 4124.53 2981531 1818.495 1.31064 0.48006 904.1452
640 3931 804 4174.143 3049271 1882.419 1.39446 0.54356 922.3268
650 3978 554 4211.353 3103.654 1934.894 1.50622 0.635 936.7515
659 4011.947 4239.021 3141.818 1973 058 1.59258 0.70158 947.4192
660 4018718 4241 883 3145.634 1974.966 1.6002 0.71374 945.1155
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSNOOOl S C A N EVERY 1 0 S E C
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0000 MICROSTRAIN
FIRST TEST

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLT3 BOLT4 B-ENO T-END TOTAL
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH SLIP SUP LOAD
B-END B-END T-END T-END mm mm (kN)

661
M 1 C R O S T R

4017.672 4243.792
A
1N 3149.451 1978.783 1 6129 0.72644 945.1 ^55
862 4020.534 4243.792 3151.359 1981 .645 1.62306 0.73406 947.4192
663 4022.443 4246.654 3154 2 2 1 1984507 i.a-w? 0.74422 947.4192
664 4025.305 4248.562 3158.992 1988.323 1.64338 0.75184 947.4192
665 4031 029 4253 3 3 3 3161.854 1992.14 1.65354 0.75946 947.4192
666 4031.984 4254 287 3165.67 1995SS6 1.66116 0,76708 947.4192
667 40355 4256.196 3169.486 1996.91 1.67386 0.77724 947.4192
666 4036.754 4258.103 3171394 2000.726 1.68656 0 7874 949.723
669 4038.662 4260011 3173.303 2002.635 1.70434 0.8001 955.7832
670 4041525 4260.965 3175211 2004.543 1.71958 051788 952.0263
671 4043.433 4260.965 3177,119 2005.497 1.73736 0.83058 949.723
672 4044.387 4263.827 3179.981 2009313 1.7526 0 84582 952 0263
673 4048 2 0 3 4265.736 3183,798 2011222 1.76276 0.85598 953.4799
674 4052O19 4269.552 3186.66 2015.038 1.77546 0.8636 958.067
675 4053.927 4270.506 3189.522 2017.9 1.7907 0.87376 953.4799
676 4055.836 4272.414 3193 3 3 9 2019.808 1.80086 0.88646 958.087
677 4056.79 4272.414 3193 3 3 9 1.81102 0.89408 958,087
678 4058.698 4273.368 3196201 2025.533 1.81864 0.90424 955 7832
679 4061.56 4275 277 3197.155 2027.441 1.83134 0.91894 955 7832
680 4064.423 4279.093 3202 5 8 2029349 1.8415 0.92456 960,3907
681 4064.423 4279.093 3203.834 2032212 1,8542 0.93218 960 3907
682 4067 2 8 5 4280.047 3204.788 2032212 1.86436 0.9398 964.1477
683 4068 2 3 9 4281 ,001 3206.696 2034,12 1.87706 0.94996 960.3907
686 4073.009 4284518 3211.466 203859 1.89484 0.97282 960.3907
687 4073.009 4285.772 3213374 2041.752 1 90754 0.9779 964,1477
688 4074.918 4287.68 3216237 2042.706 1.91516 0.98044 962.694
689 4078.734 4288.634 3217.191 2044515 1.92024 0.9906 964,1477
690 4078.734 4288.634 3218.145 2046.523 1.92786 0.99822 964,1477
691 4080.642 4290.542 3219.099 2048.431 1.93548 1.00584 966,451
692 4082.55 4290,542 3222.915 2049.385 1 94564 1.01092 961,8439
693 4081.596 4292.45 3224.824 2051293 1.95834 1.02362 964,1477
694 4064.459 4292.45 3224 524 2052247 1.97866 1.04394 961,8439
695 4082.55 4292.45 3223 5 7 2050.339 2.01422 1.07188 960.3907
697 4084.459 4293.404 3225.778 2053 2 0 1 2.04216 1.10236 960.3907
698 4069 2 2 9 4296 267 3229 594 2057.018 2.0574 1.11506 966,451
699 4090.183 4298.175 3233.411 205958 2.07772 1.12776 966.451
700 4090.183 4298.175 3233.41 1 2058.926 2.10058 1.14808 964,1477
701 4090.183 4297 221 3232.456 2057 S 7 2 2.13106 1.17856 962.694
702 4090.183 4295313 3232.456 205958 2.14884 1.1938 960,3907
703 4092.091 4298.175 3233.411 2061.788 2.16408 1.20396 962 694
704 4094.953 4300.083 3236273 2063.696 2.17424 1.21666 964.1477
705 4095.907 4301.991 3239.135 2066.559 2.1844 1.22428 968.7547
706 4098.77 4304.853 3241.043 2070375 2.19456 1.23444 966.451
707 4099.724 4304553 3243.906 2071.329 2.21742 1.25222 968.7547
706 4097516 4302,945 3239.136 2068.467 2.2606 1,2954 961.8439
709 4097516 4302,945 3240.089 2068.467 2.28346 1.31318 964,1477
710 4098.77 4301 j991 3242.952 2069.421 2.29362 1.3208 964.1477
711 4099.724 4304 5 5 3 3245513 2071329 2.29616 1.32842 968,7547
712 4103 5 4 4306.761 3246.768 2074.191 2.30632 1.3335 968.7547
713 4104.494 4309.624 3250.584 2076.1 2.31394 1.34112 966.451
714 4108311 4310578 3251 5 3 8 2078 S 6 2 2.32156 1.3462 971.0584
715 4109265 4312.486 3253.446 2081524 2.33426 1.35636 968.7547
716 4109265 4312.486 3253 446 2080.87 2.36474 1.3843 966.451
717 4106.403 4308 5 7 3249.63 2076,1 2.413 1.4351 960.3907
718 4106.403 4306.761 3249.63 2076.1 2.42824 1.44526 960.3907
719 4107 3 5 7 4309.624 3250584 2078.962 2.43586 1.45034 966.451
720 4109265 4310578 3254.4 2081.824 2.43586 1.45542 968 7547
721 4113.081 4314394 3257 2 6 3 2084.686 2 44602 1.4605 968 7547
722 4114.035 4316302 3261 0 7 9 2088503 2.45618 1.46812 971.0584
723 4114.989 4314394 3261 0 7 9 2086595 2.50444 1 51638 964 1477
724 4108311 4310578 3253.446 2081.824 2.55778 1.56972 958 087
725 4110219 4312.486 3256 309 2083 732 25654 1.5748 966.451
726 4114.035 4314394 3261.079 2086 595 257302 1.57988 968.7547
727 4115.944 4317257 3263.941 2089.457 2 58064 1.56496 971 Û684
728 4119 76 4320.119 3265.85 2095,181 258826 1.59004 968.7547
729 4122.622 4320 119 3269 666 2095.181 2 60604 1.60528 968.7547
730 4112.127 4312.486 3259 171 2085 64 2.70002 1.^18 954.33
731 41 16.898 4315.348 3262 033 2089.457 2 7051 1.69926 960.3907
732 4116598 4316302 3263.941 2091.365 2.71272 1.70434 968.7547
733 41 18.806 4317257 3265.85 2094 2 2 7 2.71526 1 70688 966,451
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSNiDOOl S C A N EVERY 10 S E C .
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 0000 MICROSTRAIN
FIRST TEST

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLT3 BOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH SLIP SUP LOAD
B-END B-END T-ENO T-END mm mm (kN)
W C R O S T R A 1 N

734 4121 .668 4319.165 3267 758 2095.181 2.72034 1.70942 971.Œ84
735 412453 4321 0 7 3 3269.666 2098 S 9 8 2.72542 1.71196 971.0584
736 4125.485 4322.981 3273.482 2099.952 2.73304 1.71704 973.3617
737 4126.439 4324.889 3275391 210156 2.73812 1.72212 973.3617
738 4128346 4325 B 4 3 3277299 2104.722 2.74828 1.72974 973.3617
739 4125.485 4322.027 3273.482 2099SS2 2.80416 1.79324 966.451
740 4119.76 4317257 3264.895 2094 2 2 7 2.85496 1.83642 956.6337
741 4122.622 4317257 3267.758 2094 2 2 7 2.86004 1 83896 960.3907
742 3822.084 4009.086 2869.902 1667.749 2.83464 1.8415 551.0431
743 931.191 848.1861 371.141 69.649 2.44602 1.8288 0
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSN0002 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C .
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 0000 MICROSTRAIN
S E C O N D TEST

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS BOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH NORTH SOLTTH NORTH SUP SLIP LOAD
B-END B-END T-END T-END mm mm (kN)
[ C R O S T R A 1 N
2 M0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 69.648 86.822 45.796 20.036 0.1016 0 12.12096
20 103.042 128.802 67.74 22.899 0.10414 0.00254 20.4854
30 163.149 209.899 108.766 31.485 0.11176 0.00254 26 54565
40 228.027 296.722 153.608 43589 0.11684 0 32.60636
50 297.676 385.452 201.313 62016 0,12192 0 40.97035
60 369.233 477.999 252.834 83.96 0.13208 0 4933479
70 445.56 573.408 303.4 108,767 0,14224 0.00254 59,15201
80 521.887 672.633 353 967 139.298 0.1524 0 6951929
go 599.169 769.95 406.442 172.691 0.16002 0.UO254 79.63696
100 673.587 863.451 457.963 216.579 0.17272 O.Ua2b4 94,06186
110 749.915 955.044 508.53 261.421 0.18542 0 108.4864
120 824.334 1044.728 562.913 310.06 0.2032 0 118.304
130 906.385 1137 2 7 5 617 296 359.692 0.21844 0 137.3357
140 983.667 1223.143 672.633 403.581 0.231 14 0.00254 149.4567
150 1058086 1309O11 722.246 447.469 0.24384 0 166.1851
160 1138229 1399.649 780.445 496.127 0,254 0.00254 191.2775
170 1214556 1478.839 847.232 540.015 0.2667 0.0O254 203.3981
180 1289.93 1556.12 914.972 584.857 0,27432 0.00254 222.4298
190 1363.394 1635.309 986.529 627.792 0.28448 0.00254 236,8545
200 1433.997 1706.775 1055 2 2 3 668.817 0,29464 0.00254 257.3399
210 1500.783 1775.561 1120,101 706.027 0.29972 0 282.4323
220 1572 3 4 1847.118 1193.566 748.961 0,3048 0.UO254 295.4038
230 1651529 1923.445 1272.756 791.895 0,3175 0 318.1924
240 171927 1991.185 1342.404 831.967 0,32512 0.00254 337,2242
250 1816.587 2085.64 1446.4 888.258 0,33528 0.00254 366.0731
260 1886 236 2150518 1517.957 928.33 0,33782 0 393.4693
270 1960.654 2219213 1594 284 970.31 0,34798 0.00254 416 2579
280 2027.441 2282.183 1667.749 1008.474 0.3SFV, 0.00254 441.3504
290 2095.181 2349.923 1745.03 105427 0,36322 0.00254 464.1395
300 2161.967 2408.122 1814.679 1107.699 0,37084 0.00254 491.5352
310 2228.754 2470.138 1887.19 1165.896 0,36354 0.00254 516.6276
320 2297.448 2535.016 1967.333 1227.914 0,3937 0.00254 545.4766
330 2371 5 6 7 2599.894 2048.431 1293.746 0.40386 0.00254 581.2367
340 2426251 2648.553 2110.447 1343359 0,41656 0 597.9651
350 2493.037 2710.569 2187.728 1408237 0.42418 0.00254 631.4216
360 2557B15 2768.768 2258.331 1469299 0,43688 0 862.5747
370 2B2«51 2828.876 2338.474 1538.947 0.44958 0 693.7269
380 2687.671 2881.351 2409 0 7 7 1600.009 0,4572 0 720.273
390 2758 274 2943367 2491.129 1678 2 4 5 0.4699 0 749.9725
400 2822.196 2995 5 4 2 2565 5 4 8 1746 5 3 9 0.4826 0 776.5181
410 2896517 3058512 2652.37 1829.945 0.49276 0 817.4885
420 2955.77 3111286 2722018 1894523 0.5na3fl 0 644.8842
430 3028281 3174257 2807.886 1976575 0.51308 0.00254 883.5512
440 30ai518 3219.099 2871 fil 2036 5 8 2 0.52324 0.00264 904.8867
450 3149.45 3276.344 2948.137 2111.401 0.53594 0.0U2b4 839.7968
460 3206.696 3324.049 3015578 2160.096 0.54864 0 964.a3«?
469 3252.492 3361 2 5 8 .•V)fi9307 2236387 0.56896 0.0O254 986.8274
470 3230548 333836 3036568 2201.086 0.74168 0.18542 947.3107
473 3243 fl05 3348555 3050225 2216351 0.76708 0.20066 965.4919
474 3230548 3033.051 2198224 0.8763 0.31242 949514
482 3250584 3354.579 3056 504 2224538 0.92202 0 3429 970.uy«y
483 3235319 3339314 3038.776 2205556 1 03124 0.45466 949.614
492 3260.125 3360.304 3067399 2234 479 1 06426 0.47244 978 4629
493 3243 fl05 3344.085 3045.455 2212535 1.18872 0.5969 953.3705
501 3262.033 3362212 3070261 2239249 1.21412 0.6096 984.5236
502 3262 fl87 3365.075 3072.169 2241.158 1.22174 0.61722 978.4629
503 3262.033 3360304 .3062.629 2226546 1.3081 0.7112 955.6743
508 3261 0 7 9 ."WW 3 5 3066.445 2236387 1.36398 0.75184 976.1596
509 3262 587 3364.12 ,3068.353 2238295 1.36652 0.75438 973.a5,'J9
510 3264 596 3366.029 3071215 2241.158 1.36906 0 75946 980.7667
511 3266504 3366.029 3074.077 2244.02 1.36906 0 75946 976 1596
514 3272528 3370.799 3077.894 2248.79 1.38938 0.7747 984.5236
515 3257 263 3354579 ,3a5fl512 2226.846 1.5113 089662 961.735
521 3273.482 3371.753 3079 502 2249.744 1.54686 0.91^ 982.2198
522 3259.171 XWl.396 3061 675 2230 662 1.66624 1.0414 961.735
528 327539 3371.753 3080.756 2250.698 1.69164 1.0541 982.2189
529 2440 5 6 2 2513.073 2015.038 1231.731 1 60528 1 05664 3029177
530 67.74 26.714 52.475 28 623 0 9906 1.0,^664 0
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSNIOO S C A N EVERY 10 S E C
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 2000 MICROSTRAIN

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS BOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH SUP SUP LOAD
B-END B-END T-END T-END mm mm (KN)
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N
33 1866 1924 1882 2083 0 0 0
40 1866 1924 1882 2083.954 0,1778 0 16.72843
50 1866 1923.046 1882 2083 354 O19558 0 22.78869
60 1866.954 1924 1882 2083.954 0.20574 0 26.54565
70 1866 1924.955 1882 2064.908 0.22352 0 28B4939
80 1867.908 1924 1882 2083.954 02413 0 3721338
90 1867.908 1923.046 1882 2084 3 0 8 0.25654 0 45 57782
100 1868.862 1925.909 1882.954 2085.862 0.27686 0 57.69878
110 1868562 1924 1882.954 2088517 0.29718 0 70.66979
120 1869517 1924.955 1882.954 2085.862 0,3175 0 8739778
130 1870.771 1925 3 0 9 1882 354 2086517 0.33528 0 105.5794
140 1871.724 1924.955 1884.862 2087.771 0.35306 0 126.9149
ISO 1874.587 1925.909 1883.908 2087.771 0.37084 0 147.4003
180 1874 587 1926.863 1886.77 2089.679 0.38608 0 162.675
170 1874.587 1926.863 1886.77 2088.725 0.40386 0 184.0106
180 1877.449 1924.955 1886.77 2088.725 0.42672 0 206.7992
190 1877.449 1925.909 1888 579 2088.725 0.43942 0 230.4384
200 1877.449 1924S55 1888.679 2087.771 0.45466 0 255.5.101
210 1879.357 1924.955 1888.679 2087.771 0.4899 0 282.9265
220 1878.403 1922.092 1887.725 2083354 0.4826 0.00254 308.0189
230 1880311 1921.136 1889.633 2075.368 0.4826 0 00254 320.1399
240 1883 174 1920.184 1889.633 2069.643 0.48514 0 336.8683
250 1885.082 1922.092 1892.495 2065.827 0.48514 0 346 6855
260 1890.806 1924.955 1896311 2063318 0.48514 0 364.8672
270 1896 531 1926.863 1899.174 2060.IQZ 0.48006 0.00254 386.8054
280 1902 255 1930.679 1903,944 2057 2 4 0,47498 0.00254 402.6837
290 1909.888 1942.128 1909.668 2051515 0.4699 0.00254 423.1687
300 1918.475 1972.659 1927,796 2049.607 0.46482 0.00254 443.6541
310 1925.154 2000.328 1941.154 2047.699 0.46482 0.00254 459.532
320 1934.694 2037.537 1974.547 2045.791 0.46228 0.00254 481.4707
330 1946.144 2077.609 2012.71 2041 3 7 5 0.4622B 0.00254 508.0163
340 1958.547 2114.818 2051.828 2039,112 0.45466 0.00254 540.6227
350 1972.858 2153 S 3 6 2097.624 2035296 0.45466 0.00254 581.1076
360 1999.573 2200.686 2153316 2034.342 045212 0.00254 580.743
370 2054.91 2249 3 4 5 2216.885 2039.112 0.45212 0.00254 607.2882
380 2139.824 2309.453 2295.121 2052.469 0.45212 0.00254 636.1378
390 2213289 2362.882 2359.045 2078 2 3 0.45212 0.00254 645.9552
400 2301.065 2433.484 2441.097 2162.19 0.4572 0.00254 671.0477
410 2390.75 2503.133 2514.562 2254.737 0.45974 000506 677.1079
420 2469.939 2561332 2585.164 2338.696 0.46736 0.00254 705.9573
430 2581531 2630381 2664.354 2433.151 0.46736 0.00254 726.4427
440 2641.675 2690.134 2733.048 2513295 0.4699 0.00254 750.6842
450 2736.13 2756 S 2 1 2814.146 2604 5 8 7 0.47244 0.00508 774.9265
460 2801.962 2804.625 2876.162 2665.949 0.47498 o.na'iOfl 797.71S2
470 2891.647 2864.733 2953.443 2746.093 0.47498 onasofl 815.8969
480 2984.194 2925.795 3031.678 2819558 0.47244 o.oosnn 843.8962
490 3058513 2976361 3094.648 2875.849 , 0.47244 0.00508 862.0774
500 3110.134 3014.525 3142 3 5 3 2916575 0.47244 0.00508 884.0161
510 3179.782 .1060321 3198.644 2967.441 04699 0.00508 904.5015
520 3284.732 3126.154 3262.568 3028 5 0 3 0.46736 0.00508 924.9864
530 3347.702 3186261 3299.777 3057.126 0.46736 o.nosofl 945.4718
540 3408.763 3246369 3331262 3082.887 0.47244 0.0O5O8 968.260b
550 3466.009 .1102.66 3361.794 3106.739 0.47752 0.00508 987.2927
560 3531541 .^VW.493 3399.003 3134.407 0.4826 0.00508 1016.142
570 3627 2 5 3456269 3448515 3176 387 0 49276 O.OOSOfl 1047294
580 3695.945 3519239 3481.055 3201.194 0.50038 0.00508 1066326
590 3759568 3576.484 351731 3230.771 0.51054 0.00508 1091.419
600 3aT3333 3642316 ,1S.'J929 3261.301 0.5207 0.00508 1120268
610 3894395 3697.653 3597 454 3288.97 0.5334 000508 114536
620 .1963.09 3757.761 3649.928 3324 271 0.5461 0.00508 118027
630 4021289 3809282 3696.679 3349.078 0.5588 0.00508 1209.97
640 4075.672 .ia'i9.849 3744 3 8 3 3377.7 0.57658 0.0OSO8 1238515
650 4131 964 3910.418 3796.859 3410.139 0.59436 0.00508 1274579
660 4174 5 9 8 3949.533 .iai633 3431.129 O6096 0.00508 1299.671
670 4216.878 3986.743 3877.002 3456.89 0.62092 0.00508 1329.974
680 4260 766 4030.631 3921.844 3486.466 O.R5024 0.00508 1359.673
690 4295.113 4060 2 0 8 3955 2 3 7 3506.503 0.66802 OOO'iOH 1387.069
700 4331.368 4092.647 3989.585 3530.355 0.68326 0.00508 1409 858
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSNIOO S C A N E V E R Y 10 S E C
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 2000 MICROSTRAIN

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT2 BOLT3 BOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
BOLT1
NORTH SLIP SLIP LOAD
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH
B-END T-END -END mm mm (kN)
B-END
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N

4031565 ,1^50586 0.7rtV)8 O0050F. 1438.707


710 4375 2 5 7 4129.856
720 4406.741 4159,433 4064.958 3581 5 7 6 0.72136 0.0050B 1466.103
730 4450.63 4195.689 4108546 3613.36 0.74168 0.00508 1492549
740 4490.701 4230,99 4151.78 3643591 0.762 o.nnsoH 1515.438
750 4523.14 4261521 4185.173 .•Wifl.698 0.///24 0.00508 1539.077
760 4571.799 4304.455 4236.694 3708.77 0.80264 0.00508 1567 3 2 6
770 4615.687 4344.526 4285,352 3745379 0.82296 O.OO-SOfi 1593018
780 4658.621 4383.644 4331,149 3783.189 0,84582 0.00508 1615507
790 4692 3 6 8 4410358 4367.404 3814.673 0.86.36 0.00762 1638.596
800 4739.718 4452.338 4417971 3867.140 O 89154 0.01018 1660749
810 4786.469 4492.41 4469.492 3917.715 0.9271 0.02032 1691.084
820 4822.724 4523 5 9 5 4512.426 3957 7 8 7 0.9652 0.03556 1713573
830 4845.485 4546.794 4541.046 3986.41 0.99314 004826 1722 237
835 4858 3 8 4556 3 3 5 4554.406 4002.629 1.01092 0.06096 1732 305
836 4841506 4543.931 4527.691 3979.731 2.1463 2.91846 1483.079
840 4842.76 4542 3 7 7 4527.691 3978.777 2.14122 2.91846 1532.413
850 4841.806 4541.069 4527.691 3978777 2.1463 2.91592 1546538
860 4839.898 4542.023 4527.691 3978.777 2.15138 2.91846 1575.687
870 4841.806 4542.023 4526.737 3978777 2.159 2.91646 1618.961
880 4842.76 4541.069 4527.691 3977 5 2 3 2.16662 2.91592 1653571
890 4843.715 4544.885 4528.645 3980.685 2.17678 231592 1687 327
900 4840 5 5 2 4542.023 4527.691 3978.777 2.18186 2.91592 1657.628
910 4837.99 4538 2 0 7 4525.783 3976.869 2.18186 231592 16123
920 4836.082 4537 2 5 2 4523 5 7 5 3974.006 2.17932 2.91592 157133
930 4833219 4533 436 4521.012 3971.144 2.17424 2.91592 1530.11
940 4831311 4529.62 4516242 3967328 2.17424 2.91592 1486336
950 4828.449 4526.757 4514334 3964.465 2.16916 2.91592 1443562
960 4823 5 7 8 4522.941 4511.472 3959.695 2.15646 2.91592 1350.953
970 4818.908 4517217 4505.747 3954 3 2 5 2.14376 2.91592 1266.709
980 481223 4509.584 4497.16 3945.384 2.12598 2.91592 1163.433
990 4806505 4503.659 449239 3938.705 2.11836 2.91592 1095.066
1000 4792.194 4490.502 4479.986 3918.669 2.08788 291592 913.607
1010 4777.882 4474 2 8 3 4464.721 3893.863 2.05994 2.91592 777.724
1020 4750214 4447 5 6 8 4434.191 3857.607 2.032 2.91592 628.8709
1030 4671 3 7 8 4387.461 4.1'W.955 3774.602 2.00152 2.91846 441.3604
1040 462332 4347.389 4298.71 3724.035 1.9812 2.91846 351.6484
1050 4558.442 4293.005 4224 291 3659.157 1.9558 2.91846 247.5222
4477344 4222.403 4137.468 3581576 1.89738 2.91846 154.0637
1060
1070 4402325 4144.168 4057.325 3510319 1.79832 2.91846 81 090?
1080 4325.644 4062.116 3973 3 6 5 3440.67 1.a>vl54 2.91846 3030262
1090 4276.031 4011549 3918.982 3392.966 1.397 2.91S46 3.756968
1091 4272215 4005.825 3914212 3390.104 1.37922 2.91846 3 756968
1092 4270306 4002,962 3912303 3388.196 1.36906 2.91846 0
SHEAH SPECIMEN PSN050 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C .
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 1000 MICROSTRAIN

S T R I A N G A Q E S
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS iOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH gORTH SLIP SLIP LOAD
B-ENO B-END T-END -END mm mm (kN)
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N
30 1455 1000 1048 1062 0 0 0
40 1455.955 999.046 1047.046 1061 .045 0.11938 0 3.756968
50 1455.955 998 092 1047.046 1062.954 0.23114 0 7.513937
60 1455 1000 1047.046 1062 0.29718 0 9.817226
70 1455 999.046 1046.092 1061.045 0.34544 , 0 8.817226
80 1456.909 999.046 1048 1062.954 0.39624 0.00254 12.12086
90 1455555 999.046 1045.136 1062.954 0.42672 0.00254 18.18186
100 1455.955 1000.954 1046.092 1062.954 0.45212 0.00254 26.54565
110 1455 S 5 5 999.046 104323 1063.908 0.47498 0.0O2S4 3721338
120 1455.955 1000.954 1041.322 1063508 0.4953 0.00508 5539504
130 1456.909 1000 5 5 4 1042 276 1064 5 6 2 0.51308 0.00508 66.06277
140 1457.863 1003516 1039.414 1066.77 0.53O86 0.00508 82.79075
150 1458.617 1005.724 1039.414 1066.77 0.54356 0.00762 9451171
160 1459.771 1006.678 1039.414 1066.77 0.55372 0,00762 115.3967
170 1461.679 1007.633 1037.505 1066.77 0.56134 0.00762 128.8214
180 1467.404 1012.403 1036.551 1067.724 0.55118 0,00508 138.1858
190 1475.99 1026.714 1037.505 1068.678 0.52578 0.00508 150.3068
200 1487.439 1043.888 1042 276 1073.449 0.4953 0 00508 160.8745
210 1496,026 1066.786 1045.138 1075.357 0.4699 0,00508 168.4884
220 1505 567 1086.822 1048 1078219 0.45212 0 00506 176.3061
230 1517016 11 14.49 1053.725 108259 0.44196 0.00508 192.7308
240 1529,419 1148 838 1062312 1087.76 0 43668 0,00508 202.5476
250 1550.409 118851 1075.669 1095393 0.4318 0.00508 216.1222
260 1591.435 1236614 1115.741 1112.566 0.42926 0.00508 226.7899
270 1642.956 1285273 1166.308 1140.235 0.42926 0.00508 234.3039
280 1697 3 3 9 1335.839 1220,691 1175.536 0.42672 0.00508 246.4248
290 1759.355 1376.865 1270.303 1211.792 0.42926 0.00508 256.2425
300 1828.05 1415.029 1323.732 1251.863 0.42926 0.00508 264.60a5
310 1905331 1454.146 1380.978 1294.797 0.42672 0.00508 274.4242
320 1959.714 1482.769 1419.141 1324 374 0.42672 0.00508 280.4849
330 2039557 1522.841 1478295 1394577 0.42418 0.00.508 292.8058
340 2108552 1562513 1528.862 1475.12 042418 0.00254 304.7268
350 2186.787 1602.985 1586.107 1565.759 0.42164 0.00508 316.8477
360 2280288 1656.414 1667205 1673.571 0.4191 0.00508 332.7257
370 2367.11 170221 1761.66 1769.934 0.41402 0.00506 347.1504
380 2420.54 1732.741 1826.538 1834512 0.41402 0.00508 360.725
390 2486 3 7 2 1770.904 1903.819 1910.185 0,41402 0.00506 371.3827
400 2544571 1809.068 1974.422 1978.88 0.41148 o.oa5n8 389.5744
410 2620598 1850.094 2066568 2015.135 0.41148 0.00254 401.6954
420 2709.629 1905.431 2178.597 2071.427 0.40894 0.00508 423.634
430 2785002 1963.631 2279.73 2127.718 0.4064 0.00508 447.8758
440 2874.686 2039.004 2387 5 4 2 2196.412 0.40132 0.00506 471.3678
450 2958.645 2143 554 2461.962 2255 566 0.40386 0.00508 494.a565
460 3070275 2263215 2535.427 2315.673 0.4191 0.00508 531.2703
470 3166.638 2357 5 7 2595534 2368.149 0.43434 o.nosofl 557.8155
480 3256322 2450216 2654.688 2414599 0.44958 0.00508 592.7256
490 3367.961 2562.799 2731569 2475.961 0.46736 0.0a5O8 632.2427
500 3454.773 2651529 2788 2 6 2519B49 0.48514 0.00S08 664.8491
510 3584 5 2 9 2786.056 2888.44 2593314 0.51054 0.00,508 733.2151
520 3656.086 2859 521 2944.731 2629.569 0.53086 0.00508 762.0641
530 3707.607 2914.858 2989 5 7 3 2659.146 0.5461 0.00508 793.2172
540 3782.026 2993.093 3055 406 2703.968 056896 0.00508 832.7338
550 3862.169 3079516 3132.687 2750.739 0.59436 0.00508 886.6757
560 3941359 3167 692 3209 O l 4 2792.718 0.61976 o.oreiofi 928.9487
570 3986 201 3214.442 3252.902 2814.662 064262 0.00508 865.7098
580 4049.171 3284.091 3314518 284901 0.67818 0.00508 1021.855
590 4097 829 3336566 3362.622 2871.908 0.7a\58 0.00508 1057.715
600 4152213 3395.719 3417 006 2912.934 0.7366 0 00508 1110203
610 4213274 3458.69 3474 251 2962 546 0.77216 0.00508 1155.781
620 4245.713 3492 083 .3505.736 2993.077 0.79248 0.00508 1188237
630 4281015 3531 2 3541 .037 3026.47 081788 0.00506 1224 997
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSN050 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C .
N O N - B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 1000 MICROSTRAIN

S T R I A N G A G E S
BOLT1 80LT2 BOLTS BOLT4 B-END T-END TOTAL
SOLTTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH SLIP SLIP LOAD
T-END mm mm (kN)
SCAN B-END B-END T-END
M I C R O S T R A I N

4328 719 3579.859 3585.879 3073221 0.84836 0.00508 1266518


840
651 4380 2 4 3628517 3634538 3119371 0 889 0.01778 1314.890
652 4385 01 3636.15 .•WW .308 3125.696 1,12268 0.19812 1265 3 6 5
660 4399 322 .Tfi.50.462 3651 7 1 2 3141315 1.1557 0.2032 1333 73
670 4431.761 3684,809 S6R1.ia7 3174 3 5 5 1.17602 0.20828 1360 277
4447.026 3699.12 3699.416 3191528 1.19126 0.20828 1370 3 4 4
674
675 4379286 3684,809 3696.554 3175 3 0 9 2.14376 0.53848 1194.091
676 4377378 3685.763 3696.554 3177217 2.15138 0.54102 1216.03
680 4372.607 3687.671 3697.508 3179.12S 2.15646 0.54102 1237.365
690 4362.112 3690.533 3700.37 3180.079 2,16408 0.54102 1266215
700 4366.882 3695 3 0 4 3702 2 7 8 3183595 2,17932 0.54356 1309.488
4375.469 3704.844 3708.957 3191528 2.20472 0.54356 1367.187
710
4424.128 3749.687 3761.432 3244 3 5 7 2.24282 0.54664 1417,372
721
722 4411.725 3730.605 3745212 3226529 334772 1.0795 1206212
723 4414587 3732513 3748.075 3228 737 3.35026 1.0795 1233.609
4410.771 3724 5 8 3744 2 5 8 3224321 3 34518 1.0795 1173.606
730
4404.092 3706753 3731 5 5 5 3207.748 3.3147 1.0795 1014.935
740
4360 204 3660 957 3690.629 3160.043 3.2766 1.0795 843.293
750
4295 3 2 6 3594.17 3623.089 .3080554 3.23088 1.0795 689.832
760
770 4211366 3511.164 a w 542 2986399 3.17754 1.0795 540.9785
780 4092.105 3393511 3391245 2672.862 3.10896 1.0795 393.5782
3972 5 4 3 3276.458 3251 3 4 8 2768 866 3.04546 1.0795 287.1483
790
800 3841.179 3136207 3104.064 2654375 2.99212 1.07696 193.6894
3707.607 3004 S 4 3 2966.675 2534.16 2.921 1.07696 126.1738
810
3,56831 2877.649 2847.414 2403.45 2.83972 1.07442 76 53903
820
830 3449.048 2762 204 2735.786 2291521 2.79654 1.07442 43.6295
840 3347 B15 2665.841 2632.744 2196.412 2.77114 1.06934 14.17737
850 323724 2563 7 5 3 2522.069 2006233 2.56032 1.0668 0.603179
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSB050 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C
B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 1000 MICROSTRAIN
STRAIN G * G E 5 A P P E A R S NOT TO H A V E W O R K E D

S T R A I N G A G E S
•—*BOLTl—*** •••**BOLT2"**'* •••••BOLT3 * "*"BOLT4"**** B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N D SOUTH T - E N D NORTH T - E N D SLIP SLIP LOAD
SCAN T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE mm mm (kN)
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N
1 846 1359 1622 882 1031 947 1018 0 0 0
10 848.862 1360.909 1623,908 882 1031 .954 947.954 1015.138 0 59944 - 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 28 54939
20 848.862 1357.092 1624.862 879.138 1031 947.954 1014,184 0.96012 -0.00508 57.69878
30 851.724 1358.046 1626,771 880.092 1031 949.863 1010.367 1.23698 - 0 . 0 0 5 0 8 98.66868
40 855.54 1357.092 1628578 878.184 1032 308 953.679 1009,413 1.38176 - 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 145.6997
50 861.255 135423 1633,449 875.322 1033.862 958.449 1008.459 1.46304 0 210.3088
60 867.944 1346.597 1641 .082 870.551 1029.092 963 22 1006.551 1 52654 - 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 276.3716
70 918.51 1296.031 1672.566 824.755 995.699 992.797 965.525 1.56972 - 0 . 0 0 2 5 4 324.2531
80 985.297 1235.923 1731.72 778.959 957.535 1023 3 2 8 931.178 1.60782 0 380.4976
90 1017.736 1213.025 1788011 741.749 934.637 1041.455 921.637 1.64592 0 440 5003
100 1046.359 1194.897 1854.798 703.586 917.463 1054512 915.913 1.68402 0 508.8664
110 1074381 1172.953 1924.446 665 422 894.565 1066 261 907.326 1,71704 0 566.5651
120 11 10283 1145 284 1997311 628.212 872.621 1079519 902.555 1.75514 0.00254 642.4451
130 1147.492 1118.57 2069.468 591.003 847.815 1091.068 896.831 1,79578 0.00508 709.358
140 1187.564 1088 039 2136254 550.931 823.009 1100.609 889.198 1.6288 0.01016 776.874
150 1240 3 9 3 1048.921 2201.132 519.446 790.569 1113366 881.565 1.87198 0.0127 852.7544
160 1299.192 1002.171 2263.148 463.191 758.13 1125.415 867.254 1.91008 0.01524 922 5737
170 1362.162 957 329 2324 21 452.66 719.013 1140.881 853,897 1.95072 0.02286 993.2439
180 1432.765 90 1 037 2 3 8 6 2 2 6 420.221 673.216 1160717 838.631 2.00406 0.03302 1077.488
190 1500.505 849.517 2448242 388.736 633.145 1182.661 821,458 2.04978 0.04064 1143.551
200 1574.924 788.455 2510257 353.435 583.532 1203.65 802.376 2.10058 o.reïVH 1215.674
210 1650297 725.485 2575.136 320.996 535.828 1228.457 777 57 2 15392 0.06604 1286.344
220 1729.487 658.698 2642576 283.786 489.077 1258.034 753,717 2.20726 0.08382 135471
228 1798.181 605.27 2703.936 254.209 448.051 1278.07 729.865 2.25.W 0.09652 1404.045
229 1805514 595.729 2708.708 251.347 442 327 1279.024 727,003 2.2fi.'i6R 0.09906 1410.1Œ
237 1876.416 537.529 2767.862 223.678 399.393 1309.554 704.105 2,31648 0.11684 1468 654
250 1989.954 444.028 2852.776 180.744 326.882 1364592 665,941 2,4003 0.14732 1553.748
260 2079.638 367.701 2 9 2 0 5 1 6 147.351 266.774 1415.458 630.64 2,4Rflfifl 0.1778 1619511
270 2169.322 293.282 2985.394 113.958 202 8501 1471.75 592.476 2.54254 0.20574 1684.421
280 2262.823 217.909 3047.41 84381 138.9261 1539.49 552.404 2.62382 0.2413 1751334
292 2374.452 128.225 3127554 43 3 5 5 565743 1621.542 502.792 2.72542 0.28702 1829517
300 2447317 71 .933 3183.845 20.457 -0.371 1680.695 2 78511 0.31496 1882.005
306 2500.392 26.137 3218.192 -1.487 - 4 3 305 1721.721 440.776 2.8448 0.33782 1915.462
310 2542372 -6.302 3248.723 -14.844 -75.7441 1760539 2.9083 0.,^556 1944311
320 2634 3 1 8 - 7 9 767 3312 647 -48.237 -152.071 1846.707 388 301 2.9718 0.39878 1996.799
333 2745.455 - 1 7 3 2 6 8 3390.882 -86.401 - 2 5 2 251 1955.473 332.009 3.08864 0.45466 2075.833
337 2784711 -200.936 3413.78 - 1 0 0 7 1 2 -283.736 1987312 312.928 3.12166 0.47244 2098.622
351 2908742 - 2 9 6 3 4 5 3492.97 -139.83 -390594 2112598 249.958 3.25628 0.54102 2182263
360 2984.115 - 3 5 8 . 3 6 1 3544.491 - 1 6 9 . 4 0 7 -463.105 2193.042 207.024 3.34264 0.5842 222b 538
370 3062351 -424.193 3595.058 - 1 9 8 . 9 8 3 -535515 2277356 161.227 3.4417 0.63246 2281.783
380 3143.448 - 4 9 2 . 8 8 8 3644.67 -223.79 -606218 2367.64 120.202 3.53822 0.6a5fl 2323.603
390 .3222.638 -558.72 3694283 -251.458 -678.729 2453 5 0 8 78222 3.6322 0.73914 2375242
400 3298.965 - 6 3 1 2 3 1 3740.079 - 2 7 6 2 6 5 -755.056 2540 331 45 7 8 3 3.73126 0.78994 2420518
410 3365.751 - 7 0 6 . 6 0 4 3773.472 - 3 0 3 . 9 3 3 -823.751 261952 3 8989 0.84328 2456 579
420 3429.675 - 7 6 6 7 1 2 3816406 -329.694 - 8 9 3 399 2697 755 3 97256 0.89662 2502.156
430 3499.324 - 8 2 3 . 0 0 3 3862203 - 3 4 6 567 -960.185 2782.669 4,056,18 0.9525 2549.187
440 356.>i.156 - 8 8 4 . 0 6 5 3908.953 - 3 6 5 . 9 4 9 -10327 2869.491 4,1529 1.01092 2594.764
450 3631342 -935.586 3961 4 2 8 - 3 8 3 . 1 2 3 - 1 1 0 2 34 2954 405 4.23164 1 06426 2635 7 3 5
456 3663 427 - 9 7 9 . 4 7 4 3974.785 - 4 0 2 205 - 1 141,46 2996.385 4 26974 1.09474 2647.856
460 3674 5 7 6 -1008.1 3979 5 5 6 - 4 2 1 2 8 6 - 1 168.18 3014513 4.2799 1.10744 2616.703
470 36
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSB100 S C A N EVERY 10 S E C
B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 2000 MICROSTRAIN
STRAIN G A G E 1 A P P E A R S NOT TO HAVE W O R K E D

S T R A I N G A G E S
***"BOLTl'****' •••••BOLT2'*"** •••••BOLT3****** •••••BOLT4***'** B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N O SOUTH T - E N D NORTH T - E N O SLIP SLIP LOAD
SCAN T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE mm mm (kN)
M I C R O S T R A 1 N
8 1860 2587 1826 1872 1788 1992 1855 0 0 0
10 1862.863 2590.816 1827.908 1871.046 1789.908 1993.908 1857.862 0.09144 0 6.060258
20 1860.954 2588 5 0 8 1827.908 1873.909 1790.862 1993.908 1855.954 0.09398 0 9.817226
30 1864.771 2592.724 1829516 1873.909 1791516 1995516 1857562 0.13716 0 18.18166
40 1860.954 2588.908 1827.908 1873.909 1788.954 1992 554 1854.046 0.18288 0 27.99889
50 1862.863 2592.724 1826.954 1874.863 1789.908 1994562 1856.908 0.22098 0 46.18055
60 1860 2589 862 1824.092 1873.909 1789.908 1993.908 1863.092 0.25654 0 70 42292
70 1860.954 2589 862 1824.092 1875517 1788.954 1994562 1854.046 0 28194 0 104.4821
80 1862.863 2590B16 1821 2 2 9 1876.771 1788 1997.724 1855.954 0.30734 0 146.9061
90 1861.908 2588 5 0 8 1816.459 1876.771 1785.138 1997.724 1852.138 0.33782 0 181.8162
100 1852 3 6 7 2584.138 1808.826 1875517 1779.413 1995516 1843.551 0 227.9963
110 1847.597 2582 2 2 9 1800 2 3 9 1879.633 1775.597 1999.633 1841.643 0.381 0 275.0273
120 1839.964 2583.184 1787.836 1881541 1764.148 2007265 1832.102 0.41402 0 324.3621
130 1835.194 2587 1773.525 188822 1751.744 201259 1819.699 0.45974 0 365.332
140 1834 2 4 2595.587 1765.892 1894 5 9 9 1745.066 2020.622 1813574 0.50292 0 406.3024
150 1829.469 2601311 1751.581 1897.761 1738.387 2023.485 1801571 0.5461 0 456.4872
160 1B31.377 2612.76 1740.132 1902 5 3 1 1734.571 2028 2 5 5 1793.936 0 58928 0 504.36a3
170 1822.791 2617531 1727 728 1905.394 17295 2031.118 1779.627 0.62484 0 553.7027
ISO 1818.02 2626.118 1714.371 1910.164 1725.984 2035588 176627 0.65786 0 596.9767
190 1802.755 2639.475 1693.381 1916543 1719.305 2046 3 8 3 1743.372 0.69088 0 644 8579
200 1776B94 2655.694 1667.621 1924.475 1710.718 2059.74 1714.749 0.71374 0 696.4959
210 1748372 2674.776 1648.539 1934 0 1 6 1697361 2076514 1684218 0.73914 0 743.527
218 1710208 2689.087 1630.411 1946.419 1686.866 2089317 1652.733 0.762 0 804.9823
219 1706.392 2690.996 1626 5 9 5 1949282 1684.004 2092.179 1648517 0.76454 0.00254 809.5893
230 1662.504 2713.894 1597.972 1964.547 1664.922 2107.445 1613515 0.80518 0.00254 884.0166
240 1626 2 4 8 2736.792 1570.304 1978 5 5 8 1649.657 2119548 1585.947 0.84074 0.00254 957.5928
250 1608.12 2777518 1540.727 1993.17 1631.529 2139.884 1578314 0.88138 0.00254 1030.566
256 1578.544 2794.037 1520.691 1999.848 1620.08 2142.746 1558 2 7 8 0.90424 0.00254 1073 84
257 1573.773 27965 1519.737 2000503 1617218 2143.7 1554.462 0.90932 0.00508 1076.144
260 1557.554 2803.578 1509.242 2004.619 1612.447 2147516 1545 5 7 5 0.92456 0.00508 1106.446
270 1479318 2831 2 4 7 1467262 2017.022 1583.825 2150.379 1509.62 0.97028 0.00508 1181.724
280 1423,027 2853.191 1435.777 2025.609 1566.651 2153241 1487.675 1.00584 o.oa5oa 1231 .058
281 1412.532 2851283 1432515 2026563 1566.651 2153241 1480.997 1.00838 0.00762 1239.422
290 1341.929 2872 2 7 3 1398.568 2031333 1549.477 2153241 1459.053 1.04902 0.00762 1288 757
300 1253.199 2899.941 1356.588 2041528 1527.533 2157.057 14352 1.09728 0.00762 1365.487
306 1175.918 2917.115 1323.194 2049.461 1511314 2158.012 1414211 1.1303 0.01016 1401247
307 1161.606 2916.161 1316516 2050.415 1507.497 2158.012 1409.44 1.1.35.18 0.01016 1401 247
310 1140.616 2926.656 1306.021 2055.186 1503.681 2158566 1404.67 1.14808 0.01016 1414218
311 1133,938 2927.61 130125 2058.048 1500519 215952 1401 .807 1.1506? 0.0127 1420 279
320 1061.427 2944.783 1266503 2069.497 1484.599 2162.782 1385.588 1.18364 0.0127 1465.856
323 1027.08 2950508 1253546 2076.176 1477.92 2163.736 1376.047 1.20396 0.0127 1490.948
324 1015.631 2955 2 7 8 1247 5 2 1 2078.084 1475.058 2165.644 1376.047 1.21412 0.01524 1505 3 7 3
330 948.845 2965.774 121729 2(J91.441 1457 5 8 5 2168.507 1361.736 1.23952 0.01524 1528.182
332 928.809 296959 1207.75 2093 3 4 9 1455 0 2 2 2169.461 1357519 1.24968 0.01524 1540283
333 914.497 2968.636 1202579 2095257 1451206 2168507 1352.195 1.25476 0,01778 1549.497
337 67 1 563 2979.131 1182.943 2107.661 1441.665 2171369 1345516 1.27508 0.01778 1570.833
338 857.252 2978.176 1178.173 2107.661 1437 5 4 9 2169.461 1341.7 1.28016 0.02032 1576.893
343 810.501 2989.626 1157.183 2121 5 7 2 1423 5 3 7 2175.186 1335.021 1.30556 0.02032 1599.682
344 796.19 2987.718 1151.458 2122.926 1420.675 2175.185 1328 3 4 2 1.31064 0.02286 1605.743
349 726.542 2987.718 1131.422 2136283 1407318 2174231 1314.985 l.a.'WSS 0.02286 1641.502
350 714 138 2987.718 1125.698 2137237 1403.502 2175.185 1309261 1.34366 0.0254 1647.563
360 607.26 3001.075 1071315 2167.768 1367 2 4 6 2183.772 1278.73 1.40208 0.03048 1701.505
370 532.861 301634 1030289 2195.437 1338.623 2195221 1255.831 1.450,34 0.0381 1762 358
380 450.81 3029.698 985.447 2227 5 7 6 1301.414 2209533 1224 3 4 7 1.50876 0.04064 1826.116
390 376.39 3043.055 940.604 2265.085 1258 48 2228514 1187.137 1.5748 0.05334 1890.726
400 298.155 3059 274 891.946 2306.111 1208.867 2245.788 1148019 1.63576 0.06604 1955335
401 287.66 3063.091 886.221 2313.744 1205.051 2248.65 1144203 1.64064 0.066O4 1955.335
410 220.874 3077.402 844.241 1173.566 2269.64 1106.039 1.69926 0.07874 201158
420 145.501 3089505 798.445 1126516 2294.446 1061.197 1.7653 0.09398 2071.582
430 75.852 3113.658 752.649 1076 2 4 9 2324.023 1010.631 1.83134 0.1143 2129281
440 -3.337 3141.326 703.036 1019.003 2366.003 940.982 15177 0.14224 2204.558
450 -80.619 3168.995 651.515 963.666 2404.167 871.333 1.98374 016764 2252 439
451 - 8 7 297 3171.857 648.653 961.758 2407 5 8 3 865.609 1.96882 0.17018 2256.196
460 -137.864 3201.434 613.352 2446.147 803.593 2 04978 0.19304 2304.077
SHEAR SPECIMEN PSBIOO S C A N EVERY 10 S E C .
B E A R I N G P O S T - T E N S I O N E D T O 2000 M I C R O S T R A I N
STRAIN G ^ G E 1 A P P E A R S NOT TO HAVE W/ORKED

S T R A I N G A G E S
.....gOLTI"**" •••**BOLT2'***'* "•••BOLT3'"*** ••'"BOLT4*"*" B-END T-END TOTAL
SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N D SOUTH T - E N D NORTH T - E N D SUP SUP LOAD
SCAN T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE T-SlOE B-SIDE T-SIDE B-SIDE mm mm (kN)
M I C R O S T R A I N

2496713 728.22 2.13106 0.2286 23S8019


470 -205.604 3237 689 571.372
-275253 3271.082 519.851 2549.188 651.»3 2.20218 0.26162 2409.657
480
2619.791 558.392 2.30378 0.31242 2486 3 8 7
490 - 3 4 2 993 3316 879 471.192
-425.045 3355.996 406.314 2683715 462.029 2.37998 0.35306 2533.418
500
-435.54 3356 3 5 399.635 2686577 448.672 2.39014 0.355R 2535.721
501
2703751 411.462 2.39014 0.36576 2354262
510 -494.694 3361.721 342.39
-540.49 3355 S 9 6 301.364 2702.797 386.656 2.33934 0.36576 2130361
520
-568.150 3352.18 268.925 2702 7 9 7 377.115 2.2987 O.Sflai 1916^65
530
-600598 3340.731 237.44 2692302 361.849 2.25552 0.36576 1702 5 0 2
540
2688.485 352.308 2.20726 0.36578 1482.475
550 -621588 3329282 202.139
-652.118 3307 3 3 8 164.929 2676.082 330.364 2.15392 0.36576 1256591
560
-874.063 3293 3 6 127 72 2667.495 309.374 2.09804 0.36576 1061.007
570
-696fl61 3276.807 9051 2653.184 275.027 2.02692 0 36576 855.9082
580
2635.056 239.726 1.95326 0.36576 668.3881
590 -727.492 3256.771 50.439
-755.16 3240.552 7.504 2621.699 207.287 1.87452 0.36576 492.1384
600
2603 5 7 2 176.756 1.79324 0.36576 345.5881
610 -790.462 3217.653 -41.154
-841.028 3187 122 -113.665 2577511 136.684 1.651 0.36578 187.5201
620
-892.549 3146.096 -187.13 2532.969 88.98 1.3843 0.36576 6375903
630
2480.494 59.403 1 36652 0.36576 3.756968
640 -925.942 3111749 - 2 3 4 834
-921.172 3109541 -235.788 2482.402 62265 1.40208 0.36576 1.453234
643
BgNCXNG S P E O M E N M02NOOO SCAN EVfflY 1 0 S6C
NON-B6AR1NO P 0 8 T - T E N S O N E D TO 00)0 MICFOSTRAIN
MO^€NTARM O Ê T W E E N 1 Û A D AND C O N C R E T E - S T E E L INTERF/CE) = 176mm
WEST EAST
S T R A 1 N 0 A 0 E S CONNECTION ROTATION DISPLACEMENTS LOAD LOAD
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOUTS BOLT4 WEST EAST WEST EAST B-END T-END CELL CELL TOTAL ROTATDN MOMENT
SOUTH NORTH SOUTH NORTH B-END B-END T-END T-END SLIP SLIP LARQE SMALL LOAD RADIAN kN-m)
B-ENO B-END T-END T-END (KM)

24 -2B6!
M I C R O S T R A I N
mm (kN)
m x10e-3

0 2,862 3.817 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
27 -2862 0,954 2,862 3.817 0.00854 0 0 0 0.07112 0 0 3,756968 3,756968 0,00578 0,33437
37 -3817 0 3,817 4.771 0,00508 0 -0.00254 0 0,13716 0 0 0 0 0,017341 0
47 - 8 587 3,817 22,898 12,404 0,02)32 0 -0,00762 0 0.28702 0 2303734 3756966 6060702 0,063584 0.539403
57 -15268 31-485 65.832 39.118 0.10414 0,00608 -0.03046 0 0,57912 0 2.303734 3.756968 6,060702 0317919 05394O3
67 42.904 111,629 107812 107813 0,18256 0 -0,0869 - 0 06604 0.65786 0 11,51776 11,2709 22.78869 0,722543 2,028193
77 119261 216,579 16782 2099 0.17272 -00127 -0,08128 -0,13716 0,72898 0 20.73227 15.02787 35,76015 0861272 3 182653
67 210854 325 345 254.742 311988 0,18288 -00127 -0,07112 -0,18542 0.8128 0 34,55379 22,54181 57.0956 0,971098 5,081508
87 300538 424.57 366,371 408851 0,19658 -0,0127 -0,06096 -02286 0,90424 0 52.96233 30 05575 1,075145
83.03807 7 390389
107 389288 513.301 482 77 500898 0,20674 -000762 -027432 1,00684 45.08362 1,190751
-0.0506 0.00254 73,7146 116.7982 10,57304
117 «79907 596507 603539 59249 0,21644 0,01016 - 0 32258 56 35452 1,346821
-0,04064 1 11506 0 99 , « 3 9 155.4084 13,83135
127 584BS7 685 037 732741 688853 0 22606 0,0127 75.13892 1,456647
-003302 -0,3683 1,20396 0.00254 122,0899 1972288 17,55337
137 oee.3»4 7814 875855 792849 0.23366 0,02286 80.16679 1,689595
-0,02794 -041402 1,29266 0.00254 152,0367 2422035 21,56811
147 614,793 679671 1017,06 902569 0,24384 0,03302 1088516 1,710983
-0,02032 -045466 1,38176 0.00508 181883 2909346 25,80318
157 938824 97985 1162082 1017.06 0,24892 0,04672 127.7365 1,855491
-001778 - 0 50292 1,4605 0.01016 2142336 34197 30,43533
167 1079,075 1083846 1317598 1143 0,254 0,05334 154.0348 1,976879
-0.00762 - 0 55372 1,5494 0,02032 246,4835 4005184 35 64613
177 1224097 1187842 148739 0,25908 0,0635 1728197 2,098266
1271.802 0 - 0 59944 1,6X68 0.0254 281,0373 453857 40.39327
187 1360532 1284 205 1604.779 1391.063 0,2667 007112 -001524 - 0 63754 1,69164 3132674 195,3615 508.6488 2,254335 45 26975
0.03556
197 1522727 1396 788 1761.25 1527.498 0,27432 0,0762 -001778 -067564 1,75006 0.04318 3465379 2254168 5709546 2,375723 50.81496
207 1695,417 1521,774 1923.445 1668704 0 28194 0,08128 -0O254 -07112 1,6161 380,0912 251,7155 6318068
0.05334 2,50288 56.2308
217 1860,475 1639,127 2077054 1802276 0 28702 0,08382 -002794 -0,75184 1.87198 281,7708 6964159
0.06096 414,645 2,618497 61,98101
227 2024579 1757434 2229708 1937757 0,08636 -003556 -077978 1,9304 308,0696 752.6614
0,2321 0,07366 444,5918 2716763 66,96686
237 2200,131 1888236 2389.995 2081.824 01»)e2 -0.04318 1,98882 341,6823 8210279
0.29464 -08128 0.08636 4791456 2,924855 73 07148
247 235851 2004,543 2538634 013716 -0,06604 2,04724 371 9376 881,03
2213489 029972 -063312 0,1016 509,0923 3,040462 78,41167
257 2525476 2130483 26933S6 0,1397 -007874 2,1082 3982364 932.668
234897 0 30734 - 0 84836 0,12192 534,4316 3,127168 83,00746
267 2729,651 2284,091 2884,214 0,14224 -0,06382 2,1844 4395626 1008548
2516889 0.31242 -089408 0.14732 5689654 3 260116 63 76078
277 2854,637 2379,501 3001,567 0,14478 2.23266 4583475 1050,369
2617069 0,31496 -0-1016 -09144 0,1851 592,0214 3,356362 93 48283
267 2999659 2495699 014478 2,30876 488,4032 110S764
314468 2738238 0.32004 -010668 -094996 0,20066 617 J607 3462428 96 41299
297 3121,782 2596.079 3266,804 0,14732 514.7015 1155098
2844.142 0,32512 -0,11938 -088552 2 36982 0 23368 6403963 3589595 102,8037
307 3241,997 2697212 0,14732 541 0003 1202129
3397514 2956.725 0,3302 -0,14224 -102362 2,47142 02821 661,1286 3,736884 1069895
317 3342177 014886 5635417 1247706
2782126 3502464 3046318 0,33274 -016256 -1,06426 2,58064 684,1646 3.890173 111,0459
014986 0,35814 589.8405 1282434
327 3441.402 2868949 3614093 3145834 0,33528 -11049 2,72286 7025931 4.052023 115,0266
014986 -0,1905 0.45212 604.8683
337 3520592 2934.781 3698144 714.1113 131898
3217192 0.33782 -021336 -1,1684 28702 0,55626 4.254335 117,3892
0,1778 631.1667 136601
347 3605.505 3009.2 3797278 3305922 0,33528 -025146 -121666 306832 0.70104 7348436 4506671 1215749
01778 6198962 1340918
346 3610.276 3011.108 3789.845 3297335 0 33528 -024892 -121412 3,20648 0,81026 721.0221 1193417
0,1776 646.1945 1385645 4,49711
357 3670384 3061.675 3864 064 3368964 0 33628 -02794 -12446 0.8362 7394506 1235224
0.18034 3,2512 646.1945 1390,252 4.635838
358 3678016 3068354 3872651 3375571 0,34036 -028194 -124714 3,25628 0,84328 7440577 1237324
0,16034 631,1667 1359,1 4,66474
359 3678971 3069.308 3857385 3357443 0,33782 -027686 -124206 3,43662 0.98806 7279328 1209599
0.1778 657.4654 1406131 4,635638
365 3706.639 3090297 3904.136 3404.193 0,34036 -029718 -1 25984 1,00638 748,6651 1251456
0.1778 34798 6349236 1362856 4.722543
366 3708547 3092206 3889825 3385111 0 34036 -02921 -1 25222 1,15316 7279328 1212942
0,18034 3,65252 6649794 1418252 4,693642
375 3740986 3120828 3943 254 343854 0 34036 -03175 -127254 3,71602 1,18872 7532721 126 2244
0.1778 642 4376 1372674 4,803468
376 3741 94 3121,782 3923216 3419.458 0 34036 -031496 -1 26238 3,93954 1,37414 7302361
01778 6649794 1420,555 4,768766 122168
380 3750,527 3125 599 3950 886 3447127 0,14036 -0,32766 -127762 399796 1-40716 7555759
0.1778 6349236 1360.553 4,83237 1264294
381 3745757 3121,782 3921,31 3411.826 0,34036 -031496 -1 26492 4.20624 1,58242 725 6291
01778 529 7294 1149,394 4,774566 121,0692
391 3727 629 3104,609 3803,003 3279207 0,33528 -028956 -1 20396 4,20116 1.58496 619,6645
017526 439 5626 957869 4.566474 1022961
401 3689,465 3067399 3671 338 3133.232 -025908 -1 15062 4.17322 5183064
0,3302 015494 1 58496 2628864 587.7921 4,358382 85 25034
411 3427091 2841,28 3262987 -0,17272 -1,06426 324 8056
2685763 0,31496 0,1016 4,0767 1 58496 90.16679 205,3459 3,884393 52 31349
421 2540741 20781 2377592 -093472 115,1791
1780.332 0,27432 0,06858 008362 3.8354 1.58496 1 5.02767 33.45641 2791908 16 27579
431 1150,632 960769 1041,866 -085532 18,42854
714814 0,20828 0 11938 0.1 &M6 3,57124 1,58496 0 0 1,83815 2 977621
441 538,106 306263 408J51 -0»544 0
224212 0,15748 -0.03302 25M76 1.58496 1,491329 0
BENDINQ S P E O M E N M 0 3 N 000 SCAN EVB1Y 10 S E C
NON-BEARINQ P O S T - T E N S I O N E D TO 0 0 0 0 MICFOSTRAIN
M O M E N T ARM (BETWEEN LOAD AND C O N C R E T E - S T C E L INTEHFA:E) = 254 m m
WEST EAST
S T R A I N Q A a E S CONNECTION ROTATION DISPLACEMENTS LÛAD LOAD
BOLT1 BOLT2 BOLTS BOLT4 WEST EAST WEST EAST B-END T-END CELL CELL TOTAL ROTAON
SOUTH MO^eNT
NORTH SOUTH NORTH B-END B-END T-END T-END SLIP SLIP LAH3E SMALL lOAO RADIAN
B - E N O ((N-m)
B-ENO T-END T-ENO mm m m m m m m m m mm (KN) (kN) (kN) x10e-3
M I C R O S T R A I N
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 1 908 1 908 1,908 1.908 0 0 -0,00254 0 0.066O4 0.00254 0 3.756968
22 3 756968 0,00578 0 477135
9,541 11,449 11.449 7.832 0.00608 0 0,02286 -0,00762 0.29718 0.00608 2.303734 3.756968
32 6.060702 -0,02312 0.789709
3 9 118 50,587 42.934 41.96 0.00762 -0.00508 0.01524 -0,0254 0.50292 0.00608 2.303734 3.756968
42 6.060702 0,028902 0.789709
82,052 102,088 95.409 103.041 0.02794 -0,0127 0 -0,09398 0.6M84 0.00508 6.910758 7.513937 14.42469
52 14853 174,598 0,248555 1.831936
169828 192728 0.06098 - 0 03048 0.04064 -0,19558 0 68326 0.00254 13.82152 11.2709 25.09242 0421965 3.186737
82 220,395 280487 255.696 288,135 0.07B2 -0,0506 0,06856 -027432 0.7366 0.0C6O8 20.73227 1502787 35,78015
72 0526012 4 541539
309125 371,141 368278 397855 0.08636 -0,06604 0.08382 -03429 078994 0 29.94676 22.54181 52 48857
82 401 -672 498,035 0,635838 6.886049
491356 51807 0.09144 -0,0762 0.09144 -039116 0.65852 0 00608 41.46455 26.29878 67,78332 0,716763 9.606942
92 497,061 622067 622066 644364 009906 -0,0762 0.09906 -0,4318 0.92964 0.00254 57.5896 33.81271 91,40251
102 593,444 0.809249 11.60812
743236 74898 768396 0.10668 - 0 0762 0.1016 -047752 1.00584 0.00508 71.41131 45.06362 116,4949
i12 684 083 850094 0,9&1855 14.79486
885359 882533 0.10922 -0,07112 0.10414 -051816 1 08712 0.00254 82 92909 56.35452 1392838 1,026902 17 68902
122 776 629 945,503 978.896 993207 0.1143 -007112 0.10668 -055826 1.17094 0.00606 1013576
132 67.62498 1683826 1,121387 21.46079
678717 1032325 108957 1100065 012446 -0,0635 0.10922 -0,59944 1.24208 0,00254 117.4829 78.89589 1963788 1,254335 24.9401
142 990,345 112201 1201.199 1209,786 0.127 -0,05842 0.11176 -0,64516 1.28778 0.0C608
152 1121 0 5 6 1359114 93.32378 229 8352 1,369942 29.18907
1218373 1335725 1333817 0.13208 -0,05334 0.11176 -0,6965 1.32588 0,00506 1589474 1051947 264,1421 1,514451 33.54605
162 1230776 1301,379 1449262 1439,721 0.13716 -0,04826 0.1143 -0,74422 1.3569 0.00254 1865905 1164656 303056 1 635839 38.48812
172 1338588 138343 1567,569 1545625 014224 -004318 0.12192 -0.7974 1 38694 0,00508 205 019 13525 340269 1,739384
192 1448 308 1466436 1691,601 43.21416
1659,162 014478 - 0 03556 010922 -0,82804 t 41224 0 00254 232662 1502778 392 9399 1-894393 48.63336
192 1555 1 6 7 1546,58 1814,678 1768 882 014732 - 0 03048 010668 -0S6868 1 44018 000606 258.0013 1653057 423 307
202 1663933 1632448 2 53 75999
1943,461 1866235 0.1524 -0,02794 0.09144 -091694 1.48336 0 2833411 1878475 471,1996 2.19185
212 1747893 1894,464 59 M 0 9 5
2039844 1973057 0.16002 -0,0254 0.0762 -034742 1.50114 0.00508 3063766 202875 509 2516 2288017 64.67495
222 1838531 1767929 2150518 2076099 0.16002 -0,0254 0.07874 -0,98298 1.52654 0.00254 3317164 2254188 557,1331 2.364162 70.75591
232 1931,078 1843302 2287871 2182003 0.1651 -0,02032 0,0635 -1,03124 1.54432 0.00608 3593594 2442016 6 0 3 561 2.531792 76 6 5 2 2 5
242 2021,716 191295 2380,454 2285999 016764 - 0 01779 0.0508 -1,07188 1.57228 0.00508 3893057 2705004 6598061 2 66474 63.79538
252 2108,493 1983,553 2491,126 2387132 0.17526 -001524 0,04316 -1,11252 1.59258 0.00608 421 5 5 5 8 2967987 7183545 2.797888 91.23102
253 2119034 1990,232 2504,486 2400 49 0.17526 -0,01778 0.04572 -1,11506 1.59766 0.0C60S 426.1632 2967987 722962 2791908 91.81617
262 2167728 2044,815 25894 0.17526
2477771 -0,0127 0,0381 -1,15062 1.81798 0.00254
272 449.1988 315.5836 7647824 2.901734 97.12736
226978 2109,493 2697212 2575088 0.18034 -0,01018 0.02794 -1,19128 1.63576 0.00254 4768418 341 8 8 2 3 8187242
282 2348107 3.034682 103378
2188648 2799.758 2 8 6 1 91 0.18542 -0,00506 0,02032 -122682 1.65354 0.00254 509.0923 368.1807 877273
291 2407169 3.156069 111.4137
2218259 2875626 2740148 O18796 -0,00254 0.00762 -125984 1.66878 0 532.1279 3863655 9190934
302 2495899 3.271678 1167249
2284,091 2991.071 2847004 0.19304 0,00254 0 02032 -130302 1.69184 0 5597709 4245347 9643057
312 2559823 2331796 3364162 125.0068
3075985 2928102 0.19658
0,0127 -0.02286 -133604 1.70942 0.0O254 595.1107 4470768 1032187 3.586474
322 2617089 2372822 1 31.0676
3160899 3007291 0.20066
0,02032 -0.0381 -136906 1.71958 000254 6035392 4696184 1073158 3.705202 136291
332 2878131 241 &71 3243905 0.20066
3089342 0,04572 -0.05588 -1.40208 1,72974 0.0O254
342 2733467 6242715 492.1597 1118431 3878613 141.7368
2452011 3324049 3168532 0.20574
0,04572 -0.08382 -1.43002 1.7399 0.00254 6403963 5222155 1162812 4.017341 147.8517
352 2795484 2492083 3408983 0.21082
3253446 0,04572 -0.11684 -1.46558 1.73736 0.00254 8519145 5447573 1198872 4.184971 1513773
362 2840325 2517843 3467162 0.20629
3314508 0,04572 -0.1397 -149098 1.73482 O002S4 665736 5635417 1229,278 4.289017 1 56.1183
372 2882305 2546,486 3528224 3378524 0.21082
0,04572 -0.16256 -151636 1.7309 0,00254 672.6468 5923265 1254,973 4.404624
382 2917607 2567456 1593816
3573066 3424229 0.21082
0,04572 -0.16002 -1.5367 1.73736 0,00254 6749501 5973544 1272304
392 2956724 0.21082 4.445087 1615827
2592262 3627449 3481,474 0,04572 -023368 -155448 1.7272 0 6795575 6123823 1291,94
402 2986,301 0.21082 4653179 164.0764
2608482 388275 3519637 0,04826 -026416 -1 56718 1.72212 0 894.1846 8238532 1307.818
412 3014,924 2624,701 0.22606 4.757225 168.0929
3694.238 3552076 0 05O8 -0.30226 -1 57226 1.7145 0 6795575 6349236 1314,481 4.695954 1669391
422 3042592 2840,921 3723812 0.22606
3583561 0,0508 -0,33528 -1 57734 1.70688 0
0.22606 679.5575 646.1945 1325752 4.982659 168.3705
432 3065491 2657141 3750527 3612184 0,0506 -033526 -1.58496 1.69672 0 679S575 8537085 1333286
442 3089343 2870498 0.22608 5 1693248
3770563 3836036 0,0508 -03937 -1 59004 1 68658 0 6743501 661 2 2 2 4 1338172 5144509 169.6939
452 3077 894 2659,049 0.21844
3800.735 3418504 0,0508 -039624 -1.50114 1 66678 0 5883854 5597852 1128771 4.930636 1433539
462 3056,904 2639967 0.21082
3406.1 3205742 0,0508 -0,37592
0.20066 -1.36906 1.8256 0 4699311 4583475 9282795 4.566474 1173914
472 3003,475 25894 3189488 2958724 0.05334 -03302 -124714 1.57734 0 373.1805 3644237 737,8042 4.16763
482 2657499 93.67573
2464,414 2897571 2686.681 0.1905 0,04826 -023114 -1.17094 1.534 0 2902518 278 0139 5682657 3.734104
492 2650462 72.16974
2302219 2824701 2377592 0.13288 0.03302 -019304 -1.1176 1.47D66 0 2142335 206.8319 420,8654
502 236328 3473988 53.44991
2057 972 2289.78 2033165 oiesi 0,02032 -0,13208 -099822 1.4M62 OOOEOS 154.34 1427639 297,1039 2.99422 37 73219
512 2011,222 1780,332 1888235 1683014
0.14986 0 -0,0635 -0.89154 1.31826 0,00608 96.75061 93.92376 1908744 2.514451 24.21565
522 1515,095 1426364 1404328 1271709 0.12954 -0,02286 -0,0127 -0.77216 1 20396 0.00762 50.87904 52.59756 1032766 2.028902
532 936 918 13.11613
985575 889211 822425 0.1016 -0,03556 -0,01016 -085278 1.1049 001016 23.03801 22.54181 45,57782 1.65896
542 374,003 510,436 5.786363
384.498 38738 - 0 03048 -004064 -0.48514 0.9906
0.O4318 0.01016 4.607024 7.513937 1212096 1.225434 1 53836:
552 94,455 186 048 10972 139297 0 0127 - 0 00254 -00762 -02921 0 56642 0.01016 0 0 0 0-861272 0
S C A N E V E R Y 10 S E C
BENDIN3 SPEOMEN M05N100
N O N - B E A R I N Q P 0 S T - T E N 3 O N E D TO 2000 M I C F O S T R A I N
M O M E N T A R M P E T W E E N L O A D A N D C O N C R E T E - S T E E L INTERF/>CE) = 546 mm
WEST EAST
S T R A I N O A G E S CONNECTION ROTATION DISPLACEMENTS U3AD U3AD
SOLTl BOLT2 BOLT3 BOLT4 WEST EAST WEST EAST BOTTOM TOP CELL CELL TOTAL ROTAON MOI^NT
SOUTH NORTH 3DUTH NORTH B-END B-END T-END T-END SLIP SLIP LAH3E SMALL LOAD
B-END RADIAN kN-m)
B-END T-END T-END mm mm (KN) (kN) (KN) X106-3
M 1 C R O S T R A 1 N
1 1973 1961 2206 2206 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 1973955 0 0 0 0
1959092 2209 817 2207908 0,00508 0 -0,00508 0 0,5586 0,00254 2,303734 3 756968
18 1971 0 9 2 6.060702 0 0^121 1,654672
1957164 2215541 2218495 0,00762 0,00255 -0,00762 -0,00215 0.75184 0,00254 8,910766 7.513937 14.42468
28 1966.322 0,046367 3,937942
1955275 2228991 2227 944 0,01016 0,0102 -0,00762 -0,00862 0,80678 0.00254 16.12525 15.02787 31.15312 0,083283 8,5O»803
38 1964.414 1946 689 2242258 224798 0,01016 0,0102 -00127 -001506 1,07442 0 29.94676 26.29878 66.34554 0108649 15 3 5 6 0 3
48 1 954.873 1938102 2263246 2270878 001778 001785 -002032 -002585 1,23952 0.0O254 46.3753 37 56968 65.94488 23,46288
58 1948194 0 18615
1926653 2293777 2300.455 0,02266 0,02805 -004083
-0,03302 1 38176 0,00254 69,10758 56 35452 1254621 0264138 34,25115
68 1936745 1916158 2330032 2338618 0,03048 0,0408 -005334 -0,05816 1,49606 0.00254 99,0639 75.13892 174.1928 47 55464
78 1925296 0,415953
1901.846 237392 2382506 004064 0,0561 -0,08185
-00762 1,5748 0,00508 1268969 101.4377 228.1346 0,578837 62,28075
86 1913847 1887535 2425441 2433073 0,0508 00714 -01016 -0.10885 1,64084 0.O06O8 158,6437 1239795 260.6232 7861013
0,758305
98 1902398 1875132 2480778 2489 364 0,06096 -0,14001
0,08415 -0127 1,69672 0,00608 191,1975 1502778 341.4753 0,937873 93 22276
108 1689 04 1861 7 7 5 2542794 2550426 0,07366 -0.17232
0,102 -015746 1,74752 0 00508 216,6366 1765766 393,1134 1,150289 107,32
116 1878546 1849 372 2613397 2618167 0.06382 -021109
0,11475 -01905 1,7907 0,00608 251,0906 2028754 453866 123,9327
128 1868051 0,1016 1 366805
1838876 2689724 2692586 -024771 0,00508 229.1737 5148181
0 1326 -02286 1,8288 285,6444 140,5453
138 1860.418 0.1143 I, 6 1 6 9 2 7
1829.336 2778454 2775591 0.1479 -027178 -029294 0,00762 2592285 5794276 158,1837
1,86162 320.1981
146 1868051 1837 922 0,12954 1 861853
2878634 2876725 0.1683 -0,30968 -033367 0,00762 3432342 2692848 6325189 1 72 6 7 7 7
1,88468 2,142602
158 1910985 1899 938 3018885 0 14886 -0,38126
3030 333 0.19635 -03556 1,90246 0 00762 370.8772 315.5836 6864807 1874038
168 1953919 0,16764 2,464767
1961.954 3167723 3178217 -042865 0,00762 3962185 338.1254 734,3418 2004753
0,2295 -0,40132 1,9177
178 1965404 2009656 0,19656 -048896 2 792558
3324194 3322285 0,26265 -0,44956 0,00762 4192525 3644237 7838762 2139436
02286 1,93294 3,178663
188 2017843 2 0 5 3 547 3487343 346349 0.00762 444 5918 3907225 8353143 226,0408
0,306 -049784 -05665 1,94818
198 2038.833 0254 3 638756
2076445 3637135 356943 0,3466 0,00762 4630203 4132643 8762846 2392257
0,28702 -0,5461 -0,64405 1,95834 4075704
208 2079859 2106022 3796,468 3728727 0,39625 0,00762 490.6634 439,5626 930226 2538517
0,32256 -0,5869 -073236 1,97358 4,577693
218 2198165 2200.476 4040 715 3943397 0,42075 0,03048 4975741 454.6905 952,1646 259,9409
0,3566 -067564 -081206 1,98628 5,077211
228 2239191 2239594 4203865 4082694 0,4539 0.03048 5183064 4733753 991,6817 2707291
0.3937 -073406 -090253 1,99698 5,566624
238 2317427 2319.738 4372739 0,51 0,03048 5390387 492.1602 1031,198 2815173
4234.395 -078232 -088436 2,0066 8,077097
0,4318
248 2367994 2372213 453875 4393728 0,56865 0.03048 5528602 514.7016 1067662 291,4443
0.47498 -0,86614 -1,07915 2,01422 6,703709
258 2410928 2418009 4670414 0,6477 0,03302 5689864 533.4864 1102472 3008748
4528254 -092964 -1,16316 2.0193 7,317555
0,5207
268 2454.816 2462851 4794,446 0,76245 0.03302 585.1107 5485143 1133626 3094796
4657057 0.56166 -1,00638 -12407 2,02438 8,036401
278 249296 2502923 490512 0,83385 0.03302 5943247 5672991 1161,624 317,1233
4779.18 -1.09728 -1,32256 2.02438 8,726201
057912
288 2515877 2530.592 4994,805 085425 0.03302 6058425 578 5696 1164.412 323,3445
4880313 0.61722 -1,17856 -138933 2,02692 9,105776
298 2534005 2 5 4 6 611 0,6568 0.03556 608,1462 589.8405 1197,987 327,0504
5081 6 2 7 4991 942 -12954 -143026 2.02692 9,557316
0.68072
308 2548317 2559214 0,8721 0.03656 6242715 6048683 122914 3355552
5148413 5072085 0.7239 -139192 -149057 2.02946 10C8355
318 2563582 2577342 0,9231 0,03556 6288765 6088253 1237504 337 8385
5202797 5139,826 0.75692 -1.48082 -1,54442 2.03454 10,83274
328 2575031 2591 654 0,9588 0.03556 6334855 616.1392 1248625 3411476
5247639 5194,209 0.78094 -1,55702 -1,58965 2,032 11 0 6 5 4 8
336 2585 526 0,0361 6238532 1261.746 344 4 5 6 7
2605011 5301 0 6 8 526Q996 -1,64846 -1 65212 2.03464
0.79756 1 0047 638,093
348 2596021 2618368 0,0381 6349241 1277624 II, 59533 3487914
5340185 53087 0.74422 -17399 -1.69951 2,03464
1 0455 0 03556 6427 638 6811
358 2604 608 2626955 1288292 12.02145 351 7 0 3 7
5379303 5358312 071882 1 09805 -182118 2.03708
-1.7512 0,03656 6496108 646.1845 1302716 12,32455
366 2610333 2636495 355 6415
5412696 5404,109 0.70612 1,1526 2,03962
-1,8923 -1 79859 0,0506 656,5215 6499515 1304.169 126683
378 2616057 2639358 5454.676 3560362
5470895 0.69342 1,1526 -201676 -1 83521 2.0447
388 2617.011 0,0508 6542176 653.7065 1314637 12.99597 3588506
264222 547662 5503334 0.68634 1,20615 -207772 -187613 2.04724 0,0508 661,128 6574654
398 2621 782 1323201 13.3208
2647 945 549761 5533865 0 69068 1,26225 -2,1463 -191706 2.04878 00508 665,736 661 2 2 2 4 1329,262 13,66611
408 2625508 361234
2655577 5525279 5564 396 0.68834 1,30815 -22098 -195583 2.05486 0,0506 6680393 6649794 1335322 14 0 2 9 O 9
418 2632276 2662256 3628886
553959 558634 0.68834 1 3515 -227836 -19946 2.0574 0,0508 6703431 6687364 1 343686 14 3 6 6 2 6 364543
428 2636.093 2668935 5561.534 5615,917 0.68634 1.3974 -233934 -2.03338 2 05884 6749601
0,0508 6724833 1348747 14,69768 3668264
436 2638001 2672751 5578708 5836907 1.4331 -241046 -2,06784 2.06246 0 0508 6772538 672,4833 1352051 15,01921 368481
442 2638955 2675613 5584432 5642631 1,44585 -243332 -2.08076 2 06246 0.05334 6795575 5748126 115762 369,1099
452 2666624 2701.374 5209475 5295343 1.41015 -229362 -184506 2.05232 0.05334 582,8069 4688184 9464602
462 2701.925 2729 996 316,0301
4756283 4935651 1,3515 -207264 -1,74043 2,02692 0.05334 4768418 3758846 758,0896 2583636
472 2734.364 2754 803 4333621 462461 a 1.2964 -181102 -1 55734 1,98628 0.05334 382,395 285,5283 5734763
482 277062 2777 701 2068585
3929.067 4332666 1,24185 -1 55194 -1,36778 1,93602 0.05334 2879481 193,1184 3949229
492 2802105 2804 415 156 669
353791 4042623 1.1934 -1 32334 -1,16101 1.87452 0,05334 195,8045 1202225 2377054 107814
502 2835498 2828268 318108 3746855 1.1373 -1,13284 -097361 1,7653 0.05334 1174829 63,86846 119,1545 64,88358
512 2869 845 2846395 2902486 3492113 1.071 -1,00584 -0,82067 1 59512 0,05334 55,28606 2254181 29,45257
522 2894.651 32,52818
2864 523 2683999 3268856 1.0086 -080932 -0,7022 1,31572 0,05334 6,910766 7,513937 2,906913 8,040551
532 289656 2866431 2613397 3191,575 0,99195
-08763 -087636 1,06934 0 05334 -4.60702 7,513937 2,906913 0 733587
542 2897 514 2864.523 2606718 3 1 6 2 988 09884
- 0 86868 -06742 0,98806 -4.60702 0 793567
BeNDINQ S P E O M E N MOÏBIOO SCAN E V m Y 1 0 SEC T O P S T R A I N Q A Q E O F T H g S E œ N O BOLT WAS N0TWOFKIN3 AT THE TIME OF
BEAFtNO P O S T - T Ï N S I O N E D TO 2000 MICROSTRAIN PHTENSONINQ -INITIAL VALUE WAS GUESSED AT FFOM THE BOTTOM STRAIN Q/OE VALUE
MO^€NTARM (BETWEEN LOAD AND C O N C R E T E - S T E E L INTERFACE)-
WEST EAST
S T R A I N a A O E CONNECTION ROTATION DISPLACEMENTS U3A0 LOAD
••™aOLT1-—" "•—B0LT2—— ••—BOLTS"*— —~eOLT4^"^— EAST WEST EAST WEST B-END T-ENO CELL CELL TOTAL HOTATDN MOr^NT
SOUTH B - E N D NORTH B - E N D SOUTH T - E N D NORTH T - E N O B-END B-END T-END T-END SLIP SLIP LAR3E SMALL LOAD RADIAN (<N-m)
T-SIDg B-SIDe T-Sioe B-SIDE T-SIDg B-SIDE T-SlOe B-SIDE

1
M I C R O
1677 2220
S T R A I N m (kN)
m xlOe-3
2081 2081 2495 927 1959 907 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 1878046 2220 954 2081.954 2081.954 2485 928908 1959 907 -0.00152 0 -0,00457 0,00127 -000432 0 0 -375697 -375697 0,004046 -1,02565
20 167223 2217138 2080046 2079.092 248977 931.77 1961771 909863 0 0.002794 -0.0061 0,00127 0,105156 0 4,607157 0 4,607157 0,017341 1,257754
30 1687459 2208551 2072413 2089551 2499 311 942265 1973311 916541 0.00(318 0 009398 -001372 -0,00279 0,225298 0 11,51791 7,513892 19.03181 0,068786 5,195683
40 1654,102 2194,24 2060964 2055.24 2517.439 957531 1991.439 929899 0.011938 0.021336 -0.02718 -0,01803 0 337312 0 25,33943 18.78471 44,12414
50 1638.928 2171.342 2040.928 2031387 2556557 0,178613 12,01589
988062 2016154 952.797 0.028924 0.037592 -0.04394 -004826 0,4191 0 43,7681 37 58942 81 33752 0,356647 22,20514
eo 1819755 2144.827 2014214 2000.858 2606189 1024317 2056317 979511 0.04191 0.056134 -00668 -0,08839 0,476504 0 89,10753 56.35417 125,4617 0,576301 34,25104
70 1598785 2117.913 1985591 1986509 2666185 1065343 2102114 1013859 0.062739 0.07493 -0.09398 -0,13259 0520192 -0,00178 94,44696 82 65277 1770997 0,828902 48,34823
ao 1576821 2087 382 1956014 1931.208 2737834 1111.139 2156497 1052978 0.080772 0.09652 -0.12903 -0,18212 0,548894 0 122,09 105.1944 2272844 1,111561 62,01865
90 1558693 2057805 1929.3 1895907 2816069 1159798 2212788 1089232 0.103124 0.116586 -0.1884 -024003 0.577596 0 156,6437 131.493 288.1368 142949 78,66134
100 1538657 2027274 1904.493 1864.422 29048 1213227 2272996 1126349 0.122428 0.137922 -021539 -0,30226
110 1517887 0,597916 0 1865904 1615486 348.139 1,77052 95,04194
1996743 1884.457 1833.891 3002117 1268564 2338728 1182896 0.146559 0.162052 -026568 -0,37135
120 1501.447 0.61976 0,001778 216,537 191.6042 408.1411 2,152023 111 4225
1988,121 1855835 1792865 3095617 1320085 2437953 1218.988 0.170434 0.167386 -034747 -039065
130 1485228 0,622554 -000356 244,18 221 6598 465.8397 2448555 127,1742
1936835 1837707 1764.242 3198659 137256 1251.427 0.19S834 0.188992
2504.74 -041275 -045542 0.641804 -0,00356 2764302
140 1471.871 1903242 3311.242 1425989 1292453 2517153 528.1454 2,853757 144,1837
1821.487 1729.895 2586899 0.221234 0.207518
150 1463264 18584 3433365 1478556 -048412 -0,506 0,656114 -0,00178 304,0732 281 7708 585 844 3,233526 1 599354
1809.084 1890777 2674567 1328708 0.251206 0.22479
160 1477595 1784,935 3544 994 1516828 -0.56312 -0,56185 0.666242 - 0 00178 3317161 315.5834 6472995 3 643353 1787129
1818625 184021 2765206 1334.433 0.27B6O6 0.24638
170 146332 1740093 3664.255 156624 -08284 -062509 0,684022 0 361,6628 341.682 703.5448 4,042775 192,0677
1826258 1605.963 2857753 1380193 0.262382
180 1489044 3775884 0.30353 -0.70866 -0,88174 0.698008 0 384,6987 371 9375 756.6362 4,452023 206,5617
1700.021 1830.074 1574S78 1610128 2931.218 1386616 0277114
190 1496,877 3917089 0.327406 -078765 -0,73558 0,716312 0,003556 4123416 3944792 806.8208 4,842197
1655179 183399 1539.077 1669282 2992279 1427.934 0.291386 2202621
0.356854
200 1501,447 1817969 1833.89 1510.454 4035396 171317 3052387 145751 0309118 -0,88011 -0,80747 0.735838 0,006334 4399847 4282917 8682763 5,320231 237,0394
210 1507172 0.378206 -096977 -0,86817 0,752348 0,00889 463,0205 4508333
1834.844 1785645 3115357 1482317 0.327914 9138538 5,746821 249,4821
158076 148374 418706 0.406654
220 1513851
1540.888 1835799 1451.301 4303495
1817168 151571 0.342646 -1,05486 -095225 0.770128 0012192 4952706 477.1321 9724027 6,238306 2654659
3190.73 0.43053
230 1522437
149203 1835799 1419816 4453287
1975365 1552919 0.360172 -1,15951 -1,0226 0,797909 0,017526 5160028 5034305 1019.433 6725434 2783053
240 1531 978 1936427 3270874 0.46355 -127483 -1,11252 0 806688 0,021082 543,6459 529.7292
1443371 1594 899 0.380238 1073375 7,307514, 2930314
250 1541,519 1836753 1389285 4810712 3350063 0.503682 -1,39471 -120218 0.8»738
1991177 1627338 0.400304 0,0W638 5689856 556.028 1125014 7,921387 307,1287
1399.483 1936753 13578 4752872 341685 0.5S3212
260 1550106 2028974 166264 0.417576 -15146 -129591 0,839724 0,029972 5943249 5823264 1176651 6 566896 321 2258
1362273 1837 707 1330,131 488549 3480773 0.804012
270 1558693 2072962 168183 0.441706 -1,6223 -137744 0.85344 0,033528 8127534 8048682 1217.622 9,151445 3324107
1321 247 1641 523 1302483 5020971 3530388
280 1 566326
1288809 1644.388
2114.842 1719.885 0.678688 0.456438 -1,72568 -1,49479 0,87122 0,038606 6334857 623653 1257139 9678613 343,1989
1274794 5148819 3601.943 0.784032
290 2139848 1743737 0.47117 -1,85445 -1,59969 0.884892 0,042194 649611 646.1944 1295 805 1083815 3537549
1573958 1264.002 1848202 1251,896 5254.723 3654.418 0.83586
300 2157776 1759003 0.491236 -199349 -1,68935 0,901192 0,043942 6634325 657.4853 1320899 11,33237 360,6051
1578729 1247763 1654,881 1236631 5342499 3699.26 0.838708 0.529828 -2,09271 -1,77902
310 2165409 1778084 0.917449 0,04572 677254 6649792 1342233 11 83757
1582545 123538 1856789 1223273 5409.285 366,4297
320 2155668 3737.424 1759003 0.86868
1574.913 121439 0.560832 -2.18694 -1,86182 0,931164 0,047498 881,861 6687362 1350597 12,39422 368713
330 1854 881 12061 545699 3688785 0.69108
2157776 1752324 0.606298 -226441 -194183 0,930292 0,047498 6933788 8687362 1362115 12,98324 371 8574
1582545 1211527 1859851 1204,191 5500878 3894.49
340 2173995 1773314 0.918432 0.850494 -2,32969 -2,00685 094615 0,047498 6956825 8762501 1371.933 13,3341
1585407 1204.849 1884,421 1197513 5565756 374,5376
350 2171.133 3737424 1762819 0.947928
1588.27 1196.282 0.74549 -2,43129 -2,07569 0,953008 0,047498 7002696 660.0071 1390297 13 96422 376,821
360 1886238 1192742 5600.103 3742194 0.977646
2189.281 1782855 0.82O42 -251765 -2,14199 0,955902 0.048276 704897 683 764 1398861 14,52543 379.1045
370 1589224 1188829 1866,329 1184.155 5657349 3782266 1.008142 0.912876 -2,64058 -220955
2194.031 1782855 0,96139 0,048276 7072003 695035 1402235 15 20116
1667283 3828102
380 1569224 1181.95 1176523 5700,283 2208343 3796485 1791.442 1.038114 1.036066 -274953 -226549 0 96266 0.047499 7164148 702.5489
1590.178 1170501 1870146 1169944 1418964 15 89827 3873771
390 575562 2202618 3829.97 1779993 1.083918 1.133856 -2,90932 -239039 0,967994 0,048276 7233256 706.3054 1429631 16 68497 3902893
400 1592066 1163623 1872054 1161.257 5778518 3828062 1,136142
1652108 1357331 1.0922 -3,02158 -2,46507 0 970788 0.048278 725 6293 7138194 1439449
1643607 1232517 1916896 1212778 5199.385 17 66202 3929695
410 1055802 3388227 987.144 1,06077 0.986536 -2,72415 -2,16129 0,947674
1715164 197605 1286243 0,048276 5689856 5485141 11175 16 063O1 305 0774
420 1329.834 4273919 619.783 2874926 0,982219
680 881 0.864616 -222631 -1 67691 0,905256 0.04572 3823951 3644237 7468187 13,36301 203.8815
430 1799.123 1436601 2050469 1372111 3357992 373.828 2371.167 47289 0,970204 074189 -1,66497 -126009 0,843788 0,040386
1877359 1544.505 218,8406 195.3612 4142017 10 60462 113.0771
2128704 1464.858 2671.047 261.045 1951.367 388894 0,766826 0.84262 -125044 -094412 0,72771 0.0353O6 87 5362 71,36195 1589182 8,427168 43,36466
440 1946053 1939913 2215527 1560,067 2240753 265816 1670865 388894 0,663702 0.639826 -1,04267 -07178 0543306 0,029972 2,303601
441 1946053 164373 2230258 1662278 0 2.303601 6979191 0 828893
221648 1583,893 268.678 37271 0,663702 0.636762
1947008 1642776 -1,0381 -070942 0,465582 0.029194 2,303601 0 2,303601 6,943353 0 626983
2220 297 15677 2221671 1857.508 0.662178 -1,04115 -0,70256 0,404114 0,029972 0 0 0 8,921965 0