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(Verbal and Non Verbal







1. Introduction
2. Components of Communication Process
3. Importance of Communication
4. Types of Communication
5. Communication Barriers
6. Overcoming Communication Barriers
7. Seven C’s of Effective Communication
8. Verbal Communication Used in Business
9. Advantages and Limitations of Verbal Communication
10. Non-Verbal Communication
11. Types of Non-Verbal Communication
12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Non-Verbal Communication
13. Conclusion

(Crux of first three classes)



'Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another'. However,

communication is not just a process. It's an art of first listening or reading the information,
comprehending it, processing it and then transferring it. There is a huge amount of effort that goes
into communication. Gesticulations, voice modulation, body language and the spoken language
are some of the important aspects of communication. If the other person is unable to comprehend
any of these factors of communication, then the process of communication fails.

Communication involves the sharing of ideas and information. While many people think of
communication primarily in oral or written form, communication is in fact so much more. A
knowing look or a gentle touch can also communicate a message loud and clear, as can a hard push
or an angry slap. So, what is communication -an interaction between two people in which
something is exchanged.


Communication is a process of exchanging verbal and non verbal messages. It is a continuous
process. Pre-requisite of communication is a message. This message must be conveyed through
some medium to the recipient. It is essential that this message must be understood by the recipient
in same terms as intended by the sender. He must respond within a time frame. Thus,
communication is a two way process and is incomplete without a feedback from the recipient to
the sender on how well the message is understood by him.
Communication Process

The main components of communication process are as follows:

1. Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context
may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with
context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.

2. Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes
use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the
required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of
employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views,
background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great
impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in
ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by
the sender.

3. Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that
elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the
message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.
4. Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must
choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be
conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication
is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This
choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication.
For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small
group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required
from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

5. Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended /
aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent
upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message,
and the reliance of encoder on decoder.

6. Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the

sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct
interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-
verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos,
reports, etc.

Communication is an integral instinct of living things. The importance of communication is best
understood when there is a lack of it.
There is more to communication than just talk and gesture. Listening, understanding and
interpreting are as much integral to communication as words – verbal, written or gestured. Yes,
even gestures in communication play a crucial role in conveying and interpreting the message!
Similarly, how we communicate or express ourselves goes a great way towards determining how
our expressions are interpreted. To quote Karl Popper, "It is impossible to speak in such a way that
you cannot be misunderstood". Faulty or incomplete communication can completely mar the
purpose of communicating and may result in damaging consequences. This is where understanding
the importance of communication and communicating the right way comes into picture. Not
everyone is equally endowed with the ability to effectively express himself and this is where
the importance of communication skills can be truly fathomed. The importance of communication
is equal in every walk of like, be it in personal, professional or social life.


The success of any business lies as much in networking and building sound professional
relationships as it does in individual tact and business acumen. Communication is a crucial decisive
factor in business relations. It is very important to say the right things at the right time and at the
right place when dealing with partners, customers and stakeholders. Any mis-communication or
ambiguity can pour pails of cold water on your hard work and ruin your chances of survival in
today's competitive business environment. Maintaining professional etiquette in oral and written
business communication is of utmost importance and must not be taken lightly. We should be
grateful that we are living in an era of enlightenment where we have access to training on just
about anything under the sun! Nowadays, many courses are available that provide training on
developing business communication skills and correspondence and conduct classes on ways to
improve communication skills. Effective communication skills in business go a long way in
sealing your success.

The most difficult part of running an organization is managing the human resources. This is one
resource which doesn't work on any principle of management, economics, psychology or any other
social science! This is the most random and volatile resource which must be managed with great
dexterity to reach desired organizational goals. Communication is that lubricant which keeps this
resource moving throughout the organizational machinery. Importance of communication in the
workplace is manifold, as it involves communication along vertical, horizontal and parallel
organizational levels and such communication should always follow the hierarchy prescribed by
the organization. A breach of the hierarchal channel of communication is known as a Gang
Plank and should be avoided as much as possible. Communication in the workplace involves
interpersonal communication between colleagues, superior and subordinate and vice versa
and workplace communication skills come handy in such situations. A clear understanding of the
purpose of such communication, especially if it is of a vertical nature, along with the expectations
of the sender and receiver are extremely important for the smooth running of an organization. Read
more about ways to improve communication skills to enhance your interpersonal communication


What is the role of a leader? A leader is expected to represent his/her followers and motivate them
to reach heights of success through individual and collective effort. Communication is the best
equipment a leader can use to achieve this goal. Even ideals resting upon strong principles can fall
flat and fail to motivate due to lack of effective communication skills. History is galore with
examples of many national leaders who have moved the masses by their life-changing speeches
and powerful writings! Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr. are prominent examples of
outstanding leadership through effective communication.

I don't think I need to elaborate much on this, as we all have some time or the other experienced
certain road blocks and voids in our relationships owing to a lack of communication. Lack of
communication in relationships result in frustrations, misunderstandings, unrealistic expectations,
guilt and can create personal differences. It is difficult for people who share their lives with each
other to coexist for long without having regular and smooth communication oil the machinery of
the relationship. Relationship communication problems can only be solved through active and
effective communication.

As living beings, we need to express and understand the expressions of others. The importance of
communication cannot and should not be underestimated. Sometimes, difficult situations in life
can be resolved by just sitting down and talking it out! Similarly, most personal, professional and
social disasters can be averted by maintaining clear, appropriate and unambiguous communication.
All we need is some effort on our part to identify and avoid barriers to effective communication to
make our lives and those around us better.


1. Clarity of Message: The way in which the sender presents a message plays an instrumental
role in the success or failure of the communication process. A message should be
formulated taking into account the receiver’s frame of mind and simple message
formulation that conveys the correct meaning

2. Communication Channel: Choose the right communication channel according to the

situation and the receiver. For example think whether in a particular situation having a
face-to-face conversation would be a better option instead of speaking on the phone, or
writing an e-mail.
3. Rapport between Sender and Receiver: If the sender and the receiver share a common
background and have faced similar experiences, it increases the mutual understanding level
and hence enhances the outcome of the communication process. The development of
rapport will depend on the educational background, social background, family upbringing
and the kind of experiences the person has come across.


Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel used
and the style of communication there can be various types of communication.



Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadly
classified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication
includes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes body
language, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication.


Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oral
communication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oral communication
can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat
over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs are influenced by voice modulation, pitch,
volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is
written communication. Written communication can be either via snail mail, or email. The
effectiveness of written communication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used,
grammar, clarity and precision of language.


Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who is speaking,
which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall body movements. The facial
expressions also play a major role while communication since the expressions on a person’s face
say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestures like a handshake, a smile or a hug can
independently convey emotions. Non verbal communication can also be in the form of pictorial
representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.


Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication, which
are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features.

Formal Communication

Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in a set formal
format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate
communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal and official. Official
conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are used for communication.
Formal communication can also occur between two strangers when they meet for the first time.
Hence formal communication is straightforward, official and always precise and has a stringent
and rigid tone to it.
Informal Communication

Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people

who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have
a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family. Informal communication does
not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informal conversations need not necessarily have
boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats
with our loved ones can simply go on and on.

Interpersonal Communication: Interpersonal communication is the process that helps us express

our feelings, ideas, and thoughts and share them with the people around us. Efficient interpersonal
communication is a very good quality that helps people in every aspect of life be it personal or
professional. Interpersonal communication is the process where a person expresses his thoughts,
converts the thoughts into a well designed message and sends the message across a communication
channel (oral, visual, written, etc) and the receiver receives the message and responds to the
message and sends his reply back via the communication channel. Interpersonal communication
can be a formal dialogue between two people at a workplace, or even an informal tête-à-tête
between two friends. Communication can occur with or without words and through a number of
communication media. Here are the various channels of communication that can be used in
interpersonal communication.

1. Oral Communication (Speaking face-to-face or on the phone)

2. Written Communication (Writing emails, letters, instant messaging and sms)
3. Visual Communication (Body Language or sign language)

There are various styles of interpersonal communication, which are as follows:

Controlling Style of Interpersonal Communication: The controlling style is actually a style of

interpersonal communication wherein the sender leaves little or no room for the receiver to provide
feedback or reply. People who are generally senior in workplace hierarchy use it to communicate
with their subordinates and although this style might prove to be an efficient form of
communication during crisis situations, it can intimidate the receiver or the audience and can
actually create a communication gap.

Egalitarian Style of Interpersonal Communication: The Egalitarian style of interpersonal

communication is much more efficient than the controlling style since it facilitates healthy two-
way communication wherein information is shared mutually. This style of communication
encourages the participants to express their ideas and hence creates a co-operative and healthy

Structuring Style of Interpersonal Communication: The structuring style of interpersonal

communication is generally used to communicate specific goals and bring co-ordination to an
organization. To avoid making this a one-way conversation it is always better to modify this style
and keep it more open to responses from the audience.

Dynamic Style of Interpersonal Communication: This is style of interpersonal communication

is a high-energy approach which involves use of motivating words and phrases to encourage the
person to get inspired and achieve a certain goal. However this style cannot function when the
receiver does not have enough knowledge about the required action desired out of him/her.
Relinquishing Style of Interpersonal Communication: The relinquishing style of interpersonal
communication is highly open for ideas to the extent that it can transfer the responsibility of the
communication to the receiver. This style of communication works well when the sender and the
receiver are equally interested in carrying the conversation ahead.

Withdrawal Style of Interpersonal Communication: It is ironical to call this process a style of

interpersonal communication since the withdrawal style is basically the failure or lack of
communication. This is a style of interpersonal communication in which the person shows
complete disinterest to participate in the communication process or carry it forward.


The essence and success of every relationship lies in effective communication and in the business
world, it is the magic mantra for profit. Business communication in any venture essentially targets
promotion of a product or service.

Business communication can either take place within an organization or outside of it. Within the
organization, the communication takes place among the management and employees. Internal
business communication involves effective communication of strategies and plans and emphasis
on the corporate culture and shared values. Guiding principles to the new and existing staff are
also taken care of via internal communication. Within the organization, the communication ensures
the establishment of avenues for employee motivation and ideas.

On the outside, the communication takes place between the organization and another one that is
affiliated or related to the operations in some way or the other. External business communication
involves the establishment of company branding and marketing ideas and strategies. Effective
advertising and after sales customer and media relations with external links and individual parties
are also dependent on communication. Probably, the most important area where business
communication helps a lot is negotiating business transactions.

Business communication comprises of both external communication and internal communication.


Any exchange of information, or even advertising of any sort that an organization establishes with the
people outside the organization can be termed as external business communication. External
communication involves exchange of information or transmission of messages to clients, investors, or any
other organization, which is directly or indirectly related to the performance of your business.


Advertising: Advertising is perhaps a very crucial mode of communication as far as the clients of
the company are concerned. Advertisements in any form - prints, video or audio can be used
effectively to communicate your message to the clients/ customers. Advertising your
products/services can help you to reassure your existing clients as well as give you a chance to
attract new customers. Advertising can be done using the following media.

Print media: Newspapers, Magazines, Fliers, Brochures, Newsletters, and Catalogues.

Electronic media: Internet, Telephone, Television, Radio or the emerging Podcasts can be used
effectively for external business communication.

Non-conventional: If your Business is looking for un-conventional communication ideas, then

investing in Trade shows, Promotional events, or setting up kiosks and hoardings can be a good


Creating a Corporate Image: Any external communication that a corporate organization
undertakes is instrumental in creating a corporate identity for the business. Every form of
communication and all its elements contribute to building a corporate image. For example even
the kind of colors a Company used for its corporate stationary or the company logo will speak
volumes about the kind of image the company is trying to portray.

Retaining Old Customers and Attracting New Customers: External business communication can
be used effectively to reach out to your old customers and strengthen their trust in the Business.
The other objective is to reach out to the new customers/clients. Thus ultimately effective
communication will translate into increased and steady inflow of revenues.


Be concise and clear during communicating. Explain your goals and objectives very precisely.

Do not bluff or make false claims. Failure to fulfill those claims will earn your Business a bad

While arranging meetings or conferences with your clients/customers, value their time and
consider their convenience


Communication within the organizational structure of a corporate company is called internal business
communication. Internal business communication is also one factor that cannot be compromised upon if
you want to ensure a successful business.


Creating Better Work Atmosphere: Workplace atmosphere can be enhanced by effective business
communication. Healthy flow of communication across all the peer groups, subordinates and
seniors ensures a healthy work atmosphere.

Increased Productivity: Better communication translates into better understanding of the

Corporate goals and objectives of the company. Hence if the communication between work groups
is clear and sound, that results into increased productivity for the business.


Print: Memos, in-house newsletters, fliers, magazines or leaflets can be used according to the
Business needs.

Electronic: PowerPoint presentations, videoconferences, telephone; fax, emails or even Internet

messengers can be used for in-house communication.

Personal Communication: Regular meetings, conferences, brainstorming sessions or even

informal chats can be considered as effective communication tools at workplace.

Internal business communication can be further classified into three categories of communication:

Communication within the organization that passes from a lower hierarchy to higher hierarchy is
called upward communication. For example subordinates passing on information to their seniors
will be considered as upward communication. Here are some useful pointers to use while
communicating with your seniors:

Subordinates should communicate with their seniors with an amount of respect. Although, we live
in an age where workplace atmospheres are getting more friendly and open, it is necessary that
one must not cross their boundaries.

Try maintain a healthy relationship with your senior. Always seek feedback and at the same time
make it a point to convey your own ideas and suggestions to them


Communication that flows from the higher hierarchy to lower hierarchy is called downward
communication. Some points to keep in mind while communicating with your subordinates at

 Treat your subordinates with respect

 Criticism if unavoidable should be kept constructive
 Regularly ask for suggestions or feedback


Communication within peer groups can be terned as horizontal communication. Bitching and gossiping
may not be the only form of information exchange. Make not of some useful tips while you are at your

 Do not indulge in mud slinging /back stabbing

 Try and avoid conversations that tend to de-motivate you or your colleagues from work

The term mass communications is also used to describe the academic study of the ways people and
groups relay messages to a large audience. Mass communications are widely used, primarily
because it is a rewarding exercise which awards a person or company brand and name recognition,
instantly increasing credibility. Commonly used units of analysis for mass communications are the
messages, medium for communication, and the audience for whom the message is intended.

Grapevine is an informal channel of business communication. It is called so because it stretches
throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. Man as we know
is a social animal. Despite existence of formal channels in an organization, the informal channels
tend to develop when he interacts with other people in organization. It exists more at lower levels
of organization .Grapevine generally develops due to various reasons. One of them is that when
an organization is facing recession, the employees sense uncertainty. Also, at times employees do
not have self-confidence due to which they form unions. Sometimes the managers show
preferential treatment and favour some employees giving a segregated feeling to other employees.
Thus, when employees sense a need to exchange their views, they go for grapevine network as
they cannot use the formal channel of communication in that case. Generally during breaks in
cafeteria, the subordinates talk about their superior’s attitude and behaviour and exchange views
with their peers. They discuss rumours about promotion and transfer of other employees. Thus,
grapevine spreads like fire and it is not easy to trace the cause of such communication at times.


Advantages of Grapevine Communication.

 Grapevine channels carry information rapidly. As soon as an employee gets to know some
confidential information, he becomes inquisitive and passes the details then to his closest
friend who in turn passes it to other. Thus, it spreads hastily.
 The managers get to know the reactions of their subordinates on their policies. Thus, the
feedback obtained is quick compared to formal channel of communication.
 The grapevine creates a sense of unity among the employees who share and discuss their
views with each other. Thus, grapevine helps in developing group cohesiveness.
 The grapevine serves as an emotional supportive value.
 The grapevine is a supplement in those cases where formal communication does not work.


 The grapevine carries partial information at times as it is more based on rumours. Thus, it
does not clearly depicts the complete state of affairs.
 The grapevine is not trustworthy always as it does not follows official path of
communication and is spread more by gossips and unconfirmed report.
 The productivity of employees may be hampered as they spend more time talking rather
than working.
 The grapevine leads to making hostility against the executives.
 The grapevine may hamper the goodwill of the organization as it may carry false negative
information about the high level people of the organization.

A smart manager should take care of all the disadvantages of the grapevine and try to minimize
them. At the same time, he should make best possible use of advantages of grapevine.


Various communication barriers have often come in the way of our productivity and relationships.
To overcome them, knowing what these barriers are, is imperative, and have been enlisted here.
At some point in time, we have all been victims of miscommunication in the workplace or other
aspects of life, and ended up saying, hearing, perceiving or understanding things that mean
otherwise. The way they alter the result then, is probably something you are familiar with. It may
be something as small as missing a movie because you didn't hear the time right, or something as
big as missing out on a deadline because your boss and your client gave you two different dates.
At the end of the day, it is you who has to bear the brunt either, small or big. Various types of
communication barriers are the reasons why we tend to confuse important information, and make
blunders that are sometimes unforgivable. To avoid these, you must first know about what
accounts for these barriers to communication, and then, how these can be overcome by simple


We are all aware of the importance of communication, and no matter how good your
communication skills are, there are a lot of barriers that can mar these skills. As such, learning
about these barriers and overcoming them is essential in the realm of the workplace as well as the
personal front, so as to enhance productivity as well as the quality of our relationships.

One of the biggest reasons for miscommunication is that most of it is taken for granted. We tend
to 'expect' people to 'understand' what we are saying. However, your perception may differ from
that of the opposite person in several ways, which is why things need to be spelled out clearly.
Also, assumptions are one of the barriers in non-verbal communication. Using a tone of voice and
expecting the listener to understand is slightly optimistic with some people. Not everyone
understands body language, and therefore, using clear modes of communication (verbal or written)
is imperative. Those with effective communication skills do not assume, they clearly
communicate. Yet, a lot of factors account for these assumptions and these have been explained


In settings such as nursing and health care, one of the biggest barriers is that of an information
overload. There are several patients to take care of, and though all communication occurs by means
of writing more than verbal communication, there are times when because of so many things
happening at the same time it is difficult to process this information and get confused.
Moreover, communication does not exist only between a doctor and a nurse. Communication with
external agencies such as insurance agencies, with the patient, with relatives of the patient, the
general doctor, the specialist, the nurse, etc. are all essential. Such communication barriers in
health care cannot be allowed to exist, as it can have a highly dangerous outcome. To overcome
these communication barriers in nursing and health care, it is vital that clarity be attained on the
type of information a person is meant to receive. You may take a look at these communication
techniques in nursing for some additional help in this regard. This is only an example and
information overload as a barrier may exist in any setting.


Communication is not only about providing information, but also absorbing it correctly. Poor span
of attention, heavily worded information, etc. can all contribute to misunderstandings and barriers
to effective communication. When someone has poor listening skills, no matter how clearly a
particular piece of information has been communicated, it is possible that the listener will
misunderstand it. In an entirely different context, poor listening can also pose as one of the many
communication barriers in a relationship. In fact, just because one partner does not have the time
or the urge to listen to the other partner, these relationship communication problems lead to an
unfortunate break up. As such, developing the art of listening is crucial. Learning ways of
improving attention, and paraphrasing complex information to ensure you have understood it, are
ways in which you can overcome communication barriers such as poor listening.


When one piece of information is provided to one person, to be given to another person, chances
are it may be filtered to a point where the eventual information understood may be completely
different from what was actually provided. For example, in the realm of workplace
communication, information from the receptionist to an assistant, to the manager, to the CEO, etc.
can all be severely altered by the time it reaches the ultimate receiver. In such a case, reconfirming
the information with the original source ensures that it has been thoroughly understood.


Two people who are required to communicate may not necessarily belong to similar backgrounds.
They may belong to different cultural backgrounds (from two different countries), to different
social backgrounds (from two different classes of society), or there may be differences in language,
education, age, gender, political beliefs, the environment while growing up, etc. These differences
contribute to varied perceptions about events or behaviors and may lead to a misunderstanding.
Language particularly is a great barrier in communication, and overcoming this barrier can be done
only by clearly wording your information, written or spoken, and using simple language that
everyone around will be able to comprehend. Keep your information short and simple. Don't use
fancy language in a setting where it won't be understood and appreciated. Understanding all these
differences for instance, in intercultural communication, and learning not to assume that
everything is understood is the key to overcoming communication barriers such as these. You have
to be empathetic to be able to relate to people from different backgrounds, and accept them with
all their beliefs and perceptions, in order to carry out effective communication.

Emotions are one of the biggest communication barriers between men and women, and all other
kind of relationships. The reason why men and women have specifically been mentioned here is
because we all know that both tend to express emotions differently. It is this lack or perhaps,
necessity of expression of these emotions that tends to become one of the biggest barriers in
effective communication. Moreover, some of us have the tendency to carry emotions to work. How
we receive and communicate information is largely altered due to our emotional state. The only
way this can be overcome is by being aware of your emotional state, and controlling it so that it
does not overpower your logical thinking and decision making.

Finally, be it business communication, or communication in the personal realm, overcoming the

aforementioned communication barriers is of extreme importance to achieve results. Reconfirm
information to ensure that you have heard it right. Ask questions if you think the information is
not enough. Remember, you may also be at the receiving end of communication, and not always
the one who is communicating information to others. Once these methods are understood and
incorporated in your daily scheme, they are bound to help you make all your relationships (personal
and professional), and their associated outcomes, highly productive.


There are lots of communication barriers faced these days by all. The message intended by the
sender is not understood by the receiver in the same terms and sense and thus communication
breakdown occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication barriers so as to
ensure smooth and effective communication.

Let’s talk about how to overcome these barriers of communication.

1. Eliminating differences in perception: The organization should ensure that it is

recruiting right individuals on the job. It’s the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure
that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. There should be
proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees.
There should be proper trainings conducted for required employees (for eg: Voice and
Accent training).
2. Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. Use of
ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided.
3. Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier
which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of noise and
then eliminate that source.
4. Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between
“listening” and “hearing”. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the
message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message
is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker.
5. Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body language.
He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might
misinterpret the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer of the message is
in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not
6. Simple Organizational Structure: The organizational structure should not be complex.
The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be a ideal span of
control within the organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will
be the communication.
7. Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how to prioritize their work.
They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with
their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively.
8. Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the
feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive
feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate.
9. Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of
communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction
or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering
complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written
means of communication such as : Memos, Notices etc.
10. Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization the
managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without
skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on
employees to meet their targets.


There are 7 C’s of effective communication which are applicable to both written as well as oral
communication. These are as follows:

Completeness - The communication must be complete. It should convey all facts required by the
audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mind set and
convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features:

 Complete communication develops and enhances reputation of an organization.

 Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost
is incurred in conveying extra message if the communication is complete.
 A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It
leaves no questions in the mind of receiver.
 Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/ readers/
receivers of message as they get all desired and crucial information.
 It persuades the audience.

Conciseness - Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least
possible words without forgoing the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for
effective communication. Concise communication has following features:

 It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.

 It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless
 Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the
 Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience.
 Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.

Consideration - Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective

communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audience’s view points,
background, mind-set, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their
requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is
maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the
audience’s needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication
are as follows:

 Emphasize on “you” approach.

 Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a
positive reaction from the audience.
 Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on “what is possible” rather than “what
is impossible”. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm,
healthy, help, etc.

Clarity - Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to
achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features:

 It makes understanding easier.

 Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of message.
 Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.

Concreteness - Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and
general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. Concrete message has following features:

 It is supported with specific facts and figures.

 It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
 Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
Courtesy - Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well
as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious,
reflective and enthusiastic. Courteous message has following features:

 Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the
receiver of the message.
 Courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
 It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of message.
 It is not at all biased.

Correctness - Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in

communication. Correct communication has following features:

 The message is exact, correct and well-timed.

 If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level.
 Correct message has greater impact on the audience/ readers.
 It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.
 It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Awareness of these 7 C’s of communication makes you an effective communicator.


What is Verbal Communication?

Verbal communication can be defined as communicating your thoughts through words. Such
thoughts may be ideas, opinions, directions, dissatisfaction, objections, your emotions and
pleasures. For example, whenever you conduct a meeting, have a conversation over the phone, talk
to a friend, or any other form of conversation that you perform with others using words. While the
term "verbal communication" seems almost self-explanatory, verbal communication is far more
complex than simply talking. By definition, verbal communication includes not only oral
discussions, but also written messages and even mediated communication.


The most apparent type of verbal communication is oral, and a number of examples of oral
communication are readily available. Oral communication implies communication through mouth.
It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic
conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. Oral
communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of temporary kind
or where a direct interaction is required. Face to face communication (meetings, lectures,
conferences, interviews, etc.) is significant so as to build a rapport and trust.


While it may seem counter-intuitive, written communication is considered a form of verbal

communication under most commonly accepted definitions of the term. For this reason, a plethora
of seemingly nonverbal communication forms can be used as examples of verbal communication,
including written letters, memos, newsletters, newspapers, journals and even personal notes.
Textbooks, novels and other literature also serve as examples of verbal communication, because
they use words as the medium through which a message is conveyed.


Even though the field of mediated communication is a separate branch of communication study, it
contains examples of both verbal and nonverbal communications. Most World Wide Web content
consists of either typed text or videos, both of which rely heavily on verbal communication to
convey their messages. Likewise, webcasts and other online interactive media use verbal
communication, as do emails, telnet sessions and newsgroup postings. Mediated communication
does not stop with the Internet, of course; television broadcasts use a combination of verbal and
nonverbal communication, and radio broadcasts rely on verbal communication. Likewise,
telephone conversations are effective because of the flow of words from a sender to a receiver,
augmented only by variances in tone, inflection, speed and pitch (all of which are also subtle forms
of verbal communication).


All verbal communication activities that an individual engages in, would fall into one of the two
styles of verbal communication techniques. They are; formal verbal communication and informal
verbal communication. Let us understand these verbal communication styles better.

 Formal Verbal Communication: This style of verbal communication is very formal and
makes use of correct linguistics. Verbal communication in the workplace, as a principle,
should be in this style. Formal verbal communication does not involve slang language. It
mostly requires an individual to stick to a certain language, hopping between languages is
not an appropriate formal verbal communication. More so, the language being used in the
verbal communication technique should be used correctly. Errors are seldom tolerated in
formal verbal communication. Read more on workplace communication and business
communication to understand this better.
 Informal Verbal Communication: Verbal communication in classrooms, which the
students use is mostly informal in nature. A chat between good friends will probably be the
best verbal communication example for this style. Slang language and language hopping
is permitted. In the workplace, the grapevine ordinarily makes use of this style of
communication. It has been seen through surveys and studies,that this style of
communication is better at helping people bond and communicate freely.

In case of oral verbal communication, body language plays a very major role. Body language and
other non-verbal communication techniques help make the communication more complete and
effective. It facilitates intercultural communication to a great extent, as well. For example, if some
one were to say, "I care about you", with absolutely no facial or physical expression, you would
think that a robot is talking to you, right?

Well, that is why, verbal communication techniques are said to be one of the most complex, yet
essential activities that a human being engages in. Communication is inevitable. Even while we
try not to communicate, we communicate. It has been there since before the dawn of time, it is
omnipresent and is the reason why all the elements on Earth are tied together.


When it comes to business, verbal communication is very important for the reason being that you
are dealing with a variety of people through out the day. In some cases you may deal with people
who have different culture, ages and with different levels of experience.

Now take for example the way you converse with a family member or friend around your same
age, you interact with them with a lot of confidence, there is without doubt that verbal
communication is expressed with much ease, and perhaps you may speak differently from the way
you speak with a person related to business.

Imagine if you expressed yourself the same way with a customer who has different culture, is much
older than you and have many years of experience in his field. Most likely your thoughts will be
difficult to express. Thus it is necessary to have proper skill when using verbal communication
while dealing with different people.


First of all you need to be aware of the fact that you must be flexible with people depending on the
circumstances. Let us say you are presenting a speech in front of an audience at work, and you
express your thoughts using business vocabulary. Now what if your audience where to be
unfamiliar with the terms you are using, it is without question you will notice the audience lose
focused attention to what you are saying , so then you must be flexible and change the way you
are expressing your thoughts by using words that are more comprehendible to the audience.

It is suggested to build skills by attending a college course related to business communication.

When you are attending the class you will then be forced to communicate more organized. Try to
use the opportunity to overcome the fear of talking to a big crowd and a stranger while you are in

Besides attending a class that teaches business communication, you may also want to consider
working in a job-field that involves working with strangers, such job can be a form of practice to
gain confidence in yourself and help reduce shyness and intimidation.

Another form of practice can be talking to older relatives and friends, about a topic that involves
expressing emotions and strong opinions or a discussion that may concern experiences. Such
communication helps you to accumulate skills to express yourself in a more formal and proper

When practicing with your relatives or friends it is important for you to back up your opinions or
statements with facts. In order to have references about your subject it is suggested to read and
study about it. Like for example, if you where to discuss the issue that we are all facing today such
as the world's economy for instance, then you may obtain the facts from the news paper, the news,
Internet, and you can even get it from books

You always want to support your opinions with facts since it makes verbal communication much
easier to express when it comes to expressing an idea. Such suggestions if applied may result to
improve your verbal communication.

 There is high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is

 There is no element of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for allowing
changes in the decisions previously taken.
 The feedback is spontaneous in case of oral communication. Thus, decisions can be
made quickly without any delay.
 Oral communication is not only time saving, but it also saves upon money and efforts.
 Oral communication is best in case of problem resolution. The conflicts, disputes and
many issues/differences can be put to an end by talking them over.
 Oral communication is an essential for teamwork and group energy.
 Oral communication promotes a receptive and encouraging morale among
organizational employees.
 Oral communication can be best used to transfer private and confidential


 Relying only on oral communication may not be sufficient as business communication is

formal and very organized.
 Oral communication is less authentic than written communication as they are informal and
not as organized as written communication.
 Oral communication is time-saving as far as daily interactions are concerned, but in case
of meetings, long speeches consume lot of time and are unproductive at times.
 Oral communications are not easy to maintain and thus they are unsteady.
 There may be misunderstandings as the information is not complete and may lack
 It requires attentiveness and great receptivity on part of the receivers/audience.
 Oral communication (such as speeches) is not frequently used as legal records except in
investigation work.
ü It is a permanent means of communication. Thus, it is useful where record
maintenance is required.

ü It assists in proper delegation of responsibilities. While in case of oral

communication, it is impossible to fix and delegate responsibilities on the grounds of
speech as it can be taken back by the speaker or he may refuse to acknowledge.

ü Written communication is more precise and explicit.

ü Effective written communication develops and enhances an organization’s image.

ü It provides ready records and references.

ü Legal defenses can depend upon written communication as it provides valid records


Written communication does not save upon the costs. It costs huge in terms of stationery
and the manpower employed in writing/typing and delivering letters.

Also, if the receivers of the written message are separated by distance and if they need
to clear their doubts, the response is not spontaneous.

Written communication is time-consuming as the feedback is not immediate. The

encoding and sending of message takes time.
Effective written communication requires great skills and competencies in language and
vocabulary use. Poor writing skills and quality have a negative impact on organization’s

Too much paper work and e-mails burden is involved.

Written communication helps in laying down apparent principles, policies and rules
for running of an organization.

Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through
sending and receiving wordless messages. i.e., language is not the only source of communication,
there are other means also. NVC can be communicated through gestures and touch (Haptic
communication), by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact. NVC can be
communicated through object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or
even architecture, symbols and infographics. Speech contains nonverbal elements known
as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features
such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Dance is also regarded as a nonverbal communication.
Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of
words, or the use of emoticons.

However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction,
where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where
communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviors of
communicators during interaction.


1. Non-verbal messages primarily communicate emotions, attitudes.
2. Non-verbal cues substitute for, contradict, emphasize or regulate verbal message.
3. Non-verbal cues are often ambiguous.
4. Non-verbal cues are continuous.
5. Non-verbal cues are more reliable.
6. Non-verbal cues are culture bound.


Non-verbal communication can be classified into several branches, which are as follows:
Proxemics was a concept first developed by Edward T. Hall. Proxemics pertains to the perception
of space. The study of how people perceive the physical spaces around them is known as
proxemics. Proxemics takes into account body spacing and postures as involuntary reactions to
sensory fluctuations. According to proxemics, the physical distance between two people can be
correlated to the relationship they share be it personal or social. Here is how Proxemics defines
these distances:

Intimate distance

Usually seen amongst people who share an intimate relationship. The distance includes embracing,
touching or whispering amongst close ones.

Close phase - less than 6 inches (15 cm)

Far phase - 6 to 18 inches (15 - 45 cm)

Personal distance

Observed between good friends. Includes general interactions among good friends.

Close phase - 1.5 to 2.5 feet (45 - 75 cm)

Far phase - 2.5 to 4 feet (75 - 120 cm)

Social distance

Social distance is observed amongst formal acquaintances, working colleagues or business

Close phase - 5 to 7 feet (1.5 - 2.1 m)

Far phase - 7 to 12 feet (2.1 - 3.6 m)

Public distance
Public distance is used while interacting with strangers or also used while public speaking.
Close phase - 12 to 25 feet (3.6 - 7.5 m)

Far phase - 25 feet (7.5 m) or more


Chronemics is the study of time usage in nonverbal communication. Chronemics states that the
way in which we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication
tool. Time perceptions can be expressed through punctuality, willingness to wait, speed of speech
or even the amount of time people are willing to listen. According to Chronemics, the timing and
frequency of any action as well as the tempo of communications within an interaction contribute
to the process of non-verbal communication.


Information about the relationship and affect of these two skaters is communicated by their body
posture, eye gaze and physical contact.

Developed by anthropologist Ray L. Birdwhistell in the 1950s, Kinesics is nothing but the study
of body movements, facial expressions, and gestures. Kinesics studies include the study of
following elements:

Posture can be used to determine a participant’s degree of attention or involvement, the difference
in status between communicators, and the level of fondness a person has for the other
communicator. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest
that mirror-image congruent postures, where one person’s left side is parallel to the other person’s
right side, leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech; a person who
displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during
communication. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean, body
orientation, arm position, and body openness.

A gesture is a non-vocal bodily movement intended to express meaning. They may be articulated
with the hands, arms or body, and also include movements of the head, face and eyes, such
as winking, nodding, or rolling ones' eyes. The boundary between language and gesture, or verbal
and nonverbal communication, can be hard to identify.

Although the study of gesture is still in its infancy, some broad categories of gestures have been
identified by researchers. The most familiar are the so-called emblems or quotable gestures. These
are conventional, culture-specific gestures that can be used as replacement for words, such as the
hand-wave used in the US for "hello" and "goodbye". A single emblematic gesture can have a very
different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to highly

Another broad category of gestures comprises those gestures used spontaneously when we speak.
These gestures are closely coordinated with speech. The so-called beat gestures are used in
conjunction with speech and keep time with the rhythm of speech to emphasize certain words or
phrases. These types of gestures are integrally connected to speech and thought processes. Other
spontaneous gestures used when we speak are more contentful and may echo or elaborate the
meaning of the co-occurring speech. For example, a gesture that depicts the act of throwing may
be synchronous with the utterance, "He threw the ball right into the window."

Gestural languages such as American Sign Language and its regional siblings operate as complete
natural languages that are gestural in modality. They should not be confused with finger spelling,
in which a set of emblematic gestures are used to represent a written alphabet.
Gestures can also be categorized as either speech-independent or speech-related. Speech-
independent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct
verbal translation. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures.
Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech; this form of nonverbal
communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. Speech related
gestures are intended to provide supplemental information to a verbal message such as pointing to
an object of discussion.

Gestures such as Mudra (Sanskrit) encode sophisticated information accessible to initiates that are
privy to the subtlety of elements encoded in their tradition.


Facial expressions are one of the most important attributes of nonverbal communication. Just a
smile or a frown can speak thousands of words for us. Facial expressions to depict happiness,
sadness fear or anger are same throughout the world and hence they prove to be very advantageous
when it comes to language barriers. Reading facial expressions can give us insights into the
thoughts and feelings of other people.


The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal communication is sometimes referred to as

"oculesics". Eye contact can indicate interest, attention, and involvement. Studies have found that
people use their eyes to indicate their interest and with more than the frequently recognized actions
of winking and slight movement of the eyebrows. Eye contact is an event when two people look
at each other's eyes at the same time. It is a form of nonverbal communication and has a large
influence on social behavior. Frequency and interpretation of eye contact vary between cultures
and species. Eye aversion is the avoidance of eye contact. Eye contact and facial expressions
provide important social and emotional information. People, perhaps without consciously doing
so, probe each other's eyes and faces for positive or negative mood signs. Gaze comprises the
actions of looking while talking, looking while listening, amount of gaze, and frequency of
glances, patterns of fixation, pupil dilation, and blink rate.


Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is the study of nonverbal cues of the voice. Various
acoustic properties of speech such as tone, pitch and accent, collectively known as prosody, can
all give off nonverbal cues. Paralanguage may change the meaning of words.

The linguist George L. Trager developed a classification system which consists of the voice set,
voice qualities, and vocalization.

 The voice set is the context in which the speaker is speaking. This can include the situation,
gender, mood, age and a person's culture.
 The voice qualities are volume, pitch, tempo, rhythm, articulation, resonance, nasality, and
accent. They give each individual a unique "voice print".
 Vocalization consists of three subsections: characterizers, qualifiers and segregates.
Characterizers are emotions expressed while speaking, such as laughing, crying, and yawning.
A voice qualifier is the style of delivering a message - for example, yelling "Hey stop that!",
as opposed to whispering "Hey stop that". Vocal segregates such as "uh-huh" notify the speaker
that the listener is listening.


Appearance deals with the communication role played by a person’s look or physical
appearance(as compared with physical gestures associated with kinesics). It deals with physical
aspects of body shape, hair color and skin tone, as well as grooming, dress (both clothing and
jewelry) and use of appearance enhancements such as body piercings, brandings and tattoos.
Consider, for example, how attire is an essential part of nonvocal communication among areas
influenced by Arab culture. Among North and Western Africans, public speakers prefer long robes
and big sleeves so that when they raise their hands, extra sleeve cloth slips through the arms and
puffs up their shoulder, making them look bigger and more elegant. The Arab and North African
head covering with different bands of cloth and the color of the robes (white in daytime, dark at
night) are more than fashion statements.

Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires the same underlying faculty in the brain
for conceptualization, creativity and memory as does verbal language in speaking and writing.
Means of self-expression, both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance), grammar
(rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning. Dance, however, assembles
(choreographs) these elements in a manner that more often resembles poetry, with its ambiguity
and multiple, symbolic and elusive meanings.


When communicating, nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways:
repeating, conflicting, complementing, substituting, regulating and accenting/moderating.


"Repeating" consists of using gestures to strengthen a verbal message, such as pointing to the
object of discussion.


Verbal and nonverbal messages within the same interaction can sometimes send opposing or
conflicting messages. A person verbally expressing a statement of truth while simultaneously
fidgeting or avoiding eye contact may convey a mixed message to the receiver in the interaction.
Conflicting messages may occur for a variety of reasons often stemming from feelings of
uncertainty, ambivalence, or frustration. When mixed messages occur, nonverbal communication
becomes the primary tool people use to attain additional information to clarify the situation; great
attention is placed on bodily movements and positioning when people perceive mixed messages
during interactions.

Accurate interpretation of messages is made easier when nonverbal and verbal communication
complement each other. Nonverbal cues can be used to elaborate on verbal messages to reinforce
the information sent when trying to achieve communicative goals; messages have been shown to
be remembered better when nonverbal signals affirm the verbal exchange.


Nonverbal behavior is sometimes used as the sole channel for communication of a message. People
learn to identify facial expressions, body movements, and body positioning as corresponding with
specific feelings and intentions. Nonverbal signals can be used without verbal communication to
convey messages; when nonverbal behavior does not effectively communicate a message, verbal
methods are used to enhance understanding.


Nonverbal behavior also regulates our conversations. For example, touching someone's arm can
signal that you want to talk next or interrupt.


Nonverbal signals are used to alter the interpretation of verbal messages. Touch, voice pitch, and
gestures are some of the tools people use to accent or amplify the message that is sent; nonverbal
behavior can also be used to moderate or tone down aspects of verbal messages as well. For
example, a person who is verbally expressing anger may accent the verbal message by shaking a

The advantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf.

2) You can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence.
3) You can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen to.
4) You can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but not hear you.
5) Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief.
6) You can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with people who don't understand
your language.

The disadvantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can not have long conversation.

2) Can not discuss the particulars of your message
3) Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions.
4) Can not be used as a public tool for communication.
6) Less influential and can not be used everywhere.
7) Not everybody prefers to communicate through non-verbal communication.
8) Can not create an impression upon people/listeners.

Communication is life blood of a business organization. No organization can succeed or progress,

build up reputation, and win friends and customers without effective communication skills.

In fact successful communication is the bed rock of ground and pleasant relationship between the
seniors and sub ordinates, between the workers and the management, between the customers and
the sellers good and efficient system of communication helps in better coordination and efficient
control. It results in clear understanding, good production, healthy climate within the organization
willing cooperation among the various levels, if businessman can communicate effectively and
successfully. Profit and prosperity shall knock at the doors of firm, organization or shop keeper
through effective system of communication.

Poor and ineffective communication system may result in mismanagement, bad business and sure
show down. Communication can build or destroy trust depending or use of words. A poorly
worded message or talk may result in communication break down. On the other hand planned and
well meant communication helps in better service, removes misunderstanding and doubts; builds
up good will, promotes business and earns favorable references. It is the key to success in business
and trade. A good businessman believes in the saying, 'take care of communication and success
shall take care of itself.