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Chinese Literature

Bound by the past and traditions

In their literature, there’s a demand
for a piece to show a purpose.

Philosophy Tripart-type: man earth

The Chinese Way
4 Ways of Chinese Life
1. Perception of life
Angle you look and take in
personal Social
2. Life is a continual change
Beginning to end
C.f. Filipino: Life as transitory
4 Ways of Chinese Life
3. Life is a balance of opposing forces
Does it mean
negative and
positive? NO.
4. Jen - human-heartedness
You make a choice in the end
Chinese abounds in words, expressing bodies
and shapes, but poor in verbs expressing
change or transformation.
They don’t like change.
Chinese expressed things by
individualization or specification rather than
For the Filipino: “Bumagsak ka, dahil di ka nag-aral.”
For the Chinese: “Bumagsak ka, kasi bumagsak ka.”
Confucius was a Chinese teacher, editor,
politician, and philosopher of the Spring
and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Born: September 28, 551 BC, State of Lu
Died: 479 BC, State of Lu
Full name: Kong Qiu
Confucianism is a way of life taught by Confucius.
"Confucius," the common name of Confucianism's founder, is a Latinized form of the
Chinese K'ung-fu-tzu, "Master K'ung." The terms "Confucianism" and "Confucian" are
not meaningful terms in Chinese. They are Western terms, coined in Europe as recently
as the 18th century.
Facts of Confucianism
❖ - Date founded: 6th-5th cent. BC - (See Symbols in Chinese Religion)
❖ - Place founded: China
❖ - Founder: Confucius (551-479 BCE)
❖ - Adherents: 5-6 million
Ideals of Confucianism
The main principle of Confucianism is ren ("humaneness" or "benevolence"), signifying
excellent character in accord with li (ritual norms), zhong (loyalty to one's true nature), shu
(reciprocity), and xiao (filial piety). Together these constitute de (virtue).
Confucianism is characterized by a highly optimistic view of human nature. The faith in the
possibility of ordinary human beings to become awe-inspiring sages and worthies is deeply
rooted in the Confucian heritage (Confucius himself lived a rather ordinary life), and the
insistence that human beings are teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal
and communal endeavour is typically Confucian.
Confucius regarded Heaven (T'ien) as a positive and personal force in the universe; he was not,
as some have supposed, an agnostic or a skeptic.
5 Classics of Confucianism
1. Shu Ching (Classic of History) - collection of documents and speeches dating from
the Later Han Dynasty (23-220 CE)
2. Shih Ching (Classic of Odes) - collection of 300 poems and songs from the early
Chou Dynasty (1027-402 BC)
3. I Ching (Classic of Changes) - collection of texts on divination based on a set of 64
hexagrams that reflect the relationship between Yin and Yang in nature and society
4. Ch'un Ching (Spring and Autumn Annals) - extracts from the history of the state
of Lu 722-484, said to be compiled by Confucius
5. Li Ching (Classic of Rites) - consists of three books on the Li (Rites of Propriety)
4 Books of Confucianism
1. Lun Yu (Analects) of Confucius
2. Chung Yung (Doctrine of the Mean)
3. Ta Hsueh (Great Learning)
4. Meng Tzu (Mencius)

Practices of Confucianism
Aside from its important ethical principles, Confucianism does not prescribe any
specific rituals or practices. These are filled by the practices of Chinese religion,
Taoism, Buddhism, or other religion which Confucians follow.
Confucian Thoughts
From the Analects
“To be wealthy and honored in an unjust
society is a disgrace.”
“True wisdom is knowing what you don't
“Everything has beauty but not everyone can
see it”
“The superior man has a dignified ease
without pride. The mean man has pride
without a dignified ease.”
“What you do not want done to yourself, do
not do to others.”
“Not to discuss with a man worthy of conversation
is to waste the man. To discuss with a man not
worthy of conversation is to waste words. The wise
waste neither men nor words.”

Confucius – The Analects

This is a religion and dharma that
encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs
and spiritual practices largely based on
teachings attributed to the Buddha.
It originated in India, from where it spread
through much of Asia, whereafter it
declined in India and flourished in China
during the middle ages.
Gautama Buddha
Born: Lumbini, Nepal
Died: Kushinagar, India
Full name: Siddhartha Gautama
Spouse: Yasodharā
Books: Dhammapada
Gautama was famously seated under a pipal
tree—now known as the Bodhi tree—in Bodh
Gaya, India, when he vowed never to arise
until he had found the truth
Four Noble Truths (essence of Buddha’s teachings)
Suffering exists
Suffering arises from attachment to desires
Suffering ceases when attachment to desire ceases
Freedom from suffering is possible by practicing the Eightfold Path

Buddhism states that dukkha "suffering" is the innate nature of existence.

3 Characteristics of Existence
1. Transiency (anicca)
2. Sorrow (dukkha)
3. Selflessness (anatta)
Unwholesome mental states that impedes progress towards
1. sensuous lust
2. aversion and ill will
3. sloth and stupor
4. restlessness and worry
5. skeptical doubt
The Eightfold Path
Three Qualities Eightfold Path
Wisdom (panna) Right View
Right Thought
Morality (sila) Right Speech
Right Action
Right Livelihood
Meditation (samadhi) Right Effort
Right Mindfulness
Right Contemplation
1. Mindfulness
2. Investigation
3. Energy
4. Rapture Factors of
5. Tranquillity Enlightenment
6. Concentration
7. Equanimity