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Sample Activity:

Group Members:
Calamba, Micah Lou C.
Aragon, Jerielle Jade T.
Jakosalem, Rhem Catherine

Research Title: Aratilis (Muntingia calabura) leaf extract as Anti-inflammatory ointment


Plant common name:Aratilis/Aratiles, Manzanitas, Sarisa (Bacolod area)

No Journal title Method Use


.
1. Aratilis ointment The raw material is the herbal
plant, Aratilis which will become
a form of ointment after
processing. Aratilis (Muntingia
Calabura known in the
Philippines as “aratilis”, “aratiles”
or “saresa”) is a widely cultivated
fruit-bearing tree which is
abundant in tropical countries
such as the Philippines. It strives
in soil despite of acidity rates
that most plants can’t survive on
and normally grows in roadsides,
open grasslands, mountains, and
backyards- almost anywhere in
every province in the
archipelago. It is a small tree 7–
12 meters tall with tiered and
slightly drooping branches. It has
serrated leaves 2.5–15 cm long
and 1–6.5 cm wide. The flowers
are small, white and slightly
malodorous. It gives rise to 1–1.5
cm light red fruit. The fruit is
edible, sweet and juicy, and
contains a large number of tiny
(0.5 mm) yellow seeds. It is a
pioneer species that thrives in
poor soil, able to tolerate acidic
and alkaline conditions and
drought. Its seeds are dispersed
by birds and fruit bats. It is
cultivated for its edible fruit, and
has become naturalized in some
other parts of the tropics,
including southeastern Asia. As a
pioneer plant, it could help
condition the soil and make it
habitable to other plants.
However, it might also be
considered as an invasive species
since it might out-compete
indigenous plants.
2.
Plant anticancer agents, XLVIII. New cytotoxic flavonoids
From a cytotoxic Et2O-soluble
from Muntingia calabura root s.
extract of Muntingia calabura
roots, twelve new flavonoids
were isolated, constituting seven
flavans 1-7, three flavones 8, 10,
and 12, and two biflavans 9 and
11. The structures of compounds
1-12 were established by the
interpretation of spectral data,
with the nmr assignments of
these constituents being based
on 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HETCOR,
and selective INEPT experiments.
This is the first report of the
occurrence of 7,8-di-O-
substituted flavans, biflavans,
and flavones. Most of the
isolates demonstrated cytotoxic
activity when tested against
cultured P-388 cells, with the
flavans being more active than
the flavones. Furthermore,
certain of these structurally
related flavonoids exhibited
somewhat selective activities
when evaluated with a number
of human cancer cell lines.
3. Effects of Muntingia calabura L. on Six groups of Wistar albino rats,
isoproterenol-induced myocardial each
infarction comprising six animals, were Commented [1]:
selected for this study.
Group I served as a control,
Group I I rats were given
isoproterenol (20 mg/ 100g,
subcutaneously), and
Group Ill rats were given M.
calabura leaf extract
(300 mg/kg). Groups IV, V and VI
rats were given
M. calabura leaf extract (100
mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and
300 mg/kg, respectively) and
isoproterenol (20
mg/100g subcutaneously) prior
to MI induction.
The transaminases (aspartate
transaminase and
alanine transaminase), lactate
dehydrogenase
(LDH) and creatine
phosphokinase (CK), were
estimated in both the serum and
heart tissues, and
the serum uric acid level was also
estimated.
4 The extract was prepared by
The Antinociceptive Action of Aqueous Extract
soaking the dried powdered
from Muntingia calabura Leaves: The Role of Opioid
leaves of M. calabura in distilled
Receptors
water (dH2O) overnight, and the
supernatant obtained was
considered as a stock solution
with 100% concentration. The
stock solution was diluted to 1, 5,
10, 50 and 100% and used to
determine the antinociceptive
activity of MCAE. A further
experiment was done with 50%
concentration to determine the
effect of temperature and
naloxone involvement of the
opioid receptor system in MCAE
antinociceptive
activity. Results: At the various
concentrations MCAE showed
significant antinociceptive
activity in both tests. However,
the concentration-dependent
activity was observed only in the
ACT but not in the HPT. The 50%
concentration of MCAEs were
also stable against the effect of
various temperatures as
indicated by the presence of
activity in both tests. The
temperatures (40, 60 and 100°C)
also showed an enhanced extract
activity only in the HPT. Pre-
treatment with naloxone (2 and
10 mg/kg) blocked the extract
activity in both tests, indicating
the involvement of the opioid
receptor system in MCAE
antinociceptive activity.
5 This study dealt with the anti-
Anti-platelet aggregation activity of the fresh ripe fruits of
platelet aggregation activity of
Muntingia calabura linn. (manzanitas)
fresh ripe fruit of Muntingia
calabura Linn. (mazanitas).
Manzinatas are known to have
antiseptic, astringent and
antispasmodic properties. Study
also shows bioactivity of
manzanitas which includes
antibacterial property. Fresh ripe
fruits of manzanitas were used in
the study. Methods of extraction
included expression and
masceration. Five different test
solutions with 100mg/mL
concentrations were used. There
were five test solutions used in
the Giemsa Micoplate Assay, test
solution 1 (Pure Manzanitas
Juice), test solution 2
(CrudeEthanol-free), test solution
3 (Hexane-free), test solution 4
(Ethyl acatate-free) and test
solution 5 (Ethanol-free). Aspirin
solution with 2 mg/mL
concentration and dimethyl
sulfoxide (DMSO) were used as
positive and negative controls,
respectively. Giemsa Microplate
assay was used in the
determination of the anti-
platelet aggregation activity.
Three trials were conducted in
quadraplicates. The test
determination of the anti-
platelet aggregation was
subjected to phytochemical
screening using thin layer
chromatography. Out of the five
test solutions , only test solution
5 (Ethanol-free) inhibited platelet
aggregation at concentration of
100mg/mL as shown by the
absence of violet gels using the
Giesma Microplate Assay. Test
solution 1-4 did not inhibit
platelet aggregation. In the
phytochemical screening, it was
found out that the ethanol-free
extract contain flavonoids and
tannins. The ripe fruits of
manzanitas had anti-platelet
aggregation activity using the
Giesma Microplate Assay. It is
recommended that all the test
solutions must undergo
phytochemical screening to
determine the active
constituents present. Cell
counting of the aggregated
platelets should also be done in
order to have analysis of the anti-
platelet.
6 The in vitro antiproliferative and
In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of the
antioxidant activities of the
extracts of Muntingia calabura leaves.
aqueous, chloroform and
methanol extracts of Muntingia
calabura leaves were determined
in the present study. Assessed
using the 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-
2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium
bromide) (MTT) assay, the
aqueous and methanol extracts
of M. calabura inhibited the
proliferation of MCF-7, HeLa, HT-
29, HL-60 and K-562 cancer cells
while the chloroform extract only
inhibited the proliferation of
MCF-7, HeLa, HL-60 and K-562
cancer cells. Interestingly, all
extracts of M. calabura, which
failed to inhibit the MDA-MB-231
cells proliferation, did not inhibit
the proliferation of 3T3 (normal)
cells, indicating its safety. All
extracts (20, 100 and 500 μg/ml)
were found to possess
antioxidant activity when tested
using the DPPH radical
scavenging and superoxide
scavenging assays with the
methanol, followed by the
aqueous and chloroform, extract
exhibiting the highest antioxidant
activity in both assays. The total
phenolic content for the
aqueous, methanol and
chloroform extracts were 2970.4
± 6.6, 1279.9 ± 6.1 and 2978.1 ±
4.3 mg/100 g gallic acid,
respectively. In conclusion, the
M. calabura leaves possess
potential antiproliferative and
antioxidant activities that could
be attributed to its high content
of phenolic compounds, and
thus, needs to be further
explored.
7 Activation of Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway The cardiovascular effect of the
Mediates Hypotensive Effect of Muntingia crude methanol extract from the
leaf of Muntingia
calabura L. (Tiliaceae) Leaf Extract
calabura L. (Tiliaceae) was
investigated in the anesthetized
rats. The crude methanol extract
was
sequentially fractionated to
obtain the water-soluble extract
(WSE). Intravenous
administration
of the WSE (10, 25, 50, 75 or 100
mg/kg) produced an initial
followed by a delayed decrease
in systemic arterial pressure
(SAP) in a dose-dependent
manner. The M. calabura-
induced
initial hypotension lasted for 10
min and the delayed depressor
effect commenced after
90 min and lasted for at least 180
min post-injection. The same
treatment, on the other hand,
had no appreciable effect on
heart rate (HR) or the blood
gas/electrolytes concentrations.
Both
the initial and delayed
hypotensive effects of WSE (50
mg/kg, i.v.) were significantly
blocked
by pre-treatment with a
nonselective nitric oxide (NO)
synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-
nitro-L-
arginine methyl ester (L-NAME,
0.325 mg/kg/min for 5 min) or a
soluble guanylate cyclase
(sGC) inhibitor, 1H-
[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-
α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 0.2
mg/kg/min for
5 min). Moreover, whereas the
initial depressor effect of WSE
was inhibited by pre-treatment
with a selective endothelial NOS
(eNOS) inhibitor, N5-(1-
Iminoethyl)-L-ornithine (L-NIO,
1 mg/kg/min for 5 min), the
delayed hypotension was
attenuated by a selective
inducible NOS
(iNOS) inhibitor, S-
methylisothiourea (SMT, 0.5
mg/kg/min for 5 min).
Administration of
WSE also produced an elevation
in plasma nitrate/nitrite
concentration, as well as an
increase
in the expression of iNOS protein
in the heart and thoracic aorta.
These results indicate that
WSE from the leaf of M. calabura
elicited both a transient and
delayed hypotensive effect
via the production of NO.
Furthermore, activation of
NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway
may
mediate the M. calabura-induced
hypotension.
8 Today, we observe that some
"The Feasibility of Mansanitas (Zizyphus jujuba Linn.) fruit
products have increased their
Extract as an Alternative source of Sugar"
price especially sugar which is
one of the basic needs. The
researcher made this project for
everyone to know that
mansanitas is effective as
alternative for sugar. Mansanitas
as alternative source for sugar is
safe, affordable and
environmental friendly.
The researcher gathers 400
pieces of mansanitas fruit (to
produce an estimated amount of
250 mL extract) sieve, container,
pan and lather, and stove. The
researcher washed the fruit.
Then the fruit’s sap was
extracted by squeezing using
your hands. The extract was
filtered using a sieve to remove
the bonny and irregularly
furrowed stone inside the fruit.
The extract was poured in the
heated pan and then stirred
thoroughly until it became
caramelized.
Therefore this study is effective
as an alternative source for
sugar. The researcher
recommended to the future
investigators to conduct further
experimentation about
mansanitas.
9 Effects of Muntingia calabura L. on isoproterenol-induced Six groups of Wistar albino rats,
myocardial infarction. each comprising six animals,
were selected for this study.
Group I served as a control,
Group II rats were given
isoproterenol (20 mg/100g,
subcutaneously), and Group III
rats were given M. calabura leaf
extract (300 mg/kg). Groups IV, V
and VI rats were given M.
calabura leaf extract (100 mg/kg,
200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg,
respectively) and isoproterenol
(20 mg/100g subcutaneously)
prior to MI induction. The
transaminases (aspartate
transaminase and alanine
transaminase), lactate
dehydrogenase (LDH) and
creatine phosphokinase (CK),
were estimated in both the
serum and heart tissues, and the
serum uric acid level was also
estimated.
10
The effects of ripe manzanitas fruits (Zizyphus jujuba) on
This is an experimental
the gastrointestinal motility of white albino mice.
randomized controlled study
conducted at Cebu Doctors
Hospital Research Facility to
determine the effect of ripe
manzanitas fruit (Zizyphus
jujuba) on the gastrointestinal
motility of the White Albino Mice
Forty healthy white male albino
mice of the same age were
randomly divided into ten trials
with each trial containing four
mice to correspond to the four
treatment groups (Positive
control: Cisapride 0.5 mg in 0.5
cc, Negative control Atropine 0.5
mg in 0.5 cc, Neutral control:
Water 0.5 cc, Test substance
100% fruit extract 0.5 cc). All
animals were not fed for at least
12 hours except water.
Treatment for each trial were
given orally using a gavage
needle attached to a tuberculin
syringe. After 30 minutes all
animals were given activated
charcoal suspension orally. Then
after another 30 minutes, all
animals were sacrificed and
dissected to exposed the
gastrointestinal tract. The length
of the small intestine of each
animal from the pylorodoudenal
junction up to the cecum were
measured and recorded as well
as the distance travelled by the
activated charcoal from the
pylorodoudenal junction. From
this, the percentage of the
distance travelled by the activate
charcoal was computed by
dividing the distance travelled by
the activate charcoal by the
length of the small intestine then
multiplying the result by 100. The
results showed that the distance
travelled by the activated
charcoal in the test substance
group (average percentage of
distance: 56.57%) was longer
than the negative control group
(average percentage: 13.03%)
and the neutral control group
(average percentage 30.6%). But
the distance travelled by the
activated charcoal in the positive
control group (average
percentage 68.61%) was longer
than the test substance group.
One-way analysis of variance
using the f-test at 0.01 level of
significance showed that there
were significant differences in
the average percentage of the
distance travelled by the
activated charcoal (p-value 0.01)
between the treatment groups.
Using the Duncan multiple range
test at 0.01 level of significance,
all means were found to be
significantly different from each
other
This study shows that the ripe
Manzanitas fruit (Zizyphus
jujuba) has some stimulatory
effect on the gastrointestinal
tract of the white albino mice
11 Abstract
Total antioxidant activity of aratiles and mango extracts on
The total antioxidant activities of
human low density lipoprotein.
aratiles and mango fruit extracts
and vitamin C were tested in
vitro on human low density
lipoprotein (LDL). Samples were
incubated with 80 uM copper
oxidation catalyst at 37 degrees
centigrade for 3 hours. The
extent of oxidation was
measured by determining the
hexanal concentrations and
conjugated diene readings. In the
hexanal static headspace gas
chromatography method, the
inhibition of hexanal formation
was most effective in the
presence of vitamin C, followed
by that of the mango extract.
Aratiles exhibited prooxidant
activity. In the ultraviolet
conjugated diene absorbance
method, the order of antioxidant
activity differed. Aratiles was the
best inhibitor of conjugated
diene formation, followed by
mango, and vitamin C.
Concentrations of mango extract
higher than 0.50 g/ml may have
potential for greater antioxidant
activity than what was observed.
It is applicable to assess the
antioxidant activity of fruit
extracts using hexanal gas
chromatography. The use of
conjugated diene absorbance
method needs further
modification. (Author)
12 Chemical investigation of the
Chemical constituents of Muntingia calabura L.
dichloromethane extract of the
fruit of Muntingia
calaburaafforded squalene (1),
triglyceride (2), a mixture of
linoleic acid (3a), palmitic acid
(3b) and α-linolenic acid (3c), and
a mixture of β-
sitosterol (4a) and stigmasterol
(4b). The structures of 1-4b were
identified by comparison of their
NMR data with
those reported in the literature.
Keywords: Muntingia calabura,
Muntingiaceae, squalene,
triglyceride, β-sitosterol,
stigmasterol, linoleic acid,
palmitic acid, α-linolenic acid
13 Plant-based antimicrobials
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Bacterial Efficacy of Aratiles
represent a vast untapped source
Leaves (Muntingia Calabura Linn) Against Staphylococcus
of medicines and further
Aureaus
exploration of plant
antimicrobials needs to occur.
Antimicrobials of plant origin
have enormous therapeutic
potential. . Antimicrobials of
plant origin have enormous
therapeutic potential. They are
effective un treatment of
infectious disease while
simultaneously mitigating many
of the side effects that are often
associated with synthetic
antimicrobials.
Present study was executed to
mainly investigate the anti-
inflammatory and antibacterial
efficacy of Muntingia calabura
Linn against Staphylococcus
aureaus. This study is done to
provide people with an
inexpensive, natural and safe anti
inflammatory agent. In addition,
it may ease the pain of arthritis.
The output of this study will help
to make anti inflammatory
products out of aratilis
(Muntingia calabura linn) flowers
and leaves. This study might also
provide new knowledge about
the properties of aratilis
(Muntingia calabura Linn).
Extracts of aratilis leaves are
subjected to several solutions of
oil, water and ethanol at 1:1
ratio. Antibacterial efficacy is
done using cup cylinder assay by
measuring the diameter (mm) of
the clear zone around the cup.
The results showed that the oil
solution showed an average
value of 9.03mm, the ethanol
solution showed an average
value of 18.27 mm and the water
solution with an average of 20.10
mm. The negative controls – oil,
ethanol and water – exhibited an
average of inhibition with values,
8.87 mm, 14.67 mm, and 12.10
mm, respectively. The positive
control, Streptomycin sulfate,
exhibited a wide range of
inhibition with a 24.53 mm
clearing. The ointment has no
range of inhibition that may due
to dilution to the petroleum jelly.
14 Today, we observe that some
The Feasibility of Mansanitas (Zizyphus jujuba Linn.) fruit
products have increased their
Extract as an Alternative source of Sugar
price especially sugar which is
one of the basic needs. The
researcher made this project for
everyone to know that
mansanitas is effective as
alternative for sugar. Mansanitas
as alternative source for sugar is
safe, affordable and
environmental friendly.
The researcher gathers 400
pieces of mansanitas fruit (to
produce an estimated amount of
250 mL extract) sieve, container,
pan and lather, and stove. The
researcher washed the fruit.
Then the fruit’s sap was
extracted by squeezing using
your hands. The extract was
filtered using a sieve to remove
the bonny and irregularly
furrowed stone inside the fruit.
The extract was poured in the
heated pan and then stirred
thoroughly until it became
caramelized.
Therefore this study is effective
as an alternative source for
sugar. The researcher
recommended to the future
investigators to conduct further
experimentation about
mansanitas.
15 Literature has been retrieved
Muntingia calabura: A review of its traditional uses,
from a number of databases
chemical properties, and pharmacological observations
(e.g., Pubmed, Science Direct,
Springer Link, etc.). General web
searches were also carried out
using Google and Yahoo search
engines by applying some related
search terms (e.g., Muntingia
calabura, phytochemical,
pharmacological, extract, and
traditional uses). The articles
related to agriculture, ecology,
and synthetic work and those
using languages other than
English or Malay have been
excluded. The bibliographies of
papers relating to the review
subject were also searched for
further relevant references.
16 Leaves and stems
Bioactive metabolite profiles and weighting 100 g each
antimicrobial activity of ethanolic were immersed in 95%
ethanol at a ratio of 1:10
extracts from Muntingia calabura L. (w/v) for 72 h. The
leaves and stems mixtures were then
decanted and filtered.
The filtrate was
concentrated under
reduced pressure using
a rotary evaporator
(Laborota 4001,
Heidolph) with the
temperature set at
40 °C. The crude leaf
and stem extracts were
then air-dried for 14
days. After air-drying,
extracts were
reconstituted in 95%
ethanol, and filtered
through a Whatman No.
1 filter paper for further
bioassays.
17 This research used 10%
MUNTINGIA CALABURA concentration of Muntingia
calabura L. leaves, chlorhexidine
L LEAVES EXTRACT gluconate 0.12%, and sterile
INHIBITS distilled water, as the treatment,
positive control and negative
GLUCOSYLTRANSFERAS control group, respectively. GTF
activity assays through fructose
E ACTIVITY OF extensive area analysis by using
High Performance Liquid
STREPTOCOCCUS Chromatography (HPLC).
Fructose extensive area
MUTANS determined based on time
retention from each groups.
Fructose concentrations were
expressed in percent (%) then
converted into μmol/ml fructose
that defined as a unit of GTF
activity. The data was analyzed
by one-way ANOVA.
18 Muntingia calabura L.,
Antinociceptive effect of semi-purified Muntingiaceae, is a medicinal
petroleum ether partition plant for various pain-related
diseases. The aims of the
of Muntingia calabura leaves present study were to
determine the antinociceptive
profile and to elucidate the
possible mechanisms of
antinociception of petroleum
ether partition obtained from
crude methanol extract of M.
calabura leaves using various
animal models. The
antinociceptive profile of
petroleum ether fraction (given
oral; 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg)
was established using the in
vivo chemicals (acetic acid-
induced abdominal constriction
and formalin-induced paw
licking test) and thermal (hot
plate test) models of
nociception. The role of
glutamate, TRPV1 receptor,
bradykinin, protein kinase C,
potassium channels, and
various opioid and non-opioid
receptors in modulating the
partition's antinociceptive
activity was also determined.
The results obtained
demonstrated that petroleum
ether partition exerted
significant (p < 0.05)
antinociception in all the
chemicals-, thermal-,
capsaicin-, glutamate-,
bradykinin, and phorbol 12-
myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-
induced nociception models.
The antinociceptive activity
was reversed following
pretreatment with opioid
antagonists (i.e. naloxone, β-
funaltrexamine, naltrindole
and nor-binaltorphimine), and
the non-opioid receptor
antagonists (i.e. pindolol (a β-
adrenoceptor), haloperidol (a
non-selective dopaminergic),
atropine (a non-selective
cholinergic receptor), caffeine
(a non-selective adenosinergic
receptor), and yohimbine (an
α2-noradrenergic)). In
addition, pretreatment with L-
arginine (a nitric oxide (NO)
donor), NG-nitro-L-arginine
methyl esters (L-NAME; an
inhibitor of NO synthase
(NOS)), methylene blue (MB;
an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine
monophosphate (cGMP)
pathway), or their combination
failed to inhibit petroleum
ether partition's
antinociception. In conclusion,
petroleum ether partition
exerts antinociceptive activity
at the peripheral and central
levels via the modulation of,
partly, the opioid (i.e. µ, κ and
δ) and several non-opioids
(i.e. β-adrenergic,
dopaminergic, cholinergic,
adenosinergic, and α2-
noradrenergic) receptors,
glutamatergic, TRPV1
receptors, PKC and
K+ channels systems, but not
L-arg/NO/cGMP pathway.
19 The present investigation deals
TYROSINASE INHIBITION AND ANTI-OXIDANT PROPERTIES
with identifying new potential
OF MUNTINGIA CALABURA EXTRACTS: IN VITRO STUDIES
skin agents from natural origin
for tre ating the
hyperpigmentation disorders.
The medicinal plant, Muntingia
calabura was selected as the
candidate plant for the present
study. 10 % (w/v) extract of
various parts (leaf, flower and
fruit) of M.calabura ethanol, hy
droethanol and petroleum
ether) was prepared by
decoction method. The
antityrosinase activity of the
extracts from various parts of
the plant was determined by
using mushroom tyrosinase as
an apt model system and it
was found that the
hydroethanolic extract of leaves
from M. calabura lightening
and antioxidant in different
solvents (aqueous, possessed
the maximum tyrosinase
inhibiting potential among the
various parts examined. The
antioxidant activity of leaf
extract of the plant was also
ascertained by using 2,
2diphenyl 1picryl hydrazyl
(DPPH) scavenging assay and
ferric thiocyanate assay. The
results showed that DPPH
scavenging activity of
hydroethanolic extract of leaves
was in a dose dependant
manner with the IC50 value of
8.5 µ inhibition of lipid
peroxidation was almost similar
in aqueous and hydroet g. The
hanolic leaf extracts of
M.calabura. The phenolic
content of various solvent
extracts of M.calabura leaves
was also determined. The
hydroethanolic extract of
M.calabura leaves exhibited the
phenolic content to a greater
extent. Our findings revealed
that leaves of M.calabura
exerted the potent
antityrosinase and antioxidant
activities.
20 The aim of the present
Insecticidal activity of Muntingia study was to evaluate
calaburaextracts against larvae and the insecticidal effects of
hexane and ethanolic
pupae of diamondback, Plutella extracts of the flowers
xylostella and fruits of Muntingia
calabura against
diamondback
moth, Plutella xylostella.
The leaf disc immersion
methodology was carried
out to assess the
insecticidal effects on
the larvae and pupae as
well as duration of the
larval phase following
feeding of the first instar
larvae of diamondback
on the treated leaf discs
for 72 h. All extracts
were toxic to larvae and
pupae of P. xylostella.
The ethanolic extracts of
the flowers and fruits
of M. calabura were the
most toxic against first
instar P. xylostella larvae
with LC50 values of
0.61 μg mL−1 and
1.63 μg mL−1 respectivel
y, followed by the
hexane extract of the
fruits
(LC50 = 5.5 μg mL−1) and
flowers
(LC50 = 18.9 μg mL−1). All
extracts were more toxic
to P. xylostella larvae
compared with
cordycepin, the positive
control which produced
100% mortality at
500 μg mL−1 in 72 h.
Fruit extracts were more
active than the flowers in
producing pupal
mortality following 72 h
of feeding of the first
instar larvae on leaf
discs treated with the
extracts. Both the
hexane and the
ethanolic extracts of M.
calabura fruits and
flowers prolonged larval
duration by ∼2 days in
some cases as
compared with the
control (7.2 days). These
results suggest that M.
calabura has potential
for development as
commercial insecticide
for controlling P.
xylostella due to its
insecticidal effects.

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