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1st International Online Conference
on Psychology & Allied Sciences
(IOCPAS-2011)
Organized by Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
25-26 November, 2011
The main objective of the IOCPAS 2011 is to bring together researchers, psychologists, psychiatrists,
counselors, practitioners, teaching faculties from various social science departments, research scholars,
and other fellows who are interested in psychological principles and their applicability in various fields. It
will provide a platform for researchers from all over the world to meet online, to present their current
researches, to share their research ideas with others around the world, and to widen the scope of
psychology and allied sciences.
Authors are invited to submit their original research paper via email or online submission. We look
forward to getting research papers from psychology and allied sciences on several aspects of social
sciences. All accepted conference abstracts will be published in the Souvenir and full papers shall be
published in the Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, Indian Journal of Positive Psychology and
International Journal of Education and Management Studies.

CONFERENCE PATRON
Dr. M. L. Ranga
Vice Chancellor, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar

CONFERENCE PRESIDENT
Dr. Sunil Saini
President
Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare

CONFERENCE SECRETARIES
Dr. B.K. Punia
Dean, HSB, Director, Academic Staff College,GJUS&T, Hisar

Dr. Sandeep Singh


Coordinator Centre for Behavioral Research and Intervention, GJUS&T, Hisar

Dr. Neelam Goyal


Secretary
Indian Association of Health Research & Walfare

Organizing Committee Scientific Committee International Advisory Board


Sandeep Singh Abha Singh, Kanpur Nirmala Devi, Hisar S. C. Kundu, India
Nayanika Singh Akbar Husain, Aligarh Radhy Shyam, Rohtak Mary Judd, USA
Sandhya Rai Anup Sud, Shimla Ruby Charak, Jammu Stuart Sovatsky, USA
Rituperna Basak Atasi Mohanty, West Bangal Sandhya Ojha, Varanasi Shiela Maxwell, USA
Simmi Bansal Hari Luxmi, Andhra Pardesh Helan Pratt, USA
Sangeeta Trama, Patiala
Diljot Soin Kalpana Sahoo, Orissa Frank Ra, Vancouver
Saroj Kothari, Indor
Sugandh Gupta Kiran Kumar, Maysor Paul Landsbergis, New York
Dalbir Singh Saini Kiran Sahoo, U.P. S. K. Sia, Pandicherry Donald Moss, California
K. N. Jayakumar, Tamilnadu Updesh Kumar, DRDO, Delhi
L. R. Yagnik, Gujrat Vandana Punia, Sirsa Media Partner
Madhurima Pardhan, U.P. Waheeda Khan, Delhi AmAreway.org
Welcome
Dear friends

With great pleasure we welcome you all to the Ist International Online Conference on
Psychology and Allied Sciences (IOCPAS-2011) being organized online on 25-26 November,
2011 by Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare and Centre for Behavioral
Research and Intervention, Department of Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana, India. We are
grateful to the fraternity of Psychology and Allied Sciences for reposing their faith in us for
organizing this event. We are thankful to all the participants from national and international
level, member of scientific committee and international advisory board. We are highly obliged
to the keynote speakers, and chairperson of the scientific sessions who confide in us and give
their valuable time for adding value to this event.

Thanks

Sunil Saini, PhD


President
Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare

Organizing Secretaries

Dr. Sandeep Singh, PhD


Co-ordinator,
CBRI, Department of Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana,

Dr. B. K. Poonia, PhD


Dean, Haryana School of Business, GJUS&T, Hisar

Dr. Neelam Goyal, PhD,


Secretary, Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
IOCPAS-2011
1st International Online Conference on
Psychology and Allied Sciences
(IOCPAS-2011)
Theme: New Horizon in Social Science Research
Organized by Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare

1. Sports and the neurodevelopment of the child and adolescent


Helen D. Pratt
Director Behavioral Developmental Pediatrics
Michigan State University/Kalamazoo Center for Medical Studies, Kalamazoo, MI, USA

Sport participation is considered, by many professionals (teachers, clinicians, coaches) and parents, to be an essential
component of the development of physically, mentally, and socially healthy youth. Approximately 20 to 35 million
children and adolescents participate in organized sport programs (non-school programs, 80% and school-based, 20%)
each year. These youth may become involved in some form of competitive sports because competitive sports have
become an increasingly popular way to socialize youth, make them competitive for academic scholarships. Many
professionals and parents also believe that sports participation builds character, teaches leadership skills and teaches
youth how to be team players; consequently, these individuals frequently recommend sports participation as an
intervention to promote such skills. However, these professionals often do not consider that such engagement
increases youth exposure to violence, physical injury, feelings of rejection, substance exposure and possible abuse by
coaches and team mates. Professionals who have a basic understanding the neurodevelopment of children and
adolescents can more effectively guide parents and youth towards making healthy decisions about selecting sport
activities that will be the most beneficial to the athlete.

2. Clinical forms of love inspired by Meher Baba's mast work and


the awe of infinite consciousness
Stuart Sovatsky
Richmond, California

Contemporary issues of interest and concern to positive psychology ang transpersonal psychology have antecedents in the
1920s-1940s in the work of Meher Baba in India. He helped inspire the work of R.D. Laing in the 1960s (1964, 1965, 1970),
predates the work of Sannella (1977/1987), Perry (1974), and the Grofs (1989, 1990) on “spiritual emergence,” and
foreshadowed Wilber's “pre-trans fallacy” (Wilber, 1980a, 1980b, 1995). Meher Baba's work with India's masts (“God-
intoxicated ones”) in the 1920s-40s helped inspire Laing's “anti-psychiatry” in the 1960s of a medication-free kindness in
treating the mentally-ill and predates by decades the concept of “spiritual emergence” developed by Sannella, Perry, Grof and
Grof in the 1970s and thereafter. His concept of the salik conveys the essence of Wilber's “pre-trans fallacy” (mistaking
enlightenment for an immature forerunner.) His view of “God intoxication” appears to be a culturally-dependent, extreme
instance of a potentially non-pathological “Depersonalization/ Dissociation” as noted in the DSM-IV-R. From Meher Baba's
saintly perception of an essential holiness (awe- and love-inspiring nature) of consciousness itself, I derive inspiration for a
psychotherapy of “clinical forms of love.” I also introduce the concept of “spiritual surpass,” problems attendant to successful
spiritual maturation, in contrast to “spiritual bypass,” problems related to egoic immaturity.
2 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

3. Psychosocial and economic experiences of Gulf States returnee


Ethiopian women domestic workers
Meskerem Mulatu
Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa, Ethiopia

The study explored psychosocial and economic experiences of Gulf States returnee Ethiopian women domestic
workers. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select participants from Amanuel Mental Specialized
Hospital. Data was collected through in-depth interview, and analyses of archival records. Poverty and accompanied
unemployment, psychological and sociocultural challenges, lack of formal educational opportunities, and absence of
life skills trainings including vocational, legal, basic literary, and communication were found to be the root factors that
might possibly predispose women to severe forms of maltreatments. Cultural shocks related to language and religious
barriers unfulfilled expectations, frustrations, and depression were among major traumatic and life-threatening
experiences encountered in the country of destination. Since the challenges were found to be very complex, broader
investigation is required.
Keywords: psychosocial and economic experiences, gulf state returnee, women domestic workers

4. Psychological stress among undergraduate medical and


non-medical students
Jonathan Mamo, Raphael Buttigieg,
Diana Vassallo and Laura Azzopardi

To compare the levels psychological stress between medical and non-medical students and to distinguish stress
levels over the five years of undergraduate study of the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery Honours degree at the
University of Malta. A questionnaire (Q-1) based on criteria developed by the General Health Questionnaire,
Becks' Depression Inventory and also based on the Goldberg “Depression Questionnaire” was distributed
amongst the student population. The GHQ-12 was also distributed (Q-2) to the same population and the results of
the two questionnaires where compared using SPSS version 16. A total number of 561 students completed the
questionnaires including 208 medical and 253 non-medical students. The medical students scored an average of
32.71 (Q-1) and 16.30 (Q-2) whereas the non-medical students scored lower with a 29.17 (Q-1) and 14.70 (Q-2).
This indicated a statistically significant difference in scores between medical and non-medical students (p<0.05).
Female students were also noted to be statistically more stressed than male students (p<0.05). When comparing
the different grades of student the third year students were noted to be the least stressed cohort (p<0.05) whereas
the 2nd (Q-2) and 5th (Q-1 & Q-2) year students were the most stressed groups (p<0.05). There was no significant
difference between the 2nd and 5th year students with regards to their scores of Q-2 but there was a difference
noted when comparing the Q-1 scores. The undergraduate medical course is known to be a stressful course within
the University but there are no studies available to review this. The results confirm the need for a framework to
support medical students during their course, especially during the two more demanding years (2nd and 5th year).
Further scope for investigation may be the manner with which males cope as the stress levels appear to be
generally lower and also to compare with future groups of students following a move from one venue to a newer
medical school.
Keywords: psychological stress, students
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 3

5. Madhyamaka and positive psychology: A marriage of well-being


Frank Ra
AmAre, British Columbia, Canada

Our paper and presentation analyzes where Dharma psychology and Positive Psychology meet: in the Middle Way.
After introducing the key aspects of Dharma psychology, based on its key sutras and commentaries mainly from the
Mahāyāna tradition, and Positive Psychology, according to its most recent seminal books and researches, plus
references to the Golden Mean in other traditions, studies and methods (Assagioli's psychosynthesis, etc.) and we see
where these approaches meet to facilitate well-being and thriving. We also discuss how the author is creating
awareness about these Middle Way's approaches by using AmAre as a personal assessment, personal development
and out-reach tool. AmAre in Italian means “to love”, and as an acronym means "being": Aware and Accepting;
Meaningful and Motivated; Active and Attentive; Resilient and Respectful; Eating properly and Exercising. Last, we
see how walking the Middle Way does not mean being “middled”, discussing positivity ratio. Frank Ra is a Dharma
instructor; has been coaching and working in eCommunication since late 1995; he studied Dharma, Business, and
graduated in International Relations and Diplomacy. He is creating awareness about AmAre as an inspirational,
strategical, tactical, assessment and outreach tool to facilitate living a happy, meaningful and fulfilling life. He is
Italian, has spent most of his adult life in North America, England and Estonia, and travelling around the World. He
settled in beautiful British Columbia, Canada.
Keywords: madhyamaka, positive psychology

6. Evaluation of psycho-social care and support services for returnee


women domestic workers at EOC-DICAC RRAD, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Shimelis Dejene Yegletu
Jimma University, College of Social Sciences and Law, Ethiopia

The study explored the remarkable past successes and limitations; opportunities and challenges of psycho-social care
and support for Returnee Ethiopian Women Domestic Workers at EOC DICAC RRAD (Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Development Inter-Church Aid Commission for Refugees and Returnees Affairs Department) in Addis Ababa.
Through purposive sampling, 10 women returnees, 6 psychosocial service providers, and head of the organization
were participated. In-depth interview, document analysis and observational check-list were employed. Findings
unearthed that returnees were in high demand of appropriate psychosocial care and support. Generally, majority
suffer from identity crisis, feeling humiliation, cultural shocks, sexual, physical and emotional abuses. Moreover, the
study cited some outstanding achievements in reintegrating women migrant domestic workers socially,
psychologically and economically. Delivery of different vocational skill trainings; social rehabilitation services;
income generating activities; meeting basic needs such as temporary shelter, food and cloth; psychosocial trainings in
the form of trauma healing workshops, group and individual counseling, psychotherapy for severe mental health
problems were found to be the major measures taken by EOC-DICAC RRAD. However, the investigation unveiled
that the current service delivered appears inadequate in almost all aspects. Significant challenges in delivering
psychosocial care and support encompass limited and ill-trained man-power; funding, and space related constraints.
Hence, due to the above and numerous related limitations; the organization was found to be less likely to fulfill the
demands of several returnees of women migrant domestic workers. For empowering the psychosocial care and
support for Middle East Returnees of Women Domestic Workers, sound strategies were recommended.
Keywords: psycho-social care, support, women domestic workers
4 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

7. Comprehensive life skills trainings: An effective intervention to


moderate the challenges of Ethiopia labor migrant women
in the Gulf States
Shimelis Dejene Yegletu
Clinical Psychology Lecturer, Jimma University, College of Social Sciences and Law, Ethiopia

In competitive world, several push and pull factors (poverty and accompanied unemployment; political instability;
development in science and technology; improved means of transportation and communication; search for better job,
education, marriage, salary and life opportunities) operate in a concerted manner and further intensified movement of
people and materials; exchange of information and improved quality of life. An informal interview was conducted
with government officials from MOLSA; migrants at Yemen, those who are departing at Bole Air Port, and returnees
in Jimma. In addition, extensive desk review was conducted in analyzing documents such as Ethiopian Employment
Proclamations, Bulletins and News Papers, and Audio-Recordings, theoretical and practical literatures. The result
outlined that migrant domestic workers encompass individuals from diversified groups (children and adults; males
and females, educated and illiterates; urban and rural, employed and unemployed, married, unmarried, divorced,
widowed). Still, majority of them are involved in small scale jobs (house cleaners, server/maid, shopkeepers, forced
daily laborers, commercial sex workers, and camel raisers). Furthermore, the study uncovered that out of the total
migrants, 81.7 % were females, their age range is from 15-34, 73.3% of women migrants are unemployed, and
majority finished primary school and is from rural areas, from Amhara and Oromia regions. Among the multifaceted
challenges, psychosocial, employment; economic; right violations; religious and cultural shocks were found to be
significant. More specifically, many have been sexually abused; some lost their bodily organs; majority undergoes
forceful labor exploitation and still others are victims of low salary. As a consequence, they become victims of
unwanted pregnancy, psychological intimidation, STDS; being in jail; lose their passport; unable to secure residence
and work permit, generally, limited life and work situation. Though retroactive, to mitigate the burden, the current
study attempted to underline a Comprehensive Pre-Departure Life Skills Trainings including personal, social,
vocational, communication, legal and basic literacy skills.

8. The mysteries of increasing youth unemployment in Ethiopia


Shimelis Dejene Yegletu
Clinical Psychology Lecturer, Jimma University, College of Social Sciences and Law, Ethiopia

Nature and challenges of youth unemployment was investigated among randomly selected youth life skills trainers
and trainees in Addis Ababa. Extensive document analyses, participant- observation, and in-depth interview were
employed. Poverty, psychosocial, political, influences; overpopulation, urbanization, globalization, were key factors
behind high youth unemployment in the country. Conversely, provision of trainings on various skills; access to credit
associations and to communicate with higher officials outlined appreciative measures taken. Furthermore, education,
information, services; inadequacy of educated personnel; and culture of interdependence stressed as major youth
employment related opportunities. Existing main challenges relate to shortages of finance, lack of good governance,
and inadequate trainings; increasing young population. Though encouraging progress, significant improvements
remain possible. That the unemployment situation is particularly rampant among the urban and women youth, which
constitutes the largest population calls for an urgent intervention aimed at improving the fate of the unemployed. This
requires concerted effort from concerned stakeholders.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 5

9. An analytical study of peer influence on behavioral modification and


academic performance of students in higher education of Pakistan
Arab Naz
Department of Sociology/Social Work, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower, Pakistan

Qaiser Khan
Department of English, University of Malakand,Chakdara Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Ikram Shah
Department of Sociology, University of Karachi, Pakistan

Socialization is a life-long process and all individuals are exposed to multitude of factors, situations and events
during this process. Majority of socializing agents and agencies have been discussed and scrutinized in the recent
past. The existence of peer group, its influence and pressure has also received wide acknowledgement in shaping
and molding the course of an individual life. This paper explores the nature and level of peer group influence on
students at post-compulsory level regarding their choice of profession, lifestyle and response to overall 'social
reality'. The data has been colleted from 120 students of four departments on the basis of stratification and
randomization. Besides, questionnaire was adopted as tool of data collection and the data has been analyzed in the
form frequency distribution tables showing percentage along with discussion. The study concludes that these
choices, although primarily geared by parents and other family members, are transformed and reshaped by peer
influence. It further argues that family influence proves momentary and subsides as soon as students enter into
higher education institutions. In the context of behavioral modification, peer influence is an asset in healthy
societies but it turns into a liability in under developed communities.
Keywords: influence, risky behaviors, modification, academics, learning, adaptation, performance etc.

10. The essence of rehabilitation in Iranian patients with cancer: A


qualitative content analysis study
Rahnama, M.
School of Nursing & Midwifery Sciences, University of Mashhad, Iran

Fallahi Khoshknab, M. and Maddah, S.S.


Nursing Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences

Ahmadi, F.
Nursing Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

The recognition of rehabilitation needs in cancer patients has received increasing attention. The ultimate goal of this
study is to recognition the rehabilitation issues in cancer patients, because despite the importance of this matter, the
oncology literatures are limited in this description. A qualitative content analysis approach is conducted on 11 cancer
patients and 6 members of these patients' families, using unstructured strategy in 2011. Cancer rehabilitation needs
that is recognized by patients and their family involved, not only physical aspects but also psycho-social, spiritual,
economical, communicational and educational dimensions. Cancer rehabilitation care must be holistic and to
enhance the quality of life in all dimensions during illness experience.
Keywords: rehabilitation- cancer patients- content analysis
6 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

11. Workplace happiness - Is it achievable?


Aaron Adhikary
Australia

Workplace Happiness is the buzz word of the new millennium with an explosion of research into the areas of
happiness, humour, optimism and positive attitude. Restructuring, deregulation, outsourcing, globalisation and
demands to increase workplace productivity affect staff. The greatest cause of workplace unhappiness is bad relations
between managers and their subordinates. Depression affects work relationships and team work negatively and
causes frequent conflict, irritability and low tolerance which in turn elicits less support from the workplace.
Workplace bullying is prevalent worldwide while office politics eats at workplace happiness. Women feel that they
earn less and that equality and diversity are paid lip service and would rather leave than accept the status quo. An
organisation's success, competitiveness and workforce happiness will depend on its ability to manage workplace
diversity effectively. One of the keys to workplace happiness includes matching a job and environment with one's
talents, passions, values and lifestyle. Time management, delegation of tasks and taking action assists in building our
happiness allowing us time to rest and develop good working relationships with co-workers.We need to cultivate
being a positive influence and associate with positive people. Laughter is important in the workplace. Robert Orben
said "If you can laugh together, you can work together".Even the happiest of people feel unhappy at times while even
the most serious have their moments of joy. Financially strong companies know that their employees are part of their
business and are important.
Keywords: workplace happiness

12. Iranian nursing students' and teachers' perceptions of student-


teacher relationship in clinical nursing education: A qualitative study
by content analysis method
Fariba Yaghoubi Nia, Abbas Heydari and Robab Latifnejad Roudsari
Mashhad University of Medical Science, Iran

Introduction and aim: Nowadays, student- teacher relationship has differed from the past regarding change in nursing
education paradigm and its emphasis on the centrality of the student- teacher relationship, so understanding this
relationship in humanistic paradigm from the perspectives of teachers and students, is an inevitable necessity. This
study was conducted to determine Iranian nursing students' and teachers' perceptions of student teacher relationshipin
clinical nursing education. In this study that was conducted through content analysis approach, 6 BSc nursing students
and 6 clinical nursing teachers in nursing and midwifery school in Mashhad, (Iran), selected by purposeful sampling.
Data was obtained through semi-structured interviews. The content analysis approach was used for reduction and
nomination of data, obtain analysis code and themes recognition. Data analysis identified three major themes about
relationship in clinical nursing education includes: 1) multidimensional nature of relationship (dimensions related to
teacher, dimensions related to student, dimensions related to relationship), 2) ideal relationship (relationship features,
verbal relationship), 3) non verbal relationship (relationship behaviors, appearance of student and teacher). Iranian
nursing students' and teachers' perceptions of relationship in clinical nursing education in the cases is different from
other countries and because of such differences; relationship concept should be viewed from their points of view
based on our culture.
Keywords: student- teacher relationship, clinical nursing education, perception, content analysis
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 7

13. The influence of exercise on physical and mental fitness of


exercising young males
Sadaf A. Shamoon N., Tooba S. and Hiba J.
Department of Physiology, University of Karachi
Advanced Educational Institute & Research Centre, Pakistan

Exercising affects the individual behaviors and lifestyle. The opportunity for exercise available to each person
with respect to social and economical surroundings may become manage to change the eating and sleeping
patterns and in majority of cases show a burst of activity when overall outcomes of exercising were compared with
non-exercising individuals. To compare the effects of exercise between trained and un-trained subjects and also to
study eating, sleeping and behavioral fitness in exercising young males. This was Randomized Performa based
study conducted on 207 young males who were exercising, going gym regularly for weight loss or physical fitness.
After exercising 79% of the regularly exercising males felt fresh, relaxed and less frustrated on day to day issues.
Moreover 71% were got less irritated when compared with non-exercising males. Significant and improved
mental and physical fitness was achieved through the combination of exercise and diet in regularly exercising
young subjects, although no differences were found based on different exercise durations and intensities in this
group and majority of the males were reported to exercise only to achieve fitness as their primary goal rather than
to loose weight or build body.
Keywords: exercise, mental fitness, males

14. Electricity load shedding as a major cause of fierceness, anxiety


and impaired intellectual functions
Sadaf, A., Shamoon, N. and Faiza, A.
Advance Educational Institute & Research Centre (AEIRC), Pakistan

Electricity Load shedding is proved to be blight for our nation in recent years and badly affected the lives of people
both economically and socially, but the derelict part of the observation was the effect of the shortage of electric
power supply on the mental and physical health of a normally working adult. A survey based cohort study was
conducted for three consecutive years (2008 to 2011) on young adult population age ranges from 16-26 Yrs.
Cognitive interviews were done includes questions on anxiety, fierceness, depression and all the aggravating
factors that affect and enhance these feelings at mild, moderate or severe level. Out of total 1099 youngsters both
male and females, 43% of respondents reported feeling down in the dumps only in summers due to load shedding,
32% of respondents reported hostile personalities and mood fluctuations, while remaining 25% reported no
severe but insignificant changing personality traits. There was also a significant difference observed among the
populations who are engaged both in education and also doing jobs for survivals. 38% of the these found frustrated
and reported a decrement in intellectual thinking because of unavailability of resources in time due to shortage of
power supply. The intensity of anxiety, fierceness is increasing yearly as the situations of load shedding are getting
worse. The young population is continuously losing their energies and time management become impossible for
them. The problem is not actually loadshedding but the time constraint, workload and resources which all are
being mismanaged due to this nuisance.
Keywords: electricity load, fierceness, intellectual
8 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

15. Outcomes of a “Nonviolence Course” at an educational


faculty in Turkey
Hayal Köksal
Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey Representative, Center for Schools of Quality, USA

Violence is; “the use of physical force to cause injury, damage or death”. The word violence covers a broad spectrum.
It can vary from between a physical altercation between two beings to war and genocide where millions may die as a
result. The causes of violent behaviour in humans are often topics of research in psychology and sociology. Even
though scientists do agree that violence is inherent in humans, it is believed by the writer that nonviolence can be
taught through lecturing and modelling. As a result, the writer not only took place among the first members of the
Peace Education and Research Center of the Boğaziçi University (BUPERC), she also designed and piloted a new
course for the students of the Faculty of Education at the Boğaziçi University during the Spring term of 2010-2011
Academic Year. The course was given as an elective under the name of: “Nonviolence in Education”. 45 students
elected it and they prepared 61 peace and nonviolence focused projects through students' quality circles (SQC)
methodology. The main objectives of that course were; to develop a basic understanding related to conflict
management and its practice to help make university students dignified, peaceful, contemporary and innovative
citizens of the future world, to open new windows concerning nonviolent approaches in various fields including
education, gender issues, leadership roles and skills, effective technology use, and problems of the challenged world
and to improve “peace and quality” concepts at home, in the office and in the community. Not only books but also
online resources were used during the projects. Assessment was conducted through rubrics and peers assessed along
with the instructor. All the communication between the students and the instructor was realized through a Blog which
was: https://nonviolenceineducation.wordpress.com.The reflections of the students were very interesting and
inspiring during the evaluation session of the course. In this article, the projects and details of the course will be shared
including the rubrics.

16. Education for children with disabilities: A proposal for practice


Nancy Driscoll
School Psychologist, Licensed Psychological Associate

Children with disabilities exist in all cultures around the world. In the United States, federal law has mandated the
inclusion of these students in the public education system since the 1970s. This has led to an extensive body of
research on learning disabilities, assessment and intervention strategies, service delivery models, curriculum
materials, and teaching strategies. U. S. federal law recognizes fourteen “disabling conditions” and outlines
assessment requirements for each as well school responsibilities and parental rights. The recognized areas of
disabilities include: 1. Autism spectrum disorders 2. Health impairments 3. Intellectual disabilities 4. Learning
disabilities (including seven sub-types) 5. Serious Emotional Disabilities 6. Orthopaedic Impairments 7.Visual
Impairment 8. Hard of Hearing 9. Deaf 10. Deaf and Blind 11. Traumatic Brain Injury 12. Developmental
Disabilities 13. Speech and language disorders 14. Multiple Handicaps. A school psychology specialty arose to meet
the assessment and intervention requirements of the federal law and today school psychologists are employed in
public schools throughout the country to assure that students are appropriately identified and served. School
psychologists are part of decision making teams to create “individualized educational plans” for each identified
student as well. The components of these plans are also mandated by law and require parental involvement and
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 9

permission for services. Not only can the child receive academic support, but related services such as speech therapy,
occupational therapy, physical therapy, adaptive physical education, and counseling can be offered when needed by
the student. A review of the history of public education in India documents efforts toward the identification and
inclusion of students with disabilities as well. The Education For All Act of 2000 paralleled the Millenium
Development Goal of Universal Primary Education for all children by 2015. The Inclusive Education for Disabled at
Secondary Stage effort in 2008 proposed not only access to education but appropriate materials and training for
teachers. The 2009 Right of Children To Free and Compulsory Education Act required a “zero rejection policy” for all
children with disabilities. The Results Framework for Education in India for 2011-2012 shows objectives for
inclusion of disadvantage groups including children with disabilities and sets standards for teacher training.How are
these important goals to be realized? One key component is quality professional preparation and development for
teachers. A 2010 study “Knowledge of Learning Disability Among Pre-and In-Service Teachers in India” made
several important points. The study suggests that the number of people with disabilities in India is substantial and it is
likely to grow. Estimates are that 10-14% of the children in India may have some type of learning disability. To put it
another way, it is estimated that five students in every average-sized classroom in India has some type of learning
disability. Large class sizes and a traditional model of instruction works against the strengths and needs of these
students. While the sample size was low, the study did find that teachers in regular schools, especially those exposed to
specific training, showed the highest knowledge of the needs of learning disabled students. Perhaps not surprisingly,
pre-service teachers showed the least knowledge of students' needs, suggesting needed changes to pre-service
preparation. More surprisingly, teachers in special schools for the disabled demonstrated less knowledge of learning
disabilities that did teachers in regular schools. The study noted that teachers in special schools who participated in the
study were less likely to have a degree in education however, perhaps under the assumption that such was not required
to teach disabled children.A second key component to the education of children with disabilities is the service delivery
model. If children are to be served within regular classrooms, an “inclusion” model of service delivery is often
utilized. In an inclusion model, a specially- trained teacher is paired with a regular education teacher for all or part of
the school day. The two can then interact differently with students with special learning needs. For example, after a
whole group presentation, the inclusion teacher can work with a small group of students for re-teaching and guided
practice. A recent meta-analysis of the inclusion model in early education suggests that children in inclusive programs
generally do at least as well as children in specialized programs and that inclusion can benefit children with and
without disabilities, particularly with respect to their social development. Collaboration among parents, teachers, and
specialists is also a cornerstone of high quality instruction. Such a model would also track closely with the emphasis
on activity-based learning being promoted nationally. Of course other key components include research-based
interventions and programs. Research studies can show which approaches are effective, e.g. behavioral contracting,
direct small-group instruction, dyslexia improvement strategies, and the like. There is also a great deal of new brain
research on cognitive processes such as sensory processing, attention, and executive functioning which suggests that
these skills can be improved with specially designed instructional programs. Thus although we now may only try to
accommodate those weaknesses, such as giving extended time for processing, we can actually strengthen the
processes in the individual student. What then are suggested best practices for the identification and delivery of
services to students with disabilities in those countries that seek to improve such services? In that the knowledge base
of the teaching staff is critical to any early identification and subsequent service delivery, quality professional pre- and
in-service staff development is essential. Training on the early identification of learning disabilities would support a
referral process for additional evaluation and planning for the child. Such training should also overcome
presumptions about children who are struggling by helping teachers see that many behavior and apparent
motivational problems are really only defenses for learning problems. Other topics for professional development
would include the characteristics and potential of students with the various disabling conditions. Examples of
different approaches to curriculum delivery could then be provided as well. Similar programs could be shared with
10 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

parents and other service providers such as those in the medical field so that conditions that are most responsive to
early intervention, e.g. autism or communication disorders, could be identified in time for that early intervention.
Once the level of professional understanding of learning disabilities rises, follow up support could be better received
and utilized in the form of different learning materials and adapted curriculum. A close working relationship between
psychology and education will reap a wealth of reward for students with disabilities. The development of
“Professional Learning Communities” or “PLCs” could be considered as well. These groups are made up of teachers
of the same grade level or subject. The group meets on a regular basis to share ideas and offer suggestions to each
other. A PLC of teachers of students with disabilities might provide professional dialogue and support. Further, I
would like to propose a “Virtual Professional Learning Community” with partner schools in the US and Europe. By
meeting virtually, psychologists, teachers of the disabled, and others could share best practices. These communities of
best practice would know no borders in the education of all children.

17. Levels of peer pressure and conformity among male Lasallian


computer gamers S.Y 2011-2012
Briones, Kevin, Reinier C., Cruz and Buenamariko Shyna S.

This study sought to determine the relationship between peer pressure and conformity among male college Lasallian
computer gamers, S.Y. 2011-2012. This research focused on 183 male Lasallian college computer gamers as
respondents selected through stratified random sampling proportional allocation method who answered the Peer
Pressure questionnaire by Sandeep Singh and Sunil Saini and the Conformity Scale by Albert Mehrabian. The study
revealed that there is no significant relationship between peer pressure and conformity of male college Lasallian
computer gamers. Moreover, peer pressure and conformity showed a direct, significant relationship with the number
of hours they spent during game play per week. The proponents recommended the parents and Guidance counselors
monitor the behavior of their son or student to avoid negative peer pressure. For the respondents, to maintain their
sense of self and independence to their peers when it comes in making decisions. Lastly, for the future researchers to
come up with substantial studies related to peer pressure and conformity.

18. Stressors, manifestations, self-management styles and communal


support groups among Filipino singles: A basis for a proposed
enhancement program
Domingo O. Barcarse
Philippine Normal University, Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines

Individuality, freedom of choice, personal lifestyle and happiness is essential. The researcher underwent this study on the
increasing number of single individuals in the Philippines. A descriptive survey study and development of an
enhancement program for the identified problems was used. The purposive sampling technique was utilized on two
hundred (200) professional single never married respondents living and working within Metro Manila aged 30-60 y/o.
The Stress Questionnaire for Filipino Singles (SQFS) was developed and evaluated. It focused on stressors,
manifestations of stress, self-management styles, and communal support groups. The stressors conferred to the family,
workplace, society and personhood. The manifestations comprised of personal, financial, career/professional, physical,
interpersonal, emotional and sexual factors. The self-management styles composed of self-acceptance, multiple
inquisitive and consciousness, multiple responses, social and individuality acceptance, and intellectual aspirations. In
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 11

view of the findings the following are the conclusions: 1) Environment or the people that surround the respondent are
very important in one's existence and happiness. Single individuals perceived themselves as a lonely person because
of what the society dictates. 2) Single individuals are experiencing difficulties in managing their personal and family
finances. 3) The “intellectual aspirations” self-management style was not commonly used. Singles are not able to
engage in knowledge-based / professional action for changing the lives of the people, and lack intellectual stimulation
for psycho-social enhancement. 4) Single individuals usually do not seek support from their colleagues when stressful
situations occur. 5) A Proposed Enhancement Program for Social Flexibility, Happiness, Financial Stability, Familial
Support, Intellectual Styles, Self-Reflection, and Communal Support Groups were developed.

19. Effect of systematic dessensetisation behavioural therapy on


test anxiety among secondary school adolescents in Ekiti
South West local government area of Ekiti State
E.O. Osakinle
Department of Guidance & Counselling, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Aladegbola Ade Prince


Educational Psychology, Institute of Education, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

The study adopted a 2x2x2 quasi-experimental pretest, post-test control group design. Two hundred senior secondary
school one (SSI) students were sampled randomly from two secondary schools in Ekiti South West Local Government
Area of Ekiti State. Two hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 significant level and the anxiety targeted was on
tests .The behaviour modification technique used was Systematic Desensitization Therapy. The results of the study
showed that subjects exposed to Systematic Desensitization displayed a lower level of test anxiety than those that
were not exposed to it. Appropriate recommendations were made by the researchers.
Keywords: systematic desensitization, rational emotive therapy, students.

20. Enhancing student's critical thinking through analytical


learning approaches
Maher Fouad Sefein
Department of Surgery School of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Daw Khin Saw Naing


Department of Community & family Medicine, School of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Critical thinking has been perceived
as one of the oldest and most generally recognised approaches to intelligence skills. Scriven and Paul (1996) and
Angelo (1995) view critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualising,
applying, analysing, synthesising, and evaluating as a guide to belief and action. It is believed that challenging
critical thinking enhances learning outcome. This study aimed to compare the influence of different analytical
approaches on learning by enhancing the medical students' critical thinking. Three types of analytical approaches
used were mind mapping, TOC (Theory of Constraints), and tables. 90 medical students were randomly assigned into
3 groups to learn a complex issue (Syncope) within 90 minutes, using either one of the mentioned approaches.
Learning outcome was assessed and differences were compared. Individual opinions were sought for and discussed.
12 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

The performance scores of students exposed to Mind Mapping were significantly higher than those of TOC. The
average scores were in the order of Mind Map>Table >TOC, but statistically not significant. Students felt that all
methods enhanced their thinking and understanding when tackling with a complex issue within a limited time frame.
Majority in mind mapping agreed that it had a positive impact on their analysing ability and less time consuming.
Analytical methods enhanced student's learning of complex issues. Medical students should be introduced to various
analytical approaches and encouraged to adopt the appropriate method as required.

21. Effect of assertive training on exam anxiety of guidance


school female students in grade one
Beheshteh Niush and Azadeh Farghdani
Islamic Azad University of Saveh, Iran

Nushafarin Safari
Educational Psychology, Nobaran, Iran

This study aims at investigating the effect of assertive training on exam anxiety of female students of guidance school
in grade one in Nobaran district. Subjects are all female students of guidance school in grade one in Nobaran district
that among the guidance schools in this district, two schools are selected randomly from two different educational
areas and then one school assigned as experiment and the other one as control. 30 students out of the 74 students
(primary sample) who had exam anxiety were considered as the basic sample and the research conducted in term of
control group (15 students) and experiment group (15 students). The research design is pre- test and post- test with
control group. The research tool is Abolghsemi's exam anxiety questionnaire (TAI). The present study was conducted
at 5 stages: pre-test, assertive training, post-test, second following up and third following up. The resulted data were
investigated by using soft ware SPSS through variance analyzing with repeated measurements. The results indicated
that assertive training decreases the students' exam anxiety meaningfully. No meaningful differences were indicated
within first, second and third post-tests at following up stages. In other word, the participants' exam anxiety remained
stable after assertive training.

22. Herbal medicines used by tuberculosis patients in Myanmar


Soe Moe
Department of Community Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia

Daw Khin Saw Naing


Department of Community & family Medicine, School of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Resurgence of Tuberculosis (TB) worldwide is a major public health issue in the new millennium. The death toll from
TB is still high despite availability of effective medicines. Myanmar, bearing the burden of TB, had been struggling to
limit the problem through intensive preventive and control measures. The patients, while undergoing the standard
anti-TB regime provided by the National Health System, also sought for traditional medicine and natural products to
alleviate the symptoms and to minimize their sufferings. This study was an attempt to explore into the natural products
commonly used by the TB patients in a selected township of Myanmar. An exploratory qualitative research on TB
patients at a selected township was done. The study included 22 TB cases who were undergoing or who had just
completed the standard anti TB treatment at the time of recruitment. The recruitment was done by snow ball sampling.
Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were done. Three Key informant interviews were done with
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 13

traditional healers of the area. Four herbal plants namely Lauk Thay (Desmodium triquetrum or Tadehagi triquetrum),
Owe Pote (Melastoma malabathricum) , Mu Yargyi (Justicia adhatoda) and Mee Quin Gamone (Rhoeo discolor or
Tradescantia spathecia) were identified by TB patients as their complimentary medicine. The leaves were commonly
used but the method of extraction of active ingredients from the leaves varied. In several instances, the leaves were
first tried before seeking proper anti TB treatment. However, the patients and traditional healers alike accepted that
the medicines provided by DOTS programme can cure the disease. This study revealed that self medication with herbs
and natural products is a common practice among TB patients. As the herbal plants identified were well known
medicinal plants in different parts of the world, their therapeutic value and efficacy should be further explored in the
light of developing effective complimentary medicines for TB.

23. Psychosocial predictors of quality of life among renal


transplant recipients
Fatima Kamran
University of Surrey, UK

QoL after solid organ transplant is investigated to explore the possible medical and psychosocial factors influencing
health outcomes. The present study aimed to investigate the psychosocial predictors of satisfaction with QoL among
renal transplant recipients (RTRs) after a successful kidney transplant with healthy graft functioning. In this study we
focus on a range of psychosocial factors as predictors of QoL after kidney transplant and evaluate recipients'
satisfaction with four major domains of life, including; physical health functioning, psychological and spiritual well-
being, social, economic and family life. These predictors include family & social support, financial status, medical
facilities, and attitude of doctors, faith, will power, education, awareness / insight, marital status, personality type,
compliance, acceptance, medication side-effects, and belief system. The study evaluated the impact of recipients' life
orientation, consciousness, perceived health status and depression levels on their QoL satisfaction.

24. Holy pain: Psychological basis of forming the satiated values and
comprehension of traumatic emotional experience of repressed persons
Mara Vidnere
Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy (RTTEMA), Riga, Latvia

This study examines the attitudes and current living conditions of 1300 Latvians who managed to survive the
imprisonment and deportation to forced labor camps during the Soviet occupation of Latvia. The average length of
confinement in the forced labor camps in Siberia was 15 years. The work deals with the problems of repressed
people's experience in psychology showing the experience and its understanding these falsely accused and convicted
people as well as the highest values of life created as a result. To explore the intercoherence between the traumatic
emotional experience of the repressed persons in life threatening situations (LTS) and the forming of values. An
analysis was made of the literature of psychological and sociological science about the manifestation of a totalitarian
power and the psychological processes of social changes. The result of this work is an evaluation and description of
the psychological consequences of these changes. The traumatic emotional experience of the repressed persons was
researched by organizing the psychological service at the Union of the Politically Repressed in Latvia. The local
authorities in Latvia started to register in 1991 when Latvia regained its independence following the collapse of the
Soviet Union. By April 1995 some 35600 returnees had been registered. Process of Data Collection: The local
14 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

authorities in Latvia started to register the returnees in 1991 when Latvia regained its independence following
thecollapse of the Soviet Union. By April 1993 some 15,600 returnees had been registered. Data collection for this study
took place between September 1994 and March 1995. A systematic sample of every fifth name was selected from the
several lists provided by the local governments in Latvia. The instrument was a three-page mail questionnaire containing
16 blocks-questions, and space was provided for additional comments. A total of 2,500 questionnaires were distributed.
By August 1995, 780 questionnaires were returned and analyzed. Although the responses still trickle in, this report
presents tile findings 720 respondents (a 28,8% response rate). Due to the profound social changes taking place in the
country, it seems best to treat the later responses separately from the first. At the time of data collection, tile ages of the ~
ranged from 35 to 95. Findings :Reasons for Arrests, Imprisonment. and Deportations. It appears that the Soviet
authorities pursued deliberate genocidal policies by slating for persecution members of specific national and socio-
economic groups. METHOD; Process of Data Collection: The local authorities in Latvia started to register the returnees
in 1991 when Latvia regained its independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union. By April 1993 some 15.600
returnees had been registered. Conclusions. Under such circumstances we come in contact with phenomena that are
fundamental for the comprehension of a human being. It is the expression of its essence, individuality, determined by the
concept of those values that attest the common sense, the ability of orientation in life and responsibility. In the synthesis of
an emotional experience the creativity is assured as the basis of an unique empiric process, as the possibility of a creative
process in a life experience where the highest principles of life come forth. A great mathematical processing of the empiric
material and an analysis of results have been accomplished that allows to comprehend the essence of interrelations of the
comprehension of the emotional experience and the forming of satiated values.

25. Impact of work-related stress on academician well-being in


Malaysian research university
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik, Siti Khadijah Zainal Badri, Nurul Farhana Mohd. Noordin,
Shahrollah Abdul Wahab, Azizah Rajab, Roziana Shaari dan and Maisarah Mohameed Saat
Department of Human Resource Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Work-related stress had been indentified widely as the most popular source of stressor among working population.
Several work-related stressors such as job demands, control, and support, relationship at work, role, and change were
found significantly related to the job outcomes such as job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Previous researchers
had founded that work-related stress can affect the level job satisfaction and increase turnover intention. Academician
was identified as one of job that expose to the high level of work-related stress. Thus, this research aims to investigate
the relationship of work-related stressor with the job outcomes in the Malaysian context specifically to the
academician population. Quantitative data collection method was implemented where the researcher used
questionnaire to obtain the data. A total number of 267 of questionnaires from 1300 questionnaires were returned
producing the return rate of 20%. All the respondents were academician from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Universiti Sains Malaysia, and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Work-related stress were measured with UK Health
and Safety Executive's Management Standard Work-Related Stress (HS ME) scale. Job satisfaction was measured
with Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version 2003 and turnover intention with Michigan Organizational
Assessment Questionnaire. Correlation and multiple regressions were performed using PAWS 18 to analyze the data.
The result indicated that work-related stressors were significantly related to job satisfaction and turnover intentions.
Specifically, job demands and relationships were positively related to job satisfaction and turnover intentions.
However, managerial support, peer support, job control, role, and change had a negative relationship with job
satisfaction and turnover intentions. This research also will discuss the new perspective and new knowledge about
work-related stress among academician especially in Malaysian setting.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 15

26. Learning styles in the workplace: A study in the


aviation industry
Robert L. Haines, Jr.
Pro AMT Services, Little Rock, USA

While the debate continues regarding the importance of learning styles in the classroom, this study addresses using
them in the workplace as a possible training aid. Not only is this use of learning styles somewhat novel, the study
focuses on a large but under-represented work population: the aviation maintenance technician. This study introduces
the population as an addition to existing populations for learning style inventories based on Felder and Soloman's
Index of Learning Styles (ILS). The study also proposes that this population will assist workplace psychologists in
understanding the learning styles of technically-oriented workgroups and allow training managers to tailor their
development strategies to specific learning styles. Quantitative methods are used to determine which learning style is
most preferred by this specialized workgroup. To calculate these statistics, the results of the ILS are used along with
descriptive statistics and a chi-squared analysis. A discussion of the research question and the statistically significant
results, indicating a preference for the visual/sensing learning style combination, is presented. Recommendations for
future research, including additional research into the relationship of learning styles to academic performance,
training effectiveness, and customer/student satisfaction, are also discussed.

27. A cross-cultural investigation of the preference of


leaders' attribution styles between the United States and India
Pavitra Kavya
Department of Psychology, the University of Texas at Arlington
This research was supported in part by Seiji Takaku, Professor of Psychology at Soka University of America

The study conducted examined whether preference for leaders differed between individuals from India and the United
States as a function of the leader's attribution style for failure events. Through the process of a job evaluation survey,
73 participants (38 Americans and 35 Indians) were asked to rate their preference alongside positive and negative
personality inference for a candidate (based on previous job evaluation by the candidate's former supervisor) applying
for the position of Vice President of a company (created for study purposes only). The results showed that irrespective
of culture candidates with an internal attribution style for failure event were found to have significantly higher
preference as a leader along with a general positive perception by the participants' rather than candidates with an
external attribution style for a failure event. Additionally endorsement and positive personality inference were found
to be positively correlated. Implications of the findings, methodological issues and limitation of the study have been
discussed and directions for future research have been suggested.

28. Prevalence and causes of social anxiety among


elementary grade children
Attiya Inam and Adeela Mahjabeen
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Government College of Home Economics, Lahore

The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and causes of social anxiety among elementary grade
children. The objective of the study was to find out whether it is more common in boys or girls. Another objective was
16 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

to investigate what are important causes leading to social anxiety. The study was conducted in two phases. In the
1st phase interview was carried out among 120 boys and 120 girls from Central Model School and Government
Girls High School, Samanabad, respectively. Out of these students, 30 boys and 30 girls suffering from severe and
profound social anxiety were selected purposefully for the second phase of the study. In the second phase, the
major social environmental and personal thinking causes leading to social anxiety were identified with the help of
interview schedule. The findings of the study indicated that girls were more socially anxious than boys. The major
symptom of social anxiety shown by both boys and girls, were body trembling and heart palpitations. The major
cause of social anxiety among children at an early age, parents, teachers, NGO's and government all should work
together with each other.

29. Job stress and academician well-being: Testing of the


Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) in Malaysia
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik, Shahrollah Abdul Wahab, Azizah Rajab, Roziana Shaari, Maisarah Mohameed Saat,
Siti Khadijah Zainal Badri, Nurul Farhana Mohd. Noordin
Department of Human Resource Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model is one of the indicators to measure work stress. Besides work stress, work-
related attitudes such as job satisfaction and turnover intention are the major issues in today's research to improve
workforce quality. This study aims to explore the impact of ERI in terms of job security prospect, over commitment,
esteem reward and effort on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Quantitative data collection method was
implemented where the researcher used questionnaire to obtain the data. A total number of 267 of questionnaires
from 1300 questionnaires were returned producing the return rate of 20%. All the respondents were academician from
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Effort Reward
imbalance was measured by Effort reward Imbalance questionnaire (ERI). Job satisfaction was measured with
Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version 2003 and turnover intention with Michigan Organizational
Assessment Questionnaire. Correlation and multiple regressions were performed using PAWS 18 to analyze the data.
Overall, ERI is found to have significant impact towards both job satisfaction and turnover intention. However, job
security prospect and effort did not show any significant association with turnover intention. Results suggest the need
of effort-reward equity to increase academicians' satisfaction at the workplace and to minimize their intention to leave
the organization. Further research is required to investigate the impact of ERI on other work-related attitudes as well
as work-related behaviours.

30. Happiness and well-being: Indian perspectives


Lawrence Soosai Nathan and Antonella Delle Fave
Università degli studi di Milano, Italy

Rocha D'Souza, JDV


Pune, India

Gilt Francis
Holy Cross College, Tamilnadu, India

The theoretical foundation of Happiness and Well-being research within positive psychology emerges prominently
from the Greek philosophical view of Hedonia and Eudaimonia. Given to the complexity and the universality of the
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 17

construct, multicultural perspectives and contributions are maintained as an increasingly dominant and ethical
imperative for well-being research and its practice. This theoretical paper, therefore, explores happiness and well-
being construct from an Indian perspective. Considering the richness and the pulriformity of Indian traditon, three
perspectives are explored: Ṛta and Karma, Dharma Chakra (Eightfold Path of Buddha) and Muppal (Threefold
path of Thirukkural). This paper highlights, without any claim of exhausting, other dimensions of well-being,
which are not prominently explored in the existing models of happiness and well-being within positivie
psychology. Further research and instrument development of the highlighted dimensions are needed.
Keywords: happiness, well-being, positive psychology, indian traditions.

31. Love conversation


Birgitta Ekmark and Leif Sundsvik
CEO, Sundsvik Konsult Ab, Stallarholmen, Sweden

How good conversation develops your relationship.


Yes, it must be possible to be a happy couple. But harmony and love do not appear automatically. Creating and
maintaining a good relationship demands that both of you are willing to develop and are prepared to work toward a
good relationship.
There are opportunities to raise the quality of the relationship
- The mental attitude toward an improved relationship
- Vision of a good relationship
- The importance of emotional intelligence
- Couple's counseling and performance reviews
- Language as an important factor in the relationship
There are tools for developing the relationship
- Relationship roles past and present
- How the emotional intelligence can be developed
- Learning from mistakes
- Sex and living together
- How women and men converse differently
Lovecards
Starts good conversations: Lovecards is a deck of cards that makes it easier to talk about the emotionally charged
questions that exist in a relationship. Conversations that will help you and your partner understand each other better
and that can develop your relationship.
The deck of cards consists of 52 question cards with statements to consider and discuss with each other.
Hearts questions about your love life and living together
Spades questions about daily life, friends and family
Diamonds questions about leisure time, work and politics
Clubs questions about finances and money
Joker an opportunity to raise your own questions
The question cards are primarily intended to be used by couples of all ages who already live or plan to live together.
But the cards can also be used as a 'party game' with friends. The advantage of being more players when discussing the
questions is that you will get to hear additional perspectives on each question.
18 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

32. Effects of aggression and prosocial behavior on peer nominated


social status of Pakistani school children
Asia Mushtaq and Naeem Tariq
Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between aggression and prosocial behaviors of
Pakistani school children with different social status groups among peers. 503 Participants (boys only) were
drawn from high schools of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The age range of the sample was from 9 to 12 years. Two
subscales (Aggression and Prosocial Behavior Scales) of Teacher Checklist of Social Behavior (TCL-Urdu
version) and peer sociometric nominations (known as social status) were administered. Teachers completed
measures of aggression and prosocial behavior. Children selected the liked most and liked least peer from their
class on sociometric measure. Five levels of status (popular, controversial, average, neglected and rejected) are
found in peer relations (Asher & Coie, 1990). The findings revealed significant differences among school children
on aggression, prosocial behavior and social status groups. Aggressive children were lacking prosocial behavior
and faced peer rejection as compared to nonaggressive children. Prosocial behavior was significantly higher in
popular children. Teachers reported aggressive children as less prosocial than nonaggressive children. These
findings indicate the importance of prosocial skills and peer relations that incorporate multiple pathways of social,
emotional and interpersonal functioning.
Keywords: aggression, prosocial behavior, social status groups, peers

33. Profile of 145 pre-teen inpatients with eating disorders


Edward J. Cumella
Department of Psychology, Kaplan University, Fort Lauderdale, FL

Zina Kally
Partners in Care Foundation

To present a profile of pre-teen eating disorder (ED) inpatients. Sample includes 145 inpatients treated at ages <12.
Data include sociodemographics, eating disorder diagnoses, illness moderating factors, psychiatric and medical
comorbidities, psychological test results. 76% of patients had anorexia nervosa, 1% bulimia, and 23% ED not
otherwise specified. Only 13% evidenced binge-eating/purging behaviors. 68% were age 12 at admission, with mean
ED onset age at 10. Mean ED duration was 10 months. AN patients had a mean BMI of 14.3. 95% had > 1 co-occurring
Axis I disorder, with 82% having > 1 depression diagnosis, mostly depressive disorder not otherwise specified, and
77% having > 1 anxiety disorder, mostly anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. Psychological testing underscored
the relatively low severity of depression and anxiety symptoms. No patients were diagnosed with substance or alcohol
use, and testing revealed minimal externalizing behavior. Patients had a mean of 3.5 Axis III diagnoses, with only two
patients having decreased bone mineral density for chronological age. ED symptoms, including psychiatric and
medical comorbidities, may differ substantially between ED pre-teens and the more fully researched population of
adolescents with EDs.
Keywords: eating disorder, pre-teen
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 19

34. Hazards of religious environmental pollution in 21st


century society: A challenge to sustainable communication development
strategies in Nigeria, Religio-historical analysis
T.T. Bello
Department Religious Studies, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

The concern of this paper is to look into the hazards of religious environmental problems in Nigerian society from
religion-historical point of view. The paper tries to X-ray and analyzed how noise is associated with religious
communication and how it constitute nuisance in the matter public matters. The paper also examined the social, moral
health, psychological and physiological effects which religious Noise pollutions has on people in both immediate and
remote environment of religious centres.The communication and effects on the environmental was also discoursed in
this paper. The control of religious environmental pollution was emphasized. This paper also explained issues on
communication and environment, what the government can do to safeguard the hazards that could cause havoc to the
sound system in the society. It was examine here in this paper. In this paper we have attempted to establish the place of
environmental hazard in the sustainable development of the national project in the paper, relationship between
communication environments was established. Nigerian's cannot expect to have a healthy environment without
looking into the religious menace called religious communication hazard known as Noise pollution. It is a great
problem which must be do away with, this is the aim of this paper. This we can do by providing strategies for curbing
Noise pollution which leads environmental degradation.

35. Autodidact and different learning styles


Kjell Fagéus
Musician, Sweden

It is assumed that a small child can learn speak, to make contact, to move, etc. At this stage in the child's development
there is no intention from anyone else to teach. What happens then when the intention is initiated in parents' education
and in school? Is the original energy to natural development kept alive? Is the balance between the child's own internal
power and external influences looked after? The questions we are most concerned with, among others, is the
discussion of which affects us the most, heredity or environment. Scientists seem to agree that both play an equal part
with subtle variations that interplay as a balanced scale, each part balancing the other. Do we have a natural talent with
us from birth, and if so, is it nurtured and developed to its full potential? With these issues and insights, we find a need
for reflection before deciding what forms of leadership we should pursue and how to develop educational strategies to
make the most of developing educational experiences to increase our knowledge. It becomes essential to know “How
we learn”. The autodidact becomes a vital part of this discussion. The child's force in the expression, “I can learn
myself,” appears to follow a certain personality throughout life. Winston Churchill expressed for example: "I'm
naturally curious and love to learn, but hate to be taught."
20 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

36. Importance of caring relationships as a positive protective


factor of adolescent resilience
A.A.S.Azam
Department of Psychology, University of Gonder, Gonder, Ethiopia
Tabassum Rashid
Department of Psychology, Effat University, Jeddah, Saudi Arsbia

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caring relationships as a protective factor of resilience among
school going adolescents. Standardized measures of caring relationships and resilience were administered to 260
school going adolescents. Caring relationships were categorized into four types namely, very good, very poor, school
centric and home centric caring relationships. Resilience scores were divided into low, moderate and high categories.
Series of Chi-square tests of independence were performed for total sample, boys and girls separately to examine
association between resilience and caring relationships. Results revealed that resilience scores increased with better
quality of caring relationships experienced by the participants at both home and schools.
Keywords: resilience, caring relationships, protective factors, adolescence
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 21

37. Loneliness in relation to internet addiction among male and


female students
Renu bala
Department of Psychology, G.J.U. S. & T., Hisar

Internet has gradually become the most important part of our lives in the 21st century. Surplus use of internet leads to
internet addiction. The aim of the present study was to study loneliness in relation to internet addiction among male
and female students. A purposive sample of 140 students (70 male and 70 female) age range 18-24 were recruited for
the study. Psychological test administered to assess loneliness and Internet addiction. Perceived loneliness scale and
internet addiction test were used. Results showed that there is significant relation between loneliness and internet
addiction among male and female student. The study also examined the influence of gender on Internet addictions and
on loneliness. It also revealed that there is also significant difference between male and female in relation internet
addiction but no significance difference between male and female in relation to loneliness.

38. Wilderness therapy (WT)- Fostering wellbeing among


At- Risk adolescents
Nayanika Singh
Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala & Reiki Grandmaster

Adolescence is a period marked by storm and stress, more so an ongoing crisis between identity formation and role confusion.
This predisposes them to a number of choices such as gang involvement, violence, alcohol and drugs, sex and pregnancy that
may place them “at-risk”. In addition to these a variety of environmental stressors add to the list that include divorce/single
family, domestic violence, parental drug, alcohol use/abuse, physical and sexual abuse, and neglect that leaves them culturally
deprived, underachieved, language impaired, drop-out prone, alienated, disenfranchised, impoverished and underprivileged.
Wilderness Therapy/ wilderness experience programs provide at-risk adolescents with a restorative, safe, natural and
rehabilitative environment, through encouraging them (with the assistance of a therapist/staff workers) to participate in
activities ranging from hiking and trekking to mountain climbing, river running, desert trekking, packing a backpack, reading
a compass and the like; aiding in dealing with their social, emotional, behavioral and addiction related problems. Furthermore,
it facilitates in boosting their self concept, self confidence, self regulation and locus of control, channelizing their behavior
towards wellbeing and a consequential future. The present paper attempts to highlight and discuss. Firstly, the rationale
behind a wilderness therapy approach with special focus on the Aspens Model and its utility towards dealing with problem
adolescents. Secondly, the role and contribution of wilderness therapy in dealing with problems of at-risk adolescents based
on a comprehensive review of literature.

39. Effectiveness of indian insurance managers in relation to


personality type and gender
Diljot Soin
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

The present research sheds light on the effectiveness of Indian Insurance managers on the basis of the personality type
indicators and gender. In this regard, Myers Briggs Type Indicator commonly known as MBTI by Myers and
22 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

McCauley (1985) was used to assess the common occurring personality type preferences based on Jung's (1921)
theory of psychological types among the male and female managers of Indian insurance sector. This paper makes
contribution by additionally probing the relationship between the personality pattern of male and female insurance
managers and their managerial effectiveness which further illustrate the gender similarities and differences as well as
the personality type preferences that makes the effective managers. For this purpose a sample of 170 middle-line
managers (90 males, 80 females) in the age group of 35-45 years was randomly selected from the sales departments of
Private Insurance Companies from the tri-city of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. Firstly, the results indicated that
extraversion, sensing, thinking, and judging were the most common occurring personality type preferences among
the male and female managers. Further, the relationship analyses revealed positive relationships between all the
personality type preferences and managerial effectiveness which points to the fact that male managers possessing
extraversion, sensing, thinking, and judging personality type preferences are most effective in the Indian insurance
sector. On the other hand, female managers possessing extraversion, sensing, thinking, and judging personality type
preferences are most effective in the Indian insurance sector.
Keywords: personality type preferences, managerial effectiveness, indian insurance managers

40. Impact of personality on sexual behavior of adolescents


Apurva Pandya
Department of Human Development and Family Studies, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat

Hemlata Sadhwani
Centre for Operations Research and Training, (CORT), Vadodara, Gujarat

Rashmin Sompura
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, M.S. University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat

There is a scarcity of scientific data regarding the sexual behavior of adolescent and their knowledge concerning
sexual matters in Gujarat, India. There is growing evidence that various dimensions of personality are associated with
level of sexual activity and sexual risk taking. To explore whether personality dimensions influences the sexual
behavior and risk taking among boys staying away from family. Fifteen in-depth case studies of M. S. University boys
staying in Hostels was carried out with their consent. To assess the impact of personality on sexual behavior, scale
measuring 16 personality factors was adopted. Four out of fifteen respondents had correct knowledge about sex.
Other respondents reported of having knowledge about vaginal, oral and anal as different types of sex. The major
source of information as shared was biology text book, blue films/adult films and debonair magazine. Informants
shared their personal or sexual matters with their peers. Five informants were sexually active and considered
premarital sex as moral. Four were elder sibling and one was only child. Of these, three had sex with multiple partners
and two had it twice. Three had sex using withdrawal method and other two used condom. When tested on 16
personality factor scale (16PF) they scored high on dimensions like open minded, experimental and dominant,
warmth and selfish. On the other hand 10 informants who were non active scored high on dimensions like emotionally
stable; mature; rule conscious and dutiful, conformed to social traditions, more careful, serious and self disciplined.
All believed pre-marital sex as immoral. There is a positive relation between premarital sexual activity and a few
specific personality dimensions. This recommends a need for generating awareness among college boys and a
Counseling Resource Centre to educate and counsel on matters related to sexuality. Further study on large sample may
help us to gather more information on issues such as peer pressure, impact of available sources, family environment,
and sexual network and to make it more generalizable.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 23

41. AIDS and spirituality


Minal Mehta and Hari Singh
Senior Program Officer Engender Health

Vijay Singh
Ghaziabad Positive Peoples Welfare Society, Ghaziabad

The present paper systematically reviews studies examining the potential beneficial or harmful effects of
religious/spiritual coping with AIDS. Using religion and spirituality as resources in coping may be specifically
prevalent in patients with AIDS considering the potentially life-threatening nature of the illness. Religious/spiritual
coping may also serve multiple functions in long-term adjustment to HIV AIDS such as maintaining self-esteem,
providing a sense of meaning and purpose, giving emotional comfort, helps preserve health, relieves the fear and
uncertainty of death , offers strength / control, and providing a sense of hope. 55 documents (articles/books/reviews)
were screened of which 53 found the evidence for the beneficial effect of religious coping, but five of these also found
religious coping to be detrimental in a sub-sample of their population and 3 found non-significant results. However,
many studies suffered from serious methodological variation, especially in the manner in which religious coping was
conceptualized and measured. The studies also had no comparision for possible influential variables such as stage of
illness and perceived social and systems support. However, on the frequency of positive influence of religion the
number of documented evidence exceeds the negative one. Indian studies are very limited and referred to “On ART”
Category. In view of the impact of religion and positive documentation, authors suggest directions for further
evidence based studies in context to Indian culture.
Keywords: HIV AIDS, religious coping, illness adjustment, distress, review

42. Levels of perceived stress, caregiving strain, coping strategies


and quality of life among two groups of caregivers
Siddharth Ramanan and Ammu Lukose
Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore

Various studies have tried to assess the effects of stress on quality of life among caregivers. Stress was found to have a
direct effect on the quality of life. However, few past studies have considered coping as a factor, to mediate stress and
quality of life. Having conceptualized a stress-coping model (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) from literature, where the
slightest variations in levels of stress and coping strategies would affect quality of life directly, this comparative study
attempted to assess levels of stress, strain, coping strategies and quality of life between two groups of caregivers (one
of children affected by (a) physical disability/disabilities and the other of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders).
AIM: The study attempted to measure levels of perceived stress, caregiving strain, coping strategies and quality of life
among caregivers of children with (a) physical disability/disabilities and caregivers of children with Autism
Spectrum Disorders. The sample consisted of 25 caregivers of children with (a) physical disability/disabilities and 25
caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The Perceived Stress Scale 14, Modified Caregiving Strain
Index, Rao's Coping Checklist and the WHOQOL-BREF were used to measure the variables. Highly significant
differences were found between both the groups in caregiving strain (p= 0.007), positive distraction as a coping
strategy (p= 0.000), and social (p= 0.009) and environmental quality of life (p= 0.002). The age of the child (p =
0.000), number of members in the family caring for the child (p = 0.001), and the duration of the child's disability (p=
0.000) were also found to be highly significant between both groups. Pearson's product moment correlation analysis
24 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

indicated that caregiving strain was highly correlated with social quality of life, and religion/faith strategy of coping
was highly correlated with environmental quality of life in the group consisting of caregivers of children with Autism
Spectrum Disorders. Correlation analysis on the group consisting of caregivers of children with (a) physical
disability/disabilities indicated that levels of perceived stress, strain and denial/blame as a coping strategy had high
negative correlations with the quality of life domains. It was found that caregivers of children with (a) physical
disability/disabilities had higher levels of perceived stress and caregiving strain coupled with negative coping
strategies which led to a lower quality of life as compared to caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

43. Physical activity: An essential tool to manage stress


Thingnam Nandalal Singh
Panjab University, Chandigarh (UT), India

Physical activity is one of the simplest tools to control stress. Stress is a part of living. Having a chronic high level of
stress is harmful to the body. Managing stress through physical activity can benefit everyone. Stress is the mental,
emotional and physiological response of the body to any situation that in new, threatening, frightening or exiting.
Physical exercise plays an important role in managing stress. Studies indicate that regular exercise is good for our
mental as well as our physical health. It's a good antidote to stress, anxiety and depression. Research also has revealed
that physical exercise requiring continous and rhythmic muscular activity, such as aerobic exercise, stimulates alpha-
wave in the brain, there are the same wave pattern seen commonly during meditation and relaxation. Regular exercise
helps you feel in control and our sense of control over our body can translate to a sense of control over other parts of
our life. Moderate physical activity also helps you cope with your “fight or flight” reflexes. It flushes adrenaline from
the body, relaxes tight muscles and lowers your blood pressure. Researchers have found that physical exercise gives
people a psychological boost because exercise does all the following: lessens feelings of anxiety, depression,
frustration, aggression and anger, alleviates insomnia, provides an opportunity to meet social needs and develop new
friendships, allows the person to share to common interest and problems, develops discipline, provides the
opportunity to do something enjoyable and constructive that will lead to better health and total well-being.

44. Management dynamic impact of job satisfaction and psychological


climate on employees behaviour (A study of Indian insurance sector)
Priti Kiran and Ambika Shukla
IMT, RGI, Mohali

The present study pertaining to human resource management in India reveals a variety of factors that affect
employee's behaviour/ employee's performance in the organisation. The study attempts to examine the factor like job
satisfaction, turnover intentions, job environment, Job involvement etc. Human resource is considered to be very
crucial in the organisation's well being. Presently organizations have started realising that human resources are the
most important asset and its development is considered to be the soul of human resource management function, which
reflects on the organisational' effectiveness. The data was collected from 200 managers/executives from insurance
sector. This paper aims to study the attitudinal variables like job satisfaction and Job involvement, with organisational
effectiveness and turnover intentions in insurance sector. The results established that job satisfaction, turnover
intentions, job environment and Job involvement all are simultaneously and partially have a significant influence on
employee performance and organisational' effectiveness.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 25

45. The effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on stress coping


among primary infertility women
S. M. Pandian and S. Kathiravan
Department of Psychology, Periyar University, Salem, South, Tamilnadu

A reproductive epidemiology of the primary infertility can lead to various emotional changes (anxiety, depression,
somatization, aggressiveness, etc.). The objective of the study was to develop a psychotherapy treatment called
“cognitive Behavioral Therapy” in an attempt to reduce stress level thus enhancing the coping strategy to adjust with
the present problem which enable the affected woman to undergo ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies)
treatment with less importance to psychosocial issues. Material and methods: A total of 30 infertile women were
submitted to the PET(Psychological Evaluation Test) using a questionnaire with 15 questions selected in order to
detect stress coping reactions. The sum of the responses corresponded as >40 was defined as confirmation of distress
and less coping. Quasi experimental design of study conducted as pre and post-test, keeping a control group to
identify the level of significance of the treatment called CBT(Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) to reduce the level of
stress for a better coping in infertility treatment. After the justification of the pre test, the group divided into control
group(untreated) and experimental group(treated) to identify the level of significance of the effect of the study. The
Post test responses of the PET of both groups were analyzed statistically by the Student's t test with the level of
significance set at 5%. Results: The mean PET score of the Experimented group is lower than the control group thus
showing the confidence and significant value of more than 5% reduction in stress comparing with the pre-test.
Conclusion: The data demonstrate that one of the characteristics is that women are habitually more affected by the
situation of primary infertility. The PET is simple & efficient tool and Supportive therapies like cognitive behavioral
therapy has significant effect over the infertile women to reduce stress thus enhancing the skill of coping to adjust with
the problem and to continue medical care without any emotional disturbances. Such a psychological freeness which
has been evidenced as essential for the success of ART. It is recommended that all infertility patients are to get
counseled about the factors generating emotional changes under a well trained psychotherapist in order to help to
attain 100% success in fertility medical care.

46. Management of obesity in a case of chronic bipolar affective


disorder with psychotic features
Fernandez Sandhya Isabella and Vikas Sharma
Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences, New Delhi

The case report describes using behavior modification for the management of obesity in a case, S who has been
diagnosed as having bipolar affective disorder with psychotic features, current episode mania since 10 years, the
prognosis of whom is poor. She is a long stay patient in the institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences. Obesity
was recognized as being the target problem. Assessment included a detailed behavior analysis, Young Mania Rating
Scale (YMRS) and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS). Short term goals included
therapeutic alliance, building motivation, support, improving self care, activity scheduling and symptom relief. Main
therapeutic intervention included token economy and activity scheduling. The patient has been on the strict diet
regime and the plan is to continue the same. There has been a mild reduction in weight from 119 to 114 kgs over a
period of one month of intensive sessions. Long term goals included social skills training and further improving the
occupational functioning of the client through intervening with the whole ward.
26 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

47. A study of death anxiety before and after abortion among


married and unmarried women
Yogesh A. Jogsan
Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot

The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference of death anxiety before and after abortion in
married and unmarried women. The total 60 women (30 unmarried and 30 married) were taken as a sample. The
research tool for death anxiety was measured by Thakur (1983). T- test was applied to check the significance
difference of Death Anxiety before and after abortion among married and unmarried women. Results revealed that
significant difference in death anxiety before and after abortion among married and unmarried women. They both are
feeling high death anxiety before abortion.

48. The relationship of temperament with subjective well


being amongst children
Shweta
Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

This investigation is an attempt to determine the relationship of temperament with subjective well being amongst
children. The sample comprised 360 children (males {180}and females {180}), in the age range of 8-10, randomly
selected from the various schools of Patiala, and their respective parents. The children were administered the
Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 1993), Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner,
2001), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children {PANAS-C} (Laurent et al., 1999), while their
respective parents were administered the Malhotra Temperament Schedule (Malhotra & Malhotra, 1988) to assess
each child's temperament. Correlation analysis of the data revealed that the various temperament dimensions of
approach/withdrawal, adaptability and quality of mood correlated positively with the children's evaluation of their
global life satisfaction, domain specific life satisfaction as well as positive affect, but correlated inversely with
children's evaluation of their negative affect. Rhythmicity showed positive correlations with children's evaluation of
their satisfaction with school and self, as well as, their positive affect, but correlated inversely with children's
evaluation of their negative affect. Intensity, in contrast, was negatively correlated with the children's evaluation of
their global life satisfaction, domain specific life satisfaction and positive affect, but was positively correlated with
children's appraisal of their negative affect. Thus, results portray that temperament dimensions play a pivotal role in
shaping children's evaluation of their subjective well being.

49. Promoting the 4-H positive youth development


Ashima Soni
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Youth development is an ongoing process and not a onetime occurrence. Positive youth development is a set of
strategies which any program or program model can adopt to help guide youth on a successful transition to adulthood.
It is an approach that provides youth with the broadest possible support, enabling them to attain desirable long-term
outcomes, including economic self-sufficiency and engagement in healthy family and community relationships.
Termed the “positive youth development” (PYD) perspective, the orientation to young people has arisen because of
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 27

interest among developmental scientists in using developmental systems, or dynamic, models of human behaviour
and development for understanding the plasticity of human development and, as well, the importance of relations
between individuals and their real world ecological settings as the bases of variation in the course of human
development. Positive youth development occurs from an intentional process that promotes positive outcomes for
young people by providing opportunities, choices, relationships, and the support necessary for youth to fully
participate. Youth development occurs in families, peer groups, schools, neighbourhoods and communities. The
present paper will highlight characteristics of youth development, the 4 H researches on youth development will be
discussed and ways of fostering positive youth development will be emphasized. The need of the hour is to build
positive youth development which can help guide discipline practices in both schools and youth programs.

50. Positive in school mental health programme


Himanshu Swadia
Special Educator, TEPSE & HEPSN CENTRE, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur

In India, the counselling is reported since Mahabharata time, where as an unborn child in his mother's womb,
Abhimanyu learned the knowledge of entering the deadly and virtually impenetrable from Arjuna, his father. Culture
in India has a nature of diversity. After 500 to 600 km., it varies from place to place. Counsellor should take care at the
time of counselling that students need should be met and the minor population, which has different culture, is not
ignored. School mental health programme should be integrated into general health care, teacher and parents should be
given basic training and understanding and mental hygiene of their students as well identifying the children with
behavioural problem who can then be dealt with by the counsellor. Child rearing practices sometime may produce
mental stress among children like refusal to go to school, headache, pain in the abdomen and decrease in academic
performance. It is very important to discuss the emotions and feelings of the children because if the emotions are not
allowed to express, it may lead to unhealthy society. Children with emotional disturbance may fail in their academic
and sometime they are socially rejected which develop a poor-self image. Academic failure and social rejection often
have far-reaching consequences because the failure learn in school limits a persons' chance to succeed in the future.
Such children may deviate from the mainstream of the society and become the targets of unemployment,
homelessness and other behavioural dysfunctioning. Researches indicated that mental health programme result in
school attendance rate, enhance academic success, less school drop-out and reduce criminal behaviour. There are
some strategies that school counsellors can put into place to ensure the school is culturally responsive. School
counsellor can advocate for and create diversity educational programme for administrator, teachers and supportive
staffs. The creation and utilization of in-service trainings can educate adults how to acknowledge diverse cultures in
the school and provide best practices for serving all students within the school.

51. Cognition as explained by different schools of thought


Gurpreet Kaur and Soumi Awasthy
Defence Institute of Psychological Research, DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Timarpur

Cognitive psychology is one of the more recent additions to psychological research, developed as a separate area since
the late 1950s and early 1960s. Neisser coined the term 'cognitive psychology' in his book Cognitive Psychology in
1965. According to him cognition refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced,
elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. This way of conceiving mental processes has pervaded psychology in such a
way that it is not uncommon to find cognitive concepts within psychoanalytical, behavioral, humanistic, personality
28 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

and developmental psychology. Analyzing psychoanalytical perspective minutely, one can find traces of cognition in
it. Freud, Jung, Adler and Sullivan talked of memory and retrieval ability in terms of unconscious and conscious
experiences, visual perception s were mentioned with relation to its distortions (hallucinations) and creativity and
imagination was considered to be an important aspects of free association and creative self. They also talked about
reasoning in dream interpretations and analytical deductions. Behaviouristic theorists like Thorndike, Pavlov,
Skinner, Dollard & Miller, Bandura also had a flavor of cognition in their thoughts. Bandura talked about cognitive
rehearsal. They all spoke about visual perception in observational and vicarious learning which is based on perceiving
others. Perceived self efficacy, perception of CS and UCS were also important models of behaviorist. Bandura talked
about reasoning with symbolic coding and cognitive organization before responding. Humanistic theories were also
not devoid of the concept of cognition. Maslow mentioned about creativity. According to him, constructive creativity
occurs with openness. He also addressed the notion of B cognition, form of thinking common during peak experiences
and D cognition that is routine form of thinking. Maslow's self esteem comes from evaluating and reasoning. Piaget in
developmental perspective brought out development of different aspects of cognition like language, perception,
reasoning and creativity. He demonstrates Muller Lyer illusion and object permanence, which is related to memory.
He talked about systematic reasoning and logical thought processes. He stated that child is able to classify things in his
concrete operational stage. All this had an essence of cognition. Assessment of cognition in today's scenario should
take cognizance of all the schools of thought to have comprehensive cognitive profile of the individual.

52. Anger management for marital satisfaction


N.Munirajamma
S.P.W.Degree and PG College. Tirupati

Marriage is very precious. Getting marriage is happiest moment in everyone's life. In our Indian culture we are giving
more importance to the marriage. Once we enter into the marital life we want to be there with full of satisfaction. Marital
Satisfaction is a relatively stable attitude. The success of a marriage depends on whether it provides satisfaction for the
whole family, not just one or two of the members. A husband and wife who are happy together derive satisfaction from
the roles they play; they also have a mature and stable love for each other, make good sexual adjustments and accept the
parental role. But they are not playing their roles satisfactorily. Because 1. couples are busy with their work and 2. they
are not satisfying with what they have in their life. Anger is a natural, adaptive response to threats; it inspires powerful,
often aggressive feelings and behaviors, which allow us to fight and to defend ourselves when we are attacked. Anger is a
completely normal, usually healthy, human emotion. A certain amount of anger, therefore, is necessary to our survival.
Anger plays a vital role in our personal relationships, marital satisfaction and in the overall quality of our life. One can
express angry feelings in an assertive way but not in an aggressive way. There are certain tips to follow and manage
aggressive feelings which are useful to the couples to lead a happy married life. An attempt is made to present certain tips
to manage anger which are useful to couples to get a maximum marital satisfaction.

53. Participative appreciative therapy: A positive approach


to therapeutic interventions
Manju Agrawal
Amity Institute of Behavioral and Allied Sciences, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, UP

The paper introduces a positive psychotherapy called Participative Appreciative Therapy® (PAT). It is based on
principals of Appreciative Inquiry combined with the power of visualization. It has two phases. Phase one is called
CREAM having five components and phase is called DESERT having six stages. The five components of CREAM phase
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 29

are Catharsis, Rapport building, Empathy, Affirmative Topic and Motivational environment and the six stages of
DESERT phase are Discovery, Exploring the Dream, Seeing the dream implemented, Emotional Glue, Representative
actions and behaviour, Transformation and discussion. It can also be called Cream and Dessert Therapy. The most
significant aspect of the therapy is positive outcomes are visible from the very first session as probing and inquiry are in
themselves therapeutic because of its nature of setting goal and asking questions. Secondly development of insight for
solutions is fast. PAT is actually not just a therapy but should actually be adopted as a lifestyle.
Keywords: appreciative inquiry, cream and desert therapy, positive life orientation, participative appreciative
therapy, positive psychotherapy, relaxation.

54. Management of depression, anxiety, and stress among pregnant


women with cognitive behavior therapy
T. Jothimani
Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts & Science, Civil Aerodrome Post, Coimbatore

The present study was conducted to test the efficacy of CBT in the prevention of PPD in Tamil Nadu women by
managing the antenatal depression, anxiety, and stress. Women at risk to develop PPD were recruited during
pregnancy. Subjects were assigned to 4 groups based on their socioeconomics data. Assessment of depression (BDI,
EPDS), anxiety and stress occurred during prenatally and at 6 months postpartum. The CBT was given to the subjects
as one hour per session and post intervention assessment, phase I was done after 8 weeks administration of the
intervention and phase II done at 6 months postpartum. The follow up sessions were carried out till 6 months
postpartum. The paired't' test analysis showed that there is a significant reduction of depression, anxiety and stress in
all the 4 groups. Most participants that completed the intervention reported that it had a medium to great influence on
their well-being, depression, anxiety, stress, current problems, role as mothers and their relationship with spouse and
baby. Available data are consistent with the possibility that the incidence of PPD may have been reduced by the
intervention. Note: PPD Postpartum depression; CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy; BDI Beck Depression
Inventory; EPDS Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.
Keywords: PPD, antenatal, depression, anxiety, stress, prevention, intervention.

55. Emotion and music


Sreevalsan J. Menon
ATIC, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy, Thrissur

Ajith Kumar C. E.
Department of Statistics, College of Agriculture, Vellayini, Kerala
Preetha Menon
Department of Psychology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore

In order to determine the effect of Carnatic classical music on the emotional responses of listeners, the subjective
emotional responses of one hundred and sixty-nine non-Christian, female, first-year under-graduate students of
Vimala College, Thrissur, Kerala, to twelve musical interventions comprising 11 Carnatic vocal raga expositions and
one Tampura Sruthi (without raga exposition) were empirically investigated. It was found that the ragas evoked
discrete emotional responses like happiness, sadness, anger, solemnity etc., in more than 70% of the respondents.
Sreeragam, Kalyani, Kamboji and Vasantha were seen to be the most preferred ragas.
30 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

56. Depression and enhancement of well-being in women


undergoing fertility treatment
Preetha Menon, Preetha Menon and D. Sudha
Department of Psychology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore

From a Test-tube Baby Centre, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 40 women undergoing infertility treatment were
screened for depression and well-being using Case Study Schedule (2011), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, 1971)
and Well-Being Index (WHO, 1998). Out of that, 35 women with moderate to severe depression and worst well-being
were chosen to serve as the sample, by Purposive Sampling Method. Psychological intervention involving Relaxation
Training coupled with Autosuggestions and Cognitive Restructuring (Natesan, 2004) and Visualization (White,
2004) were administered on the all subjects for six sessions. After psychological intervention, they were re-assessed
for depression and well-being using Case Study Reassessment Schedule (2011), Beck Depression Inventory and
Well-Being Index. Results revealed that the mean differences in depression and well-being before and after
psychological intervention were statistically significant.

57. Management of stage fright in middle school student


Preetha Menon and J. Sowmya
Department of Psychology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore

From a Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 120 students of VIII and IX
standards were screened for anxiety using Case Study Schedule (2011) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck, 1986). Out
of them, 80 subjects who had moderate to high levels of anxiety were selected by Purposive Sampling method to serve
as the sample. Forty subjects were assigned for the experimental group and the remaining 40 for control group. They
were in the age range of 13-15 years. Psychological intervention involved Deep Breathing Practice and Relaxation
Training coupled with Autosuggestions and Exercises adopted from Positive Therapy (Natesan, 2004) and Modelling
(Bandura, 1963). After the initial assessment, psychological intervention was administered to the experimental group
for six sessions. After the psychological intervention, the entire sample (both experimental and control groups) were
re-assessed using Case Study Re-assessment Schedule and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results reveal that, in
experimental group, the mean difference in anxiety before and after psychological intervention was statistically
significant at 0.01 level.
Keywords: stage fright, anxiety, psychological intervention

58. Management of stress and depression and enhancement of


well-being in kidney patients through positive therapy
Preetha Menon and Hemalatha Natesan
Department of Psychology, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore

From Sri Ramakrishna Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 32 patients with renal failure were assessed using Case
Study Schedule (Natesan, 2003), Stress Inventory (Natesan and Menon, 2005), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck,
1971) and Well-Being Index (WHO, 1998) (Assessment I), and Positive Therapy (Natesan, 2004) was administered
on them for 8 sessions. They were re-assessed using the same tools soon after 8 sessions (Assessment II). After 4
months, Assessment III was done. The results of the study revealed that the mean stress score reduced at the end of the
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 31

psychological intervention and reduced further at a 4 month follow-up, indicating both a significant and sustained
reduction in stress. The differences in mean depression scores of the subjects were statistically significant, indicating
a significant reduction in depression. The mean well-being score increased after treatment with a further significant
and sustained improvement in the follow-up.
Keywords: kidney failure, depression, stress, well-being, psychological intervention.

59. Psychology and media studies: Deriving the optimum


benefit in attachment
Abhijit Bora
Department of Mass Communication & Journalism, Tezpur University, Aasam

Media and psychology share an integral relationship between themselves which has been a matter of immense
curiosity for human beings across the world. There have been quite a few attempts by media scholars as well as
psychologists for delving deep into this relationship and arriving at solutions about how to improvise it in the light of
the changing scenario both in the world of media and that of psychology. This is because media whether it is mass,
conventional, traditional or new is nothing but a highly sophisticated 'mind game'. Here psychology plays a major role
in determining how do masses or audiences would behave under certain circumstances and on being served with a
certain kind of messages. Thus an examination of this relationship would help us immensely in further strengthening
of the same and thereby being able to understand the emerging areas of the media influencing the masses and vice
versa. This paper makes an effort to look into the relationship and the various nuances of how psychology and the
different types of media and communication are influencing each other in the real world. Discussions are also carried
out for examining how cinema, advertising, news are influencing the masses psychologically. The author has also
touched upon issues of media manipulation, information revolution's effects on psychology and media among others
to throw lights on the issue of using media for enhancing the quality of our lifestyle in the near as well as distant future.
A good amount of space is also devoted to the discussions on the relationship along with influences of cinema on
psychology and vice versa relating it to the works of the great minds in the world of psychology Freud and those in
that of cinema. The author is optimistic that this endeavour would further lead to more rigorous, in-depth studies of the
phenomenon in future. Also deliver the goods to the researchers of media and psychology alike in arriving at
consensus on how to draw the maximum positive advantage out of such a meaningful relationship in the days to come
and explore new and emerging areas of research in this direction and related fields.
Keywords: psychological warfare, psychoanalysis, media manipulation, schemas, fear appeal.

60. The forward movement progress in the entry behavior of


physically challenged/disabled children by early education programme
Seema Gupta
Department of Psychology, Gokul Das Hindu Girls (P.G.) College, Moradabad, UP

Aditi Gupta
Tamanna Association, New Delhi

Early education program are designed to enhance physical and psychological competence of the individual. The
Present research made an attempt to study the progress in the five areas; Socialization, Language, Self help, Cognitive
and Motor skills, of entry behavior. This investigation is experimental in nature and is designed on the lines of pretest,
32 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

post test control group design. A Sample of 20 children of 3 to 6 years with different disabilities were drawn from
rehabilitation centre, schools for disabled children and some from other places, purposely selected. Two groups were
formulated as experimental and control group respectively. Each child's base line behavior achievement percentage
(%) recording was done through early education training by portage guide and their progress in entry behavior was
frequently observed for six month. After six months early education effect was administrated. The result indicates a
significant development and improvement in the level of socialization, language, self help, cognitive and motor skills
of children with disability, if we train them through the early education programmed, improvement will be shown in
the entry behavior of disabled children.

61. Positive psychology-road to happiness


Gurpreet kaur
Panjab University, Chandigarh

Positive Psychology is a very recent field in psychology which focuses on strengths and virtues of the
individuals which enables them to thrive. It was founded in 1998 by Martin Seligman, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi,
and Ray Fowler (Seligman, 2002). Positive psychology finds its roots in the humanistic psychology of the 20th
century, which focused heavily on happiness and fulfillment. It has been influenced by the efforts of Allport's
(1958) work in positive individualistic characteristics. Additionally Maslow's (1968) interests in exploring positive
human experiences, as well as many others who have looked to an understanding of why people require
positivity and associations around it. Flow is a key concept in positive psychology which means that it is a state
of absorption in one's work, characterized by intense concentration, loss of self-awareness, a feeling of being
perfectly challenged (neither bored nor overwhelmed), and a sense that "time is flying." In today's world people are
working very hard to achieve their goals and are faced with dilemmas, difficult decisions and all sorts of
negativity in their lives. Positive psychology helps them to focus on the positive aspects in their lives which
helps them take better decisions and lead a peaceful life. This paper contains view points of various researchers
regarding Positive Psychology and also some exercises to achieve positivity in life.

62. Work life balance of women employees


Ratnamala G Kadapatti
K.L.E.Society's G.H.College, Haveri Karnatak

Times have changed. From the time the husband earned, and the wife stayed at home. To the time now when the husband
earns and the wife earns too. Although, over the years women in India have struggled to establish an identity & create a
mark in the social as well as in the organizational platforms, but with educational institutions training more and more
women to enter professional careers, have drastically changed the scenario. Infact, between 1991 and 2001 female
employment in India on the whole, have increased by 3.6% per annum. The majority of women are working 40-45 hours
per week and 53% are struggling to achieve work/life balance. Women reported that their lives were a juggling act that
included multiple responsibilities at work, heavy meeting schedules, business trips, on top of managing the daily routine
responsibilities of life and home. "Successfully achieving work/life balance will ultimately create a more satisfied
workforce that contributes to productivity and success in the workplace." For working women, getting caught in the
work/life balance trap will continue to be an ongoing challenge. Careful planning and personal effort is the advice from
those who have found balance in both career and home life. As one respondent summarized, "Plan, prioritize and schedule
as efficiently as possible... and don't be afraid of hard work!" Work-life balance is a person's control over the conditions in
their workplace. In our increasingly hectic world, the work-life strategy seeks to find a balance between work and play. A
sentence that brings the idea of work life balance to the point is: "Work to live. Don't live to work.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 33

63. Emotional intelligence and personality traits (Extroversion


and Introversion) among adolescents
Jyoti Meena and Sonali Agarwal
Department of Human Development, Banasthali University, Tonk

Karan Singh Meena


University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand own emotions and those of people around us. Each of us has
personality unique and distinct from every other person. To be simple “Personality is the behavior of the individual in
a situation”. The major objectives of this research were to assess and compare the relationship between Emotional
Intelligence and Personality Traits (Extroversion) among adolescents Boys and Girls. The study was conducted on
total sample of 120 adolescent Boys and Girls from class 10th , 11th and 12th (20 students from each class) through
systematic Random Sample selection. In the present study two areas were assessed i.e. Emotional Intelligence &
Personality Traits, so that two separate standardized tool were used for study. For the assessment of Emotional
Intelligence, ROQAN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TEST (REIT) prepared by Zainuddin R. and Ahmed A. was
used. The five dimensions of emotional intelligence or emotional competence Self-Awareness, Self Regulation,
Motivation, Empathy, Social Skill, were asses by this tool. For assessment of personality trait, Personality Inventory
(Extroversion-Introversion) PI-SS by Singh Y. and Singh H. M. was used. The survey method was adapted for data
collection and result revealed that the majority of the respondents have average Emotional Intelligence with mix
character of introvert and extrovert personality test i.e. ambivert. It can also be concluded that there was a difference
present between boys and girls regarding Emotional Intelligence and personality trait. The data also depicted that
there was a positive correlation present between Emotional Intelligence, Personality trait among adolescent boys and
slightly negative correlation found in adolescent girls.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, personality traits, extroversion, introversion and adolescents.

64. Doping in sports and its effects


Santosh Kumar Gaur
Department of Physical Education, J. M. P. G. College, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India

Doping is the administration of or the use by a competing athlete of any substance foreign to the body or of any
physiological substance taken in abnormal route of entry into the body, with the sole intention of increasing in an
artificial and unfair manner his performance in competition. World Anti Doping Association (WADA) and most major
sporting organizations in the World have collaborated and will now present a unified front in the fight against doping.
The Prohibited List is updated annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA. The list of
banned substances listed by WADA are Anabolic agents, Peptide hormones, growth factors and related substances,
Beta-2 agonists, Hormone antagonists and modulators, Diuretics and other masking agents, Stimulants, Narcotics,
Cannabinoid, and Glucocorticosteroids. The Prohibited methods which are banned by WADA are Enhancement of
oxygen transfer (Blood doping), Chemical and physical manipulation, Gene doping. Athletes suffer the same cross-
section of ailments as other patients and many sportsmen avoid all medicines because of concern about failing doping
tests. The need for pharmacists to provide drug education, information, and counseling to athletes, parents,
physicians, coaches, athletic trainers, and the public, at all levels of competition. Pharmacists can participate in a host
of activities to prevent and detect the use of banned substances in sports.
Keywords: doping
34 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

65. How corruption influences political trust and political


efficacy across various factors
Iftekhar Ahmed and Asma Parveen
Ch. Charan Singh Univerity & Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP

Political trust and Political Efficacy are considered to be the key indicators of measuring the health of the democratic
system. The positive growth of these parameters of general political attitude is an indication of popular trust and belief in
the system and the stability and efficacious nature of our governments in responding to popular demands. On the contrary,
its fall indicates powerlessness and cynicism among the people that can be instrumental in dismantling of established
political order. In the present world order especially in developing countries like India, the phenomenon of corruption is
one of the anomalies- a dysfunction- that threatens to wreck into shreds the very fabric of democratic system that we
cherish with so much fervor and vigor. In the present empirical study the authors investigate the impact of corruption on
these barometers of democratic health. A survey was conducted in the western region of the largest state of India, i.e. Uttar
Pradesh. In all 500 samples were collected randomly under stratified sampling technique. Prior to interview survey
questionnaire technique, five categories were made on the basis of people's income level, educational attainment,
religious affinities, region- rural/ urban, and sex. The authors found that the corruption is inversely related to political trust
and political efficacy. Wherever people are exposed to less corrupt practices, they have shown a greater degree of trust in
the system and its efficacy in delivering goods to them. In instances where corruption is more prevalent- whether electoral
related or otherwise- people are less forthcoming in showing interest in political participation.

66. Positive psychology


Kalpana Adinath Belokar
Government College of Education, Ambajogai, Maharashtra

Psychology is the study of behavior. It describes behavior as it is. It does not say whether behavior is good or bad. Also
it does not suggest what to do for progressive change in behavior. It always suggests what not to do for change in
behavior. According to this view, being realistic positive science, nature of psychology is described as negative.
However, psychology studies positive sides of behavior, its applied branches suggest what to do for progressive
change in behavior. Its applied branches and tools suggest evaluating whether change in behavior is proper or not.
According to me this normative behavior of psychology is also positive. Thus psychology is used more positively.

67. Health psychology


Santosh Motiram Mulawkar
Govt. College of Education, Ambajogai, Maharashtra

By Health Psychology, I mean, the branch of psychology which deals with study of behavior of individual related to
health. As health is the phenomenon, which has its root in mental setup or brain of individual, it is necessary to study
health under psychology. Mental health and emotional health are the known phenomena which are already being
studied under psychology. According to me, it is necessary to study physical health under psychology, as physical
health is related to mental health. In addition to these known phenomena, I am suggesting new phenomena of health
viz intellectual health, social health, national health, global health and universal health of individual which are related
to healthy behavior of individual with respect to that particular field.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 35

68. Patterns of working memory and attention deficits


among dyslexic children
Sonali Sardana
Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, Delhi

Dyslexia is a specific kind of reading difficulty. Despite average intelligence, children with dyslexia have difficulty
learning to “decode” or read words by associating sounds and letters. Decades of research on dyslexia has shown core
deficits in phonological processing. The dyslexic children have shown deficits in working memory problems
especially found for visual and auditory presentation of stimuli with different paradigms and types of material.
Working memory is a system with a phonological or visual-spatial storage unit, an articulatory loop for maintaining
information in the temporary storage unit, and a central executive. Attention refers to the concentration and focusing
of mental efforta focus that is selective, shift able and divisible. What and types of these phenomena's? Is there any
possible relationship and interconnectedness between these phenomena's. Total of 60 children of age 6-12yrs out of
which 30 dyslexic and 30 non-dyslexic children, in each group 15 male and 15 females were taken. Hypothesis was
exploratory in nature so two group design taken dyslexics as experimental group and non-dyslexic as control group.
The scale used in the study was Nimhans battery for children. Certain tests of working memory and attention were
used. The result of the study need to the proposition that attention deficits occur in dyslexic children but working
memory deficits do occur but individual differences do exists. There was no significant difference between working
memory and attention deficits too.
Keywords: working memory, attention, dyslexic, phonological processing, nimhans battery for children.

69. Organizational role stress and personality: An interface


Vibhuti Gupta
Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

The aim of this research is to investigate if the two levels of management (upper and lower management) and males
and females in public sector organization differ significantly in their experience of organizational role stress. The
study also aims to investigate the extent to which the individual's personality dimensions affect their perception of
organizational role stress. For this purpose two standardized questionnaires namely Neo Five Factor Inventory by
Costa and McCrae, 1991 and Organizational Role Stress Scale by Udai Pareek, 1981 were administered to a sample of
120 employees working in two Public Sector Organizations in Delhi, India. For statistical computation t-test and
Pearson's product moment correlation was used. Results indicate significant Gender difference in Inter role distance,
with women being significantly high on it. Personal Inadequacy and Role Stagnation also showed a trend towards
being significant. There were significant differences between Lower and Upper management with respect to Role
Isolation, Personal Inadequacy and Self Role Distance. Role Expectation Conflict showed a trend towards being
significant. For the total sample size (N=120) Neuroticism correlated significantly with Role Erosion (negative
correlation), Extraversion with Role Erosion (positive correlation), and conscientiousness with Role expectation
conflict, Personal Inadequacy and Self Role distance (all three were negative correlations). The results are discussed
in light of the existing research and limitations, implications of the study are highlighted. Future suggestions are
given.
Keywords: management, gender, organizational role stress, personality, inter role distance, personal inadequacy, role
stagnation, role isolation, self role distance, role expectation conflict, neuroticism, role erosion, extraversion,
conscientiousness.
36 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

70. Psychological well being and self esteem in professional


college students
Kiran sahu
Department of Psychology, G.D.H.G. College, Moradabad, UP

Dheerja singh
School of Engineering and Technology, I.F.T.M. University, Moradabad, UP

The objective of the present study was to find out the Psycholological well being and self esteem of the professional
college students. In addition the role of some demographic variables like sex, income and occupation was also
investigated by the researchers. Hundred professional students were selected incidentally from professional colleges
of Moradabad District (U.P.). Psychological Well Being was measured with the help of Campbell Scale (1976) and
Self esteem was measured with the help of Rosenberg Self esteem Scale (1989). Result denoted that these
professional students shoved above average level of Psychological Well Being and Self esteem. Further, there was not
any significant gender difference regarding the Self esteem and the Psychological Well Being of these professionals.
Both males and females exhibited above average level of psychological Well Being and Self esteem. Income has
significant effect on the Psychological Well Being as well as Self esteem of the subjects. High income group shoved
high self esteem and better Psychological Well Being. In addition the subjects of service class group indicated better
Psychological Well Being in comparison Business class group. But there was not any marked able differences
regarding self esteem of Business group and service group.

71. Influence of hardiness on waste minimization behaviour in


environment based education context
Punam Bansal
Govt. College of Education, Chandigarh

The present study examined the effectiveness of Experiential Learning Strategies on Waste Minimization
Behaviour of Secondary School students from Psychological Hardiness perspective. The sample consisted of 260
(132 males and 128 females) adolescents studying in four Government Model Senior Secondary Schools of
Chandigarh. Psychological Hardiness Scale by Nowack (1990) was administered and students were categorized
in High psychological hardiness group and Low psychological hardiness group by using Kelley's Method. The
Waste Minimization Behaviour Scale containing nine items constructed and validated by researcher was
administered twice as pre-test and post-test measurement instrument to measure Waste Minimization Behaviour
changes in Secondary School students. Experimental group (N=130) was taught by adopting Experiential
Learning Strategies and control group (N=130) was taught by Traditional Teaching Strategies. A 2x2 factorial
design was used to study the main effects of the independent variables of Teaching strategies and Psychological
Hardiness on the dependent variable of Waste Minimization Behaviour. Significant main effects of Experiential
Learning Strategies were revealed on the Waste Minimization Behaviour of students at .01 level. Results also
indicated statistically significant interaction at 0.5 level between teaching strategies and psychological hardiness
on the Waste Minimization Behaviour .Further analysis of result with t-test revealed that High Hardy group taught
through Experiential Learning Strategies reported significantly higher gain on Waste Reduction Behaviour than
Low Hardy group taught through Traditional Teaching Strategies. Overall, these findings provide new insights
about how Experiential Learning Strategies may contribute to the relationship between psychological hardiness and
Waste Minimization Behaviour change in Secondary School students.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 37

72. Organizational role stress and ways of coping among rural


and urban primary school teachers
Parul Mishra
Army Public School, Bareilly Cantt., U.P.
Kiran Sahu
Department of Psychology, GDHG PG College Moradabad, U.P

This investigation was aimed at studying the relationship between level of organizational role stress and the ways
of coping of primary school teachers of rural and urban area. A sample of 240 teachers ( 120 Male, 120 Female)
was selected from govt. schools of rural and urban area of Distt. Bareilly(U.P). Pareek's(1983) cc Scale was
administered to measure the level of teachers' stress and The Ways of Coping Questionnaire(1988) by Lazarus and
Folkman was used to find out the ways of coping used by the teachers. Results indicated that there was significant
difference between rural and urban teachers for ORS as well as ways of coping. Rural teachers experience more
organizational stress in comparison to urban teachers. In addition they used more problem focused coping like
planful problem solving and seeking social support to deal with their stress in comparison to urban teachers. These
findings were similar for males as well as for females. The findings of the present study revealed that,
Organizational Role Stress is significantly negatively related to problem focused coping and positively to emotion
focused coping. These results were similar for rural and urban but the interesting finding is that among rural
teachers more problem focused ways like confronting, planful problem solving, seeking social support were found
significantly negatively related to Organizational Role Stress for both males as well as for females, while few
emotion focused coping like accepting responsibility and positive reappraisal were significantly positively related
to organizational role stress only among female teachers. In urban area both male and female teachers more
frequently used both type of coping.

73. A study of emotional maladjustment and psycho-physical stress


among infertility, divorcee and criminal females
Doshi Dhara R, Somaiya Sachi R. and Yogesh A Jogsan
Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot

The main purpose of this resarch was to find out the mean difference between infertility divorcee and criminal females
in emotional maladjustment and psycho-physical stress. The total sample consisted 210 females were taken. The
research tool for emotional maturity was measured by Dr. Mahesh Bhargav and Yashveer Sing (1998). Gujarati
adaption by Dr. Yogesh A. Jogsan (2006). While the tool for psycho physical stress were used which made by Dr.
Shannu Maheshwary (2002). Here 'one way ANOVA' was applied to check the significant of emotional
maladjustment and psycho-physical stress in females. To check correlation between emotional maladjustment and
psycho-physical stress correlation method was used. Results revealed that no significant difference in factor of
emotional maladjustment and psycho-physical stress in infertility, divorcee and criminal females.
Keywords: Emotional Maladjustment and Psycho-Physical Stress.
38 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

74. Technology, classrooms and students' achievement


Shivani Bindal and Sangeeta
M.M. College of Education, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana

Science and technology has revolutionized the human existence. Technology today is no longer confined to small
rooms filled with some intelligent mind; rather it has become a way of life. There has been a considerable shift in the
learning paradigm due to the introduction of technology and newer methods of imparting education .So new
technologies are being gradually integrated into teaching-learning process. The school environment especially
classroom environment is quite important in creating effective learning environment. To keep pace with a changing
world classrooms need to offer more rigorous, relevant and engaging opportunities for students to learnand to apply
their knowledge and skills in meaningful ways. The concept of smart classroom is gaining pace day by day but still its
boons and banes are still not clear to schools. A smart classroom is a classroom that that has an instructor station
equipped with computer and audiovisual equipment, allowing the instructor to teach using a wide variety of media.
These include DVD and VHS playback, PowerPoint presentations, and more all displayed through a data projector.
Some smart classrooms have a semi-permanent unit in the room called a Smart Console. These Smart Consoles have
similar equipment housed inside them as the other smart classrooms. The present paper aimed at studying the
effectiveness of smart classrooms on the achievement of students in language subjects whereby two schools in
Chandigarh were used as a sample. The hypotheses were tested and analyzed using t-test and F-ratio. The paper
strongly recommends that the classrooms in 21 century have to be modern surely and each student must be given a
chance to use the smart class. Further, the teachers should be provided with the updated knowledge of using such
technology in the classroom so that they can encourage their students.

75. Impact of health and nutrition education of mothers on


cognitive and social development of their children
Sangeeta and Shivani Bindal
M.M. College of Education, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana

“Childhood” a unique period in life-time, when, like a flower, the child is unfolding and growing, the care and nurture
given to the child during this period of unfolding is of greatest importance. The health of children, the little angels of
God, forms the real foundation upon which all the happiness in the near future depends. Child malnutrition is the
major problem in developing countries. India accounts for 40 percent with less than 20 percent of the global Child
Population. Of the nearly 12 million children who die each year in developing countries mainly due to preventable
causes, the deaths of over 6 million or 55 percent are either directly or indirectly attributed to malnutrition (UNICEF
Report). Lack of knowledge of the needed food and the special dietary needs of the young children such as the high
requirements for proteins during early phase of rapid growth result in malnutrition. In India attempts have been made
to educate different groups (pre-school children, primary school children, secondary school children, adolescents,
balsevikas) of people about nutrition. Nutrition and Health Education given to Children will not benefit us much as it
results in their knowledge gains but the practices that their mothers have adopted since long don't change. So, it is
better to give Health and Nutrition Education directly to mothers, so that along with knowledge, we can change their
practices as well. Moreover, with the knowledge on health, hygiene, sanitation and infections diseases, she can
safeguard the child from many dangerous diseases. It will reduce Mortality Rate of India. The main aim of the paper
was to study impact of health and nutrition education of mothers on cognitive and social development of their
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 39

children. The hypotheses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that. Although
under ICDS Scheme, Anganwadi workers impart Health and Nutrition Education to mothers but they are not properly
trained and they don't have proper material to conduct formal sessions of Health and Nutrition Education. Thus
educating mothers by Nutrition Experts is the need of the hour if we want the well being of children who are our future
nation builders.

76. A comparative study on mental health and stress among fertile


and in Baluch women
Archana A. Pandya, Mohini M. Pandya and Yogesh A Jogsan
Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot

The present study aimed to find out the Mental health and stress among fertile and Infertile women. The total sample
consisted of 100 among 50 fertile women and 50 infertile women. The research tool for mental health was measured
by Dr. D. J. Bhatt and Gita R. Gida (1992) and stress cale was developed by Arunkumar Singh and Arpana Singh
(2004) obtained scores were analized with help t-test and 'r' was applied to check correlation. Result revealed that
significant difference in mental health and stress with respect to both women from fertile and infertile on mental
health and stress. While the correlation between mental health and stress reveals 0.87 very high positive correlations.
Keywords: mental health and stress

77. Effect of gender and socioeconomic status on aggression among


adolescents: A comparison of ratings by self, parent, teacher, and peer
Sony P Thomas and Veena Easvaradoss
Department of Psychology, Women's Christian College, Chennai

The study investigated the gender and socioeconomic status difference in physical, verbal and indirect aggression by
self, parent, teacher, and peer rating among adolescents. Subjects, a total of 516 adolescents, were selected from three
southern states Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu - of India. MANOVA was used to analyze the interaction effect of
gender and socioeconomic status on physical, verbal, and indirect aggression assessed by self, parents, teacher, and
peer. Consistencies among different informants varied. In contrast to earlier findings, boys were found to be directly
as well as indirectly more aggressive than girls. Higher and lower socioeconomic adolescents are found to be
aggressive when compared with upper middle socioeconomic status adolescents.

78. Increasing competitiveness through supply chain management


Rajendra Sinha and Vinayak C. Tiwari
Jhunjhunwala Business School, Faizabad

In this era of LPG, it is the survival of the most competitive enterprise. Competitiveness is the buzz word. Every
organization therefore, in order to survive and exist has to be most competitive, and there are many ways in which one
can increase competitiveness. Supply Chain management is one of them. In fact, every aspect of business is important
for success. With constant addition to our knowledge, changing perspectives, every function of marketing needs a re-
look now and then and definitely a watchful eye ever. Even a simple act of making the product available to the
customer is not that simple anymore. Obviously it is simpler than conceiving a product, designing, manufacturing,
40 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

packing, promoting etc. however; in spite of above activities if the product is not available in the right time or in right
quantity, the business suffers by way of profit opportunities lost or lost sales. Gone are those days when customers
used to wait for the right product or the required quantity. Now time is money and speed- may kill on the road but, wins
in the market place. The customer now days not only wants instantaneously but wants it most comfortably or
delightfully i.e. he looks for the pleasure the 5th P of marketing mix. Hence in my opinion, designing of the logistics or
supply chain should start with this in mind- the 5th P- pleasure i.e. Customer Delight. When we say logistics or supply
chain it actually has two distinct systems. One- the material management system concerned with the goods and
services flowing into the firm and also known as In-bound logistics, using MRP (Materials Requirement Planning)
and JIT methods and Two- the Distribution Management System, implying the flow of goods and service3s from the
firm to the customers and also known as Out- bound logistics using DRP (Distribution Requirement Planning), QR
(Quick Response) or ECR 9 Efficient Consumer Response) methods. This paper discusses the distribution system
from the Supply Chain perspective.
Keywords: supply chain management, competitive advantage

79. Changes in the psyche and related physiological parameters due


to the alteration of the diurnal rhythm
Shaifali Agarwal and Charul Sharma
Department of Psychology G.D.H.G.D. College, Moradabad, U.P

One of the reasons of the alteration of the diurnal rhythm is the prolonged disturbance of the day night schedules seen
in the employees of many companies, factories, call centers, night guards, watchmen, police men doing the night beat,
railway drivers, guards doing the night shift etc. The manifestations of such disturbances can be observed, externally,
in the behavior and the psyche of the workers, moreover the prolonged exposure to such conditions can also lead to
physiological changes. The present study was conducted in Moradabad among the brass factory workers working the
night shift. The study shows a remarkable change in the psychological condition of the subjects as compared to their
other counter parts working the day shift. The major changes observed in the subjects were altered sleeping habits ie.,
changes in the sleep pattern, perpetual feeling of stress, insomnia, a loss in the temporary and permanent memory,
headaches, depression, suicidal tendencies, marginalization, changes in orientation moving towards becoming
introvert, adjustment problems and behavioral changes. The physiological changes in the study group were a loss of
vitality, a decrease in the active and passive immunity, increase in the stress levels, increase in incidences of skin
disease, alteration in the digestive capacity of the subjects, an increase in the body temperature.
Keywords: Diurnal Rhythm, Change in Psyche, Behavior Alteration, Physiological changes.

80. Stress management and social support


Aparna Vyas.
Gokul Das Hindu Girls College, Moradabad, UP

The present paper emphasizes the importance of social support in relation to stress management by reviewing the
recent studies and findings. Stress is defined as reaction towards any physical or psychological event possessing
threat to the physical or psychological well being of the individual .Too much stress results in physical illness and
emotional breakdown . So in order to promote well being and to lead a healthy and productive life, it is essential to deal
with the stress in such a way so that the severity of the stressor may be reduced to a great extent. Several strategies of
stress management exist but the one deserving special mention here is social support- the consolation and comfort
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 41

provided by one's near and dear ones. A number of studies bringing the relationship of stress management and social
support into focus have brought to light that people having strong social network- family and friends etc,-are able to
deal with the ups and downs of life in the most effective manner. Besides involving problem focused coping and
emotion focused coping , social support is a great help in cognitive restructuring of the stressor. It contributes in the
formation of habits and fulfillment of psychological needs which directly or indirectly promote mental health .
Furthermore people having optimistic attitude, secure attachment style and altruistic personality are those who seek
and provide help unhesitatingly and such people are most resistant to stress. There is moreover increasing evidence
that social support play potentially important role in helping people struggling with stigmatizing diseases. Finally and
most importantly it should be noted that though the lack of social support exert adverse effect upon the individual, the
wrong type of support can actually produce detrimental effect.
Keywords: Stress management.

81. Pubescence: Initial journey to achieve maturation


Parul Tripathi
Human Development, Banasthali University, Rajasthan

Pubescence is a time of rapid physical growth which involves hormonal and bodily changes. This stage has two
phases that are linked with hormonal changes Adrenarche and Gonadarche, adrenarche involves hormonal changes in
the adrenal glands, these changes occur surprisingly early from about 6 to 9 years of age. Gonadarche involves sexual
maturation and the development of reproductive maturity. The present study aims to know the knowledge of pubertal
girls related to secondary sexual changes. Puberty is a time period when a girl's body goes through number of changes
to prepare for adulthood. It is a dynamic period of development marked by body size, shape, and composition. For
this study purpose 160 girls of 10 to 12 years were purposively selected . The sample were selected from two schools
of Delhi one is government school and another one is public school. Results of the study indicated that there is
significant difference between the private and government school girls. Investigator also plan a short awareness
program to alert the girls of both groups about the physiological aspect of reproductive health which provide clear,
concise and correct information to those seeking information on puberty.
Keywords: pubescence, gonadarche, adrenarche, dynamic, reproductive health, physiological aspect.

82. The “Self” and the “Other” in a cinematic experience


Sramana Majumdar
Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

Cinema as an object of viewership involves the interplay of various intellectual and psychological processes that
make it possible to experience an entire narrative within a limited temporal and spatial context. The main purpose of
this paper is to examine, assimilative and contradictory forces that are at work, during the process of viewership and
whether the audience actively experiences, alternating states of identification and alienation, through the process of
projection and introjection. Drawing from Kleinian concepts of 'projective identification' and Sartre's 'transcendence
of the ego', the paper explores the creation of the significant 'other' during viewership and how the 'other' and the 'self'
are integrated into the all encompassing ego identity. Identification does not require the 'other' to be familiarized and
integrated within the self, but may happen during the process of dealing with, controlling and interacting with the
other It is through the establishment of identity and resolution of self versus other conflict, that cinema is able to
engage its viewers.
42 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

83. Identifying the stress level and coping mechanisms


of special school teachers
Josepth.Thomas and Sreehari Ravindranath
School of Life Skills Education & Social harmony, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development

All students require support from teachers, classmates, family and friends in order to thrive and gain full benefits from
their school experience. Some students have special needs, which have behavioural, intellectual, physical and
multiple disabilities require special education services to enable them to attend and benefit fully from their school
experience. Special teachers have a great demand as they are the people who initiate for identifying and use the
potentialities of the children with special needs. At the same time, it is the fact that working with this special group is
very difficult and challenging. Meeting the daily behavioural needs of the students is a challenge and teaching in
special school is a stressful job. More over this stress can reduce s the teachers' motivation and have negative effects
such as alienation from the workplace, absenteeism and attrition. So it is important to identify the stress of the special
teachers, and the different sources of stress. The present study describe the level of occupational stress, sources of
stress, level of teaching stress and coping mechanisms of the special education teachers.As the main focus of the study
was to identify the stress level and coping mechanisms of special teachers, interview schedule was considered to be
ideally suitable to collect descriptive data and 70 teachers were selected for the study. The present study shows that
special education teachers are experiencing medium level of occupational stress and medium level of teaching stress
when handling children with special needs.
Keywords: Stress, Special School Teachers, Coping Mechanism.

84. Mental health status of school-going adolescents


Syed Ahmad Shah
Department of Psychology, Magadh University, Bihar

Kaiser Ahmad Dar


Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of emotional stability, overall adjustment, security
insecurity and self concept on mental health status of school going adolescent boys and girls. The sample
comprised 150 school going adolescent boys and girls of 9th and 10th grade, drawn from different schools of
Kashmir valley. The subjects ranged in age from 12 to 14 years. To assess the mental health status of sampled
subjects, the Mental Health Battery development by Singh and Sen Gupta (1987) was administered. This battery
includes, six sub-tests namely emotional stability, overall adjustment, autonomy, security insecurity, self concept
& intelligence. In the present study only four sub tests namely emotional stability, over all adjustment, security-
insecurity and self concept were relevant to the hypotheses and therefore, used in data analysis. In compliance
with the objectives of the present study the two groups of boys and girls were compared with respect to emotional
stability, over all adjustment, security-insecurity and self concept. t-test. revealed that the two groups did not
differ significantly on the dimensions of emotional stability, overall adjustment and self concept , however, the
girl students scored higher on security insecurity dimension of mental health than the boy students. The two
groups also demonstrated significant difference with respect to overall adjustment and security insecurity
dimension of mental health.
Keywords: mental health.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 43

85. Role of values and virtues (signature strengths) in


technological advanced cultures
Anuradha Sharma
Amity University, Noida, UP

“Such is human psychology that if we don't express our joy, we soon cease to feel it”.
The main focus of positive psychology is heavily on happiness and fulfillment, and which examined the positive
aspects of mental health and how it is consistent with a worldview.There are opportunities and challenges associated
with transition from one stage of the life cycle to the another (Carr,1999). Practical applications of positive
psychology tries to help individuals and organizations correctly identify their strengths and use them to increase and
sustain their respective levels of well-being. Each trait "provides one of many alternative paths to virtue and well-
being''. Therapists, counselors, coaches, and various other psychological professionals can use the new methods and
techniques to build and broaden the lives of individuals who are not necessarily suffering from mental illness or
disorder. The main objective of the present research is to find out the role of character strengths and virtues in the
overall personality development of present young generation, for this purpose a sample of about 150 students was
collected to find the true potentials hidden and how many of them were using their strengths in day today life. The
western culture is not able to find the answers then they have started sorting help elsewhere for the positive
outcomes and for the same purpose APA (American Psychological Association) discussed with educationists,
neuropsychologists and Buddhist thinkers from Asia , Dalai lama, at a conference “Educating World Citizens for 21
century”. In the same context with indigenous approach the present research initiative has been taken to overcome all
the distractions and making the students to be more concerned about their character strengths and virtues to emerge
with a positive well being. Most of us think that the main purpose of getting education is to pass the exams. &
competitions and if students develop this notion they become more ego centered and this inhibits the learning of basic
values and strengths as an important aspect of their personality and holistic development. In the fast moving world we
are generating technological advanced cultures & intelligences who are lacking humor, hope, self control, kindness
and forgiveness as major character or signature strengths used since centuries for the healthy development of self and
society. The present research is an attempt to generate awareness among youth about basic human values as their
signature strengths.
Keywords: signature strengths, virtues, mental illness, potential, holistic development.

86. Study of time perspective and well being


Akshat Chowdhury and Bharathi Kumari
Department of Psychology, JMI, Delhi

The objective of the present study is to compare time prespective and well being of adolescents, middle and old
persons. The time perspective questionnaire (Zimbardo & Boyd,1999) and psychological well being questionnaire
(Bhogle & Jaiprakash 1995) were administered to a sample of 90 (30 at each level). The results indicated significant
difference across 3 age levels in past negative and future areas of time perspective. In past negative area of time
perspective the older generation has obtained significantly higher mean than the other two age groups (one way
anova).In future time perspective the younger generation has obtained significantly higher mean (one way
anova).There is low correlation between time perspective and well being.There no difference in the perception of well
being in the three age groups.
44 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

87. Management impact of economic reforms over insurance sector


Sunena Jain
Department of Economics, F. C. College, Hisar, Haryana

Nisha Goyal
Department of Commerce, F. C. College, Hisar, Haryana

The paper focuses the current position of insurance industry. The Indian life insurance industry has its own origin and
history. Since its inception, it has passed through many obstacles, hindrances to attain its present status. The income
earning capacity of an individual citizen of a nation and the eagerness and awareness of the general public are the two
key determinants of the growth of any insurance industry. As a result, wider mass-employment opportunities and
sound educational system should be made available. In addition, the general public must be kept abreast of more
knowledge and importance of life insurance, as these steps help to boost the growth of insurance industries. In this
Indian context, insurance habit among the general public during the independence decade was quite rare and in the
following decades, it increased slowly. There was a remarkable improvement in the Indian insurance industry soon
after the acceptance and adaptation of liberalization, privatization, and globalization (LPG) in the year 1991. After
1991, the Indian life insurance industry has geared up in all respects, as well as it being forced to face a lot of healthy
competition from many national as well as international private insurance players. The fall in the savings rate and
increased competition in the primary market and particularly the aggressive mobilization by the mutual fund posed
serious challenges to LIC.
Keywords: economic reforms, life insurance, liberalization

88. Scale development process to assess adolescent's ability to


identify, understand and resolve conflicts
Srividya. K and Rajalakshmi. M.S
Department of Human Development, SMT.VHD Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore
Suresh
Department Biostatistics, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore

Conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur (Deutsch, 1973). Conflict is a normal and necessary part of healthy
relationships. Two people can't be expected to agree on everything at all times. Learning how to identify, understand and
resolve conflict, rather than avoiding a conflict is very crucial. However, scales available in the market to assess the
identification, understanding and resolving of conflicts are few. The existing scales have their own drawbacks viz they
may not be culture friendly, not suitable for the age group etc. Therefore the present research was undertaken to develop an
appropriate scale, suitable to the Indian Scenario which would assess adolescents' ability to identify, understand and
resolve conflict. It was assumed that, if this assessment was done, need based educational intervention strategies
could be designed to hone in adolescents the skills for win-win conflict resolution approach, which in turn would lead
to less conflicts, violence and unhappiness thereby making the transition to adulthood smooth. The researchers
developed and standardized the Conflict Identification, Understanding and Resolving Scale (CIUR Scale),
compatible for the Indian context which could be used to assess adolescents' conflict resolution patterns. The
developed tool is appropriate for the 12-13 year age group and assesses five major areas of conflict during adolescence
viz conflict with parents, conflict with siblings, conflict with friends, conflict with self and conflict in school.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 45

89. Subjective wellbeing among dancers and nondancers


Shrividya. N. Bharadwaj and Surekha Chukkali
Christ University, Bangalore

Recent trends in research are investigating the relationship of dance with other constructs. The existing literature
suggests that dance is associated with reduction on anxiety, depression, increased quality of life, and increased mental
health, increased psychological well being and so on. However the relationship of dance and subjective well being is
not completely explored. The present study is an attempt in bridging the gap. The aim of the study was to compare the
subjective well being among dancers and non-dancers. Total sample consisted of 120 participants of which 30 were
non-dancers; 30, Kathak dancers; 30, bharathanatyam dancers and 30 salsa dancers. The age range of the sample was
18- 30 years. The subjective well being scale developed by Nagpal and Sell (1985) was used to measure the subjective
well being among individuals. Results indicated significant differences between the group of dancers and non-
dancers in subjective wellbeing. The study has implications for using dance as a medium to enhance the wellbeing of
individuals.

90. Emotional intelligence: A path to positive behaviours at work


Vaijayanthee
Jindal Global Business School, O.P. Jindal Global University, Sonepat, Haryana

Emotional intelligence, a concept introduced few decades ago has been found to predict productive behaviors at work.
However emotional intelligence competencies that predict positive work behaviors need to be established in Indian
workplaces. This paper hypothesized emotional intelligence as positively impacting and predicting organizational
citizenship behaviour. In this endeavor, relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and positive work
behaviour, more conceptually termed as organizational citizenship behaviour, among bank employees was explored.
To investigate this relationship, a sample of 80 bank employees was studied. Demographic variables such as age,
gender and total years of work experience were also considered as moderating variables.To measure the variables
under study, Emotional Intelligence scale (Hyde, Anukool) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour scale (Bakshi,
Aarti) were employed onthe sample which were drawn using incidental sampling.Data analysis included Pearson's
correlation, F-test and Regression analysis. The research results revealed that there is a significant relationship
between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviors. The findings also highlighted that few of
the emotional intelligence competencies significantly predicted positive behaviors at work with age and total years of
work experience as the moderating variables. This study gives an insight on how discretionary behaviors can be
inculcated within employees by providing training on emotional intelligence competencies that significantly predict
citizenship behaviors.
Keywords: emotional intelligence.

91. Impact of advertisement on kids


Shiney Chib
Datta Meghe Institute of Management Studeies, Nagpur, Maharashtra

Advertising is a vital marketing tool as well as powerful communication medium. The basic objective of any
advertisement is to stimulate sales, direct or indirect by trying to make tall claims about product performance. The
46 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

degree of impact of advertising on adults may be problematic but the outcome is devastating for children. The
influence of the media on the psycho-social development of children is profound. Thus, it is important for the parents
to know their child's exposure to media and to provide guidance on age-appropriate use of all media, including
television, radio, music, video games and the Internet. The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective
mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during
popular TV events. The majority of television commercials features a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the
product. This paper is the analytical study of advertisement on the behaviour of kids.
Keywords: advertisement.

92. Aggression among school going adolescents


Babli Choudhury
Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam

Human aggression is behaviour performed by one person (the aggressor) with the intent of harming another person (the
victim). Such behaviour is found to be most common in the adolescents which is now-a-days a major problem in our
Society. It is a violative and defying tendency against the accepted social rules and norms. Aggressive youths are
therefore, law breaking criminal youths whose attitude and behaviour are socially unacceptable, objectionable and
harmful. Instinctive biological urges are over active in them whereas their conscience remains weak. As such they are
easily prone to violence. Aggression should be regarded as an attempt by the adolescents at controlling or dominating the
environment and their parents. They many show aggression when they fail to achieve what they want or when they lose in
competition or when they face and unfavourable comparison. Therefore, the investigator feels that there is a need to
explore the problem and make an indepth study of the causes leading to aggressive behaviour of school going adolescents.
Keywords: aggression

93. Mental health of student teachers in relation to


intelligence- A descriptive study
Balwinder Kaur
Govt. College of Education, Chandigarh

This study emerged due to the changing role of teachers. Today teachers aspire to be seen as experts and professionals
with intelligent mind. Modern teaching is not related to what a teacher knows but with what a teacher is. So this
condition has made it mandatory for teachers to be mentally healthy. The objectives of study were to find out
relationship between mental health and intelligence of student teachers and to find out mean difference between
intelligence of student teachers with high, average and low level of mental health. To achieve objectives, the sample of
500 student teachers was taken from all educational colleges affiliated to Punjab University Chandigarh. The test of
Mental Health Inventory by Srivastava and Jagdish (1983) and Group test of mental ability by Jalota (1972) was used
to measure mental health and intelligence. Descriptive analysis like mean, median, mode and Pearson's correlation
and t-values were calculated. A significant relationship was found between mental health and intelligence of student
teachers. No significant difference was found in the intelligence of high and average level of mental health, but
difference was found in intelligence at average and low level of mental health. This study is very useful for
educationists and administrators to make a change in their admission policy so that students with sound mental health
may enter this profession and can perform their duties honestly towards society.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 47

94. Psychological empowerment, affective commitment and


job re-design among survivors of downsizing in the Indian context
Chandranshu Sinha
Amity Business School, Noida, UP

The study looks into the nature and relationships between psychological empowerment, affective commitment and
job redesign among survivors of downsizing in the Indian context. The organization taken into consideration is a
multinational, had undergone a major change initiative i.e. downsizing and is a leading enterprise for business process
and document management in India. The data was collected from 71 employees holding supervisory position in the
organization. The findings indicate that there is appropriate amount of affective commitment (mean=3.89,
SD=0.365), psychological empowerment (mean= 3.64, SD= 0.360) and job redesign (mean=3.81, SD=0.356). The
results also show that job redesign and psychological empowerment have significant impact on affective
commitment. Looking forward for a confirmation from you regarding the acceptance of the aforementioned abstract.

95. Some socio-psychological correlates of job satisfaction


in tribal school teachers
Sarwat Jabeen
Department of Psychology, Nirmala College, Ranchi, Jharkhand

The paper examines the main and interaction effects of types of educational institution, age, religion and sex on job
satisfaction of tribal school teachers. Using personal data questionnaire and job satisfaction scale, data were collected
from a stratified random sample of 320 school teachers, the stratification was based on types of school
(public/private), age (young/old), religion (Christian/non-Christian) and sex (male/female). Analysis of data based on
F test revealed that public school teachers as compared to private school teachers were more satisfied with their job.
No clear-cut picture emerged on the relationship of job satisfaction with religion but Christian school teachers seemed
to show slightly better job satisfaction than did Non-Christian Tribals. It was found that female teachers as compared
to male teachers were, by and large more satisfied with their jobs. Age did not produce any effect on job satisfaction.

96. Enhancing self-concept


Sarwat Jabeen
Department of Psychology, Nirmala College, Ranchi, Jharkhand

The paper is a modest study of enhancing Self- Concept: The Prime Need for effective Career Guidance. The study of
“Self and Self- Concept” has attracted the attention of psychologists and educators for quit some times past now. The
value of Self-Concept of the individual and effort made by the counselor to help the individual for better self-
understanding is much more than the guidance is given for any other purpose. Here an attempt has been made to
examine the self-concept of youth with a focus on their various trait profiles and characteristics relating to self
actualization, and academic adjustment. During decision making and planning processes 'self- concept' serves both as
a watch and a guide. It needs hardly any stating that a realistic 'self concept' helps a youth to grow properly and also
helps in proper personal adjustment with their environment. It now generally stands established that positive 'self-
concept' strengthens the ability of reasoning, the problem solving attitude, speed, accuracy and efficiency of a
student/youth.
48 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

97. Leg-shaking stereotype in the visually impaired: A


naturalistic observation
Jennie Mendes
Sophia College for Women, Mumbai

The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of leg-shaking, age trends (data collected grade wise which
approximates age groups) and situational correlates in a typically developing sighted and visually impaired samples.
The study provided cross-sectional frequency estimates of leg-shaking of school and college students. A total of 1666
visually impaired (VI) and 4346 sighted (S) individuals were observed from grade one to grade ten in the classroom,
examination and canteen settings Overall, the results of this study showed marked differences between the visually
impaired and the sighted groups. Significant differences were also found between settings. No major gender
differences were found. The settings were an important variable that influenced leg-shaking behaviour. The most
obvious evidence of lowered vigilance is motor restlessness (fidgeting and moving about, yawning and stretching,
different body movements or a combination) In order to improve alertness when sitting or standing still, or when
involved in tasks requiring continuous mental performance like in an examination, individuals will try and control
repetitive movements. Therefore, it is evident that the VI students show higher rates of leg-shaking behavior and in the
examination situation both groups show comparatively lower rates of leg-shaking than in the classroom or the canteen
situation.

98. Effect of gender & age on job-satisfaction among college teachers


of different sectors (private and government sector)
Karuna Anand
Department of Psychology, Gokul Das Hindu Girls College, Moradabad

The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of gender, and age on Job-satisfaction among College teachers
of different sectors (Private and Government Sector). 40 males from private as well as government sectors, age 30 to
60 and 40 females from private as well as government sectors, age of 30 to 60 years were selected. The result shows
that there is significant effect of gender and college teachers belonging to the private and government sectors. And
there is also found the significant effect of age. There is exists a significant second order interaction between gender
and age on job satisfaction among College teachers of different sectors (Private and Government).

99. Perceived stress among dual-career couples


across work- family integration types
Neeta Gupta and Shobhita
Department of Psychology, D.A.V. (P.G.)College, Dehradun

The present study has tried to explore perceived amount of Stress among Dual Career Couples across five types of
Work-Family Integration types, i.e., 1. Spillover, 2. Independence, 3.Conflict,4. Instrumentality, and 5.
Compensation. For this 100 Dual Career Couples were contacted and they were further sub classified into five types
of Work-Family relationships on the basis of their predominant way of integrating their work and family spheres.
Evans and Bartolome's(1986). Work-Family relationship scale was utilized to categorize the respondents into five
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 49

types of Work-Family relationships. The Bisht Battery of Stress Scale (2002) was utilized to measure the perceived
stress of the respondents. Several ANOVAs were run for different dimensions of Stress (such as Role stress, Financial
Stress, Family Stress, Social Stress etc.) The results of the present study have revealed that Dual Career Couples
perceived different dimensions of Stress significantly different across various types of Work-Family relationships.
Keywords: stress, dual career couples, work-family relationships.

100. Body image, self-efficacy, emotional support and


perceived financial difficulty as predictors of emotional well-being
Shweta Singh
Department of Applied Psychology, V.B.S.Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, UP

The Present study tries to know that the body image, self-efficacy, emotional support and perceived financial
difficulty are the good predictors of the emotional well-being or not. In the present study nine tests are used. First test
is measured the life satisfaction; second test is measured the positive and negative affect; third test is measured the
feeling of connectedness (these three scales were collectively measured the emotional well-being); fourth test is
measured the self-efficacy; fifth test is measured the parent's emotional support; sixth test is measured the teacher's
emotional support; seventh test is measured the classmate's emotional support; eighth test measured the perceived
financial difficulty and ninth test measured the body image, on a sample of 222 male and female students from the
different departments of the Veer Bahadur Singh, Purvanchal University, Jaunpur. For analysis of data Pearson's
correlational technique and multiple regression analysis were used. The results pertaining to the relationship of the
life satisfaction shows the positive and significant correlation with body image (.276**), parent's emotional support
(.336**), classmate's emotional support (.274**) and negative but significant correlation with perceived financial
difficulty (-.277**); positive affect shows positive and significant correlation with body image (.415**), self-efficacy
(.431**), parent's emotional support (.384**), teacher's emotional support (.362**), classmate's emotional support
(.308**) and significant negative correlation with perceived financial difficulty (-.191**); negative affect shows
significant negative correlation with body image (-.240**), parent's emotional support (-.323**), teacher's emotional
support (-.351**), and significant positive correlation with perceived financial difficulty (.424**) and in the same
way feeling of connectedness having significant positive correlation with body image (.311**), self-efficacy (.140*),
parent's emotional support (.358*), teacher's emotional support (.267*), classmate's emotional support (.520**) and
significant negative correlation with (-.439**). The regression analysis has revealed that parent's emotional support,
body image and perceived financial difficulty are significantly contribute to the life satisfaction; body image, self-
efficacy, parent's emotional support and teacher's emotional support are significantly contribute to the positive affect;
perceived financial difficulty and classmate's emotional support are significantly contribute to the negative affect and
feeling of connectedness both.

101. Type-A behaviour pattern, work-life imbalance and


stress: A correlational study
Shobhana Abhyankar and Shirley Menezes
Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune

The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship of Type A behaviour with work-life imbalance and
stress among employed men and women. A sample of 104 male and female married employees from Vasai, Pune and
50 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

Mumbai were administered with Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), Abhyankar's Work-Life Imbalance Scale (WLIS)
and Smith Stress Symptoms Inventory (SSSI) - Disposition Scale; also relevant personal data were procured. The
obtained data were subjected to Pearson's product moment correlation and point biserial correlation. The findings
indicated a significant positive correlation of Type A behaviour (A) (r=.19, p<.05), Speed and Impatience (S) (r=.34,
p<.01), and Job Involvement (J) (r=.36, p<.01) with work-life imbalance (WLI). WLI was positively correlated
withstress (r=.52, p<.01). The results also showed a significant positive relationship of S (r=.23, p<.05) and J (r= .25,
p<.05) with stress. Point biserial correlation did not show any significant gender difference on WLI and stress. The
results are discussed in the light of socio-cultural context in India. Further line of study may evince more prominent
relations in the variables of concern by incorporating a larger and representative sample.
Keywords: type-a, work-life imbalance, stress

102. Towards marital satisfaction: The role of aggression and forgiveness


Yukti Kumar and Padmakumari.P
Department of Psychology

Research on the resolution of interpersonal conflict has shown that forgiveness is important promoting prosocial
interactions in marriage and aggression can serve a healthy function in a marriage signaling that the boundaries are
violated. It can be a motivator for resolving the differences. The present study speaks of the gap between basic
research on the role of forgiveness as an arbitrator in a marriage managing aggression .Also it attempts to explore the
role of tenure as a catalyst of aggression in marriage. The study is a relational work on the role of forgiveness and
aggression in marital satisfaction. It was hypothesized that the relationship between investigating variables
(Aggression, forgiveness and marital satisfaction) will be significant. The sample comprised of fifty couples selected
through snowball sampling (n=100). For data collection marital satisfaction scale, Novaco Anger Scale and Heartland
Forgiveness Scale were used. The data was analyzed using the Pearson's product moment correlation, regression and
factor analysis. Results show that there exists a positive relationship between forgiveness and marital satisfaction. A
negative relationship exists between aggression and forgiveness and between aggression and marital satisfaction.
Also tenure does not moderate but forgiveness mediates the effect of aggression on marital satisfaction. Through this
research knowing the role of forgiveness and the influence of aggression on marriage can help predict and ultimately
prevent marital distress by offering current interventions focused on aggressive styles of partners and helping the
couples foster forgiveness by changing the victim's attribution for the hurtful event and by inducing the victim to feel
empathy towards the offending spouse (Worthington et. al.,1998).
Keywords: forgiveness, aggression, marital satisfaction

103. Home adjustment, mental efficiency and depression among


the elders of Ranchi town
Shriti Choudhary
Department of Psychology, RLSY College, Ranchi University, Ranchi

Meenakshi Kujur and Anjani Jyoti Toppo


Department of Psychology, Ranchi College, Ranchi, Bhihar

The 21st Century is supposed to be an era of population aging due to the rapid increase in greying population. The
study of elders and their wellbeing is an important field of investigation for social scientists in the present day
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 51

situation. In the above backdrop, the present study aims to assess the levels of home adjustment, mental efficiency and
depression among the elderly, with an objective to see the correlation between these three psychological variables.
The impact of gender, age and education on home adjustment, mental efficiency and depression was also explored.
Adopting a 2x2x2 factorial design, a purposive sample of 120 elderly, stratified randomly on the basis of age, gender
and education was selected from the different areas of Ranchi town. Data was collected using standardized measures
of home adjustment, mental efficiency and depression for elderly. It was found that most of the elders were well
adjusted in their families with high level of mental efficiency but a moderate level of depression was found among
them. Home adjustment was positively correlated with mental efficiency (r=.129) and negatively with depression (r=-
393). Mental efficiency and depression were correlated negatively (-.003). The mentally efficient and less depressed
elders were found to be more adjusted in their families. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the age was a significant
factor, affecting mental efficiency, where as education was responsible for better home adjustment and depression. No
significant impact of gender was observed.
Keywords: home adjustment, mental efficiency, depression, elderly.

104. Women empowerment & technology


Barjinder Kaur
IEC-CET College of Engg. & Tech, Greater, Noida

A Decade ago, woman was seen as the showcase of the house, a property of her father and a subordinate to her husband
after marriage, having multiple responsibilities, performing myriad “gender specific roles “assigned to her
especially in a culture which resists change. But now the scenario is undergoing transformation, as more and more
women are getting enriched, educated and empowered about their rights, duties and responsibilities, standing atoll
with men in all walks of life from bread maker to a bread- earner. Many organizations are now coming up with new
concepts of empowering women so that they become independent for which technology is playing a pivotal role.
Technology has impacted the lives of women in such a way that more organizations are now looking forward to
recruiting women even in the earlier male dominated sectors such as the IT, Banking sector. As, today's women have
found new opportunities for growth, and have now started shaping their own destiny and carving a new hope for their
family and the society at large. The present paper attempts to discuss as to how technology has and continues to play a
major role in the empowerment of women.
Keywords: women, empowerment, technology

105. Empowered teachers: Are we ready?


Renu Somal
Department of Psychology, Post Graduate Govt. College for Girls, Chandigarh

There are more women than men in the teaching profession in most parts of our country. Teachers face a lot of
challenges in our society. The need of the hour is to provide a wholesome education to our students which prepares
them not just for careers but also makes them good human beings. Aggression, substance abuse, materialism,
relationship problems are some of the glaring problems in our youth. We need to empower our students with good
values, resilience and realized potentials. Teachers play the role of nation-builders. It is not an easy task. If women
teachers take this responsibility and gear up to this challenge, they will be truly empowered. Much of the potential in
our students goes untapped because of various reasons. Inhibitions and fears, low self esteem, low self efficacy, self-
centeredness on the one hand among the students as also lack of passion, involvement and commitment on the part of
52 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

the teachers. Teachers play a special role in imparting value education to students. They thus are the role models for
their students. Strong convictions and goals, clear plans, priorities, efforts for self growth truly empower an
individual. By trying out new teaching techniques, teachers can inculcate inquisitiveness and analytical thinking in
the students. Interactive teaching makes learning a two way process. Teachers can help create cohesive groups
amongst students so as to foster solidarity, belongingness and affection in the group. Women can play this role really
well as they are well versed with structuring and cohesive forces in families. So women in the role of teachers will
really be using their inherent strengths. Teachers have to be equipped to deal with some students who are irregular,
aggressive, not receptive or disobedient. Accepting such challenges, trying to understand their problems, bringing
them to the mainstream of the classroom is a task that empathetic and empowered teachers can take up. Teachers can
help students to develop intrinsic motivation, inquisitiveness and realize their strengths. Creativity in each student can
be tapped if they are provided some freedom of expression. Effective teachers understand and accept individual
differences. Women teachers can provide a nourishing and loving environment for students to blossom into
wholesome and healthy adults. Proactive, creative and determined youth can carry out their duties with commitment
and sincerity, thereby contributing towards building a strong nation. Teachers can make a difference to the society by
bringing forth such students. And that is real empowerment.
Keywords: teachers, empowerment, value education, realized potential.

106. Linkages between work-family, attatchment styles, job


satisfaction and life satisfaction
Sunita Malhotra
Department of Psychology, M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana

Vaishali Assistant
Deptartment of Psychology, V.M.M., Rohtak, Haryana
Rajesh Nair
Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar
Sapna Sachdeva Nair
Department of Psychology, Pt. J.L.N. Govt. College, Faridabad

For many years psychologists tended to limit their focus to work related issues (eg; tasks, jobs, occupation) and left the
subject of domestic matters to other areas of professional study. However, in the last three decades, there has been a
dramatic increase in the amount of research devoted to understanding the linkages between work and family life. A
variety of linking mechanisms have been proposed that explain the nature of the relationship between work and
family roles (Edwards &Rothbard, 2000), the most prominent of which are conflict (or interference),
accommodation, enrichment, compensation, and segmentation. Understanding the mechanisms by which work and
family life affect each other will help individuals and their employers determine the most effective ways to reduce
work-family interference and increase work-family enrichment. The present study tries to establish the relationship
between work-family linkage, attachment styles, job-satisfaction and life satisfaction. The sample of the present
study comprised of 100 dual earner couples (N = 200) with urban background in the age group of 30 to 45 years. The
measures used were Work-family Linkage Questionnaire (WFLQ), Attachment Style Questionnaire, Job Satisfaction
Questionnaire and Life-Satisfaction Scale. The data was analyzed by employing Pearson's Product moment
correlation. The results have been discussed in the same light.
Keywords: Life satisfaction, Job satisfaction.
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107. Relationship between emotion regulation and attachment


with parent and peer among adolescents
Navreet Kaur and Ruby Charak
Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir

The early development of emotion regulation skills are influenced by the quality of the parent child relationships.
When children live in a responsive, consistent environment in which they feel accepted and nurtured, they feel
emotionally secure and free to express emotions because they are certain that their emotional needs will be met. Also,
another important source of emotional support during the complex transition of adolescence is a young person's
growing involvement with peers. The present study aims to assess the relationship between difficulties in emotion
regulation and attachments with mother, father and peer among school going adolescents. Cross sectional sample of
200 school going adolescents (120 male and 80 female) in the age range of 15 17 years was collected through
purposive sampling from three private schools of Jammu city. The results of the study indicate significant negative
correlation between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with mother, and significant negative
correlation between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with father. No significant correlation was
found between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with peer. Importance of relationship between
difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with mother, father and peer were highlighted in the study.

108. Universal precaution understanding and compliance among


medics and paramedics in district kheda, Gujarat
Sanjay Rana
Medical Officer, District Kheda, Gujarat
Rajesh Nair
Indian Institute of Public Health-Gandhinagar, Ahmadabad, Gujarat

Sapna Sachdeva Nair


Department of Psychology, Pt. J.L.N. Govt. College, Faridabad, Haryana

Universal precautions or standard precaution are simple infection control measures that reduce the risk of transmission of
blood borne pathogens through exposure to blood or body fluids, secretions and excretions (except sweat), non intact skin
and mucous membranes among patients and health care providers. Health care professionals are exposed to high risk of
various infections and at times become victims of fatal infections due to number of reasons. Overall aim of study was to
assess the understanding and compliance of universal precaution among Allopath & AUYSH doctors, Staff Nurses and
Laboratory Technicians working in Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of district Kheda, Gujarat. To assess understanding
and compliance of Universal Precautions among Medics and Paramedics (Allopath & AYUSH doctors, Laboratory
Technicians, Staff Nurse) prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Primary Health Centers of District
Kheda. Yamane's formula was used to calculate the sample size. Research instrument was adapted from previous studies
conducted in similar area. Overall finding suggest that there is low level of understanding and compliance regarding
universal precautions among AYUSH doctors, Lab. Tech. and Staff Nurses as compared to Allopath doctors. There is
need to develop programs and interventions to make health care providers more knowledgeable and positive to comply
with Universal Precautions. The risk perception and health seeking behavior need to be developed among health care
providers and patients, so that infection control can also be demand driven.
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109. Age, psychological well being and social support as factors


associated with mental health of Kashmiri migrants
Ruby Charak, Karuna Gupta, Dharvinder Jasrotia and Parveen Kaur
Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir

Migration due to coercive forces can have a detrimental effect on the health and well being of an individual. However,
a number of factors play a vital role in determining this effect. We conducted the present study with the aim of gauging
the predictive power of age, psychological well being and social support as factors predicting mental health of
Kashmiri Hindu Migrants residing in Kashmiri migrant camps in Jammu. For this a sample of 100 Kashmiri migrants
was collected from migrant camps of Muthi, Mishriwala and Purkhoo who were in the age range of 20-75 years with
the mean age being 41. 1 years. Results indicated that more than 50 % of the participants were in the range of
psychopathology. Age, psychological well being and social support predicted 10.3 % of the variance in mental health
status of Kashmiri migrants.

110. Strategies for coping with teenage suicide


Surekha Chousalkar
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra

Teenagers face a multitude of ongoing stressful problems including relationship difficulties, illness or death of family
and friends, family pressures and expectations placed on them for academic success, and so on. These life stressors
have been shown to contribute to an increased risk of emotional, cognitive and behavioural difficulties in teenagers
such as depression. Teenagers face a number of external and internal stressors that in extreme circumstances are
perceived as both overwhelming and disabling, leading in some cases to severe depression and suicide. Teenagers
who choose death do so because they cannot cope at a time when they are vulnerable to increasing pressures and
uncertainties. In recent decades suicide and suicide attempts have increased and it is now among the top three causes
of death in teenagers. This represents a massive loss to societies on a global scale. This paper would take in hand the
strategies for coping with the risk factors that lead the teenagers to commit suicide.

111. The mile model for enhancing curricular skills


Charlene John and Rajalakshmi M.S.
Department of Human Development, Smt. VHD Central Institute of Home- Science, Bangalore

Suresh.K.P
Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and physiology, Bangalore

India is a country where education is highly valued and a large amount of money is spent by families to provide good
education for their children. In spite of this India witnesses a high rate of school drop outs or students' disinterested in
academics. One of the reasons for this could be that, most schools in India are relatively conventional, passive and
rigid. They tend to focus enormously on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence. The curriculum is
essentially content centric and stresses on memorisation of fact and formulas and less emphasis is laid on creativity
and curiosity. Immense emphasis is laid on exam scores leading to intense competition and stress in students. Students
are compelled to be tied down to endless repetitive reviewing and cramming for exams. Students struggle
academically to meet the expectations of their instructors. This struggle impacts how students learn academically,
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 55

behave socially, and participate collaboratively within a classroom. To overcome these setbacks in the present
curriculum a theoretical model based principally on the Multiple Intelligences Theory has been proposed by the
researchers that could motivate students to be active, involved learners and enhance their curricular skills. The
proposed theoretical model integrates the multiple intelligences theory into the traditional curriculum, to give
students a wholesome learning experience, based on their specific learning needs and interests. The theoretical model
put forward has been tested in the field and the empirical data obtained indicate that this model has scope for
introduction in regular classrooms to make students enthusiastic learners.

112. The role of education, environment, health habits and dental


anxiety on oral care in Himachal Pradesh
Shonali Sud
Department of Psychology, St. Bede's College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
Nayantara Sud
Himachal Pradesh Govt. Dental College & Hospital (HPGDC & H), 0Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.

The aspects of education, environment awareness, health habits and dental anxiety affecting oral health were tested on
102 subjects between 17 and 65 years of Shimla and neighbouring districts in Himachal Pradesh. Level of education
varied from uneducated (up to class 5), partially educated (up to graduation) to highly educated (professionally
qualified) and they responded to questionnaires on environment awareness (EAS-Environment Awareness Scale
(Cito-Arnhem,1994), the Oral Health and Quality of life measure for health habits (OHQoL, Strauss et al.1996),
Nutrition and Exercise Habits (Schwarzer & Renner, 2000), Dental Anxiety (DAS-R, Corah, 1969) and the General
Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1992). The hypotheses stated that educated people will report less dental
anxiety, those with low environment awareness will show an overall increase in oral health problems and poor general
health, regardless of age and gender; and inadequate nutrition and poor exercise habits will be related to low dental
care and disease, and that there will be gender related differences. Results show that male dental patients were
conscious of their oral health, had lower dental anxiety, exercised more, had better perceptions regarding their general
health as compared to female dental patients who not only reported lower oral health, slightly higher dental anxiety
but also poor perceptions regarding their general health. Surprisingly, healthy people had somewhat lower
environment awareness in comparison to patients (either male or female). A study of this nature will curtail
periodontal disease, and help improve the quality of life and mental and physical well being.
Keywords: education, environment, dental anxiety, oral health

113. Depression spells doom, thereby alienating one from the


environment and good health
Shonali Sud, Akshita Sharma and Astha Badalia
Department of Psychology, St. Bede's College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

The effect of environment and depression on health on N=30, (n=18, adults within 16-23 years and n=12, children
within 9-15 years) subjects (bankers, administrators, academics and students) was undertaken in the urban areas of
Shimla. Subjects responded to scales on environment awareness, depression, and health habits, along with personal
interviews for feedback regarding depression and its effect on health and disease. It was hypothesized, that as
depression increases, health deteriorates, that youth between 16 to 23 years will show more depression as compared to
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 57

children within the age 9 to 15 years and gender differences will emerge in terms of depression and health, regardless
of age. Results support most hypotheses and indicate that due to depression there was a decrease in health habits
although subjects irrespective of age and gender were conscious of safeguarding their environment. This study
indicates that nutrition and exercise are age and gender related factors. Interestingly, females reported significantly
less concern for health, and it was seen that the older the person, the better were his nutrition and exercise habits.
Depression appeared to be predominating in all subjects, environment awareness was prevalent and nutrition varied
with age and gender. Exercise was not a popular activity among the subjects regardless of age and gender. More
cross-sectional evidence is necessary on environment and exercise habits in curbing depression on larger samples on
different age groups. As Albert Ellis rightly points out that “you largely construct your depression, it wasn't given to
you therefore you can deconstruct it”.

114. A study on awereness of yoga among IX class students


M. Rajendra Nath Babu and V. Dayakara Reddy
Department of Education, S.V.University, Tirupati

Good health is the most beautiful ornament of a man.Therefore, it is very essential to give necessary knowledge to the
people for the maintenance of their health. The main objective of the present study is to study the awereness of yoga
among IX class students due to different personal, demographic variables. Sample comprised of 240 IX class students
in Kadapa Town. The Awareness of Yoga scale was adopted by the investigator. Mean, S.D, 't' -test and 'F' test were
employed for analysis of the data.

115. Study of psychology of employees leaving jobs and


employees retention strategies used in the IT and IT
enabled service industries
Z. S. Mulla
Sinhgad Institute of Management, Pune

This study will provide the insight in to the various important psychological factors behind employees leaving the
jobs to get in to more career beneficial jobs for them and the employee retention strategies (Talent Management
process) followed by the employers of IT AND IT enabled services Industries in the region. This is critical for
organization to move forward to meet their goals and objectives to have maintained their progress and growth in the
National and International markets. Researcher will concentrate on both primary source and secondary source of data
to justify the study.

116. Impact of burnout on quality of life among business


process outsourcing employees
B. Vijaya Bhaskararao, T.V. Anandrao and S. Sudarshini
Department of Psychology and Para psychology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

Business Process Outsourcing has been the latest mantra in India today. As the current sources of revenue face slower
growth, software companies are trying new ways to increase their revenues. BPO is top on their list today. Whereas,
58 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

employees are leading under stress and burnout in this competitive global world, specially in BPO sectors. Burnout
was initially a very slippery concept in the early 1980s (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), this popular psychological
phenomenon was defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal
accomplishment. The second important explanatory factor is quality of life (physical, psychological, social and
environmental). The present study was evaluated to the impact of burnout on quality of life among business process
outsourcing employees. Data were collected from 422 BPO employees (Call Centre, Medical Transcription and
Software Development) by using two different and standard scales, namely, Quality of Life (QOL) and Maslash
Burnout Inventory (MBI). Employee groups were subdivided into high and low groups on each of the three burnout
dimensions to examine the impact of burnout on quality of life. Overall, results revealed that medical transcription
employees have more physical quality of life than other BPO employees. Software development employees have
significantly high score on psychological aspects of quality of life and call centre employees are found to have more
personal and social relations than other BPO employees.
Keywords: quality of life, burnout and BPO.

117. Social networking experiences on face book: A study


of engineering students
Monica Bhaskar
Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi

Amulya Khurana
Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, IIT Delhi

Social networking sites like Facebook provide new venues for young adults to express themselves and to interact with
one another. However, it may have both positive and negative influence on students. The present study aims at
investigating how much time students spend using Facebook, why do they do so and how they interact with each
other on this website . The sample comprised 80 undergraduate students of an engineering Institute in Delhi. Data was
collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results show that the average time spent
on Facebook by students was 1.73 hours. It was observed that students use Facebook for communication with friends
and others, entertainment, gain knowledge about events, to find help with work and to present themselves to others
and establish personal identity using their profile information. The interaction of students on Facebook is via
communicating on walls, online lurking, chatting and group memberships.

118. Anatomy determines destiny' and mental health


Komil Tyagi
MCM DAV College for Women, Chandigarh

Gender, a term burdened with multiplicity of meaning is even more demanding when it comes to its socialization
through the institution of family. In the words of martin Heidegger, “Each age has only one issue to think through and
one only. Sexual difference is probably the issue in our time which could be our salvation on an intellectual level.” In
the family structure, the 'male' and the 'female' are charged by the burden of gender socialization to become
'masculine' and 'feminine' respectively and that affects the mental health of a individual significantly. The
physiological differences between the sexes create psychological dissimilarities in thinking and behaviour. The social
environment creates sex-type patterns which are forcefully exercised on the children, and the line of segregation
58 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

deepens as they attain age. Ideal and conventional temperaments are encouraged for the dichotomy and variation or
transgression is neither expected nor promoted. To meet the demands of changing ethics and socio-economic
functions in the contemporary world each individual is trying to move away from rigid gender socialization which in
turn is proving hazardous for mental health. Like a pendulum, the youth today is swinging between the contrasting
forces of acceptance and rejection, flexibility and rigidity, revolt and compromise and this challenging situation
creates havoc with the mental framework of all. Therefore, inequity on its basis of anatomical differences should be
discouraged within family and the practice of 'agender' should be applied for better mental health.

119. Styles, strategies and satisfaction among adult couples


in long-distance romantic relationships
K. N. Jayakumar
Department of Psychology, Periyar University, Salem

Sheena Mathew and B. Mahasweta


Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore

The purpose of the study was to examine the adult attachment styles, coping strategies and relationship satisfaction
among the individuals involved in long-distance romantic relationships (LDRs). Attachment and coping styles serve
as the framework for understanding how those in LDRs react to and cope with the challenge of living separately from
their partners. A sample of 60 unmarried individuals (30 males and 30 females, 18-24 years) involved in a long
distance romantic relationship of at least six months duration participated in this study. It was predicted that
individuals with secure attachment styles would be more satisfied than participants in any other attachment category.
Results revealed that participants irrespective of their attachment styles showed high levels of satisfaction. Based on
relationship satisfaction scores, the participants were divided into two groups i.e., highly satisfied group and very
highly satisfied group. Both these groups significantly differed in their attachment styles and did not differ in problem
focused coping as well as in emotion focused coping strategies. Limitations and implications were discussed.

120. A study on sexuality among the intellectually challenged


adolescents in Thiruverumbur area
Keerthana R.
Jamal Mohamed College

Sexuality is an extensive term that covers a range of issues. It includes not only sexual behaviour but also sexual identity,
gender identity, sexual orientation, roles, personality, relationship patterns, thoughts, feelings, attitudes etc. In a country
like India, where sexuality itself is not spoken of openly, persons who are intellectually challenged have been especially
denied sexuality education. This is perhaps because the intellectually challenged are thought to have either no right to
sexuality information or any need for it. The society's definition of sexuality itself is so narrow that the intellectually
challenged are viewed as being incapable of feeling any sexual desires/pleasure. This paper attempts to study the concept
of sexuality among the intellectually challenged adolescents in Thiruverumbur Area, Trichy. The main objectives of the
study are (i) To know the various sexual practices of the intellectually challenged children (ii) To assess the parental
attitudes towards the sexuality of their intellectually challenged children. (iii) To find the scope for imparting information
related to sexuality in special schools (iv) To suggest suitable remedies to modify the inappropriate sexual behavior. The
sample of the study consists of 50 respondents of Thiruverumbur Area. The study is descriptive in nature and the
researcher has used self prepared interview schedule. The results will be discussed later.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 59

121. Relationship of problem behaviour with family functioning


Nalini Malhotra and Amitpal kaur
Department of Psychology, Punjabi University Patiala

Today's adolescent face many conditions that threaten their psychological and physical well being. When an
individual's behaviour is atypical for a particular age and leads to poor adjustment it may be justly considered as
“problem behaviour”. Significant mental health problems among children and adolescents require mental health
services each year. Family plays an important role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology in
children and family factors such as, poor parental monitoring, ineffective parenting practices, disorganized family
management strategies are particularly important for explaining the origin of behaviour problem in youth. The current
research examined the relationship of problem behaviour with family functioning. The sample comprised of 100
participants (50 boys and 50 girls) aged 12-18 from Patiala district. The participants were assessed by Child-
Behaviour Checklist and Family environment scale. Results showed significant negative correlation of family
functioning with problem behaviour among adolescents.
Keywords: problem behaviour, family functioning

122. Increasing violence in the society


R. Srinagesh
Self Development Trainer and Student, Counselor, Bangalore

1. The society is seeing incidents of violence. The nature of incidents indicate that the violence is on the rise. Basis
incidents reported in news papers for a period of one month. 2. Definition of violence 3. Sources of influence to
Violence Family Environment, Political Leadership, Role of the Courts, Education, Media. Explanation about how
these sources are influencing violence. 4. Remedial measures 5. Conclusion. The youngsters in the age group of 10 to
22 years are resorting to violence, often ending up as murderers. They have no remorse either. Murders have taken
place even for a paltry amount of Rs.15/-.The genre of incidents as reported in the news paper in one month, from Aug
1st to Aug 31st 2011 will be categorized and enumerated. It is important to understand socio psychological meaning of
Violence and the reasons for human beings taking to violence. Influence of various sociological system, like Family,
Political leadership, Judiciary, the education system and the Media needs to be analysed.Remedial measures to
counter these harmful influences and bring the youngsters back on the path of non-violence needs to be undertaken at
on an urgent footing. Revamping of some systems, activisation of certain lost practices and empowerment of socio-
economically vulnerable classes are vital to create a healthy harmonious society. (Presenter Self Development
Trainer and Student Counsellor. Www.srinageshr.com)

123. Appraisal of cognitive functioning among high and low


self-efficacious socially disadvantaged tribal students
Roshan Lal Zinta, Sri Ram Negi and Reeta Devi
Department of Psychology, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla, HP

There is consternation among the social scientists that there do not transpire caste system in the tribal areas across the
world, appear fallacious thus requires microanalysis. The verity behind it is that such social systems are found in
hierarchies wherein the scheduled castes in general and their children in particular undergo from serious trauma of
60 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

prolonged socio-cultural deprivation that lower their belief system and in turn influence their cognitive abilities.
Therefore, in the present study an attempt has been made to appraise cognitive functioning among high and low self-
efficacious socially disadvantaged high school students of District Kinnaur. The study was conducted on a sample of
N = 160 socially disadvantaged self-efficacious students those were tested in terms of cognitive abilities. A 2 x 2 x 2
ANOVA performed on GMAT revealed that the main effect of Self-efficacy was found as statistically significant F
(1,152) = 8.05, p<.05 whereas other emerged as non-significant. Similarly in problem solving task, the main effects of
Caste F (1,152) = 5.68, p < .01and Self efficacy F (1,152) = 3.68, p<.05 appeared as statistically significant. In nutshell
the high self-efficacious tribal students outperformed low self-efficacious tribal students and the general category
tribal students outperformed scheduled castes students living in tribal areas. Further boys outperformed girls in such
executive functioning.
Keywords: caste, tribal, self-efficacy, cognitive abilities

124. Stress and coping difficulties of asthmatics and


non-asthmatics: A psycho-social approach
Sangeeta Rath
Department of Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

Saadia Alam
Department of Psychology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, Orissa

There is a rising trend in the prevalence and severity of asthma all over the world .Consensus has emerged from
clinical,psychological ,biological and social science literature that psychological factors affect the asthma
morbidity.Prospective epidemiological studies have demonstrated association between life stress, quality of social
relationship and asthma. Stress is frequently seen as a significant contributor to the disease and clinical evidence is
mounting with regard to the negative impact of stress on immune system. There is a paradigm shift that reconsiders the
overlap between biological determinants and psychological factors in understanding the rise of asthma. This study
was made to examine the stress and coping difficulties of asthmatics and non-asthmatics as well as male and female
participants. The study adopted a 2(asthmatics and non-asthmatics ) x 2 (males and females) factorial design .Two
hundred and forty participants (120 asthmatics and 120 non-asthmatics )are randomly sampled from urban areas of
Odisha. Out of the 120 asthmatics, there are 60 males and 60 females. Further 60 males and 60 females not suffering
from asthma or any other disease are taken. The participants of all the four groups were compared with respect to their
stress and coping abilities(readjustment difficulties).The results indicated that asthmatics experienced more
readjustment difficulties or perceived more coping difficulties in personal,family and finance related events
compared to non-asthmatics.Males perceived more readjustment difficulties in personal and finance related events
whereas females perceived more readjustment difficulties in family related matters.

125. Management of stress and anger through positive therapy


S. Gayatridevi, Hithakshi Anand,Rita R. Bhattacharjee and Sushmitha Amin
Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore

Human life today is characterized by complex and multifarious activities unlike in the past. Majority of people all
over the world seems to experience high psychological stress in various spheres of life. Stress is a common problem
that affects almost all at some point in one's lives. As a student one faces many challenges and stressors. However, as a
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 61

“nursing” student one is likely to experience even “more stress” than their colleagues enrolled in other programs.
Stress management and self-care practices will help navigate through nursing school and will also provide a
wonderful foundation for creating a balanced and wholesome life. This present study deals with the management of
stress and anger of nursing students who are found to be overburdened with stress in turn giving rise to anger in their
daily activities. 100 nursing students were taken for this study and stress and anger were questionnaires were
administrated to the sample to assess their level of stress and anger. Then, the samples were provided with the
Psychological Intervention called Positive Therapy Eight sessions of Positive Therapy was given in three weeks.
Each session lasted for one hour. After three weeks, the subjects were re-assessed using the Stress and Anger
questionnaires. The obtained results were statistically analyzed. There was a significant difference in the mean level
of stress and anger, before and after Positive Therapy.

126. Adolescents: Anger management and meditation


Anshu Pandey
Psychological Counsellor, Sitapur, UP

Adolescents find themselves getting angry at everything that make them inconvenient, annoys them or otherwise gets
in the way of what they want to be doing. Consistent and prolonged levels of anger give a person five times greater
chance of dying before age 50. Anger elevates blood pressure, increases threat of stroke, heart disease, cancer
depression, anxiety diseases and in general angry people have lots of aches and pains. Anger will also take away one's
peace and leave a person feeling empty and discontent Meditation helps to find some differences between an
individual's angry thoughts and making an impulsive action based on that thought. It helps adolescents step outside
their anger, to get a handle on it and then to consider what to do with it (Boroson, 2011). Meditation has historically
been practiced within religious traditions especially by monks. According to the National Institute of Health (NIH),
“Practicing Meditation has been shown to induce some change in the body. Some types of Meditation might work by
affecting the autonomic nervous system”. By Meditation people can recognize the difference between an annoyance,
an inconvenience and a bona fide reason to get mad. By Meditation, taking a deep breath, stepping away from the
situation and asking your self- "Why am I really angry?”
Keywords: Anger, anger management, meditation, steps of meditation.

127. Hypnotic relaxation as a means of handling stress


Shruti Khare
Hypnotherapist, Sitapur, UP

Exposure to stressful situations is among the most common human experiences. These types of situations can range
from unexpected calamities to routine daily annoyances. However, constant readiness for 'fight or flight' suppresses
the immune system and is also associated with general levels of physical and psychological ill health and adverse
effect on social functioning (McDougall, 2007). Stress does not exist in the “event” rather is an outcome of appraisal
of the event that is producing stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). Stress involves an appraisal of environmental
demands in which the perceived pressure exceeds the person's perceived ability to cope, resulting in negative
psychological, behavioural, physiological and social outcomes (Driskell et al, 2001). Stress is considered to be a
contributory cause of many problems like tension, moodiness, sleep difficulties, worry, anxiety, concentration
problems, sadness, etc (Williams & Cooper, 2001). Hypnosis significantly reduces general anxiety, tension and stress
in a manner similar to other relaxation and self-regulation procedures. Hypnotherapy is the application of clinical
62 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

hypnosis in the management of sickness, and the judicious use of relaxation and suggestion in the patient's adjustment
to life and its problems (Stein, 1969). Hypnotherapeutic approaches by and large necessitate induction and deepening
methods that generally give emphasis to mental and physical relaxation in handling stress. These are done by,
suggestions to encourage desired changes in feelings, perception, behaviour and thinking; suggestions and guided
imagery techniques to explore conflicts that lie behind the problems.
Keywords: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, relaxation, stress, guided imagery

128. Role of psychology in denture wearers leading to microwave


disinfection of the dentures
Divy Vashisht, MDS, Ranjan Gupta, Nayantara and Ranjan Gupta
Department of Prosthodontics, Himachal Pradesh Govt. Dental College &Hospital (HPGDC & H), Shimla, HP

Shireen Mukherjee and Shweta Lakhera


Department of Psychology, St. Bede's College, Shimla, HP

This article focuses on understanding the role of patients' psychology, personality and disinfection in denture
treatment. The patients who need dentures are affected by certain psychological aspects and they are more sceptical,
demanding and at times a challenge to handle. Jamieson said, “Fitting the personality of the aged patient is often more
difficult than fitting the denture to the mouth “. Patients may be diversely classified but the one common characteristic
which is tooth loss which brings about considerable psychological changes in them. Thus their psychological
assessment becomes essential as success of the treatment depends on their expectations as well as the self concept.
Stress caused by the psychological trauma in old age and to people who suffer from various diseases leads to their low
immunity level. The opportunistic fungi colonizes on the dentures due to low immunity and thus to be disinfected.
Hence microwave disinfection is more effective than other conventional procedures like soaking the denture
overnight in anti-microbial solutions as it is less time consuming and inexpensive.

129. Positive thinking in managing stress


Miny Chandra and P.C Mishra
Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Luchnow, UP

The phenomenon of “Stress” has been studied from the purview of stress as a 'cause' as a 'consequence' and as an
'experience.' Stress does not exist in the “event” but rather is a result of appraisal of the event that is producing stress
(Lazarus & Folkman 1984). Stress itself is not important, but how we deal with the situation determines the intensity
of stress .Harmful effects of stress can be mitigated if we are able to cope with it well .It can be achieved by changing
thoughts and behaviors to manage distress (emotion focused-coping) or by managing the problems underlying
distress (problem-focused-coping) in context of stressful situations (Folkman 1997a). Life skills are “abilities for
adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of
everyday life” (WHO 1993).UNICEF defines life skills as “a behavior change or behavior development approach
designed to address a balance of three areas: knowledge, attitude and skills”. This theoretical research article aims at
coping with stress using life skills such as positive thinking. Positive thinking is a generic term referring to an over all
attitude that is reflected in thinking, behavior, feeling and speaking (McGrath, 2004).There is a relationship between
positive thinking and stress. Positive thinkers will appraise the stressful situation as less threatening and cope with it
effectively compared to negative thinkers'. Therefore, positive thinking is a mental attitude that admits into the mind;
thoughts, words and images that are conducive to growth, expansion and success.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 63

130. Factors associated with teenage pregnancy


Tushar Purohit and Kapil Joshi
International Institute of Health Management Research, Delh.

Teenage pregnancy is generally defined as a pregnancy in a woman who is 19 years of age or under. Teenage
pregnancies are an important concern because teen mothers and their babies face increased risks to their health,
and their opportunities to build a future are diminished. Educational failure, poverty, unemployment and low self-
esteem are understood to be negative outcomes of early childbearing. The main objective of the paper is to analyze
the problems associated with the teenage pregnancy due to different reasons. A multitude of studies suggests that
teenage pregnancy is associated with disruption of schooling, social disadvantage and an ongoing cycle of
poverty. Prospective data on teenage pregnancy were collected from WHO, DLHS of India and review of the
literatures/different papers associated with problems of teenage people due to pregnancy. Lower educational level
is the greatest barrier to prevention of teenage pregnancy. It is well established fact that educated women are more
likely to have a say in decision-making regarding the size of their families and the spacing of their children. They
are also likely to be more informed and knowledgeable about contraception and the health care needs of their
children. Adolescent pregnancy is an issue that calls for more education and support to encourage girls to delay
motherhood until they are ready. There is a need of education program which gives scientific information,
knowledge and life skills to protect them from early pregnancy and manage their concern pertaining to
reproductive and sexual health.

131. Do conflict resolution styles impact marital quality?


Sheena Mathew and Shalini Anant
Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore

Conflict is natural and is to be anticipated in marriages as in other close relationships. Ironically, some of the most
intense conflicts happen in an intimate relationship as couples. Communication, finances, children, sex,
housework, jealousy and in-laws are found to be the most recurrent topics of conflict in marital relationships.
Conflicts that are recurrent and stable over time are most problematic for relational stability. Research
substantiates that conflict behaviors can successfully discriminate between distressed and non-distressed married
couples. There are typical patterns of conflict behaviors. The sequences of behavior that occur during conflict are
structured and more predictable in distressed than in non distressed marriages. With decades of extensive
observation of marital interaction, theories propose of behavioral patterns that even predict divorce. Thus, several
factors like the frequency and reasons for conflict, conflict behaviour patterns, etc influence marital quality of a
couple, hence the present study examines the difference between the conflict resolution styles adopted by
distressed and non-distressed heterosexual married couples. The study involved a community sample of 60
heterosexual married couples (i.e., 120 individuals), drawn from Bangalore using purposive sampling. Marital
Quality Scale (MQS; Shah, 1995) was used to categorize the couples for being distressed or non-distressed
couples. Conflict Resolution Style Inventory (CRSI; Kudrek, 1994) was used to examine four specific styles of
conflict resolution labeled as positive problem solving, conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance. When
compared, a significant difference was observed between the distressed and non-distressed heterosexual married
couples with regard to their conflict resolution styles.
Keywords: conflict resolution styles, marital quality, distressed and non-distressed married couples.
64 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

132. A study of motivational profile and locus of control of


task oriented managers in banking sector
Rohini Thapar
Department of Psychology, DAV College, Chandigarh

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship of leadership style with locus of control and motivation
of managers working in banking sector. For this purpose data was collected in two phases. Initially 78 branch manager
of various banks were administered the Leadership Questionnaire (Sergiovanni, et al., 1969). 30 managers exhibiting
task-oriented (TO) style of leadership were selected and further administered scales for LoC (Levenson, 1981) and
Motivation Questionnaire ( Jones,et al., 1973). Results indicate that TO managers exhibited an internal locus of
control and showed no preference for external factors of chance. Chance factor was found to be positively correlated
to their need for belongingness. These managers, although clearly showed a preference for higher order needs, but
also exhibited significant concern for their basic and safety needs.

133. Affect of anger on various physiological measures


among male and female
Rajbir Singh and Himanshu Kataria
Department of Psychology, MDU, Rohtak, Haryana
Bhateri
Department of Psychology, Hindu Girls College, Sonipat, Haryana

Buss is the most prolific writer and theorist in the psychology of temperament. Anger is one of the subcomponent of
Emotionality and emotionality is a component of temperament. To measure the effect of anger on various
physiological measures (B.P, PR, GSR); the present study was conducted. A total of 200 subjects (97 females, 103
males) were used in the study. The sample consisted of male/female graduates and postgraduates selected randomly
from the cross-section of the society. The age of subjects ranged between 18-29 years. The objective of this study is to
find out the differences in various physiological measures (blood pressure, pulse rate, galvanic skin response). In
doing the study various experimental measures or laboratory measures like: A word 'Zearaustavyitye' - As a measure
of Anger was used. To achieve this objective Mean, S.D and t-test were employed. The t-test revealed that females
were significantly high in basal PR (in normal state) than males. They too had significantly higher PR after inducing
anger. Females took more time to express anger than males by showing more resistance to emotional behaviour.
Males shows high B.P when they were put in situation of (induce) anger in comparison to females. But on G.S.R in
normal state and G.S.R in anger state, there is no significant difference found between males and females.

134. Gender disparities and mental health: A succumbed issue


Saulat Fatima and Prashant Pathak
International Institute of Health Management and Research, New Delhi

Gender plays a critical role as a determinant of health, including mental health. It influences the power and ascendance
men and women have over the determinants of their mental health, incorporating their socio-economic position, roles,
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 65

ranks, and social status, also access to resources and treatment in society. Depression accounts for the largest
proportion of the burden associated with all the mental and neurological disorders, and are predicted to be the second
leading cause of global burden of diseases by 2020. This paper puts evidential light on the relationship of gender
inequality leading to mental disorders. Mental illness not only affects at the individual level but a major co morbidity
is associated with mental illness of increased severity, higher levels of disability and demands higher utilization of
services. For e.g., depression and anxiety are the most common comorbid disorders which women predominates,
reasons for which could be sexual violence, underrepresentation etc, which further adds on the morbidity.Mental
health is an integral part of the optimal functioning of an individual and is an issue which needs to be addressed in the
mainstream, in terms of multi level, intersectoral approach, gendered mental health policy with a public health focus
and gender- specific risk factor reduction strategies, with equitable access to services.

135. Learned helplessness of androgynous and


sex-typed women: The moderating role of employment
Sangeeta Rath
Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
Sayantani Behura
Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, Orissa

An attempt was made to examine the effect of employment and gender role orientation on sense of helplessness of
married employed and unemployed women. The study adopted a 2 (employed and unemployed ) x 2 ( androgynous
and sex-typed ) factorial design. One hundred twenty ( 60 employed and 60 unemployed) women, participated in the
study. Both the employed and unemployed women were categorised into androgynous and sex-typed on the basis of
the median split of their scores on the measure of androgyny. The participants of all the four groups were compared
with respect to their sense of helplessness or style of attribution. The result indicated that androgynous women
showed more functional or adaptive attribution style than sex-typed women. Employed women's attribution style was
more functional or adaptive than that of unemployed women.

136. Impact of work-life conflict on perceived employee


performance in insurance sector of India
Pankaj Tripathi and Neena Kohli
Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad,U.P.

This study investigates impact of work life conflict on the work/job performance of the employees in insurance sector
of India. As the study is self financed by the author, owing to limited resources convenience sampling method is used.
Total 180 questionnaires were disseminated out of which 133 were received back to authors (response rate 73.88%).
After analyzing the questionnaires it was found that 14 questionnaires were not usable. So the total size of responses
being analyzed for statistical modeling is 119 (n= 119). The male respondents were 91% and female were 9% only.
The scale used for measurement ranged from 1, “strongly disagree,” to 5, “strongly agree”. English is taught as a
foremost, compulsory subject in Pakistan. Every participant of the study had atleast graduate degree, that's why, the
translation of the questionnaire into the native language, was not necessary. Work-life conflict was measured with 5
items scale taken from the Netemeyer et al. (1996). The average reported Cronbach's alpha for the scale is 0.93.
Higher scores on WFC scale designate greater conflict. Employee performance was measured with 4 items scale
66 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

taken from the Teseema & Soeters (2006). The average reported Cronbach's alpha for the scale is 0.78. Higher scores
on performance scale designate greater performance. Copies of the questionnaire were given to respondents by hand.
The results of the study reveal that there is statistically insignificant negative relationship between work life conflict
and perceived employee performance in insurance sector of India.

137. Organizational demands and stressors: Review based


Neena Kohli
Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, U.P.

The four major categories of organizational demands and Stressors that identified and discussed in this review
paper. The first major category is physical setting or environment (Gunderson, 1978 & Steele, 1997). The second
category of stress is task demand. Any job is composed of a specific set of tasks and activities that are assigned to
the employee who occupies the job. The third set of stressor is composed of role demands associated with the
process of making and assuming an organizational role (Kahn et al; 1964). Finally, there is a set of interpersonal
demands that occur as people work together and interact on a regular (Blau, 1964). So this review paper based on
four major organizational demand and stressors.

138. Mental health and adolescence in India: A new dimension


Prashant Pathak and Saulat Fatima
International Institute of Health Management and Research, New Delhi

Adolescents with good mental health are able to achieve and maintain optimal psychological and social functioning and
well being. They have a sense of identity and self worth, sound families and peer relationships, an ability to be productive
and to learn, and a capacity to tackle developmental challenges and use cultural resources to maximize growth. Moreover,
a good mental health of an adolescent is crucial for his active social and economic participation. This paper highlights
number of factors that can affect the mental health of an adolescent. These factors can be broadly divided into risk and
protective factors, wherein, the former refers to factors that increase the probability of mental health difficulties, while the
latter mediates the effects of risk exposure. The risk and protective factors can exist in the biological, psychological and
social domains. Henceforth, this paper tries to present the various inherent and potential factors for adolescent mental
illnesses and also provides evidences in the form of in depth case studies of adolescents suffering from mental distress/
illnesses. Further the paper also puts forward various recommendations to look at adolescences mental health as an
important issue which needs to be unleashed from the stigmas, resistances and avoidances.
Keywords: adolescents, mental health, India.

139. Double burden of malnutrition among women in Maharashtra


Sanjay Rode
Department of Economics, S.K. Somaiya College, University of Mumbai, Mumbai

This paper examines the incidence of malnutrition among women in Maharashtra. The women are suffered from the
double burden of malnutrition with more than half being either thin or overweight. Every one among the five women
have incidence of both anemia and CED. The incidence of CED as well as anemia is found more for the illiterate,
poorest and younger women. The policies of supplementary feeding to young women, compulsory prenatal visits and
dietary suggestions will reduce the incidence malnutrition among women.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 67

140. Reactions of Indian children's after 26/11 terrorist attacks


Manoj Kumar Rao
Department of Psychology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP

The present research paper deals with reactions of Indian children's to the 26/11 terrorist attacks. To assess the
knowledge of terrorism to the school going children's of Eastern Uttar Pradesh who was miles away from the actual
incident. The study used a survey design with a QCPT questionnaire administered to 195 students (111boys and 84
girls) in 20 public schools of standards 5-7. The questionnaire was administered within 3 week of occurrence of
November, 26 terrorist attacks on the Mumbai in 2008. The mean age of the participants was 11.60 years (SD=1.42,
range=9-14). The results indicate that most children's known the terrorist attack took place in Mumbai, Varanasi,
Delhi, United States and all over the world. Students most frequently define terrorism as a something bad, committing
crime robbery, 'the killing of innocent people' create terror and categorized terrorist as 'bandits'. They report feeling
fear-horror when they hear the world 'terrorism'. This study provides preliminary information about Eastern Uttar
Pradesh children's perception of terrorism in cognitive and affective domains of functioning. In general most
children's in this study are knowledgeable about the terrorist attacks took place in India and around the world. It is
likely that the media has had an impact on the amount of information children's receive on terrorism. Children's
responses show that their definition of terrorism is akin to the original definition of terrorism.

141. Music and psychology


Hamsini Nagendra
Department of Performing Arts, Bangalore University, Bangalore

Knowledge is a vast ocean and endless. Many Researches have proved that, different areas or subjects have some
relationship with each other and have thrown light on new areas of study. Such studies are commonly known as,
INTER DISCIPLINARY SUBJECTS. One such area is the topic of this paper that is, MUSIC AND PSYCHOLOGY,
which discuses about the IMPACT of Music on Minds as well as, the Psychological aspects in Music. Psychology,
which consists of two different words- “ology” and “Psyche” is a Latin word, is known as the study of mind, which is
the center of emotions, attitudes, thoughts and so on. These thoughts, emotions etc. can not be seen, detected
ormeasured but, can only be experienced. Where as, Music is the Science of SOUNDS or TONES, which is also
immeasurable and invisible. It is also to be experienced through listening. It is the Language of Emotions and feelings.
Different emotions of people are expressed through Musical notes, clothed by “SAHITHYA” or the Lirics. Music also
influences the attitudes, behaviour and the life style of a pson. Even the animals respond to good Music. It is so
powerful that, irrespective of cast, creed and riligen, it can influence the minds and hearts of all.That means, both
Music and Psychology are Abstract and rlated sciences, which are also interesting. Indian Music, which is Melody
based, has innumerable RAGAS. Raga is nothing but, a combination of Musical Notes, which are pleasing to the ears.
Both Karnatak and Hindusthani Classical Music Systems have Thousands of Ragas and many THALAS
(RHYTHMS), which have direct impact on the minds. Ragas, which are Melodic structures are the back bone of
Indian Music. Music has various Psychological impacts such as, It can infuse various moods such as, joy, sorrow,
extecy, vallentry etc. 1. It can bring about discipline in one's life. 2.It can increase the level of concentration and
hence, advised to be tought from the childhood days. 3. It can refresh mind and there by helping to forget the worries
and overcome stress. 4. It can check discriminations among peopleand also can bring about the feeling of oneness. 5.
The Ragas also have THERAPEUTICAL values. That means, some Ragas are said to be useful in curing Hyper and
hypo tensions, diabetes and other Psychological disorders. 6. In some medical cases, it is said to have been used as a
substitute of anaesthesiabut, the patient should be interested in it and so on. In the same way, there are also some
68 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

Psychological aspects in Music. To name a few, The Ragas are categorised into Male and Female, morning Ragas and
evening Ragas etc. 1. The “SWARAS” or the Notes are identified with the cries of different animals. 2. The Ragas are
also categorised into auspicious and inauspicious etc. These are some of the examples. They are the results of different
thoughts or views of different people, affecting the realm of Music. But, thoughts and emotions of one person may not
be the same for another. It changes from person to person and also from time to time. These various aspects needs to be
studied and analysed in a proper way, which can help the society in the future. Hence, this paper has chosen this
subject for study.

142. A study on personality dimensions and depression among


the tension type headache patients
V. Sukumar

Headaches are very common universal experience and often are not associated with significant organic disease.
Headache can be debilitating and are probably the most commonly reported painful bodily signal.. Headache, with a
1-year period prevalence of 90% and a life time prevalence of 99. At present study have been conducted on to
identify the difference between patients of Chronic Tension Type Headache and Episodic Tension Type Headache on
Neuroticism, Extraversion, Psychoticism and Depression. For the purpose of the investigation, a purposive sample of
Tension Type Headache patients was identified from the population. The 80 Tension Type Headache patients were
taken as sample for present study. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were
administered by the investigator to measure the hypothesized aspects. The study revealed that Chronic Tension Type
Headache and Episodic Tension Type Headache patients do not differ on Psychoticism, Extraversion but differ on
Neuroticism and depression levels.

143. A study of the effectiveness of educational guidance and


counseling programme
Bhaskar Vishnu Igawe
Department of Continuing and Adult, Education and Extension Work, Pune, Sub-Centre,
SNDT Women's University, Pune, Maharashtra

Students have various problems in their personal and educational life. These problems are big obstacles in their
educational development. To overcome from these problems students should be guided and counseled by teacher and
teacher can also teach students by guidance and counseling process. Guidance and counseling is very essential in
education. There are various teaching and leaning strategies, educational guidance and counseling is itself a teaching-
learning strategy. It is very useful for teaching aspects. Teacher can deeply understand the student's attitude, interests,
abilities, problems relate to leaning and accordingly these he/she can teach them effectively. Researcher found the
problems faced by IX standard students in their learning process, through questionnaire, interview and checklist from
the students and teachers. Researcher studied these problems, with the help of guidance of counselors, developed an
educational guidance and counseling programme to assist students in their learning process. Researcher implemented
this program on the experimental group of 40 students. The programme contains various counseling skills and
strategies, helpline for students, personal and group counseling and guidance, various tests, discussion with
counselor, information about various institute works for counseling and guidance, etc. It finds that the programme is
more effective and helpful to students for learning.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 69

144. Life satisfaction among the women police personnel


working in city limits-An empirical study
R.mangaleswaran
Department of Social Work, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu

The nature of job performed by the police involves various hardships of various levels of complexity and
complication since it is a uniformed service having no fixed timings in the job. It is a service-oriented organization
which looks into the betterment of society, especially maintaining the law and order situation in the state. In the
uniformed services, women police also plays a vital role in mitigating the issues related to women and their family
and on many occasions their services are being utilized to perform other duties like VIP bandobust, night
patrolling, escorting the female criminal victims etc. As they are put in several hardship, their life becomes
horrible and face many problems in their personal life. Keeping the above facts in mind, the researcher made an
attempt to study the level of life satisfaction among the women police personnel working in city limits of
Tiruchirappalli. A total of 59 women police personnel were selected for the study. In order to find out the level of
life satisfaction, the life satisfaction Index-Z, developed by Havighurst (1971), was used. Anantharaman (1980)
established the reliability and validity. The score indicates the level of life satisfaction and less the score, less the
life satisfaction. Few hypotheses were formulated and tested using appropriate statistical tool. Based on the
results, few concrete suggestions were given to enhance the life satisfaction. The detailed results were discussed in
the full paper.
Keywords: life satisfaction, women police, and city limits.

145. A study on the expectation of the beneficiaries towards


CSR health programmes sponsored by dalmia cement (B) Ltd.,
in selected villages of Ariyalur revenue block, Ariyalur
M. Ignatius and R. Mangaleswaran
Department of Social Work, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model.
Ideally, CSR policy would function as a built-in, self regulation mechanism whereby business would monitor and
ensure its support to law ethical standards. According to Fredrick (1960) defines that CSR as the use of society's
resources economic and human in such a way that the whole society derives maximum benefits beyond the
corporate entities and their owners. Health is the general condition of a person in mind, body and spirit, usually
meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain. Health is an imperative factor of current state of affairs. Health has
been given priority by many government and non-governmental organization. In this context, the CSR practices
were also given preference to health aspects of their stakeholders. The present study was concentrated on
expectation of the beneficiaries towards CSR practices with particular reference to health programmes sponsored
by Dalmia Cement (b) ltd., in selected Villages of Ariyalur Revenue block, Ariyalur. The researchers adopted
descriptive research design, and selected 30 respondents for this study using simple random sampling (lottery
method). The data was collected by using self- prepared Interview schedule. The findings of the study are
discussed in the full paper.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility, perception and health programme.
70 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

146. Adult attachment style in relation to personality, and


interpersonal relations among youth
Hardeep Lal Joshi and Prem Poonam
Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between Attachment Style, Personality and
Interpersonal Relations among Indian youth. The sample for the study comprised of 409 youth (205 male and 204
female). The age of the sample range from 17 to 20 years with mean age of 18 years. Attachment Style
Questionnaire, 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire and Interpersonal Relationship Scale were administered.
The main objectives of the study were to examine the relationship between Attachment Style, Personality and
Interpersonal Relations and to find out the predictors of Interpersonal Relations. To meet the objectives of the
study, the data was subjected to Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results
showed significant positive correlation between Attachment Style and Personality Factors, between Attachment
Style and Interpersonal Relations and Personality and Interpersonal Relations. Multiple regression analysis found
three predictors of Interpersonal Relations. Two of the predictors, i.e. TP and AN are from Personality and one i.e.
CRTO from Attachment Style. The three predictors explain 15% of the total variance. It can be concluded that
Attachment Style and Personality predicts Interpersonal Relations.
Keywords: attachment style, personality and interpersonal relations.

147. A comparison of the lives of elderly women staying in


government old age homes in Delhi and 'Vridh Ashrams'
of Vrindavan and Mathura
Poonam Phogat
Department of Psychology, Gargi College, Delhi

Old age marks a general physical decline, cognitive changes, psychological changes and changes in patterns of
social interaction. Older people require more support in this phase of life. Women become a special case with
higher life expectancy. The present study focuses on the issues faced by elderly women staying in old age homes in
cities and in 'vridh aashrams' at Vrindavan and Mathura. The present study uses interview and observation as tools
for data collection. The sample includes ten case studies developed from detailed in depth interviews from two old
age homes in Delhi and two vridh ashrams in Vrindavan and Mathura. The data obtained was content analyzed.
Analysis of interviews showed that the factors that lead to women in old age homes were adjustment problems
after retirement, family disputes and children living away. The common emotional problems experienced by these
women were anxiety, restlessness and irritability. Analysis of interviews of women staying in vridh ashrams
showed that they were usually forced to leave their families due to family feuds, poverty, rejection by family
members and domestic violence. They had no or very less social support in the ashram. The emotional problems
faced by these women were depression, loneliness and anxiety. This study has further implications for community
based programmes managed by various welfare organizations and NGOs. Government also needs to develop new
policies in the changing social scenario of urban cities and create awareness campaigns for the socially and
economically backward elderly women. At the individual level, psychological and retirement planning need to be
offered for better adjustment post retirement or old age.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 71

148. Some developmental issues related to quality of


parent-infant relationship
M. Pradhan and Kirti Madnani
Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, UP

The present paper examines the quality of relationship between parents and infant and its long term effects on infant's
life. Empirical studies suggest that there are some developmental issues regarding above relationship. Feeling of
trust, secure attachment and emotion regulation help infants in acquiring abilities to understand and control the
experiences of outer world. This may subsequently affect his/her psychological well-being in later life. Infants need to
develop a balance between trust and mistrust in forming intimate relationships. The more sensitive responsive and
consistent care is provided by the parents the better inner trust will be developed for forming a solid foundation for
later crucial periods of life. Another important issue is development of a secure attachment with parents. In this
context Bowlby,s attachment theory postulates that with the, availability of parents, repeated interaction, emotional
supportiveness, warmth and positive attitude of them, a secure attachment is established. There are some factors like
baby's temperament, intergenerational transmission of attachment and emotional communication that may influence
secure attachment. Infant's attachment with parents has long term effects in later well-being. Attachment security has
been found to be strongly related to children's close friendship, resilience competency, communication skills, self
confidence, self reliance in later years of life.
Keywords: Infant, attachment, relationship, development, emotion.

149. Mental health and self efficacy among working and non
working women- A comparative study
Manjula G. Kadapatti
Department of Human Development, Smt V.H.D. Central Institute 0f Home Science, Bangalore

The present study was aimed to study the mental health and self efficacy in working and non working women.
Objectives of the study were to study the effect of mental health on self efficacy among selected respondents. A
sample of 100 respondents of 50 working and 50 non- working women was collected from Bangalore urban area.
Working women sample was collected from three different schools. Simple random technique was used to collect the
information. A questionnaire developed by Jagadism and Srivastava (1983) was used to measure the mental health
status of the women. The scale access the mental health in six dimensions. Such as Positive self evaluation, Perception
of reality, Integration personality, Autonomy, Group oriented attitudes and Environmental mastery by categorizing in
to very good, good, average, poor, and very poor mental health. The self efficacy was assessed by using self-efficacy
scale developed by Sud et. al. (1998) and was categorized in to high, moderate and low level of self efficacy. Findings
revealed that irrespective of working and non working women, very good mental health of high percentage was seen
in the age group of 30-50 years. More than half of the percent of working women and nearly 50 percent of non working
women has high level of self efficacy followed by medium and low level. While none of the respondents has not
scored poor mental health. Self efficacy and mental health status of working and non working women was found to be
statistically non significant.
72 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

150. Can't live with you, can't live without you: A study
on adjustment in marriage among Indian men and women
Divya Das and Diya Anna John
Sophia College for Women, Mumbai

The objective of the study was to examine the various adjustment issues that Indian men and women face in the course
of their marriage. The study highlighted the marital adjustment that individuals make during three phases of their
married life based on the period for which they have been married (Phase I: 0 to 4 years; Phase II: 5 to 20 years; Phase
III: 21 years and above). A total of 52 individuals (27 men and 25 women) were surveyed using a self-constructed
questionnaire with 25 items. Responses of participants were measured on a five point Likert scale (ratings on a scale
of 1 to 5). The results of the study showed marked differences in the quantity and quality of adjustment issues that men
and women deal with. It was also found that these issues varied across the phases selected for the study. Men were
found to have the greatest number of adjustment concerns during the second phase, hinting the existence of a 'midlife
crisis'. Women, on the other hand, dealt with a uniformly higher number of adjustment issues in all the phases.
Adjustment in dealing with differences of opinion with the spouse was a prominent concern among both genders.
While this was the only common adjustment issue among men in all three phases, women had three additions to this
list, namely, adapting in inter-community marriage, adjusting to in-laws, and dealing with differences in hobbies.
Therefore the study showed that gender has a role to play in marital adjustment.
Keywords: marriage, adjustment

151. Developmental impact of perceived parenting on emotional


intelligence and academic performance
Aradhana Shukla
Department of Psychology, Kumaun University, Campus Almora, Uttarakhand

In these days emotional intelligence has become a popular topic in everyday life. Not only it manages the
behavior but also solves many problems. In this study an attempt was made to find out the pattern of emotional
intelligence and academic performance as affected by perceived parenting in developmental perspective. It
was contended that (i) increase in age would facilitate emotional intelligence and academic performance, (ii)
boys and girls would be almost equal in relation to their scores on emotional intelligence and academic
performance and, (iii) emotional intelligence and academic performance would be higher in participants
perceiving authoritative parenting by their parents. 120 participants ranging between 13 to 18 years served as
participants and they were arranged according to the requirements of 3 way factorial design with 3 levels of age
(13-14,15-16,17-18), 2 sex (boys and girls) and 2 levels of perceived parenting (authoritative and democratic
i.e. 10 participants per cell). Emotional Intelligence Scale (Tripathi, 2002) and Academic Achievement Test
(Shukla & Najhoon, 1993) and Perceived Parenting Scale (Shukla, 1996) were used to measure emotional
intelligence, academic performance and perceived parenting. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and it
was found that (i) emotional intelligence and academic performance were advanced with advancing age, (ii)
boys and girls were almost equal in relation to their score on emotional intelligence scale and academic
performance and, (iii) higher level of emotional intelligence and academic performance was shared by those
who had perceived their parenting as authoritative.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, perceived parenting, academic performance
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 73

152. Management of human resources in improving health systems


Richa Pathak and Vasundhara Bijalwan
IIHMR, New delhi

Introduction: India with more than billion people under its umbrella that accounts for 17% of the world's
population the state of human resources for health in India is diverse and multifaceted but still a great void
exists in management health workforce in India. Despite rising attention to this gap in management of health
care workers, little attention has been paid to the role of those who have human resource management
responsibilities and whose job is to transform health workers into a productive, motivated, and supported
workforce capable of improving overall health systems. In public health there is an urgent need to
professionalize the existing work force. We have reviewed available literature and taken reference from
secondary sources. The paper will focus on areas that need improvement in human resource management in
healthcare and how small steps designed towards good management of human resource can solve problems of
overburdened staffs, absenteeism and under performance. With scattered workforce there is a greater need to
manage healthcare workforce in public health system. Proper management of human resources and highly
dedicated workforce would ensure improved quality of health system. Effective utilization of human resources
would be needed to better outcomes and access to healthcare.
Keyword: human resource management, health

153. Influence of an intervention program to nurture adaptability


skills on the emotional intelligence of selected adolescents
A.H.M. Vijayalaxmi and Rajalakshmi. M.S.
Smt.VHD central Institute of Home science, Bangalore

K.P. Suresh
Department of Biostatistics, National Institute of Animal Nutrition and physiology, Adugodi, Bangalore

Adolescence is a challenging time of life, where the individual copes with an unprecedented rate of biological
maturation and simultaneously face changes in his/her life in social, sexual, emotional and physical areas.
Adolescents encounter new experiences on a daily basis. Such unfamiliar situations often result in new and possibly
intense positive and negative emotional reactions. How successfully adolescents are able to cope with these
environmental demands and emotions by effectively sizing up and flexibly dealing with problematic situations
depends on their emotional intelligence in particular on the adaptability skills. Enhanced levels of adaptability
indicate adolescents who can easily find good ways of dealing with everyday difficulties. Therefore the present study
was taken up to assess the influence of an intervention program to nurture adaptability skills on the emotional
intelligence of selected adolescents. The present study was carried out in IX phases. A total of 90 adolescents (both
boys and girls) in the age group of 14-16 years were identified for the study after they were administered the Bar-On
emotional quotient inventory; youth version. These were further divided into experimental and control groups having
45 participants in each group. The experimental groups were exposed to an intervention programme on adaptability
skills. The study concluded that, the intervention program had influenced the adaptability dimension of the
respondents in the experimental group.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, adolescents
74 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

154. Exploring ethnicities: A socio-cultural profile of Tibetan


community in Indian Kashmir
“----Surely, according to principles I uphold, the last voice in regard to Tibet should be the voice of the people
of Tibet and of nobody else”. (Pt. Jawaharlal Lal Nehru, 7th December, 1950, LokSabha).

Adfer Rashid Shah


Jamia Millia Islamia-Central University, New Delhi

Tibetan refugee community scattered round the world and densely in India constitutes a minuscule proportion of
Muslim refugees presently residing in Srinagar of the Indian Kashmir. Away from their homeland they have
discovered a home in Kashmir. This community differs from its fellow Buddhist refugees settled temporarily in many
other parts of India only in religious faith, fervor and practices but share the wider aspects of culture of their
motherland. Though they are distinct from the native Kashmiri's ethnically but have adopted various aspects of the
local culture. The social transformation which this community has undergone is somewhat different as compared to
those which are residing elsewhere. Their pattern of change is in that sense a unique phenomenon. This paper is an
endeavor to explore this less known Muslim Tibetan refugee community and to discuss their sociological profile to
see the level of pattern change, adaptation and conformity with the local culture, socio-economic change and
development, etc,.
Keywords: Tibetan refugees, culture, kashmir, sociological profile

155. A comparative study on socio-demographic and clinical


profile of patients undergoing admission and readmission in a regional
institute of mental health in North Eastern India
Sourav Das, Kamal N. Kalita and Sumit Mehta

To find out and compare the socio-demographic and clinical profiles of patients getting first admission and
readmission in the LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health in the year 2009. A retrospective, record based
observational study from the computerized database of the institute and the case record files of the patients admitted
for indoor facilities of the institute within a period of 01.01.09 to 31.12.09. Variables like age, sex, religion, marital
status, locality, education, occupation, and diagnosis were taken into account. Standard statistical tools like
percentage, mean, chi square tests were used for analysis. SPSS version 16.0 for windows was used for statistical
analysis. Total numbers of patients with new admissions were 876, and 463 patients had a history of previous
admission in the institute, and 60 admissions were those of patients undergoing admission more than once in the time
period. Among new admissions, 73% were male, 27% were female(sex), 78% were Hindu, 15% were
Muslim(religion), 43% were married, 57% were unmarried(marital status), 59% were between 16-30yrs of age, 35%
were 31-45 yrs of age(age), 47% were unemployed, 14% were housewives, 5.6% were servicemen(occupation), 74%
patients were diagnosed between F20-F29, while 13% between F30-F39 and 5% were between F10-F19(diagnosis).
Among readmissions, 77% were male 23% were female(sex), 80% were Hindu, 14% were Muslim(religion), 49%
were married, 51% were single(marital status), 46% between 16-30yrs age, and 44% between 31-45yrs age(age),
51% were unemployed, 12% were cultivator, 11% were servicemen, and 8% were housewives(occupation), 74%
were diagnosed between F20-F29, 19% between F30-39 and 3% between F10-F19(diagnosis). No significant
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 75

difference in readmission rates found for sex, marital status, religion, educational status or locality. Readmission rates
are significantly different among professions with p <0.001, with rates among housewives being less than expected.
There were significant differences found among different diagnoses in terms of readmission with p< 0.001, with F30-
39 showing more than expected readmissions and F10-19 showing more than expected first admission with less than
expected readmissions.

156. A study on socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients


admitted in a regional institute of mental health in North Eastern India
Sumit Mehta, Kamal N. Kalita and Sourav Das

To find out the socio-demographic and clinical profiles of patients getting admitted in the LGB Regional Institute of
Mental Health in the year 2009. A retrospective, record based observational study from the database of the institute
and the case record files of the patients admitted for indoor facilities of the institute within a period of 01.01.09 to
31.12.09. Standard statistical tools like percentage, mean, chi square tests were used for analysis. SPSS version 16.0
for windows was used for statistical analysis. Total numbers of admissions were 1399, consisting of 1339 patients,
and 60 admissions were those of patients undergoing admission more than once in the time period. Males were
992(74%), and females were 347(26%). 725(54.1%) patients were in the age group of 16-30yrs and 508(37.9%) were
in the age group of 31-45 yrs. Mean age of admission in general was 31.2yrs, with mean age for males being 30.79yrs
and mean age for females being 32.42yrs.For admissions who were >45yrs of age, the percentage for females was
33.33% and that for female patients admitted above 45 yrs age with psychosis was 37.33%. Hindu patients were
1049(78%), Muslim197 (15%) and Christian were 91(7%). 1077(80.4%) were from the rural and 233(17.4%) from
urban areas.585(43.7%) were married and 754(56.3%) were single at the time of admission.636(47.5%) were
unemployed, 168(12.5%) were cultivator, and 159(12%) were housewives. 74.4% of patients admitted had a
diagnosis within F20-29 and 15% having that between F30-39. Not only is the admission rate of females much lower
than that of males but also the mean age of admissions higher in the female sex. Moreover, the frequency of female
admission above 45 yrs age group is comparatively higher than its male counterparts, even more so in patients of
psychosis in that age group. Schizophrenia and schizophreniform psychosis mostly from the rural population form the
major reason for admission in the area.

157. Sick marriage: Medico legal perspectives


J. S. Jakhar
Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana

Marriage is assumed to be a basic, vital and fundamental institution not only for the physical, mental, spiritual, and
social comforts of the spouse but also for the maintenance, protection and education of the progeny. The sanctity and
stability of the marriage is, in essence, the foundation of civilization and, therefore, court and counsel owe a duty to the
society to repair the snapped relations between spouses who are entrapped into loveless and meaningless marriages.
There are spouses who are suffering from, alcoholism or drug addiction, mental retardation and veneral disease,
neurotic or psychotic problems and disorders like depression or schizophrenia leading to either impotency or frigidity
in sex or excessive sex demand. Sexual incompatibility, lack of sexual education or knowledge may lead to
unconsummated marriage or sexless marriage. In both the cases it adversely affects the health of spouses which can
cause frustration in their married life. Their feelings of guilt, shame or inadequacy are only increased by a need to
76 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

conceal their difficulty and it produces guilt and conflict between them. Due to communication gaps small problems
at times get magnified. The bitterness increases which ultimately forces the couples to seek divorce which can never
remedy the causes of their problems. It is, therefore, suggested that, before granting divorce, the court or conciliator
or counsel should recommend treatment to such couples who suffer from psychiatric disorder, or addiction to
alcoholism etc. All such cases of psychiatric disorders should be referred to psychiatrists and clinical psychologists
for immediate treatment. And after treatment the couple should be advised to stay together at least for a ascertaining
the impact of the treatment on the estranged couple. Similarly cruelty in the behaviour of the spouse may also lead to
the possible break down of the marriage in sexual behaviour. Such behaviour can be the cause of problems like pre-
mature ejaculation, erectile failure, orgasm difficulty during sexual intercourse and homosexuality. Here sex therapy
can help the couples to remove the obstacles which otherwise are the main cause of the discordance between husband
and wife. The present paper attempts to present a discourse analysis of psycho-medical and legal problems faced by
the spouses of sick marriage.

158. Optimising stress management techniques for the blues


Nuzhat Firdous
Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

Stress is an all pervading phenomenon in the life of every individual and it is necessary and useful for getting the
excellence in one's field of choice, when in optimum quantity. Exceeding the optimum level, the costs are experienced in
the form of health problems and illnesses, besides many other consequences. Managing stress is all about taking charge so
far as our thoughts, feelings, emotions and the way we deal with the situations are concerned. A situation that is intolerable
to one person may be stimulating to another. What we feel is determined not just by the happenings and changes in the
external world, but how we perceive and respond to those changes. Unless we accept responsibility for the role we play in
creating or maintaining it, our stress level will remain out of control. This paper is thus an attempt to culminate and revisit
different stress management techniques from more conventional ones to more technical ones in order to maintain the
equilibrium not by avoiding coping strategies (flight) but by approaching coping strategies (fight).

159. Ethical leadership, organizational commitment and locus of


control: A comparative study between senior IT professionals and
junior IT professionals
Ishita Chatterjee and Sravasti De
Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, WB

Ethics is deciding what is right (or more right) in a particular situation determining what ought to be deciding what is
constant with one's personal and organizational value system. Ethical leadership combines with decision making and
ethical behavior and occurs both in organization and an individual context. A major responsibility of leader is to
behave in ethical ways and to see that the organization understands and practices its ethical code. The present study
aimed at finding out the nature of the ethical leadership behavior of the IT professionals (junior and senior). It also
aimed at to find out the relationship between ethical leadership, organizational commitment and locus of control of the
junior and senior rank IT professionals. Accordingly data was collected from 120 IT professionals (60 senior and 60
junior IT professionals). Data was collected using four tools, namely General Information Schedule, Ethical
Leadership Assessment Instrument, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, Rotter's Internal External Locus of
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 77

Control Scale. Responses to those tools were processed for Mean, SD, T Test, Correlation Analysis. Results indicated
the following facts. W Senior IT professionals revealed relatively high ethical leadership behavior than junior IT
professionals. W Irrespective of the rank of the leaders the nature of the organizational commitment of the IT
professionals varied with respect to their level of ethical leadership. W Irrespective of the rank of the leaders the nature
of the locus of control of IT professionals varied with respect to their level of ethical leadership. W The level of ethical
leadership of IT professionals was positively related to the attributes of organizational commitment and locus of
control. Implication of the study is that if we foster ethical leadership more in organizational set up, organizational
commitment and locus of control will be enhanced, thus it will be beneficial for the organization in question.

160. Does locus of control related to personality traits


a study on school teachers
Rituparna Basak and Anjali Ghosh
Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata

The objective of the present study was to find out the relationship of locus of control with personality in a group of
school teachers of Kolkata, West Bengal. Rotter Locus of control scale and NEO five factor questionnaire developed
by Costa & McCrae were used in the study. Correlation results yielded significant relation between different
personality traits and locus of control. Findings revealed that neuroticism is positively and significantly correlated
with locus of control whereas extraversion and conscientiousness are negatively and significantly correlated with
locus of control. It indicates that the teachers who have high locus of control (external locus of control) i.e. who beliefs
that outcomes are related to external forces beyond his or her control, are found to be more neurotic i.e. they are more
anxious, impulsive and depressed or vice-versa. The present study also revealed that teachers with low locus of
control (internal locus of control) are more extraverted (i.e. more warm, active and excitement seeking) and more on
conscientiousness (competent, dutiful, achievement striving). Stepwise regression analysis indicated that locus of
control can be significantly predicted by extraversion and conscientiousness. Thus, from this study it can be
concluded that teachers with internal locus of control are often characterized as having more positive personality traits
like extraversion and conscientiousness and lesser negative traits like neuroticism.

161. Background factors as determinants of entrepreneurial


self- efficacy belief among micro and small enterprises operators
Habtamu Kebeu Gemeda and M.V.R. Raju
Department of Psychology & parapsychology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

The present study examined the extent to which micro and small enterprises operators' background factors interact
with their entrepreneurial self- efficacy belief. Two hundred twenty two micro and small enterprises operators
selected using stratified simple randomly from (Adama and Bishoftu ) towns of East Shoa zone, Oromia region
(Ethiopia) fill in a battery of self-report questionnaire consisting of biographic information and entrepreneurial self-
efficacy belief scale. The results were analyzed using simple correlation and multiple regression analysis. Pearson
correlation analysis revealed that except age and marital status all background variables (sex, general educational
level, technical and vocational education and training, and exposure to entrepreneurship) had some relationship,
though varied in degree of strengths, with entrepreneurial self- efficacy belief. However, the multiple regression
analysis disclosed that only prior exposure to entrepreneurship and technical and vocational education and training as
78 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

significant factors for variability in entrepreneurial self-efficacy belief among participants of the study. Besides,
gender difference in entrepreneurial self-efficacy belief (in favors of males) was also observed. Implications of the
study are discussed

162. Self-esteem and adjustment among adolescent


within family environment
Pallavi Aggarwal

The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between self esteem and adjustment among adolescents within
family environment. The adolescents (boys and girls) were assessed using the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and
Bell's adjustment scale. The family environment appeared to influence adjustment as well as self esteem. The
majority of the sample perceived their family as cohesive organized achievement oriented and emphasized on moral
religious issue with minimal conflict, cohesion, conflict, control intellectual cultural orientation. The independence in
the family environment influenced adjustment, and the performance on self esteem scale was significantly related to
independence. Conflict domains of family environment shown to be lower in self esteem.

163. Emotional maturity of the gifted children in relation


to their locus of control
Agyajit Singh
Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

Sukhdeep Kaur
Akal College of Education, Mastuana Sahib, Sangrur, Punjab
The present study focuses on (i) to compare the emotional maturity and locus of control of the gifted and non-gifted
children and to find out the significant differences on emotional maturity and locus of control on the basis of sex ,(iii)
to establish the relationship between the different components of emotional maturity and internal and external locus
of control of the gifted children and nongifted children, (iv) to find out the significant differences on different aspects
of emotional maturity among the gifted and non-gifted children with external and internal locus of control. The
sample of the study consisted of 1000 school children in the age group of 12-18 years (adolescent period); out of
which 200 were identified as gifted children out of the larger sample and 200 were non-gifted children. 200 gifted
children were those who have an I.Q. of more than 120 and have good academic record above 80 % marks in their final
Board examination and also found gifted on the basis of teachers' ratings. The average children were those whose I.Q.
was between 90-110 and were average in studies. 50% of the whole sample was males and 50% females (100 male
gifted and 100 female gifted; 100 male average and 100 female average).They were administered: (i) S.S. Jalota's
intelligence test,(ii) Locus of control scale(LCS)by Dr. H. Hasnain & Dr.D.D. Joshi, (iii)Emotional Maturity scale by
Dr. Yashvir Singh,(iv) Emotional competencies by H.C. Sharma and R. Bharadwaj (1995). The results of the study
show that (i) gifted and normal students did not differ on all the factors of emotional maturity. But sex differences on
emotional maturity were observed; where males were less emotionally matured ;( ii) gifted students have been proved
to be more emotionally competent than the normal children; though males and females have almost the same level of
emotional competency; (iii) Gifted children differed with normal children on the internal and not on external locus of
control; where gifted students were better on the internal LOC than the non-gifted students. No sex differences were
there on either external or internal LOC; (iv) the students with internal LOC were more emotional matured and have
high emotional competencies than the students with external LOC.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 79

164. Local beliefs and practices regarding Neonatal & maternal


confinement: A Study of rural Uttar Pradesh, India
Akankssha nigam
Department of Business Administration, Saroj Institute of Technology & Management, Lucknow

A majority of neonatal deaths in south Asia occurred in the early neonatal period resulted in many interventions targeting
this period for reducing neonatal deaths. However, inadequacy of data exists on the dimension of home-based current
newborn care practices and local beliefs regarding the confinement practice. Findings on confinement practices are the
outcome of qualitative study in Shivgarh, rural block of Raebareli district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is based on the
qualitative study through 63 in-depth, unstructured interviews, 8 focus group discussions, and 2 direct observations, and
involving recently delivered women, pregnant women, family members, and other key players in the community. In
Shivgarh, 97% of families observed confinement. Although confinement in Shivgarh traditionally lasts 40 days, its length
has been curtailed in recent years, most intensely observed before the chatti or barha ceremony. Broadly, this concept has
been classified under two components; maternal and neonatal confinement within the social, cultural, and economic
domains. In broader perspective, cultural domain of newborn and maternal confinement associated with the ritual
pollution and terror of evil spirits and evil eye, which lead towards the enormous unhealthy confinement practices
detrimental to newborn health. In Shivgarh, risky practices include delivering the newborn onto the ground, feeding the
newborn something other than the mother's milk at the first feeding, discarding the colostrums etc. Beside this,
confinement is very significant in terms of restricted movement, ultimately implicated on care seeking, newborn health,
maternal health and health workers. Due to movement regulation, confinement poses challenges to the health sector in
sensitizing community regarding health implications, implementing interventions and promoting essential newborn care
practices. Although access to the confinement during the first week is prerequisite and inevitable; but accessibility is not
an assurance of acceptability of the interventions. Breaching barriers through persuasive communication, addressing
sentiments and expressing respect to the local beliefs will be the cornerstone to maximize the accessibility and
acceptability component for improved new born care practices.
Keywords: confinement, neonatal mortality, ritual pollution, care seeking, breaching barrier

165. Developmental problems among rehabilitated children of sex


workers in Kamathipura, India: An exploratory study
Jinu Abraham George
Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore

Attachment is a key developmental task which influences ones perception about themselves and with others. It is well
researched that insecure forms of attachment are the major cause for psychopathology and dysfunction in the
individual. Rehabilitated children of sex workers are found to be a vulnerable group to develop various
developmental problems because of attachment issues with their biological parents. Very few researchers had
explored the possible developmental problems among children of sex workers. Current study was an attempt to find
out the developmental problems, stressors and helpful factors among children of sex workers. Developmental
Psychopathology Checklist was administered to 40 children and this data was quantitatively analyzed. Results
revealed high prevalence of psychopathologies among children of sex workers, especially ADHD. Results indicated
higher need of mental health intervention for these children.
Keywords: developmental psychopathology, children of sex workers, India
80 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

166. Social responsibility towards the mentally challenged


Uma Rani
SPW Degree & PG College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

Routinely the mentally challenged are arbitrarily detained in psychiatric facilities, social care homes, orphanages and
other closed institutions. Treating the mentally challenged as full human beings implies that they have rights to
participate in their communities and societies. Parents, teachers friends, employers, and public officials could support
the mentally challenged persons struggle to effectively participate in community life by promoting the perennial
values of respect for human dignity, fairness, equality, autonomy and compassion (Vincent W. Franco, 1982). Social
acceptance, integration and rehabilitation of the mentally challenged are basically a societal task and can only be
possible with the help of the people in the community.
Keywords:

167. Impact of stress on job performance


Nisha Goyal1 and Sunena Jain2
Department of Commerce1 and Department of Economics2, F.C.College, Hisar

In paper we are discussing the effect of job or work stress over the employees level of job satisfaction and
organizational behaviour. Job or occupational stress is something we all face as employees or employers and we all
handle it differently. It is a mismatch between the individual capabilities and organizational demands. Also it is a
mismatch between the expectations of both individual and organisation. Stress effects both employee and employer
simultaneously as we know employees who are burnt out, exhausted or stressed can not give desired result. Due to this
productivity decreases and cost of the company will increases. By virtue, some jobs are highly stressful like Army,
Police, and Fire Service etc. Some are relatively moderate viz service sector and health care industry etc. In the present
day scenario, IT companies jobs are termed as more competitive and stressful. The National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, states that job stress, now
than ever poses a threat to the health of employees and health of the organization. It shall suggest some urgent strategic
planning needed to combat the alarming raise of disorder in the health of the employee and the organization.
Keywords: job performance, job satisfaction, job stress.

168. Depression: A case study


Swarnshikha Sharma
Gokul Das Hindu Girls College and also associated with Apollo Hospital, New Delhi

Kiran Sahu
Department of Psychology, Gokul Das Hindu Girls, College, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh

The objective of the present study is to make understand the role of CBT in treatment of depressive patient. This is an
experimental study and 30 patients have been taken from psychiatry department, Ram Mahohar Lohia Hospital, New
Delhi. Hamilton scale has been used to understand the depressive symptoms and severity of major depression. To
understand the depressive symptoms and various phases of patient's illness like: - sadness of mood, decreased sleep
and appetite, reduced energy, fatigue etc. CBT has been used. Each patient was suffering from major depressive
symptoms and was affected in various ways of life. The study indicates disappointment, sense of guilt, tension, feeling
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 81

of remorse, fatigue etc. haunted the patients and so they tried to keep themselves away from the society. When patient
reach such a state, they adopted a few means like: - away from society, leaving home, decreased interaction etc. Basic
ideas were given to the patient, to cope with condition. For this purpose, Cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy and
interpersonal therapy was successfully used and it has been seen in the result that they developed a coping style
towards life and successful pattern.

169. New teaching strategies in India


Sucheta Rawat, Kapil Joshi, Jyotsna Sharma, Upendra Kumar, Rajveer Sharma and Sweety Kharwal
IIHMR, New Delhi

Entertainment has played a vital role in the field of Education. It has been seen that Entertainment Education is easy to
understand for the children of age group 3 to 12 in comparison to tradition approach of Education. An area based study
was done in the school of Agra villages. Student of class 1st to 5th Std. was selected for Comparative study. To
understand the effect of Entertainment (by video) in the field of Education. And determine the impact of
Entertainment education on the psychology of the student. The study was Quantitative in nature. Childrens up to 12
age group was taken for research. Students were divided into 2 groups, each group contain 25 students. One group
taught by video and pictures and other group taught by traditional teaching method. Then after completion of 2 day
workshop, written exam was conduct to check the knowledge level of student. The data entry analysis was done in
SPSS 16 and significant test (student t test) was applied. Null hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis was
selected for the study. It was found that Knowledge level of student, who taught with the help of video was more
comparison to the student, who taught with the help of traditional type of teaching. 60 % student was not understand
the subject solely, who taught by traditional approach of teaching.
Keywords: entertainment education, explorative.

170. Teenagers and the problem of depression


Nivedita Hooda and Meenakshi
Department of Education, Ch. Devilal Univerisity, Sirsa, Haryana

It is a well-known fact that this industrialized era is the era of work, stress and tension. People of all ages, more
especially, the teenagers are trapped poorly in this era. Teenage is the product of both biological and social forces i. e. it
is a phase of life beginning in biology and ending in society. Teenage may be defined as the period within the life span
when most of a person's biological, cognitive, psychological, and social characteristics are changing from what is
typically considered child-like to what is considered adult-like. No doubt, these changes are universal. But the
problem occurs when teenagers are expected to give up childish ways and take on greater responsibility. There is a lot
of confusion, hesitation and a search for one's real identity because parents and elders treat him at one time as a grown
up and at other time as a child. This causes problem in identity-as to “Who am I?” and “What am I?” etc. Sometimes
the tension occurs due to conflicts and disputes between parents and children. The power of reasoning in teenagers
may also contribute to a rise in family tension. Teenage is the time when all of a sudden the world starts looking
different. The sheer innocence of friendship is lost. For the teenagers, this period is a dramatic challenge, one
requiring adjustment to changes in the self, in the family and in the peer group. They prefer to spend more time with
their peers and give all the credit to them. Teenager is trying to carve out his or her own identity that is completely
separate from his parents. No doubt teenagers love their parents, but they do not follow in the footsteps of the parents.
They try to challenge their parents' authority in every possible way and also pay no attention to suggestions given by
82 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

the parents. On the whole, they become disheartened about social expectations, parents' desire, health issues,
economic circumstances, problem regarding identification, biological changes, parent-child relationship. If they are
not given proper guidance they might face the problem of depression and ironically this depression may take form of
delinquency.
Keywords: teenagers, biological changes, sociological changes, responsibility, identity, conflicts, guidance,
depression.

171. The psychological adjustment of neglected juveniles: A case study


Atasi Mohanty and Sanjeebanee S. Sasmal
Centre for Educational Technology, IIT Kharagpur, WB

The present ‐ study primarily focuses on assessing the psychological adjustment of twenty five (25) neglected
school going juveniles selected from an observation home for orphans called “Basundhara” situated in the Cuttack
city of Orissa. Primary data were collected from officerecords, and through interview schedules prepared on the
issues related to their families, economic conditions, parental literacy, care and other social factors embedded in
their community. The findings show that the unfavorable home environment, poor economic condition, parental
illiteracy and the influence of urban lifestyle are the major causes of distractions, their lack of interest in studies
and poor academic performance. They also exhibit poor memory skills, lack of concentration, and fear of
punishment in schools. However, their psychosocial adjustment within the organization and among the inmates
and peer groups was found to be satisfactory. Keeping in mind their future livelihood the authors have suggested
for certain interventions such as proper rehabilitation, counselling and vocational education for generating
different sources of income.
Keywords: juveniles, psychological adjustment

172. Conformity in educational and career choices: A comparative


study of Chennai and Mumbai
Shruti Asokan Diya Anna John and Divya Das
Sophia College for Women, Mumbai, Maharashtra

The objective of the study was to observe if conformity exists in the two chosen cities, i.e., Chennai and Mumbai
and if yes, then whether there is a difference in the level of conformity in these cities. The study highlighted the
existence of conformity across three categories based on the stream chosen by the participants at the
Undergraduate level, namely, Arts, Science, Commerce and Miscellaneous (Fashion Design, Hotel Management,
Architecture, Interior Design, Mass Media, Visual Communication and Tourism). A total of 52 individuals (26
males and 26 females), from each city were surveyed using a self-constructed questionnaire with 26 items. The
results obtained from this study showed that there is a certain level of conformity in educational and career choices
in both the cities. However, nothing conclusive can be said about the difference in the level of this conformity. In
some cases students may not be aware of the influence of various factors like society and subtle parental pressure.
The values and collective notions of society are often ingrained in the minds of students at a very young age, such
that the student feels like he or she is choosing a career of his or her choice, when actually the student might be
simply conforming to the expectations of society communicated to him or her by parents and others.
Keywords: career choices, educational conformity
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 83

173. Dream and workplace conflictual situation: Are they related


term? : A narrative case study report
Naorem Binita Devi
Department of Psychology, Mizoram University, Mizoram

This paper is about the relation between dream and workplace conflictual situation based on a narrative case study report
.The question comes to the investigator's mind, “are they related term?” The investigator strongly agree about the relation
between these two terms. In this narrative case, how the bi-cluster groups in the workplace try to keep the case narrative
person in a stressful situation that makes the person in a state of insecurity feelings that brought the person under the
dream, saying, “do not go that place”… “call her back from that place”. ( case narrative dead brother said in the
dream).The investigator is trying to convince that under the tense/stressful situation/unconscious pre-plan etc, the
dreamer has more terrific dream and on the other hand under the calm situation, the dreamer has no terrific dream. The
investigator tries to bring the sources of dream, theory of dream as developed by investigator with regard to the workplace
conflictual situation and how to relate dream to one's waking life. In the investigator's term dream is some sort of
activities which can be shown to the dreamer with some form of symbols that are difficult to decipher but it can give
meaningful interpersonal conflictual situation or one's form of tension situation if one gets the meaning of that symbol. It
gives recall experiences when one awakes from the sleep. Sometimes you may find very strange situation after having
been recalled your dream state. You may forget your dream also. In concluding part, the investigator said that dream is a
journey like an explorer tries to find out new things in an unknown place. In doing so, hard work, determination, patience,
individual's ideas, coordination etc are needed. Here again the investigator points out that dream relates to past events
(based on workplace) that leads to present story and again it predicts one's future life.

174. Environmental issues and terrorism: A call for


sustainable development
Deepu M. and Harsha P.
MSW, Amrita Vishwa Vidhyapeetham Ettimadai, Coimbatore

According to the Article 51A of the Indian Constitution, maintains that Environmental protection is the fundamental
duty of every citizen of the country and states that: “it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve
the natural environment, including forests, lakes and wildlife, and to have compassion for all living creatures.” Now
the question arises whether we being the citizens of India are actually abiding by the amendments and laws constituted
by our nation? As per the topic, “Environmental Issues and Terrorism”, the presentation focuses on the major
environmental issues faced today and how it is linked with Terrorism (adverse anthropogenic activities) creating a
whole new dimension which can be termed as environmental terrorism. As the population all over the world is
increasing, the existing resource base is exploited more and more and is being consumed at an alarmingly faster rate.
With this ever increasing socio-economic growth, our biodiversity is under serious threat so as to meet with the
demands of the ever rising population. Further this paper points out on the advancement of the principle of sustainable
development which is a sine quo non for the maintenance of symbiotic balance between man and nature. Considering
the present day scenario, the paper is further substantiated with the help of two case studies. One of them emphasizes
on the environmental challenges and human insecurity in the Himalayas while the other focuses on the displacement
in Tribal areas. It also highlights on vital judicial and legislative doctrines which emphasis on the importance of
sustainable development.It is our duty and privilege as social workers to protect and safeguard this rich and diverse
resource of our nature so as to preserve it for the future generations to come.
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175. The illness perceptions and beliefs about medicine of


myocardial patients and their role in adherence to treatment
Neena Kohli
Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad

The aim of the study was (a) to examine myocardial patients' illness perceptions and their beliefs about medicine and
(b) to identify the predictors of adherence to treatment. The sample consisted of 80 myocardial patients with a mean
age of 46.6 years. All the patients were undergoing treatment at a local hospital in Allahabad. The Survey Instrument
consisted of sections pertaining to Demographic information (age, gender, level of education, socio economic status,
occupation etc), Illness perceptions, Beliefs about medicine and Level of Adherence. A modified version of Illness
Perception Questionnaire (8 items) was used. Illness Perception Questionnaire assesses five components of illness
representation: illness Identity, cause, timeline, consequences and illness control-cure beliefs. Items were scored on
an 11-point scale ranging from 'never' to 'all the time'. The beliefs about medicine questionnaire were used to assess
beliefs about treatment necessity (4 items) and beliefs about the possible harmful effects of treatment (5 items).Items
were scored on 5-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree' Adherence to treatment (5 items)
measured the extent to which patients complied with treatment. Items were scored on a 5-point scale ranging from
'never' to 'always'. Regression analysis indicated that perceptions of Illness identity, timeline, and treatment necessity
explained a significant amount of variance in adherence to treatment. The findings suggest that assessing illness
perceptions, especially beliefs regarding Identity, timeline and necessity of treatment, may play a valuable role in
identifying which individuals are least likely to adhere to treatment.

176. Reproductivie health and hygiene among adolescents


Kavitha V.R.S.
Department of Sociology, PSG CAS, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu

Adolescence is a transition stage in the lifecycle, linking childhood to the adulthood during which physical, mental
and social development take place. For a girl, menstruation is a milestone and a sign of becoming a woman. During
this phase of growth the girls first experience menstruation and related problems which is marked by feelings of
anxiety and eagerness to know about this natural phenomenon. However, they do not get the appropriate knowledge
due to lack of a proper health education programme in schools. Moreover, the traditional Indian society regards talks
on such topics as taboo and discourages open discussion on these issues. Unfortunately, the adolescent girls studying
in co-educational institutions do not feel free enough to share it with their peers due to which they have high chances to
lack adequate knowledge on the same that ultimately confuses them to identify their menstrual problem if any,
adoption of healthy food and hygienic practices and right choice of treatment. Hence, an effort was made to assess the
knowledge on reproductive health among the adolescents (13 19) years studying in coeducational institutions (school
and college) of Coimbatore. A descriptive study design was framed to conduct a study in coeducational institutions at
Coimbatore. With the interview schedule which consisted of 40 questions totally 144 data were collected based on
convenience sampling technique and the results of the study denote that only 67.36% of the girls know about
menstruation in prior to the very first menarche and a major proportion of the respondents do not restrict any foods
while 27.77% of the girls restrict the foods in order to stabilize the menstrual flow. Almost all the girls care their
perineum but due to various reasons and with distinct use of toilet articles. A very small proportion of the girls suffer
from menstrual problems for which some practice self medications and, some are under treatment and some have
recovered after treatment.
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177. Analysis of moderating effect of emotional intelligence in


adjustment and mental health of adolescents witnessing parental conflict
Tarun Deep Kaur
Department of Psychology, GGDSD College, Chandigarh

The study examined the moderating role of emotional intelligence in adjustment and mental health of male and female
adolescents witnessing frequent and intense inter-parental conflict. The sample comprised of 500 adolescents (270
males, 230 females) in the age group of 15-18 years. The Youth Self Report Inventory was used to assess adolescent
adjustment problems and an Emotional Intelligence Scale was administered to study their Level of EQ. Results
revealed the moderating role of Emotional Intelligence in the link between adjustment problems and marital conflict.
Results, further were used in moderated multiple regression analysis, which revealed that emotional quotient acted as
a significant moderator in reducing the effect of inter-parental conflict on the adjustment problems of adolescents
especially in female adolescents.
Keywords: emotional intelligence, mental health, parental conflict, adolescents

178. Performance of VITA milk plant in Sirsa district Haryana


Sudesh Sangwan and Kiran
CDLU, Sirsa, Haryana

Sirsa has emerged today as big producer of milk in the Haryana. The 'Oyster' of the Haryana dairy industry. The Sirsa
district cooperative milk producers' union limited is a unit of Haryana dairy development cooperative federation
limited, Panchkula and registered is under the Haryana cooperatives Act, commissions in year 1978. Initially milk
union Sirsa had only one chilling plant and now Milk union, Sirsa has seven chilling centres. The manufacturing and
marketing of milk & milk products are under one the brand name 'VITA' at the state level. The brand is a highly trusted
household name for its wide range of milk products like as packed milk, ghee, skimmed milk powder, dhal, lassie,
pannier and kaju pinni. Vita milk plant has taken up the concepts of total products maintains entirely. The plant
processes the milk and packs the different variety of milk as like full cream milk with 60% fat, 9.0% solid with non-fat,
standardized homogenized milk with 4.5% fat, 8.5% solid non-fat, double toned milk with 1.5% fat and 9.05 solid
non-fat. Milk with Sirsa uses petcock, ricehuck and furnace oil fuel for the generation of the thermal energy. The
present study is an attempt to work out (i) the compound growth rate of vita products in Sirsa district, (ii) correlation
between vita products and, (iii) to provide suggestions to improve the quality of vita products in Sirsa district. The
study is based on secondary data of six years i.e. from 2005 to 2010 collected from VITA milk plant situated in Sirsa.
Annual compound growth rate and correlation method have been used for analyzing the data.

179. Education through preferred entertainment of


Delhi school students
Abhimanyu Tomar, Bhawna Khatter and Leena Sushant
IIHMR, New Delhi

Health/environmental education for children are critically important as it help in shaping children's values,
perspectives, and understanding because they are vulnerable towards HIV/AIDS, obesity, substance
abuse/alcohol/tobacco, suicides/road-accidents, and child-abuse majorly due to lack of knowledge & awareness on
86 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

these issues. Yet many children have little/no meaningful exposure to Health/environmental education because they are
involved with activities that isolate them from it like: Internet/video-games/T.V/radio/schools homework/
extracurricular activities in which they spend most of their time. But our study transforms this weakness into strength by
educating students about health/environment through their most preferred entertainment as they are the one who will be
responsible for making decisions that will shape their health and the health of the environment. To train them for such
responsibilities, they need a sound education through entertainment as a foundation from which to make those decisions.
The present study is done on 1002 Delhi school students (6-18yrs) selected by stratified random sampling and
interviewed through self administered questionnaire. The result of the study presented TV as the most preferred
resourceful mode of entertainment by 36.5% and interaction with the teacher was selected as the best method of getting
trained about health & environment by 44.9%. Like this, study revealed more interesting facts and important figures
showing strong association between the background variables with the preferences and highlighted the need to design
interventions for educating the students about health/environment using the preferred entertainment as a vehicle.

180. Celebrity blurbs swaying youth's clothing choices


Preeti Sodhi
Govt. Home Science College, Chandigarh

India - the kingdom recognized for warmth, affection and fondness. Likewise, the country is obsessed and idolizes
their celebrities from Bollywood and Sports especially cricket. Consequently, marketers bring into play these
celebrities to endorse or blurb their products or brands as to attract and sway ultimately to reach out targeted segment
of the society i.e. youth. Celebrities are used for rendering services other than performing their actual job either as an
actor or an athlete, such endorsements has flourished over time. Celebrity endorsements have an enormous brunt on
youth's clothing preferences too as they promote certain attributes like image, quality and status. Celebrities and their
visual fashion avowals affect the fashion industry and also the dress of adolescent youth all over globe. There are
definitely some brands that go unobserved and the recall for those stands is at a bare minimum. In that case, know how
to intensify and amplify the advertising content because that engraves a unique position in the mind space of the
punter. The present paper take an inside tour in endorsement world with special reference to celebrities. Further it
ponders over today's youth swayed by celebrity's blurb .The author walks around to reach youth (girls) to collect their
views and clothing choices influenced by celebrity endorsements.
Key Words: Celebrity Endorsement, Popular Celebrity endorsements, Swayed Youth's Choices

181. A comparative study of mental health and general well-being


among male and female alcoholics
Mahvish Fatima, (Hafiz) M.Ilyas Khan and Zulfiqar Ullah Siddiqui
Department of Psychology A.M.U, Aligarh

The present study is an attempt to assess the Mental health and Well-being of Alcoholics (100 alcoholics, 50 males and
50 females) of age between 20-50 years. Tools used for the collection of data included P.G.I Health questionnaire (N-
1) and P.G.I General Well-being measure. The scores of the individuals were treated statistically, tabulated and
interpreted. The results revealed that there is significant difference between male and females alcoholics with regard
to their mental health and Well-being. The male alcoholics are in a high state of mental health and Well-being in
comparison to female alcoholics.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 87

182. ICT and professional development of teachers


Garima Choudhary and Shikha Bhardwaj
Department of Human Development, PAU, Ludhiana

The pace of technological revolution and emergence of a knowledge society can change the traditional role of the
teacher and the students. Traditionally, the teacher used to be the source of knowledge for the students. There is
some cooperation among students to explore new knowledge. In many cases, the teachers do not posses adequate
knowledge to supplement the view of the student. And the main source of knowledge remains limited to text book.
The development of ICT changes the epic centre of knowledge. Technological development always warrants
transition to newer technologies by jeopardizing the cost effectiveness of the education programme. The increase
in expenditure on elementary education alone over the last four Five Year Plan periods has been more than the
increase in expenditure on education as a whole. Professional development goes beyond the term 'training' with its
implications of learning skills, and encompasses a definition that includes formal and informal means of helping
teachers not only learn new skills but also develop new insights into pedagogy and their own practice, and explore
new or advanced understandings of content and resources. This paper presents the role of ICT in the professional
development of teachers. ICT can contribute to teacher and student learning; and good models of effective
computer integration as a learning tool; and high quality professional development that transforms this vision into
classroom reality, policymakers can turn schools into partners in the creation of the knowledge society envisioned
in national policy plans.
Keywords: development, ICT, teacher, learning skills and training

183. The relationship of temperament with subjective


well-being amongst children
Shweta
Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

This investigation is an attempt to determine the relationship of temperament with subjective well being amongst
children. The sample comprised 360 children (males {180}and females {180}), in the age range of 8-10, randomly
selected from the various schools of Patiala, and their respective parents. The children were administered the
Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 1993), Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner,
2001), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children {PANAS-C} (Laurent et al., 1999), while their
respective parents were administered the Malhotra Temperament Schedule (Malhotra & Malhotra, 1988) to assess
each child's temperament. Correlation analysis of the data revealed that the various temperament dimensions of
approach/withdrawal, adaptability and quality of mood correlated positively with the children's evaluation of their
global life satisfaction, domain specific life satisfaction as well as positive affect, but correlated inversely with
children's evaluation of their negative affect. Rhythmicity showed positive correlations with children's evaluation of
their satisfaction with school and self, as well as, their positive affect, but correlated inversely with children's
evaluation of their negative affect. Intensity, in contrast, correlated negatively with the children's evaluation of their
global life satisfaction, domain specific life satisfaction and positive affect, but correlated positively with children's
appraisal of their negative affect. Thus, results portray that temperament dimensions play a pivotal role in shaping
children's evaluation of their subjective well being.
Keywords:
88 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

184. Personality mapping a guide to stress management


Ekta Sharma
Amrut Mody School of Management, Ahmedabad University

Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest in how personality affects the stress process. What's stressful to
one person may be all in a day's work for another. The difference appears to lie in our perceptions of various events.
Mental health professionals believe personality plays a significant role in how we perceive stress. People with "Type
A" personalities, for example, are rushed, ambitious, time-conscious and driven. Studies suggest these traits, if not
properly managed, can create stress-related illnesses. In contrast, the "Type B" personality is a much more relaxed,
less time-conscious and driven person. Type B personalities are able to view things more adaptively. They are better
able to put things into perspective, and think through how they are going to deal with situations. Consequently they
tend to be less stress-prone.This paper reports discusses findings on the relationships between personality and stress.
The findings are based on empirical research. The data has been collected through Organizational Role stress and Big-
Five inventories.

185. Stress: Affecting human beings and its management


Deepak Kumar and Krishan Kumar
Department of Education, CDLU Sirsa, Haryana

Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning to identify when you are
under stress, what is stressing you, and different ways of coping with stress can greatly improve both your mental and
physical well being. This paper will define stress; it will discuss fight flight response, its stages, psychological and
biochemical changes and factors which influence fight flight response. This paper is going to discuss about the sign
and symptoms of stress, types of stress, indicators of stress at work, causes of stress and why it is important to reduce
stress, techniques used to manage stress. This paper will throw light on student stress, sources of student stress, and
how student stress can be avoided and coped.
Keywords: stress, management

186. Transgenerational propagation of domestic violence


Manveen Narang
MCM College, Chandigarh

The term violence a worldwide known phenomenon, a common tool of manipulation and an area of concern for law
and culture. Psychologically speaking violence has behavioral origins and it may cause physical pain and emotional
distress to those who are directly experiencing it and even to the ones who are witnessing it. Domestic violence is a
most commonly known form of violence, which includes pattern of abusive behavior by one or more partner in an
intimate relationship. One of the most common causes of domestic violence is the transgenerational propagation, as
this dysfunction repeats through generations. Experiences in the initial developmental years influence an individual's
propensity to indulge in violence throughout life. Children who observe their parents abusing each other or who were
themselves abused incorporate abuse into their behavior with relationships they establish as adults. Most of the
Victims of Domestic violence suffer from post traumatic stress disorder. The current study is an effort to examine this
concern not only in terms of its manifestations and effects but also draw attention to its remedies.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 89

187. Occupational role stress, personal effectiveness and coping


among doctors and journalists
Radhika Gupta
Department of Applied Psychology, Delhi University, Delhi

During the past decade, globalization, increase in scale of operations and privatization policies have drastically
changed conventional patterns in all sectors making stress commonplace. Organizational role stress and related fields
have been subjects of much research, yet role stress among English mass media journalists and doctors has not been
well examined. This study explores the extent and types of role stresses and coping strategies prevalent among
Doctors and English media journalists. Since contemporary workplace is highly dependent on self-awareness and
mutual understanding, personal effectiveness has a major role to play. The present study investigated occupational
role stress, personal effectiveness and coping to assess inter-occupational (among doctors and journalists) and gender
differences. The findings revealed that the journalists and doctors are experiencing high levels of role stress; inter role
distance and resource inadequacy being the potent stressors. No significant gender differences were observed among
various stressors except in inter-role distance. Significant differences between doctors and journalists were observed
on the openness and perceptiveness dimensions of personal effectiveness. However, males and females were not
observed to be different on any dimension. Journalists and doctors were found to be different on confrontative coping
and escape avoidance coping styles, while males and females were found to be different on distancing, seeking social
support, accepting responsibility and planful problem solving are the dimensions of coping.

188. A study of occupational role stress and coping among


journalists in Delhi
Radhika Gupta
Department of Applied Psychology, Delhi University, Delhi

There are many potential catalysts to job related stress in English print media journalists. This study explores the
extent and types of role stresses present among English daily Print Media journalists along with the type of coping
strategy used by them. The present also investigated the extent to which male and female journalists differ along the
various attributes of the two variables under study. The findings revealed that the journalists are experiencing high
levels of role stress. They have to deal with the time pressures, social constraints, family conflicts, work place politics,
and intense competition in the media. However, no significant gender difference was found or for levels of
experience. Similarly, no significant difference was found between the avoidant and approach type of coping
strategies used by the specified groups. The study has suggested further research implications.

189. Role of social support and coping strategies in


patients with cancer
Vijaya Prasad Barre and G. Padmaja
Centre for Health Psychology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad

The present paper focuses on the roles of social support and coping strategies during the course of illness in patients
with cancer. The paper first focussed on theoretical perspectives like social support, stress and coping. It explores the
90 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

Social-Cognitive and Social Control perspectives to explaining how they may promote better health. In the process,
the importance of social support especially to cancer patients, its benefits, and various types of social support
interactions were explained. On the other hand coping strategies were also reviewed to study their importance coping
strategies in patient with cancer and future directions are outlined.

190. Depression level of mothers having children with disability


with special reference to Kashmir
Lone Aaliya and Mir Zaffar Iqbal
Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Composite Regional Center, Srinagar, Kashmir

Yasmeen
Govt. Degree College for for Women, Srinagar, Kashmir

The child's disability stresses the mother the most and this stress shows itself in the form of depression which in turn
effect the mothers. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the depression level of mothers having a child
with disability. A sample of 80 mothers having children with disability were selected. Out of these 40 were working
and 40 were non-working, belonging to nuclear and joint families. The tool used for the study was Standardized Beck
Depression Inventory. The results of the study indicated that the mean depression score for working mothers having
disabled children is 25.45, for non-working mothers 18.30, mothers with a disabled child from nuclear families 24.70
for mothers with a disabled child from joint family (19.2), mothers with a disabled daughter (20.4), and mothers with a
disabled son (18.8). Overall the results indicate that depression level is higher among mothers with a disabled
daughter belonging to nuclear families. The findings of the present study indicate that overall the working mothers
with a disabled child belonging to nuclear families are more depressed than their counterparts.

191. South Asia: Peace by peaceful means


Saroj Saroha
Department of Political Science, C.M.K.National PG Girls College, Sirsa, Haryana

In the period that we are living right now, among the numerous victories of progress, of globalization and of
industrialization in South Asia, still one cannot deny the persistence of different conflicts that involves the whole
world. South Asia happened to be a region of intensive security dilemma. Though the whole world is moving rapidly
in the direction of peace, stability and development, South Asia continues to be gravely threatened by conflicts and
multiple security threats both from within and outside. South Asia is one of the most conflict prone regions of the
world. Inter-state relations in South Asia are characterized by the existence of a number of bilateral disputes which
proved to be too difficult to resolve. In fact, the nature of such conflicts is such that their resolution needs continued
collective efforts of the sovereign state actors across borders. However, after the years of failed negotiations and
efforts towards cooperation the countries of South Asia would have to be serious to resolve their differences and
simultaneously carry forward the process of peace, economic developments and cooperation with all earnestness. In
fact, the resolution of some issues by peaceful means generated a remarkable confidence among the nations in the
region and created a hope that other conflicts could also be resolved amicably. Beyond cooperative security, South
Asian nations must ultimately move towards South Asian Human Security by placing people -- their well being and
rights to peaceful life and development -- at the centre of security concerns, rather than continuing with the arms race.
There is an urgent need to allow greater interaction among the policy-makers, parliamentarians, businessmen, media
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 91

practitioners, professionals and the leaders of civil society for bringing peace in the region. The scope of collaboration
in the sphere of culture, sports, education, research, human resource development, poverty alleviation, environment,
tourism is infinite. Let a South Asian fraternity defy all restrictions imposed by the past and usher in a new era in which
our people could become the master of their destiny while contributing tremendously to the progress of whole
humanity regardless of geography, ethnicity, nationhood, gender, creed and colour. All the south Asian countries
should join hands to evolve a South Asian Fraternal Community. This can be possible only when all the south Asian
countries make cordial efforts towards bringing peace in the region by peaceful means. The strongest and most
important input towards this direction came from the positive result of the agreement between India and Bangladesh,
with the Ganga water agreement that indicates the conversion of conflicts into the energy of peace. This process of
resolving conflicts and bringing peace by peaceful means gives a possibility of using new means to fight against
various conflicts throughout the world and the problems for which the entire human community is more and more
sensitive at every level, from the simple citizen to Governments and Leaders of nations.

192. Use and abuse of the internet


Pawan Kumar
Computer Programmer, AIIMS, New Delhi

The modern day life is rampant with the use of technology and the advancements in the area of Internet are making life
simpler for us with each passing day. Internet opens the whole world to us in the form of World Wide Web and serves as a
useful medium for connecting us with people by submerging all geographical barriers. It also provides us with rich
information on varied topics apart from serving as a tool for entertainment, online gaming and online trading. There is no
doubt about the fact that all these uses of the internet have made our lives convenient. However, in the recent years it has
been found that internet has made us so dependent on itself that it has led to several social and emotional problems. It is
being referred to as a leading cause for depiction of violence, interpersonal problems, marital discords and physical
illnesses. Various media reports also claim that excessive use of Internet leads to academic problems in children and loss
of productivity in the adults. Consequently, there is a need to understand the ill effects of excessive Internet use in our
lives. The present paper reviews the research in the area of excessive internet use.

193. Working children and children under rehabilitation:


A comparative study of Dhaba workers and carpet weavers

In the presentation endeavours are made to comprehend the socio-economic status, education and the current
experiences of children undergoing rehabilitation center of Koraon in Allahabad district of Uttar Pradesh. These
findings are compared with the child workers' working at dhabas in the city of Allahabad. Both the studies reveal that
child workers come mainly from marginalised and excluded sections of society and are facing problems related to
lifecycle events and non-availability of secured occupations to their parents. The study further reveals that fulfillment
of material needs and positive family response acts as a catalyst for the continuity of these workers at work place. The
child workers undergoing training and rehabilitation programmes were working earlier with their fathers in the carpet
weaving industry. The export of carpets weaved by children was restricted under globalisation. Some of the children
working in carpet industry were freed and brought to the rehabilitation center. Children at the rehabilitation center are
acquiring skills related to vegetable growing, tailoring, and other skills. The effectiveness of these training
programmes on the rehabilitation of child workers is also assessed.
92 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

194. A demographic profile school dropouts in rural areas


of Aligarh district, Uttar Pradesh
Saba Khan and Gauri Pandey
Department of Home Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

Education is the means through which a society perpetuates and spreads its own culture. The development of an
individual and the progress of a nation depend on education. School dropout is hurdle for this path. Present study is
carried out through a cross sectional survey with a interview schedule. Present study explains the demographic
characteristics of school dropouts in rural area. This study conducted in rural areas of Aligarh District. A total sample
of 101 dropouts was selected for present study. The major finding revealed that girls were more dropout than boys. A
majority of dropouts from scheduled and backwards classes. Education status of their parents was low.
Keywords:- education, school dropouts, demographic characteristics

195. Anxiety, trauma and protest in Kamala Das's


autobiography: My Story
Manjit Kaur
Department of English, PGGCG-42, Chandigarh

Literature has a very close relationship with human psychology and the social and cultural life of a people. An
essential feature in literature that differentiates it from social and pure sciences is its ability to offer aesthetic
satisfaction to the readers that comes from its beautiful and poetic renderings. My paper intends to view Kamala Das's
well known and controversial autobiography titled My Story published in 1977 from the psychological and social
angle. The book is a poetic rendering of the writer's account of life- her childhood, teenage and the marital life.
Throughout, the narrative is marked by the anxiety and traumatic experience of a woman in the patriarchal system of
society and an awareness of its being detrimental to the development of a healthy psychological self. The book is a
bold attempt on the part of the writer in revealing her private experience relating to her premarital, marital and
extramarital life. It also marks a protest against the societal conditioning that sanctions against any such revelation
evidenced through the condemnation of the writer and the book by many reviewers on its publishing. Kamala Das's
changing her stance as to the mind boggling queries about the veracity of her narrated experience during the
interviews led to her being labeled irresponsible and further circumvented the purpose of her writing. An in depth
study of the book, however brings to light the genuine concerns of the writer which are psychological and social.

196. Health care or media influence ?


Perosh Jimmy Daimari and Abhijit Bora
Department of MCJ, Tezpur University, Tezpur

With the advancement of technologies in the healthcare sector, there has a been a tremendous improvement in health
facilities for proper treatment. With all these facilities available people have become even more health conscious than
ever. A far-wider sense of awareness about these facilities is being facilitated by the media whether mass media or
social media in the societies across the world today. Not only that, with the increasing 'unhealthy health' habits, there is
also the growth of endless health related issues in the society. The outcome is the unending struggle to look out for
solutions and tips for all these health issues. And we all know that health care is integrally connected with the
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 93

psychological aspects of our minds. In other words we can say that it is a great psychological tactic to influence the
mind for inculcating good health habits. There is no doubt that machines (specially computers) have dominated our
lives and have influenced the way we think to a great extent. Technologies have changed the way we interact with
health systems and also have enabled the health professionals to tailor their work and time for the benefit of the clients.
This advancement should hold good only if there is all round improvement, leaving aside class and status. 'Social
Media' is one such platform which has brought in innovative advances in participative communications for modifying
health behavior, and there is more free interaction as the client can now remain unknown. Another important
development is the interactions on the move, refereed to as 'mobile communication'. But in any kind of 'computer-
mediated learning Social Presence' seems to be missing which is very important for proper understanding. The
relationships of the Social Learning Theory and Social Presence Theory also needs to be clearly understood in the
context of mediated learning. This paper will study the current evidence and understanding of social media on health
promotions. The paper will also study the need for evaluating the effectiveness and motivational effect of various
forms of social media. This would be done by trying to examine their psychological effect on the human mind. As the
authors of this paper belong to the discipline of mass communication and media we would like to look at the entire
issue from this point of view and see how psychology and media influence each other to the extent of converting
human beings into 'conscious thinking human beings'.

197. Does really a colour, trigger the retrieval of autobiographical


memory? -A search
Arpita Sengupta
Deparment of psychology, Calcutta University, Kolkata

Autobiographical memory - the highest human ontogenetic achievement, is an integral part of our everyday lives. In
the present study it had been tried to explore that, the affectively associated colours (both positive and negative affect)
can influence the rememberance of autobiographical memory and the colours having gendered (feminine and
masculine) connotation can trigger the autobiographical memory. The study was conducted in two phases: in the first
phase, 120 participants (60 female and 60 males) were taken and were asked to provide responses; one is for gendered
connotation, next one is for affective association, and then one is for the colour which was free from both affective and
gendered connotations, and they were required to rate each response on a 10 point rating scale against 100 colours. In
the next phase, from the 100 colours 5 colours were standardized , among them two colours having affective
connotation, two having gendered connotation and the rest one is free from any affective or gendered association.
These 5 colours were shown through a software on 4 groups: 15 female non-painters, 15 male non-painters, 15 female
painters and 15 male painters and were asked to retrieve some past memory, (measured in terms of reaction time)
related with each colour. Results emphasized that the negative and feminine colours had significant effect on retrieval
of autobiographical memory across the four groups. The post-hoc analysis revealed that, in case of negative colour,
the female non-painter, female painter, male non-painter and male painter groups were responsible in making this
significant effect. In case of feminine colour, again female non-painter, female painter and male non-painter groups
were contributed to make the effect significant. The present study is essentially an exploratory basic research, which
re-establishes the facts that women are more sensible to any given critical situation than do the men. Women encode,
store as well as decode and retrieve emotional events {specially if it is a negative emotion}, far better than the men.
This study confirms Bem's Gender Schema theory, which implies that, each individual, in accord with their biological
sex, is imposed socially with different schemas. The way, in the present study, the association between colours and
autobiographical memory has been used with normal population, can be applied to some clinical population, and the
results can be compared and some new findings can be explored.
94 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

198. Managing emotions and adolescents' mental health


Swati Patra
Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, IGNOU, New Delhi

Adolescence is a developmental period during which there is a transition from childhood to adulthood mentally,
physically, emotionally and socially. Thus adolescent experiences changes in all the facets of his/her life. The
stage of adolescence can be described from physiological, psychological and sociological point of view. The
adolescent undergoes lots of physiological changes which have psychological as well as sociological
implications. The adolescent needs to handle the associated emotions in order to form an identity, develop good
interpersonal relationship and work towards desired life goals. However, being a transitional phase, adolescence
is marked with confusions, uncertainties, anxieties, fears resulting in an emotional turmoil. The various stress and
strains that the adolescents undergo affect their mental health negatively. Hence it is very important for the
adolescents to understand their emotions and manage them in an effective manner. Successful handling of
emotions will significantly contribute to the mental health of the adolescents. This requires the adolescent to be
intelligent about emotions. Emotional intelligence involves being aware of one's and others' emotions and learn
how to handle/manage these emotions. Research studies have pointed out the many benefits of emotional
intelligence in various contexts. Adolescents face many challenges which mainly involve emotions. Hence they
need to learn to manage their emotions, signifying the crucial need to develop emotional intelligence in the
adolescents; this will ensure a positive mental health for the adolescents.
Keywords: adolescent, emotions, emotional intelligence, mental health

199. A comparative study of employee mental health among


private and public sector employees
Pragati Barthwal
Department of Psychology, D.A.V (P.G) College, Dehradun, UP

Employee mental health has a great bearing on employee's organizational performance . It is


imperative for organizations to ensure good mental health and high morale among its employees.
Among all other things one aspect of work that can influence one's mental well-being is the type of
ownership- public or private. Research has shown that there are some major differences in the work
environment of private and public sector which ,in turn, affect their respective employees differently. It
would be interesting to find out how this difference contribute to mental well-being or mental distress
among its employees. The present study intends to explore the difference in mental health between
private and public sector employees in Indian organizations. A sample of 400 employee ,200 each from
private and public sector is drawn using quota sampling method. The 2x2x2 factorial design is used
where two levels of sector (private & public ) interact with two levels of gender(male &female) and two
levels of grade(executive &non-executive). Data is collected using employee mental health questionnaire
.The results using ANOVA show that there is no significant difference in mental health between private
and public sector employees .The difference between male and female is significant and so is the
difference between executives and non - executives. The interaction between grade and gender is
significant .Similarly the interaction between sector ,gender and grade is significant. Gender and grade
seem to influence employee mental health to a greater extent than sector.
Key words: employee mental health, private sector, public sector, gender, grade
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 95

200. Teacher effectiveness in relation to spiritual intelligence


among secondary school teachers
Satnam Kaur and Supreet Pal Singh
Khalsa College of Education, Ranjit Avenue, Amritsar

The present study aimed at evaluating the spiritual intelligence and teacher effectiveness of government and
public senior secondary school teachers of Amritsar city and explored the relationship between spiritual
intelligence and teacher effectiveness. The study revealed no significant difference in spiritual intelligence on the
basis of gender and nature of school. The study also indicated the significant differences in teacher effectiveness in
government and public school teachers when rated by heads of the institutions. The study explored a positive
relationship between spiritual intelligence and teacher effectiveness in government school teachers when rated by
self and head of the institutions. In case of public school teachers a positive relationship between spiritual
intelligence and teacher effectiveness was found when rated by self only. It also indicated positive relationship
between spiritual intelligence and teacher effectiveness in males when rated by self, whereas no relationship
between two was found in females.

201. Personality types and superstitions


Nisha Dilip Mundada
Department of Psychology & Career Counseling Centre Pachora North Maharashtra

This study analyses the relationship between superstition & introvert / extrovert personality of 100 no college
students, 50 from Pachora City & 50 from Rural Area (villages of Pachora Taluka) from Maharashtra State in India.
Dubay L.N & Dixit B.M superstition scale & Newman Kolested Introvert Scale was used. Majority of the students
have average score in superstition scale. Extrovert students & student from village area shows high level of
superstition rather than Introvert student & students from city area.

202. A study of emotional maturity of teacher trainees of


urban and rural background
Amit Kumar Aman
J.R.H.University, Chitrakoot (U.P.), India

As emotions do play central role in the life of an individual, one is expected to have higher emotional maturity in order
to lead a effective life. It is also true that our behavior is constantly influenced by the emotional maturity level that we
possess. In view of this, an attempt is made to study emotional maturity of teacher trainees of urban and rural
background. The Sample of the study consists of 50 teacher trainees of urban background and 50 teacher trainees of
rural background. The Singh and Bhargav, 1984 Emotional Maturity scale were administered on the selected sample.
The obtained responses were scored and converted to standard (T) scores, further subjected to't' tests. Findings of this
research study indicate that urban teacher trainees possess lower “emotional instability” and “lack of self confidence”
in comparison to rural teacher trainees.
Keywords: emotional maturity, teacher trainee, urban and rural background
96 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

203. Meaning in life as a predictor of depression among


breast cancer patients
Shiksha Anand and Madhurima Pradhan
Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow,UP

Breast cancer is one of life's most difficult and dispiriting event leading to physical suffering and psychological
distress. While cancer experience does not always lead to depression, it has been identified as a risk for depression
(Raison and Miller, 2003). In the clinical setting of cancer, meaning in life may well have a central role in the life
changes the illness experience brings about. Meaning in life can assist coping by offering a framework, perspective,
and counterbalance to the challenge of illness. The present study aims at identifying the different dimensions of
meaning in life (harmony and peace; life perspective, purpose and goals; confusion and lessened meaning; benefits of
spirituality) as predictors of depression among breast cancer patients. Sample for the study was stage II and III breast
cancer patients with age range of 40-70 years. Indian adaptation of Meaning in Life Scale (Warner and Williams,
1987) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (Aaron T, Beck et al, 1996) was used. The stepwise multiple regression
analysis showed that life perspective, purpose and goals; and confusion and lessened meaning came out as significant
predictors of depression among breast cancer patients. The study implies a need for designing an intervention
program to enhance meaning in life so as to minimize depression among breast cancer patients.
Keywords: meaning in life; depression; breast cancer

204. Psychological distress in old age: Nature and concerns


Komal Manshani and Waheeda Khan
Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

Distress has been defined as an unpleasant subjective, mental state. It can be brought on by stress caused by adverse
events. This occurs when there are excessive adaptive demands placed upon an individual, often having emotional
and physiological manifestations. In old age, an individual faces many changes and challenges, in the form of loss of
physical health and vitality, widowhood, retirement, death of peers and friends, loneliness, and dealing with ones
impending mortality. All these changes take a toll on the older persons' mental health, leading to psychological
distress. The changing social milieu, is also leading to decreased support for the elderly, with an increase in the nuclear
family setting, and thereafter, the Empty Nest Syndrome. The coping strategies for the elderly persons, to deal with
this distress are also discussed in this paper.

205. Reducing adolescents mental stress via motivational


role key model
Ravindra S. Dhivare
Department of General Science, JSPM's, Jayawantrao Sawant Polytechnic, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra

World Health Organization predicted the word “the tumulus teens” which is commonly called adolescent. It is a
transition period from a child into an adult. These periods are the formative as well as sensitive year because of higher
amount of changes occurs in this stage; such as mental, emotional, physical, psychological and behavioral. Mental
stress or depression is one of the serious problems generally found in adolescent age. They often rely on positive and
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 97

negative behaviors in their surroundings. Mental stress is characterized by feeling of tension. Worry, loneliness and
frustration that commonly found some periods. If these characteristics found continuously in an adolescent age then,
it is converted into depression that means severe or extreme mental stress condition. It is the most important risks
factor which is responsible for suicide. To reduce these types of mental disorders, the most effective factor such as
motivation can be used. This paper highlights the rainbow coloured motivational role key model in which every
colour can definitely help them to reduce mental stress and their lives is going to become joyful and healthy.

206. Facebook addiction and usage amongst the youth of Kerala


Naila Abdul Karim
Department of Psychology, Union Christian College, Aluva, Kerala

In recent time, Social Networking has been a booming industry, especially in India. Social Networking sites are becoming
more popular across broad segments of Internet users. Facebook, in particular, has very broad participation amongst
youngster, and has been growing in other population as well. It is becoming more and more evident that social networking
over the web is the new opium for today's youngsters. Apparently, social networking is everything for many of them as
they spend considerable time developing a favourable profile, complete with favourites and likes, status updates, posting
photographs and so on . The use of social networking sites have been the focus of large number of research studies across
the world. In the current study we look into the level of addiction towards facebook and contributing factors in Kerala. The
study was done with a sample size of 85 (m - 49 , f- 36). The tools administered were FaceBook Addiction test, Personal
data schedule and Facebook Usage check list. From the mean and std. deviation no significant level of addiction was
found, yet it did indicate an above average use [mean: 50.9412, std. deviation: ±15.1393]. There is no significant
difference between male and female usage ( p>0.5). Post Hoc analysis indicate significantly high usage by school student
(p<.05) with respect to college and professionals. From Crosstabulation it was found that people who where single had
more number of friends. The samples that were user on facebook for more than 2 years seemingly spend more time on
facebook. From the results it could be inferred that inspite of educational & technological exposure there has been no
significant addiction in the sample obtained,this might be probably because of cultural influence.

207. Anxiety, depression and narcissism among patients


with Carcinoma of the breast and carcinoma of the uterine cervix,
and attitude of their immediate care-givers towards them
Sreeja De and Arup Ghosal
Deparment of Psychiatry and Drug Deaddiction, Dr.R.M.L. Hospital and P.G.I.M.E.R., New Delhi

The present study aimed to study anxiety, depression and narcissism among patients with carcinoma of the breast and
carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and attitude of their immediate care-givers towards them. The study was carried out
on 40 female subjects, 20 suffering from carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and 20 carcinoma of the breast, whose age
ranged between 30 and 45 years, who belonged to middle socio-economic status, and had an academic qualification of
Madhyamik, or equivalent examination. A comparative study of anxiety, depression and narcissism was done
between the 2 group of patients using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck's Depression Inventory and the
Narcissism Scale. The overall attitude of the immediate care givers was estimated using a self-constructed
questionnaire.The results obtained indicate that patients suffering from cervical cancer have significantly higher
levels of anxiety, depression and narcissism as compared to patients suffering from breast cancer. 95% of the care
givers recorded a favorable attitude towards the cancer patients.
98 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

208. Use of defense mechanisms by Type-A and Type-B personalities


Shobhita Rani
Psychologist, Dehradun

The aim of the present investigation was to study the use of defense mechanisms by type A and type B personalities.
Sample consisted of 160 subjects. 80 subjects were those who had type A behaviour pattern and 80 had type B behaviour
pattern. Subjects were selected using type A/B behaviour pattern scale by Upinder Dhar and Manisha Jain. Defense
Mechanism Inventory (DMI) by Dr. N.R. Mrinal and Dr. Uma Mrinal was used to assess the use of defense mechanisms.
Results revealed a significant different between Type A and Type B personalities in using different type of defense
mechanisms. Results also showed a significant difference between males and females in using defense mechanism.

209. Female sexual dysfunction an Indian perspective


Minal Mehta
Senior Program Officer Engender Health, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

Knowledge, attitude and perception about human sexuality in different cultures vary. Despite the rich ancient
literature about human sexuality depicted on Khajurao temples and textbooks like Kama sutra and Vigyanbhairav
tantra, Indian population suffers in dark with respect to sexual dysfunction. In this review an attempt is made to
look at the sexual dysfunctions as presented by the Indian population in a private practice in Mumbai city. Author has
presented results of a small study about female sexual dysfunction and a simple evaluation protocol that can be
followed in an informal clinical setting in consultation with the referring doctor. Author has also made an attempt to
expose the global community about the therapeutic understanding about Human relationship marriage, sexuality
and spirituality A unique evaluation protocol is evolved over a period of two years by the author during the period
1992-1994. It includes History taking interview, Sexological-Self Examination and Endocrine evaluation. (N = 150
). In the present study 25% of the clients under study reported un-consummation of marriage and 10% reported extra
marital relationship. In the present study 50% of the women clients were not familiar with their sexual organs viz.
vagina and clitoris and its responsiveness; 30% were inhibited about the breast responsiveness to the erotic
stimulation. It is helpful to understand the three-dimensional ( mind, body and spirit) way of being; extract the
psycho-transforming principles of Indian Scriptures viz. Tantra/Mantra and apply it in the area of relationship.

210. Stress symptoms versus health among sports and


non-sports students
Asma Parveen and Iram Feroz
Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

Iftekhar Ahmed
N.R.E.C College, Khurja

Every individual whether teacher or student- whether sportingly active or academically active, has something in
common i.e., they all perform their tasks at varying degrees of stress levels. Stress can be defined as a physical, mental
or emotional demand, which tends to disturb the homeostasis of the body which directly influences health of an
individual. Health may be defined negatively as the absence of illness, functionally as the ability to cope with every
day activities, or positively as fitness and well being. Many researchers have demonstrated the impact of stress on
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 99

health- at an optimum level of stress one reaps the benefits of alertness and activation that improves performance of a
sports student but when stress crosses its optimal level it ultimately, negatively influences the health of both sports as
well as non sports students. The present study comprised of 100 sports students and 100 non sports students selected
randomly from Aligarh Muslim University. To measure stress symptoms, stress symptoms inventory developed by
Dr. A.K. Srivastav (1983) was used. It has 39 items categorized into 3 different dimensions: physical, psychological
and social relational symptoms with 4 response categories ranging from never, sometimes, quite often to almost
constantly. For the measurement of health, general health questionnaire (GHQ- 28) designed by Goldberg and Hillier
(1979) was used. It has 28 items categorized into 4 different dimensions: Somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia,
social dysfunction and severe depression with 4 response categories ranging from not at all, no more than usual, rather
more than usual to much more than usual. Keeping in view the comparison between sports and non sports students on
stress symptoms inventory and on general health questionnaire, the obtained data were statistically analyzed by
means of 't' test. Further multiple regression analysis using stepwise method was applied which shows that stress
symptoms predict the poor health among sports and non sports student. It was evident from Table 'A' that sports and
non sports students differ significantly from each other on stress symptoms inventory. The higher mean score of non
sports students showed that they have more stress symptoms. Table 'B' showed sports students significantly differ
from non sports students on general health questionnaire, significant value of 't' indicate that both have different
levels of health. The higher mean score of sports students showed that they have good health. Table 'C' and 'D' showed
that stress symptoms predict health among sports and non sports students respectively. It is clear from the table that all
3 different dimensions of stress symptoms emerged as significantly positive predictors of health among the sports
students and significantly negative predictors of health among non sports students. Results of the present study
revealed that there were significantly meaningful differences among sports and non sports students. It means those
students who have more stress symptoms they have worst health and those students who have less stress symptoms
they have good health. A certain level of stress is needed for optimal performance. But as stress level increases from
optimal level it impairs the health of an individual which negatively influences the performance of students.

211. Impact of burnout on quality of life among business process


outsourcing employees
B. Vijaya Bhaskararao and T.V. Ananda Rao
Department of Psychology and Para Psychology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam

Business Process Outsourcing has been the latest mantra in India today. As the current sources of revenue face slower
growth, software companies are trying new ways to increase their revenues. BPO is top on their list today. Whereas,
employees are leading under stress and burnout in this competitive global world, specially in BPO sectors. Burnout
was initially a very slippery concept in the early 1980s (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), this popular psychological
phenomenon was defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal
accomplishment. The second important explanatory factor is quality of life (physical, psychological, social and
environmental). The present study was evaluated to the impact of burnout on quality of life among business process
outsourcing employees. Data were collected from 422 BPO employees (Call Centre, Medical Transcription and
Software Development) by using two different and standard scales, namely, Quality of Life (QOL) and Maslach
Burnout Inventory (MBI). Employee groups were subdivided into high and low groups on each of the three burnout
dimensions to examine the impact of burnout on quality of life. Overall, results revealed that medical transcription
employees have more physical quality of life than other BPO employees. Software development employees have
significantly high score on psychological aspects of quality of life and call centre employees are found to have more
personal and social relations than other BPO employees.
100 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

212. Role of pre school curriculum in the preparation for


formal school readiness in India
Mythri D. and Rajalakshmi M.S.
Department of Human Development- Research centre, SMT.VHD Central Institute of Home Science, Bangalore

The first five years of life are critical to a child's lifelong development. Young children's earliest experiences and
environments set the stage for future development and success in school and life. Early experiences actually influence
brain development, establishing the neural connections that provide the foundation for language, reasoning, problem
solving, social skills, behaviour and emotional health. Catering to these need are many different types of preschools --
from parochial (run by churches) to private institutions -- all with their own curriculums and schedule of activities.
Each of these preschools addresses various areas of a child's development, such as motor skills, social and emotional
development, oral language, phonological skills and math concepts. However, there is a lack of evidence of the effects
of these curricula on children's formal school 'readiness'. The lack of such information is worrying, as children's early
performance in both academic and social domains has been associated with later academic and social outcomes as
they make the transition from preschool to formal instruction in kindergarten and first grade (Downer and Pianta
2006; Miles and Stipek 2006). While there's a lot of opportunity for children to create and let their imaginations run
far, this education is still a structured experience. In addition some schools fall short of providing this much needed
ideal culture for children at this age. Thus it is vitally important to sustain gains and benefits provided by Early
Childhood Care and Education and to ensure that they are not wasted, diminished or eliminated by subsequent
inappropriate action or inaction. Continuity and linkages must be maintained, so that success in reducing failures and
drop outs will be achieved. Against this background a closer look must be taken at the readiness of children for
schooling. Therefore the authors are presenting this concept paper.

213. Mental health status of BPL women in Odisha: A qualitative study


Nivedita Das
XIMB, Bhubaneswar
Atasi Mohanty
IIT Kharagpur

Health cannot be fragmented or reduced to a single causal factor and women's mental health is no exception. Good
mental health is intrinsically important, conferring a subjective sense of emotional wellbeing on the individual
woman and extrinsically important, representing a significant resource to the broader society in which she lives and
works. A strong inverse relationship exists between social position and physical and mental health outcomes.
Socioeconomic circumstances, social support and health related behaviours; all have independent effects on health.
Compared with people in high socioeconomic groups, those in low socioeconomic strata are far more likely to have
lower levels of resources, education, social support as well as poorer living and working environments. Health
inequalities also derive from other sources including differences related to age, marital status, genetic factors, ethnic
background and access to health care and health related information. Moreover, differences in access, and the quality
of the health care system do affect the satisfaction level and exert a strong influence on psychological health. Research
shows that there are clear gender differentials in access to health care. This study was geared to assess the mental
health of women in Odisha who are below the poverty line. For the study 230 women were drawn randomly from
different parts of Odisha. Out of these 230 women 120 women were BPL card holders and 110 women were from
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 101

middle class families. The findings indicated a positive correlation between women's mental health and their
economic status. This implies that identifying the specific economic factors will certainly help in developing mental
health intervention programs for these women.

214. The implications of Sthitaprajñatva in the context of self and


psychological well-being: A character study from the Mahabharata
K. Lakshmi and Sangeetha Menon
National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore

Self and well-being are two central and fundamental concepts discussed today in various disciplines. Every
conception of human flourishing and 'good' and 'well-being' must consider also the knowledge of self (Mangini,
2000). Enhancing one's true self is the source of all strength and fearlessness and the true focus of one's freedom and
dignity. Well-being is understood as the intrinsic and essential nature of the self. In Indian thought, self is viewed as a
holistic, experiential subject (Paranjpe, 1996) progressing toward self-transcendence and exploring infinite
possibilities of one's well-being. The discussion of self and well-being in the Mahabharata takes a deeply
psychological context and the resolution of crises and conflicts is often self-transformative. Krishna in the Bhagavad-
Gita gives a discourse in response to Arjuna's query about who is a steady person (sthitaprajña). The discourse is on
building psychological strength whose composites are steadfastness and fearlessness (Sw. Ranganathananda, 2000,
p. 95), the outcomes of 'knowing' the self. This study will use 'data' from the Bhagavad-Gita and the Mahabharata,
which are in the form of Arjuna's experiences, presenting situations, responses to crises, such that the psychological
potentials are evoked. Through the engagement with the characters' and our own emotions, we become aware of our
own state of being, what was, what is, and what can be attained by engaging with our self and emotions. The self is
understood as a process and hence is transformative by nature. It is not a monolithic, fixed 'self' but an evolving,
growing, transforming self.

215. Problems of women administrators: Are they challenging?


R. L. Madhavi
Department of Education (CASE), M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara

Managing a position at any level for women is a challenging task. On one side there are traditional roles to be
managed and on the other newly acquired job roles challenge the capacity of the women administrator in
achieving goals in expected direction. Even though the targets are same for any administrator, the ways of
achievement becomes different for administrators of different gender. Ways of working also do not appear to
be same for all. A woman administrator has to prove much more than her male counterpart in order to satisfy
the authorities in a formal way. Prevalent opinions about the role of women in societal functioning are causing
severe impediments in the way of a woman to prove herself an able administrator. This is similar at all levels of
working and more vigilant at higher levels. Even though we find examples of success at higher levels they are
so scanty to be satisfied as an achievement of targets specified. The number women up in the ladder the very
low compared with their male counter parts. When we ask females to open out with their problems, it is highly
difficult to make them speak. Where lays the exact crux of the problem? Is it the societal attitude or the person
or elsewhere? This paper is attempting to make a discussion on these attitudinal aspects of so called women
administrator's problems.
102 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

216. Level of stress and mental health of print media


and electronic media people
Khushboo Hussain, Aanchal Ahuja and Bharathi Kumari
Jamia, Milia Islamia University, Delhi

The article provides the research conducted on the people working in print media and electronic media. The aim of the present
study is to assess the level of stress and mental health of people working in print and electronic media. The sample consists of
80 subjects drawn from lucknow. They were administered Mental health scale by Hussain and Sharma (1996) and life stress
scale by Holmes and Rahe ( 1997). Mean, SD and two way anova was calculated for the data. The results show that there is no
significant difference in the level of stress of print media and electronic media. Reporting group has significantly higher level
of stress as compared to editorial group. There is significant difference in the mental health of print media and electronic
media. Reporting group and editorial group has obtained more or less similar scores in mental health.

217. Prevalence of depression among adolescents


Abha Singh and Ritu Modi
Department of Psychology, P.P.N. College, Kanpur, UP

In present scenario adolescent are facing more psychological problems in comparison to past decades. Depression is leading
cause of adolescent's suicides and suicidal attempts. Thus it is very important to study causes and solution of depression
among the adolescents. The aim of the present study is to find out depression among male and female adolescents. The sample
consisted of 150 students; of them, 75 male and 75 female adolescents with the age range 14-17 years, of different schools of
Kanpur City. For collecting the data incidental sampling was applied. Means, standard deviation, t-test and correlation
measure were used to analysis the data. Result indicated that depression was found in both the groups (Male & Female
adolescents) yet male adolescents have higher depression in comparison to female adolescents.

218. Measuring the job satisfaction level of the academic staff in


L.R. group of institutes, Solan
Preeti Devgan
L.R Institute of Engineering and Technology, Solan, Himachal Pradesh

Significantly, job satisfaction is very essential to the continuing growth of educational system around the world. The private
education undoubtedly contributes to the nation's future development by developing a pool of professionally educated and
trained employees. Therefore in general it's undeniable that the role of teachers is really essential in generating the bright
future of country. Thus, this research paper was mainly undertaken to investigate job satisfaction level of academic staff in L.R
Group of Institute, Solan. Important factors that have an impact on job satisfaction level are salary, promotion opportunities,
working conditions, job security, personal growth and opportunities for advancement. A sample of 100 lecturers is selected by
stratified random sampling from the 7 institutes (L.R Institute of Engineering and Technology, L.R Institute of B.Pharmacy,
L.R Institute of B.B.A, L.R Institute of B.C.A, L.R Institute of M.B.A, L.R Institute of M.C.A, L.R Institute of Poly-
technique) of L.R Group of Institute. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. While the data for the study was
analyzed using statistical procedures- Chi-square test, Hypothesis test. The result from this research showed that academic
staff of the institutes is more satisfied with the pay/salary, promotion opportunities, authority and independence, work load
and less satisfied with the opportunities for training and advancement.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 103

219. Implicit and explicit mood-congruent memory


under depressed mood
Mahe Naz and Aeeduzzafar
Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

Mood congruent-memory (MCM) refers to the tendency for one to remember and process information that matches
the individual's mood. Being in a particular mood can cause people to pay more attention to information that matches
their mood and to think more about or elaborate that information (Bower and Forgas, 2000). Researches indicate that
MCM is a robust phenomenon in depression (Blaney, 1986). Teasdale (1983) has suggested that MCM might act to
maintain depression. Only two published studies have investigated MCM bias in clinical depression with implicit
memory tests. First, Watkins, Mathews, Williamson and Fuller (1992) published a study that did not find MCM bias in
implicit memory. Watkins et al. found MCM bias in explicit memory but not no MCM bias in implicit memory test.
Second Denny and Hunt (1992) conducted a similar study and their results were consistent with Watkins et al. An
attempt is made to find out why MCM bias does not occurs in implicit memory, whereas MCM bias occurs in explicit
memory. The present study is undertaken to resolve this problem. A sample of 120 subjects was used for the present
study. These 120 subjects were randomly selected from undergraduate students, faculty of social sciences, A.M.U.
Aligarh. Modified Velton Mood Induction Technique (MVMIT) was used to induce depressed mood among the
subjects. Depressed mood was induced among 60 subjects, while other 60 subjects were used as control group. A list
of 16 words (8 positive and 8 negative) were used in the present study. The data were analyzed by t-test. The findings
revealed that MCM bias does not occur in implicit memory, while we found strong MCM bias in explicit memory. The
results were discussed in terms of several prominent theories of cognition and depression, and other possible
explanations were also discussed.

220. Strengths of character in relation to happiness


among adolescents
Akanksha Tripathi
Department of Psychology, MCM DAV College for Women, Sector-36, Chandigarh

Adolescence is period of great joy, excitement and optimism during which the delights of autonomy, intimacy and the
future are fresh and possibilities are created for happiness, success and psychological growth throughout the
remainder of life. It is an age bubbling with energy and it is in this transitional phase, that youth's energies have to be
channelized towards positive emotions in order to equip the youth with positive life skills to lead a well functioning
adult life. Recently, scholars have become increasingly interested in studying the positive aspects of human nature
and argue that growth and maintenance of positive characteristics and behaviors may contribute to a variety of
positive outcomes as well as a buffer against a variety of negative outcomes including psychological disorders.
Therefore, the primary focus of the present study was to investigate the relationship between various character
strengths and happiness among adolescents. The sample comprised of 400 adolescents (200 males and 200 females)
in the age range of 16-21 yrs. The study focused on five strengths namely spirituality, forgiveness, gratitude, hope and
optimism in relation to happiness. Spirituality was measured by Spiritual Well Being scale (Ellison,1983). Heartland
Forgiveness scale devised by Thompson et al. (2003) was used to measure Trait Forgiveness and its dimensions viz
Forgiveness of Self, Forgiveness of Others and Forgiveness of Situations. To measure Happiness, Oxford Happiness
Inventory devised by Argyle et al., (1989) was used. To measure Hope, the Adult Trait Hope Scale by Snyder et al.
104 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

(1991) was used which yields two dimensions viz. Pathways and Agency. Gratitude Questionnaire devised by
McCullough et al. (2002), was used to assess the Grateful disposition of the adolescents. Optimism was measured
using Life orientation test by Scheier and Carver (1985). Inter Correlation analysis was done. Results revealed
significant correlations between all the strengths and perceived happiness among adolescents.

221. Dealing with delinquency not a child's play


Supninder Kaur
P.K.R. Jain College of Education, Ambala City, Haryana

We follow the dictum “children of today are leaders of tomorrow” and love them and try to provide full
facilities for their growth and development accordingly. But paradoxically enough, the more we care for them
the more we suffer despondency and despair. Of late there has been an alarming engagement in the sphere of
delinquency of children. From minor acts of abuse, fights, theft etc they have now graduated to commit as
heinous and serious crimes as Rape, Robbery, and Murder, which suggests there is something radically wrong
with our socio-legal dynamics. In this fast changing world where development of science and technology
keeps us on the run with rapidly occurring incredible changes that affect our life styles, we can't remain
contented or being confined in a strait jacketed idealist frame of laws which have no bearing on the present day
situation. We have to be pragmatic and realistic rather than bigoted with a kind of idealism that hardly works
now. This paper presents the areas which need to be dealt with for the prevention of delinquency and in
particularly highlights the role of family in dealing with delinquency. The need of the hour is to avoid tackling
the symptom and look into the cause, the spotlight has to be turned on the family. The challenge to family
intervention researchers is to develop and test interventions that effectively address such a broad range of
family protective factors which can provide a leeway to our youth.

222. Marital hardiness as a predictor of marital adjustment


in professionals with working spouse
Sangeetha M. and Sheela J.
Department of Psychology, Women's Christian College, Chennai

The study aims to investigate whether marital hardiness predicts marital adjustment in professionals in the
fields of Medicine, Information Technology and Education with a working spouse. An ex-post-facto survey
research was adopted for the present study. The sample size for the study was 345 (N=345) of which 116 were
males and 229 were females. The age of the individuals who were part of the study was 22 to 58 years. The
average age of the husbands was 38.22 years and that of the wives was 34.53 years. The method of purposive
sampling was used for the selection of sample. The Marital Hardiness Scale (Sangeetha 2009) and the ABC
Scale of Marital Relationship (Nappinnai 2006) were the tools used for the study. The independent sample t-
test, One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson's product-moment correlation and multiple regressions
were the statistical techniques used for data analysis. The results show that among professionals in the fields of
Medicine, Information Technology and Education with a working spouse profession, gender, type and nature
of marriage, type of family, presence of an adolescent child, chronological age, age at marriage, years of
marriage and number of children do not contribute to marital adjustment. Marital hardiness is related to marital
adjustment. Quality of relationship, a dimension of marital hardiness has emerged as a significant predictor of
marital adjustment.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 105

223. Education as a moderator between addiction specific


support and self-efficacy among recovering substance users
Fouzia Alsabah Shaikh, Anjali Ghosh and A.A.S.Azam
Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata

Role of level of education has seldom been considered as capable of influencing the much researched relationship
between social support and self efficacy in drug taking populations. The present study thus highlights on the buffering
effect which education can likely have on social support-self efficacy relationship. The study also manages to throw
light on addiction specific form of social support and its association with self efficacy in accordance with recent
literature emphasizing on the addiction specific rather than general forms of social support. A group of 150 substance
users receiving rehabilitation treatment in Kolkata were approached for interview after taking their informed consent
and permission from the administrative authorities of the centers visited. Measures of social support and self efficacy
were administered and details with regard to education qualification were obtained from the records maintained by
the respective centers. Hierarchical regression analysis was done to probe prediction of self efficacy from social
support and level of education and also from the product interactions of the two variables. Results revealed significant
moderation effect of level of education on relationship between social support and self efficacy

224. Mental health status among government and


private school teachers
P. Sudhamayi and G.Babu Rao
Department of Psychology, S.V.University, Tirupati

Mental Health is the ability to balance feelings, desires, ambitions and ideas in one's daily living situations. It is the
ability to face and accept the realities of life. The present study aims at assessing the mental health status of men and
women of two different age groups(i.e., 30-39yrs and 40-49 yrs) working in Govt., and private schools. The major
objectives of the study are (i) To assess the mental health status of male and female teachers ; (ii) To assess the mental
health status of two different age groups and (iii) To assess the differences in the mental health of teachers working in
Govt., and private schools. Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagdish and Srivastava(1983) was administered to
60 men and 60 women . Data was analysed using appropriate statistical techniques to assess the differences related to
type of institute, gender and age with regard to the Mental Health of teachers.
Keyword: mental health status, teachers

225. Impact of dark chocolate on mood behaviour of


young women
E. Kannan, Madhumitha Suresh and T. Jothimani
PSG CAS, G. Suresh, Consultant Homeopath

Chocolate has been a household word for over a couple of centuries and has been considered as a favourite treat for
people of all ages. It has got a lot of medicinal properties as well which have come forth to the world owing to studies
by researchers across the world. To observe how controlled doses of dark chocolate influence mood behavior in young
women. The study was conducted in two prominent Indian cities namely Coimbatore and Bangalore. The study
106 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

population includes women in the age group of 20 to 35 years. Sixty (n = 60) young women were screened for study by
using initial screening schedule. of these 22 (n = 22) young women met inclusion criteria were consented to
participate in the study. The personal data was obtained from the subjects and then they were administered with Profile
of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS) before after the supplementation of dark chocolate. The data analyzed using
Chi Square test revealed that there is a significant difference on Fatigue Inertia (χ = 26. 52**), Vigor Activity (χ = 9.
97 **), Tension Anxiety (χ = 26. 49**), Depression Dejection (χ = 29.45**), Anger Hostility (χ = 40. 2**),
Confusion Bewilderment (χ = 15. 45**) after the supplementation of dark chocolate for a period of 5 days.
Conclusion: The dark Chocolate had a positive impact on mood behaviour of the subjects.
Keywords: dark chocolate, mood state, POMS.

226. Psycho-sexual risk factors of PPD: A retrospective study


on women from rural and urban areas of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
T. Jothimani
Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

All forms of interpersonal violence, including sexual assault and physical abuse, are associated with depression,
especially in girls and women. In particular, researchers have focused on a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA)
which is strongly associated with adult women's depression. But there was no research has been focused on a history
of childhood sexual abuse in relation with Postpartum Depression (PPD). This is the first study aims to find the psycho
sexual risk factors of PPD in women living in rural and urban areas of Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. One thousand
eight hundred and seventy five women were screened between 2 and 12 months after delivery for depression by using
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Of the 1875 women were screened, 400 were eligible for the study and consented
to complete the Self Report Questionnaire for putative psycho sexual risk factors of PPD. The overall prevalence of
PPD is 21% and it is consistent with other studies conducted in Goa and rural area of Southern Region of Tamil Nadu
and is also in line with the range of prevalence reported in Western countries. According to BDI 80.07% women had
mild depression, 15. 14% had moderate depression, and 4. 78% had severe depression. The study revealed that
prenatal stress, aversion to sex, past history of suicide, childhood sexual abuse and expected gender of the child were
significantly associated with PPD. In these women, 69% and 65% were reported aversion to sex and CSA
respectively. In conclusion the present study confirms that the rate and risk factors of PPD were broadly similar to that
in other countries, except the aversion to sex, CSA, the history of suicide, and gender of the child were in addition to be
the major risk factors of PPD. It provides evidence that CSA survivor biologically and psychologically prone to
experience depression in the face of life stress.

227. Brand preference in clothing among college going


girls of Chandigarh
Ramanjit Kaut Bajwa
Department of Clothing and Textiles, Govt. Home Science College, Chandigarh

Clothing plays a considerable role in an individual's life at all the ages as it provides a medium of self expression, a
way to conform, and a way to suggest wealth and prestige and an outlet for creative energy. The apparel retail industry
comprises sale of all men's wear, women's wear and children's wear. The Indian retail market is evolving rapidly and
the women's wear market has also seen a corresponding expansion due to the increased number of working women,
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 107

rising disposable incomes, growth of middle class and improved decision making authority of women etc. The women's
wear market is the most varied and directional as women will purchase clothing much more than men in any one season.
Present day customers are more knowledgeable and extra demanding than in the past. Customers analyze a brand as a
significant part of a product, and branding can add value to a product. Brand names and other information on labels are
mostly used by consumers as criteria for determining the product quality at the time of purchase as well as in identifying
the products that might be profitable for them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness of college girls
about different national and international apparel brands in women's wear segment. The paper further analyses different
factors affecting the preference for branded clothing. The results of the study will help fashion marketers to have a better
perception of the consumer preferences and buying behavior understanding which they can fabricate their products to
satisfy customer needs and create the desire among consumers to buy their products.
Keywords: brand, clothing, youth, consumer behaviour, consumer preferences.

228. Life skill counselling


D. Sumathi
School of Education, Tamilnadu Open University, Chennai

Life Skill Counselling is about the introduction to Counselling other wise know as life skill helping or life skills therapy,
assumptions, acquisition, maintenance and practice. Life Skill Counselling, otherwise known as life skills helping (LSH)
or life skills therapy is a Counselling approach that integrated many of the insights and strengths of the theoretical and
practical approaches. The life skills approach to human development seeks to answer two important interrelated
questions. First, how do people acquire like skill strengths and deficits. In particulars, how do they acquire thinking skills
and action skills strengths and deficits. Second how do people acquire skills languages, the ability to think about and
analyze their behavior in skill terms. The practice of life skills Counselling is structured around DASIE, as systematic five
stage model of the Counselling process. DASIE's five stages, each of which are described, are : 1. develop the
relationship, identity and clarify problems, 2. assess problem and redefine in skill terms, 3. state working goals and plan
intervention, 4. intervene to develop self-helping skill, 5.end and consolidate self- helping skills.

229. Impact of mobile addiction on psychological well-being


among university students
K. Chandraiah
Department of Psychology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

The study was aimed at investigating the impact of mobile addiction, gender and nature of course on psychological
well-being of the university students. A random sample of 120 university students (54 boys and 66 girls) both science
and arts were participated in the study. A mobile addiction scale a modified version of internet addiction scale
developed by Egger, O. & Rauterberg, M. (1996) was used to measure high and low level of mobile addiction and
psychological well-being questionnaire developed by Indira Jaya Prakash was used to measure the level
psychological wellbeing of the sample. The results indicates that higher levels of addiction to mobile lowers the levels
of psychological well-being. Study also reveals gender differences in the experience of psychological well-being.
Female students found to have better psychological well-being than male students. Further the results indicate that
science students have better psychological well-being than their counterparts arts students. Implications of the study
were included in the results and discussion.
Keywords: mobile addiction well-being gender nature of course
108 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

230. A study of impact of gender differences in relation to


forgiveness on perceived stress
Azmat Sidhu and Anupreet Kaur Arora
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Stress is becoming a severe problem nowadays. It poses a serious threat to the coping mechanisms of an individual
who is faced with any stressful situation, be it a major life event or daily hassles that require adjustment on an everyday
basis. Review of literature shows that forgiveness acts as a protective factor, reduces stress, and is an emotion focused
coping strategy of stress response (Worthington and Scherer, 2004). The current study is designed to study the impact
of forgiveness in relation to gender differences on perceived stress. For this purpose, the Heartland Forgiveness Scale
(Thompson, Snyder, and Hoffman, 2005) and the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (Singh and Kaur, 1984) is
administered to the sample. The sample for the current investigation consists of 100 subjects (where 50 are males and
50 are females) in the age group 18-24 years. 2*2 ANOVA is used for statistical analysis of the results in order to
determine the effect of forgiveness in relation to gender differences on perceived stress. It is expected that there will be
significant differences in perceived stress as influenced by forgiveness in relation to gender differences.

231. Comparative study of cancer patients with high and


low social support
Seema Vinayak and Nisha Rani
Department of Psychology, Punjab University, Chandigarh

“Social support is the existence or availability of people on whom a person can rely, people who let us know that they
care about us, value us are concerned about us. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the people with
low social support and high social support in case of cancer patients and healthy controls (without any terminal
illness) from low socioeconomic strata. Stressful life events scale, Aatam mulyankan prashanavali, and social support
scale were administered individually to each participant. Social support studied on two parameters viz SSQN (total
number of people for support) and SSQS (satisfaction from support). Means, SDs, and t-test revealed that cancer
patients with high SSQN as well as SSQS were, low on negative stress as well as anxiety. In cancer patients as well as
healthy subjects, people with high SSQS were low on total stress last year, negative stress any time, total stress
negative and anxiety. However, non significant differences emerged on all sub categories of stress in healthy controls.

232. A study to assess the knowledge of mothers with infant on child


rearing practices and beliefs in selected communities at Coimbatore
A. Bhuvaneswari
Department of Sociology, Kovai Medical Center for Research and Educational Trust, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

Assess the knowledge of mothers with infant on child rearing practice and beliefs. Find out the correlation between
knowledge of mothers with infant on child rearing beliefs and practice. Associate the knowledge of mothers with
infant on child rearing beliefs and practice on selected demographic variables. A descriptive research design was used.
Selected villages(somyampalayam,kalveerampalayam and kanuvai at Coimbatore. 120 mothers with infant. Random
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 109

sampling technique. Knowledge of mothers with infant on child rearing practices assessed through structured
interview questionnaire and knowledge of mothers with infant on child rearing beliefs measured through Likert scale.
Among 120 respondents 73% had poor knowledge on child rearing practice and 45% had poor knowledge on child
rearing beliefs. Karl pearson's co-efficient of correlation indicates that there was a positive correlation(r= 0.7084)
exists between knowledge of mothers with infant on child rearing practice and beliefs score. There was an association
between child rearing practice score of respondents with their occupation, income, number of children and mass
media at home, significant at 0.05 level. There was an association between scores on knowledge of mothers with
infant on child rearing beliefs with age, educational status, monthly income, number of children and type of medical
services sought out significant at 0.05 level.The study revealed that knowledge of mothers with infant on child rearing
practice and beliefs are poor.

233. Media psychology: The need of the hour


Abhijit Bora
Department of Mass Communication & Journalism, Tezpur University, Tezpur

Media, which is an integrally connected aspect of our life at any given time has enormous influence upon the human
beings. Be it mass media, new media or traditional folk media. While many a times we ascribe a specific media as
good or positive and others as negative or bad ones, there is no such things as good or bad media or positive or negative
media. It actually depends upon the persons who are manning these media whether they want to utilize it for positive
or negative purposes. Further, as we are becoming far more dependent upon the media in each and every walk of our
life the time has come to examine the role of media on ourselves. In other words it is important to examine how the
different types of media are influencing us, in which way and in what manner. This would help us in preparing
ourselves for a certain kind of media literacy by which we would be able to analyze and accept the media in our life so
that we can counter any negative or untoward influence of media on us. Besides, we would also be able to utilize the
vast potential of media in influencing the masses in the right in times of crisis as we know that media is also the leader
if the nation. This is a new and emerging area which is not yet an established discipline in our country. However, it is
high time we made a beginning in this direction. This paper looks at what is media psychology, why it should be
studied and how new media is increasingly posing a challenge in this study as it is a highly participatory media
becoming more and more popular every passing day.

234. A comparative study of emotional maturity of high


school boys and girls
Nidhi Kaul
Lancers International School, Sector 53, Gurgaon, Haryana

The objectives of this study are to understand the nature and differences in emotional maturity in boys and girls; ii) to
find if there is any significant difference in emotional maturity between the boys and girls of high school ; iii)to
examine the criteria of EM; iv) to provide some counselling tips and methods to help students improve emotional
maturity. Emotional maturity is a personality trait , the result of emotional development and the display of emotion
appropriate to ones chronological age. An adolescent can possess almost all types of emotions , positive or negative
and is able to express them at the appropriate time in an appropriate degree in their day to day life. The sample of this
study will comprise 50 students (25 girls and 25 boys) in the age group of 15-18years. The sample will be selected
from schools of Gurgaon. The Emotional Maturity Scale (EMS) by Dr. Yashwir Singh and Dr. Mahesh Bhargawa
(1990) will be used. It is hypothesized that - i) girls are more emotionally mature than boys ; ii) boys are more
emotionally mature than girls and iii) there is no difference in emotional maturity between high school boys and girls.
110 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

235. Meditation and positive psychology: Beyond the


stress-reduction paradigm
Kalpana Sahoo
Asian School of Business Management, Shiksha Vihar, ASBM Square, Chandaka, Bhubaneswar, Orissa

In recent years, there has been resurgence of psychological interest in the study of positive psychology. A number
of positive psychology interventions have successfully helped people to learn skills for improving mood and
building personal resources (e.g., psychological resilience and social support). Positive psychology and
meditation both support the benefits of developing a new habit of living with a positive attitude. The experience of
meditation can take us beyond the usual mental pressure and emotional agitation to a calm, centered place. The Art
of Meditation course introduces a graceful and effortless meditation technique and effortless transcendence.
Meditation techniques have been developed to take advantage of latent capacities of consciousness in the contexts
of different systems of religion, philosophy, mysticism, psychology, and medicine. For many Westerners and
Easterners alike, the prospect of stress reduction -- broadly conceived -- is the main allure of meditation. From a
subjective standpoint, being "stressed out" often involves unhappiness enough to motivate seeking relief. But
there are other powerful reasons to look for an antidote to stress. From a modern medical standpoint, stress has
been shown to suppress the body's immune system, making it more susceptible to sickness and disease and slower
at recovering from them. Stress reducing meditation techniques often reduces risk for such afflictions and can
often play an important role in alleviating them. This paper tries to highlight the importance of meditation and the
significance of positive psychology for overcoming stress in day to day life.
Keywords: varieties of meditation, working principles, meditation and health, beyond the stress-related benefits,
positive psychology, enhancement of the mind

236. Efficacy of bibliotherapy in the treatment of mild


to moderate depression
Deoshree Akhouri
Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh

Amool R. Singh and Masroor Jahan


Department of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi

Bibliotherapy can form an integral part of treating depression naturally at the primary care level. Bibliotherapy in
conjunction with natural remedies for depression can play an effective role in self management of depression.
Bibliotherapy is the term used to describe the use of self-help books to help those who are experiencing mild to
moderate symptoms of anxiety, depression and other common emotional difficulties. This study was conducted to see
its effects on reducing depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicidal ideation on depressive patients. Method:
Sample for the study was consisted of 12 patients of depression without psychotic symptoms (6 patients in
experimental group and 6 patients in control group). The total duration of the study was three months. Assessment was
done six times at an interval of 15 days. Subjects in the Bibliotherapy group had significantly less depressive
symptoms, hopeless and suicidal ideation than those in the control group at the end of three months. Bibliotherapy is
effective as an adjunct to psychotherapy in the management of depressive patients.
Keyword: depression, bibliotherapy, hopeless, suicidal ideation
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 111

237. Feelings of competence amongst individuals experiencing


different levels of anxiety sensitivity
Sheeba Ali
Department of Psychology, AMU, Aligarh

Anxiety sensitivity which refers to a fear of anxiety sensations can be better understood if it is studied in relation to
other relevant factors. The present research is concerned with studying anxiety sensitivity in the context of feelings of
competence experienced by individuals. The sample comprised of 140 subjects, 70 males and 70 females. Anxiety
was measured through The Reiss-Epstein-Gursky Anxiety Sensitivity Index scale(ASI) developed by Peterson and
Reiss (1991), and competence through scale constructed by author (Khan, 2003).On the basis of score obtained, on
anxiety sensitivity, three groups were formed, high anxiety sensitivity, moderate anxiety sensitivity, low anxiety
sensitivity. Inter group comparisons revealed that subjects having high anxiety sensitivity are high on competence,
when compared to low anxiety sensitivity subjects. Some differences in the two gender groups were also found.

238. Effect of educational institutes on creativity of students


Deepti Gupta
Department of Psychology, Rama Jain Kanya Maha Vidyalaya Nazibabad, Bijnor

Thinking differently from normal way or doing things in different way unlike prevalent manner is Creativity. It is
an ability of person, who finds a solution for any problem by his innovative thinking. Creativity is concerned
primarily with fundamental or innovation. In modern times creativity is also considered as an important & key
qualification. The basis of individual development is creativity. Child starts learning things since birth and all
aspects of his personality develop along with his creativity. Children in their own groups, learns good-bad, proper
improper things. They also learn how to make adjustment with their friends. This adjusting nature helps them in
developing as a good citizen and fulfills their aim of life. Everyone has some expectations from life which they
want to achieve and have great determination to get through. If the children have high and positive expectations in
life, definitely the children will be highly creative. Children learn lot of things in their schools also. Depending
upon their different educational institutions backgrounds, the student's behavior and their development are very
likely to vary. This expectation is natural as there is a lot of difference in the environment of educational institutes.
There is possibility that it develops a difference in creativity of secondary-level students studying in various
schools of different background. To find out the difference in creativity of students studying in the secondary level
of government and non government schools, a comparative study was carried out. A sample of 120 students was
considered for this study. After making a “Null hypotheses” of Statistical method that there is no difference in
creativity of students, they were subjected to a “Verbal creativity test” designed by Prof Walker Mehandi to judge
their creativity. Measurement of creativity was carried out as per the directives given in the test manual.
Creativity was tested based on the fluency, diversity and originality in thinking of students and marks were
awarded and tabulated as per scoring sheets provided in the test. The data obtained was analysed by using standard
deviation methods of parametric statistics & assessment and comparative study of creativity was carried out. To
find out relevance and authenticity of the results, the T-test and critical ratio method has been used. The result of
comparative study shows no difference in the creativity of students of public and private school. Perhaps this
result of no difference in creativity is came because of 1.The special quality of adjustment is developing very fast
these days in the children that also help in developing their creativity. 2. Full support provided by the families and
parents to their children's aspirations. 3.The children also developing creativity by thinking logically.
112 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

239. Marital satisfaction and communication in couple typology


Tejbeer Kaur
Department of Psychology, Khalsa College, Patiala

Gurminder Sokhey
Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

The present investigation aimed at studying the differences amongst five different types of couples on communication
patterns. Total sample comprised 200 subjects and were administered ENRICH Couple Scale. Five types of couples
were identified i.e. Vitalized, Harmonious, Traditional, Conflicted and Devitalized couples. These types were further
clubbed into satisfied (Vitalized & Harmonious), Traditional and Dissatisfied (Conflicted and Devitalized)
categories. One-way ANOVA was applied followed by scheffe's test to see significant differences amongst the means.
Obtained results revealed that maritally satisfied (vitalized & harmonious) couples differed from martially from
dissatisfied couples (conflicted & devitalized) on communication patterns, the latter group showing poorer
communication skills. The traditional type showed better communication skills than the dissatisfied but not better
than satisfied group.

240. Role of education in active citizenship


Surender Pal and Jessica Ravindra
Department of English, New Kalpana Chawala College, Chikanwas,Hisar, Haryana

Since its very existence and origin, education has been synonym with learning and everybody has always been keen to
learning. Education is what makes us behave particularly in peculiar situation. It is a spiritual boon to humanity. It puts
everything a person has through a sieve. It thus distils and refines it again and again till its ultimate and metaphysical
formation. It civilizes, culturalizes, justifies, divinizes, and at the most humanizes us. Definitely, it is the influence of
Vidya and Avidya that determine the personality and character of an individual. 'Vidya' and Para-Vidya have produced
Rama and Krishna whereas, contrary to it, 'Avidya' and has produced arbitrary dictators, capitalists, colonists, usurers
(profiteers), imperialists, maoists, terrorists, dons, corrupts etc. (no need of mentioning their names). The constitution
of India has endowed man with a uni-citizenship and fundamental rights and duties and active citizen of the nation is
who lets other strike his rights nor underestimates his duties. Education has been working innovatively for the smooth
and comprehensive existence of humanity on the globe. It is a touchstone touching which even a person facing great
diversities in life miraculously finds turn into eternal ecstasies. Life prevails when education hails. 'Education' has
been defined in various ways by different erudite and notables. But the definition that follows left indelible imprints
on the very care of my heart:- “Biologically, both the sister and the wife are the same. But what makes us differ the both
is education in a real sense.” Education thus relates and correlates one with another. It makes one atone for what was
misjudged once. It motivates one to feel sorry for conducting mistakes. It equips one to have full restraint over senses
(innate and outer) and sharpen ones life skills. Education links or conjuncts but not distracts. Really, it helps in
preparing active citizens that peacefully create and evolutes new dimensions of life on earth. We live in fear-ridden
country, where values are dead, people are puppets, the tongues are locked, the hearts are meek, the hands are hand
cuffed, the brains are washed, the satans are enthroned and sages are slain, the cricketers are cheered and overfed with
wealth even after they lose and the family of a dead solider committes suicide facing poverty and hunger. An idle man
is worshiped whereas a dead-laborious woman is accused of characterlessness serving for the cause of narrow-
thinking society. Where and how much deep are the roots of all these neo-cultures? Its roots are in pristine endevoours
to educate all in a real sense and channelize their innate heritage of ethics.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 113

241. NRI marriages: A new face of crime against women in Panjab


Komal Sharma
Department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

In the emerging new status hierarchy in the marriage market of the region, NRI marriages occupy the top position.
With dwindling fortunes in agriculture and ever rising cost of agricultural production there has been consistent
devaluing of land is an economic failure. With disenchantment to the Green Revolution technology already
established, overseas destination emerges as a major pull factor for marriage induced international migration. The
young generation looks at farming as a demotional choice making. The situation, however, is very grim particularly in
rural Punjab though at times even the urban and educated populace become victim to this malady. Even daughters of
well-placed bureaucrats have been found to be the victims of this tragedy. NRI marriages are rising in Punjab because
they are solemnized primarily to create channels to get over the legalities of marriage and rising restrictions on
immigration in developed countries. Punjabi women marry NRIs to get permanent residence or citizenship abroad
and latter on they are sexually, economically and socially exploited and is dumped in Punjab forever. Therefore
proposed paper will attempt to analyse and understand the phenomenon of NRI marriages keeping women at the
centre, primarily, as a victim. The study is blend of both the qualitative and quantitative method of data collection. The
study relates to the State of Punjab. For the present paper four cases were drawn from the two districts of Punjab
namely Jalandhar and Kapurthala and an attempt has been made to examine the factors factors driving Indian girls and
their families into contracting such marriages and to explore the reasons for desertion. Therefore proposed study will
attempt to analyse and understand the phenomenon of NRI marriages keeping women at the centre, primarily, as a
victim, within the theoretical framework of gender studies.
Keywords :- fraudulent NRI marriages, abandoned, desertion, violence

242. Impact of spiritual beliefs on subjective well-being


of young adults
Madhurima Pradhan
Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow

Spirituality is a resource variable and has been included by Positive Psychologists in VIA classification of virtues and
strength under strengths of transcendence. Beliefs are perceptual lenses (Lazarus and Folkman 1984) through which
we look at the world.Spiritual beliefs incorporate emotional acceptance of God (or higher power) and His reflection in
the form of nature, fellow human beings, self, meaning and purpose in life. The present study seeks to explore the
impact of spiritual beliefs on subjective well-being(SWB) of young adults. This age is of specific significance for the
study of spirituality since it is the time for them to clarify and embrace spiritual values or a time for rejecting and
rebelling against such values. The sample comprised of 300 young adults (150 males and 150 females).Spiritual
beliefs scale was developed by the researcher. Subjective well-being was measured with the help of PANAS(Positive
Affect And Negative Schedule)developed by Watson and Tellegan (1985) and Satisfaction with Life Scale(SWLS)
by Diener et.al.(1985).The results revealed females to be significantly higher in spiritual beliefs as compared to their
male counterparts. No gender difference in SWB was found. Higher spiritual beliefs group (male and female both)
were found to possess greater positive affect and life satisfaction. But no significant difference was found in negative
affects between high and low spiritual beliefs groups. Results imply that spiritual beliefs have impact on the positive
affects () of the person but they do not have any impact in reducing the experience of negative affects.
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243. Promoting stress management and well-being of


ninth-grade children
K. Arockia Maraichelvi and Y. Ramya Priya
Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore

'Promoting stress management and well- being of children' was designed with the goal of putting a person almost
instantaneously in a calm state with an ablility to step back and look at problematic circumstances in a realistic light
without feeling too hassled. Therefore this study was undertaken with the objective of appraising the perceived stress
level of selected ninth grade school children and stumbling on the efficacy of the intervention programme on
“Proactive stress coping strategies”. Primarily 88 ninth standard girls of St.Joseph's girls high school,
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh known as population sample were selected and were measured for their level of
stress. For the intervention programme on proactive stress coping strategies the adolescent girls who were found to
have high and medium level of stress (totaling to 62) were culled out from the population sample and were called as
sub sample. An Inventory of School Student's Recent Life Experiences (ISSRLE) was constructed. A self learning
book on 'Proactive stress coping strategies' especially designed for adolescents was developed, in order to bring down
the ways of reducing stress. It was found that 34 percent and 39 percent of the population sample was found to exist
with a higher and medium level of stress. However 27 percent of the selected adolescent girls were in the safer zone
with low level of stress. Out of the 64 selected sub sample subjected to intervention 50 percent was able to confront the
stress they suffered previously and only 1/4th of the sample were in the category of medium level of stress. This
clearly indicates that the girls who were in the previous category of risk had by the efficacious intervention
programme stepped into the lower risk category. So children before getting into their ninth grade should know how to
promote the stress management strategies and be proactive to get a cooperative family and school environment which
helps them to lead their lives in a peaceful manner.

244. Relevance of signature strengths in technological


advanced cultures
Abha Singh and Dr.anuradha Sharma
Amity Institute of Psychology and Allied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, UP

“Such is human psychology that if we don't express our joy, we soon cease to feel it”.
The main focus of positive psychology is heavily on happiness and fulfillment, and which examined the positive
aspects of mental health and how it is consistent with a worldview.There are opportunities and challenges associated
with transition from one stage of the life cycle to the another (Carr,1999). Practical applications of positive
psychology tries to help individuals and organizations correctly identify their strengths and use them to increase and
sustain their respective levels of well-being. Each trait "provides one of many alternative paths to virtue and well-
being''. Therapists, counselors, coaches, and various other psychological professionals can use the new methods and
techniques to build and broaden the lives of individuals who are not necessarily suffering from mental illness or
disorder. The main objective of the present research is to find out the role of character strengths and virtues in the
overall personality development of present young generation, for this purpose a sample of about 150 students was
collected to find the true potentials hidden and how many of them were using their strengths in day today life. The
western culture is not able to find the answers then they have started sorting help elsewhere for the positive
outcomes and for the same purpose APA(American Psychological Association) discussed with educationists,
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 115

neuropsychologists and Buddhist thinkers from Asia ,Dalai lama, at a conference “Educating World Citizens for 21
century”. In the same context with indigenous approach the present research initiative has been taken to overcome all
the distractions and making the students to be more concerned about their character strengths and virtues to emerge
with a positive well being. Most of us think that the main purpose of getting education is to pass the exams. &
competitions and if students develop this notion they become more ego centered and this inhibits the learning of
basic values and strengths as an important aspect of their personality and holistic development. In the fast moving
world we are generating technological advanced cultures & intelligences who are lacking humor, hope, self control,
kindness and forgiveness as major character or signature strengths used since centuries for the healthy development of
self and society. The present research is an attempt to generate awareness among youth about basic human values as
their signature strengths (Signature strengths are what allow us to excel in some areas of our lives. When we are using
our strengths, we tend to feel happy and engaged. When we use them in service to do something larger than ourselves,
we find deep meaning in our lives).

245. Research in the language laboratory: Communication language


teaching approach in vocabulary building of English language
Talwar Mini Satish and Ramana Sood
Department.of Education, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

Communication language teaching is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes
interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. It fosters the use of appropriate, positive
learning strategies. It basically makes use of real life situations that students are likely to encounter in real life.
Students' motivation to learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful ways about meaningful topics.
The researcher has used this approach in the language laboratory. The study was conducted upon eighth standard
students for a period of fifteen days. A schedule involving communication language teaching approach combined
with vocabulary building exercise was developed and experimental method and two group pre-test and post-test
design was used. Tools used were self made questionnaires of vocabulary building and communication skills.
Statistical techniques mean and standard deviation were used to classify the data and t-test was employed to analyze
the scores. It was found that communication language teaching approach has a significant effect on the vocabulary
building of students.

246. Some socio-psychological correlates of job satisfaction


in tribal school teachers
Sarwat Jabeen
Department of Psychology, Nirmala College, Ranchi, Jharkhand

The paper examines the main and interaction effects of types of educational institution, age, religion and sex on job
satisfaction of tribal school teachers. Using personal data questionnaire and job satisfaction scale, data were collected
from a stratified random sample of 320 school teachers, the stratification was based on types of school
(public/private), age (young/old), religion (Christian/non-Christian) and sex (male/female). Analysis of data based on
F test revealed that public school teachers as compared to private school teachers were more satisfied with their job.
No clear-cut picture emerged on the relationship of job satisfaction with religion but Christian school teachers seemed
to show slightly better job satisfaction than did Non-Christian Tribals. It was found that female teachers as compared
to male teachers were, by and large more satisfied with their jobs. Age did not produce any effect on job satisfaction.
116 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

247. Human resources management


Rekha Rani and Hari Singh
Department of Education, CDLU, Sirsa, Haryana

The Management of human resources is an important task for the success of any institute. No doubt that man is
constructer of future. Man is the focus of all development i.e. economical, social, political and cultural
development. Man is the only being who is responsible to take society and nation forward the goal of
development and success. In this study concept of human resources management and the role of human resources
in the school is described. It is the need of the hour to manage the human resources in an appropriate way so that the
power of these resources can be utilized and the talented of these persons way get the appropriate works to do.

248. Impact ofage difference and education level on mental


health among female B.P patients
Suneeta Shukla and Pallavi
Department of Psychology, Kanohar Lal Postgraduate Girls College, Meerut

This study sought to investigate the impact of Age difference and education level on mental health among female
blood pressure patients. The study is based on a sample of 60 adult females between age range of 30-35 and 40-45 of
two different education levels i.e. Intermediate and Graduate. The research tools used were Mental Health Scale by
Dr. Kamlesh Sharma. Using descriptive method of research, the results of analysis of variance revealed that there is a
significant main effect of Age difference and education level on mental health among female blood pressure patients.
.However, the interaction effect of Age difference and education level was also found to be significant for mental
health of female blood pressure patients. It indicates that the significant main effects of Age difference and education
level are dependent on each other. Further, Implications of the results are discussed.
Keywords: mental health, age difference and education level

249. A study of impact of gratitude in relation to gender


differences on cheerfulness
Yashu Bansal and Azmat Sidhu
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

These days gratitude is quite hard to come by. People mostly ignore what they have and focus on what they lack. They
do not realise that there is someone who is not as fortunate as them. Review of literature shows that gratitude acts as a
contributing factor to cheerfulness, and also increases empathy and spirituality (McCullough et al, 2008). The current
study is designed to study the impact of gratitude in relation to gender differences on cheerfulness. For this purpose,
the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (McCullough, Emmons, and Tsang, 2002) and the State-Trait-Cheerfulness Inventory
for youth (Ruch, Kohler, and van Threil, 1996) is administered to the sample. The sample for the current investigation
consists of 100 participants (where 50 are males and 50 are females) in the age group of 18-24 years. 2*2 ANOVA is
used for statistical analysis of the results in order to determine the effect of gratitude in relation to gender differences
on cheerfulness. It is expected that there will be significant differences in cheerfulness as influenced by gratitude in
relation to gender differences.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 117

250. Impact of gender and job level on emotional intelligence


among it professionals
K. Srinivas Reddy and K.Chandraiah
Department of Psychology, S.V. University, Tiruapti, India

A study was planned to investigate the gender and job level differences in the experience of emotional intelligence
among IT professionals. The sample for the present study is consisted of 205 (95 female and 105 male) IT
professionals working in soft ware industries of Hyderabad and Bangalore cities of India were collected randomly.
The emotional intelligence scale developed by Dalip Singh (2003)was used to measure emotional intelligence of the
sample. The study reveals that there is no impact of gender on emotional intelligence. But the results indicate that
there is significant difference between managers and non-managers with regard to emotional intelligence. The study
also reveals that the group with high and low levels of occupational stress differed significantly on their emotional
intelligence. The implications and suggestions of the study were discussed.

251. Gender in relation to mobile addiction behavior


and academic achievement
P. Gopala Krishna and K. Chandraiah
Department of Psychology, S. V. University, Tirupati

The study was aimed at investigating mobile addiction behaviour and academic achievement among male and
female junior college students. The sample for the study consists of 100 (55 male 45 female) intermediate college
students studying only science were selected randomly. A modified version of internet addiction behavior scale
developed by Egger (1996) was used to measure the mobile addiction behavior of the students and annual marks
(previous year ) were considered as a measure or their academic achievement of the students. the study reveals that
women students found to have better academic achievement than their counterparts men students. the results also
indicate that factor wise as well as total score on mobile addiction behaviour , the men found to have more addiction
toward mobile than women students. the implications and suggestions for the study were discussed in the paper.

252. Stress and cardiovascular disease


R. Radha
Department of Food Service Management and Dietetics
Avinashilingam Deemed University for Women, Coimbatore

Cardiovascular disease is a global health problem increasing in prevalence. Although there is a clear genetic
component to cardiovascular disease, many environmental factors may also impact cardiovascular risk, including
diet, physical activity, smoking habits, psychological stress levels, and pollution exposure. These factors vary
globally and may contribute to worldwide cardiovascular risk differences. Other globally variant factors that are
likely to affect cardiovascular risk are healthcare access and emphasis. It has long been suggested that psychosocial
factors play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, as well as in the acute onset of cardiovascular
events, for example, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Though Emotional stress is related to heart disease,
how we respond to the stress is extremely important in determining how much risk the stress we experience every day
imposes on our heart. Certain kinds of emotional stress in a certain kind of person can accelerate the development of
118 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

chronic heart disease, or can precipitate an acute cardiac crisis. Nobody can avoid all forms of emotional stress, but if
we think we may be at risk of stress-related heart disease, we ought to consider taking steps to control both our
response to stress, and any other cardiac risk factors we may have.

253. A study of relation between optimism and resilience


in males and females
Lakhveer Kaur Dullat and Azmat Sidhu
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Optimism is an essential attribute of our personality. It is the ability to look at the positive aspect of situations.
Resilience is the ability to bounce back after a tragedy or adversity (Garmezy, 1985). Some researchers believe that
facing adversity actually makes an individual stronger. Review of literature shows that optimism has a strong
influence on psychological resilience and physical hardiness (Graham and Fallon, 2006). The current study is
designed to study the relation of optimism and resilience in males and females. For this purpose, the Connor-
Davidson Resilience Scale (Connor and Davidson, 2003) and the Revised Life Orientation Test (R-LOT by Scheier
and Carver, 1994) is administered to the sample. The sample for the current investigation consists of 60 participants
(where 30 are males and 30 are females) in the age range of 30-45 years. Pearson product moment coefficient of
correlation is used to find whether there is any significant relationship between optimism and resilience in males and
females. It is expected that there will be significant relationship in optimism and resilience in males and females.

254. Behavioural patterns amongst adolescent girls


Barka Mathur and Nalini Totuka
Department of Human Development, ICG, The IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

Behaviour is any manifestation of activity in life. Therefore behavior includes not only motor activities but also
cognitive processes like thinking, reasoning, imagination etc. Behavioural pattern is helpful in seeking adjustment to
our self and the environment. Behavior is affected by many factors like family influences, peer group, education etc.
The present study aimed to study the two types of behavioural pattern namely Type A(highly competitive, hostile,
aggressive etc) and Type B (Hardworking, patience, more relaxed ,easy going ) among 60 hostler and non- hostler
adolescent girls (13- 18years). The research tool used was Type A/B Behavioural Pattern Scale by Upinder Dhar and
Manisha Jain. The data was analysed by mean, SD and factor analysis method. The results revealed that staying away
from home has significant effect on the adolescents and also that the adolescent girls living in hostels had significant
Type A behavior than Type B behavior as compared to adolescent girls who lived in their own homes.

255. Brand preference in clothing among college going


girls of Chandigarh
Ramanjit Kaut Bajwa
Department of Clothing and Textiles, Govt. Home Science College, Chandigarh

Clothing plays a considerable role in an individual's life at all the ages as it provides a medium of self expression, a
way to conform, and a way to suggest wealth and prestige and an outlet for creative energy. The apparel retail industry
comprises sale of all men's wear, women's wear and children's wear. The Indian retail market is evolving rapidly and
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 119

the women's wear market has also seen a corresponding expansion due to the increased number of working
women, rising disposable incomes, growth of middle class and improved decision making authority of women etc.
The women's wear market is the most varied and directional as women will purchase clothing much more than
men in any one season. Present day customers are more knowledgeable and extra demanding than in the past.
Customers analyze a brand as a significant part of a product, and branding can add value to a product. Brand names
and other information on labels are mostly used by consumers as criteria for determining the product quality at the
time of purchase as well as in identifying the products that might be profitable for them. The purpose of this study
was to investigate the awareness of college girls about different national and international apparel brands in
women's wear segment. The paper further analyses different factors affecting the preference for branded clothing.
The results of the study will help fashion marketers to have a better perception of the consumer preferences and
buying behavior.

256. Mental health of employees in government and private sector


Deblina Chakraborty and Nalini Totuka
Department of Human Development, ICG, The IIS University, Jaipur

Traditionally, government jobs are considered to be safer than the private sector jobs. Government jobs offer many
timely perks like-pension, financial services, promotions and pay raises, stability and job security, more relaxed and
congenial working style than private sector, good retirement benefits unlike jobs in the private sector. Because of
these reasons investigator felt that there would surely be a significant difference between mental health of private
employees and government employees. The present study aimed at investigating the same and presents the difference
between mental health of private employees and government employees. The population of this study comprised of
employees (male and female) working in private and government organizations. Simple random sampling method
was used to select 60 females and 60 males in the age category of 20 years -60 years. Employee's Mental Health
Inventory (EMHI) developed by Dr.Jagdish was administered to gather the data for the study. The study indicated
difference between mental health of private employee's and government employee's significant only according to the
age group.

257. The people higher on empathy quotient are more altruistic


Parul Sharma
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

The Empathy quotient facilitates altruistic behavior and social understanding. Here, however, we suggest that the
most basic mechanism of empathythe intuitive sharing of other's emotional and motivational statesis limited to those
we like. The term altruism refers to an ethical doctrine that claims that individuals are morally obliged to benefit
others. The present study views that the people who are higher on empathy quotient are more altruistic in nature .The
sample consisted of 40 . Two tools of measurement emotional quotient questionnaire [EQ] The altruistic personality
and the self-report altruism scale were used to collect data.The Descriptive statistics and t-test were used to analyze
the data. The results revealed that the people who are high on empathy quotient are the one's who can contribute the
best to this field of altruism.
120 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

258. Impact of optimism in relation with gender differences on


post-traumatic growth
Kimmi Vaneet Kaur Sethi
Panjab University, Chandigarh

The general understanding that stress and trauma can bring about a positive change in an individual has been an age
old concept in many ancient religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, etc. However, this understanding has come
under the umbrella of scientific study with the efforts of Tedeschi and Calhoun, terming it as Post Traumatic Growth
(PTG). Contrary to the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the concept of Post traumatic Growth (PTG) which
refers to a positive change experienced as a result of the struggle with a major life crisis or a traumatic event. The
current investigation aimed to study the impact of optimism in relation with gender differences on posttraumatic
growth. For the investigation, Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and Revised Life orientation Test (LOT-R)
were administered on 50 males and 50 females who had suffered from some chronic illness. The application of 2 x 2
ANOVA revealed the significant impact of optimism on post traumatic growth as well as significant gender
differences in post traumatic growth. However, no significant impact of optimism in relation with gender differences
on post traumatic growth was found.

259. Occupational stress in Indians working in their own


country and abroad
Jyoti Gaur
Department of Human Development, The IIS University, Jaipur

Occupational stress is an increasingly important health problem which is likely to affect the whole world. The purpose
of this study was to compare occupational stress in the Indians working in private organisations in their own country
and abroad living in different socio-cultural and economic situations. 60 Indian males and females (30 each) working
in India and similar number working abroad in various countries were selected through random sampling and
Occupational Stress Index (OSI) by A.P. Srivatsava and A.P. Singh was introduced. 10 separate stressors were scored
on a 5-point scale through this questionnaire. Data was evaluated by applying t- test for comparing both the groups at
0.05 level of significance. The result of the study indicated that overall highest level of occupational stress was
observed in the males who had recently joined the workforce in the age group 20- 40 years as compared to the females.
The occupational stress is significantly higher in the younger generation and should be taken care of in order to
maintain the mental health and ensure efficient work output from them.

260. Creativity and innovation in the


present-era with special reference to open source innovation
Jayatee Chakraborty
Department of Humanities & Social Science, NSHM College of Management & Technology
Arrah Shibtala via Muchipara, Durgapur

Creativity and Innovation are the buzz words in the business organization even though they are understood very
vaguely and subject to different interpretations. However, almost everyone in a business set up knows that some level
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 121

of creativity and innovation is very much essential in a hierarchical procedure and policy bound bureaucratic set up to
beat the competition. This research paper on Creativity and Innovation defines creativity and innovation in a realistic
manner and makes a survey in the organizations of West Bengal to analyse the reasons behind people's desire for them
in the organization. Further it gets the reflection of the people about the factors facilitating in-house creativity and
innovations. As the business environment has become more competitive, dependence on the in-house creativity and
innovation creates serious limitation on the scope of bringing about break through innovations. On the other hand
open source innovations as practiced by the most innovative companies catch ideas and untapped desires and dreams
of the market more authentically in a time bound manner to respond to the market more effectively. The paper
examines the different methods of open source innovations adopted by the innovating companies and the results they
delivered to the market. The paper suggests that the organizations must take the creativity and innovation seriously
and may adopt any of the methods and models to suit their individual demands.

261. Understanding single women: Perspectives across age groups


Mamta Miglani
Ryan International School, New Delhi
Mohina Bhatnagar
Gargi college D.U.

This study aims to explore the multiple variables in the life of single women. the objective of this case study based
research paper is to establish clearly the factors influencing the decision to remain unmarried in the Indian context,
wherein the marriage of a woman has been long effecting the society's perception of her. and in the case of separated
and widowed women, the emotional, physical and psychological health post the loss of spouse. the sample was of 6
single women, collated in three functional categories- by own decision(unmarried) , separated (divorced),
circumstantial (widow), and across two age groups; young (25-45) and old (45-65). The factors analysed were the 5
factor model of personality by Paul T Costa and Robert McCrae (1991). The Life story analysis was qualitative. The
other modes of data collection in the case studies were Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen &
Griffin, 1985). An analysis of health and comparison between 3 groups using General Health Questionnaire
(Goldberg; 1972) was also done. A structured interview was also undertaken to elicit information about social support
system, coping strategies and Resilience factors.

262. Aggression causes consequences and subconscious


coping technique
Mamta Miglani
Ryan International School, New Delhi

Mohina Bhatnagar
Gargi College, D.U., Delhi University

This study assumes to explore the recent valid Lifestyle addictions (mobile and facebook dependency ) due to subtle
aggression as a result of family environment A pilot study by means of unstructured interviewing was conducted
followed by the use of psychometric testing on a randomly selected sample of 30 youths in 3 band ages---group
A(class 8th-10th graders) --10 participants , Group B(class 11 th , 12th)--10 participant and Group C(college goers-
academic and professional course). This is to comprehend the relationship, if any between mobile device and real
122 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

life.The subtle aggression generated due to the family environment will be explored by FES and correlated with the
mobile phone dependency questionnaire. The subtle aggression generated due to weak communication within the
family, compensatory low grade parenting,loneliness, insecurity in relations with self and significant others manifests
itself in filling up the void by machines.The problem behavior reflected in aggression is channeled to the dependable
external source of stimulation. The same holds true for online addiction failing which results in tolerance and
withdrawal symptoms.Furthermore to test the coping style the recently evolved subconscious technique will be used
as an intervention strategy and action oriented research to discover the actual latent reasons/answers for awareness
and modification. The technique is tested with the same sample of 10 students as experimental group and the other 10
as control group.The following cycle is shed light on:Family ---Aggression---mobile---family--aggression..

263. Effectiveness of life skills training among university students


R. Subasree
School of Counselling, Rajiv Gandhi national Institute of Youth Development, Chennai

Life skill is the positive behaviour. In a general way life skill means a mix of knowledge, behaviour, attitudes and
values and designates the possession of some skills and know-how to do something, or reach an aim. Child and
adolescent mental health (CAMH) can be defined as (WHO, 2005) the capacity to achieve and maintain optimal
psychological functioning and well being. It is directly related to the level reached and competence achieved in
psychological and social functioning. The first part of this definition views CAMH as a positive dimension seen as a
resource that is essential to subjective well-being and to our ability to perceive, comprehend and interpret our
surroundings, to adapt to them or change them if necessary and to communicate with each other and have successful
social interactions. [Lehtinen et al.,( 2005)]. The research review indicates that linkages to education as concerns
encompass the direct promotion of capabilities through skills-based teaching and learning. The current study looks
more specifically on how this notion of the Capability Approach is increasingly reflected in personality development
in particular in the form of life skills education. Building on more than a decade of research and various studies by
countries and agencies in the field of life skills education, it also summarizes some core characteristics that might help
define more effective implementation. Life skills training refer to the interactive process of teaching competencies
through a set of structural activities, such as role play, games and debates (Fisher, 2005). There is an interactive loop in
the process of acquiring life skills that involves demonstration and practice, self-assessment, supportive and
constructive feedback, and follow-up practice sessions. Life skills include Decision making, Problem solving,
Creative thinking, Effective communication, Interpersonal relations, Self awareness, the ability to communicate with
empathy, coping with emotions, stress management, conflict resolution, the ability to act assertively in responding to
problems, the capacity to perceive goal-directed behaviour, and the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of one's
actions and pursue other positions if necessary (Fisher, 2005). The present investigation was carried out to study the
effect of life skills training programme among youth studying in final year P.G. A pre-post quasi experimental group
design was adopted. Data was collected from a sample of 52 students who are final year P.G students. They were
assigned randomly into two groups. The number of students in each group was 26 and 26 respectively. The Life Skills
Training programme focused on group interactive sessions. The training programme duration was for 7 days with a
follow-up study. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out to test the research questions. The t'
test, correlation, and regression analysis were utilized for the current study. The study found that Life Skills
Training programme had a significant influence on the level of aspiration. There was significant influence of
Training programme among students on Life Skills. The effect of Life Skills Training programme was found in all
the ten core life skills (WHO) and the qualitative analysis also found that there is an observable shift in the
behavior of the participants.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 123

264. Setting for multitask performance in a complex situation


Preeti Nagpal
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

The study in hand sought to assess the role of multitasking and task complexity, in psychomotor task performance.
The sample comprised of 165 females, (mean age = 16.4 yrs.), studying in the various Government Model schools of
Chandigarh, India. Statistical analysis t- ratios were used for the purpose. It is a simulation study wherein the major
elements of work atmosphere in India have been taken. It was after observing the various work atmosphere related
improvement measures being used in India that the elements of this study were picked up. Viz. multimodal
multitasking was found inherent in most of the workplaces, music was found as being used to soothe the work
atmosphere but it was noticed that the choice of music was not restricted to any one type of music. Besides this, it was
observed that the work varied across load dimension due to variations in task complexity.

265. Type A/B behavioural pattern among Indian


and abroad adolescents
Nalini Totuka
Department of Human Development, ICG, The IIS University, Jaipur

Behaviour pattern is a recurrent way of acting by an individual or group toward a given object or in a given situation. In
psychology, Human behaviour can be common, unusual, acceptable or unacceptable. Humans evaluate the acceptability
of behavior using social norms and regulate behavior by means of social control. The basic aim of present investigation is
to study the difference in Type A/B behavioural pattern among adolescent boys and girls living in India and abroad. The
Type A persons have a highly competitive desire for achievement , recognition, speak fast, act fast, see goals and
challenges everywhere. The Type B persons are more relaxed, cool, calm ,satisfied and easy going. For this purpose, the
adolescent population (13 years -18 years) was selected through simple random sampling which consisted of 50 Indian
adolescents and 50 adolescents from different cultures living abroad. The research tool used was Type A/B Behavioural
Pattern Scale by Upinder Dhar and Manisha Jain. The data was analysed by mean, SD and t- test. The results revealed the
difference between Type A/B behavioural pattern among Indians and adolescents living abroad.

266. Impact of spiritual practices on depression and


anxiety: A comparison of practitioners and non-practitioners
Yashu Bansal and Shivranjani Vaid
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Researchers have shown positive psychological changes due to effects of meditation, chanting and spiritual practices.
The practice has been growing around the world in 192 countries. The objective of the study was to find out the impact
of a spiritual training on depression and anxiety. The sample consisted of 100 participants (Practitioners =50 and Non-
Practitioners=50). The practitioners had a minimum of one month of spiritual practices that included chanting,
spiritual readings and discussion meetings. They were compared on Pre and Post scores. Two tools of measurement
IPAT ASQ (Anxiety Scale Questionnaire) and BDI Beck Depression Inventory were used to collect data. Descriptive
statistics and t-test were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the practitioners scored low on anxiety and
depression after spiritual practices as compared to non-practitioners.
124 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

267. A study of impact of forgiveness in relation to gender


differences on perceived stress
Azmat Sidhu and Anupreet Kaur Arora
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Stress is becoming a severe problem nowadays. It poses a serious threat to the coping mechanisms of an individual
who is faced with any stressful situation, be it a major life event or daily hassles that require adjustment on an everyday
basis. Review of literature shows that forgiveness acts as a protective factor, reduces stress, and is an emotion focused
coping strategy of stress response (Worthington and Scherer, 2004). The current study is designed to study the impact
of forgiveness in relation to gender differences on perceived stress. For this purpose, the Heartland Forgiveness Scale
(Thompson, Snyder, and Hoffman, 2005) and the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al, 1988) is administered to the
sample. The sample for the current investigation consists of 100 participants (where 50 are males and 50 are females)
in the age range of 18-24 years. 2*2 ANOVA is used for statistical analysis of the results in order to determine the
effect of forgiveness in relation to gender differences on perceived stress. It is expected that there will be significant
differences in perceived stress as influenced by forgiveness in relation to gender differences.

268. A study of impact of optimism in relation to gender


differences on anxiety
Shivranjani and Prerna
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Our era has been called the Age of Anxiety. Everyone even rich, poor, famous, & infamous has worries & fears.
Anxiety whether adaptive or maladaptive is always accompanied by intense discomfort. Anxious person who is
always waiting for the worst to happen is often unable to enjoy his life or gain gratification from his work. Review of
literature shows that people with low levels of optimism are at risk for higher levels of anxiety (Zenger & Brix, 2010).
The current study is designed to study the impact of optimism in relation to gender differences on anxiety. For this
purpose, the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire (Raymond B. Cattell, 1956,1976) published by Institute Of Personality &
Ability Testing and the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, Scheier & Carver,1994) is administered to the sample.
The sample for the current investigation consists of 100 participants (where 50 are males and 50 are females) in the
age range of 18-24 years. 2*2 ANOVA is used for statistical analysis of the results in order to determine the effect of
optimism in relation to gender differences on anxiety. It is expected that there will be significant differences in anxiety
as influenced by optimism in relation to gender differences.

269. Dimensional difference of temperament in adolescents of


single and dual parent family
Sarika Khandelwal and Jyoti Gaur
Department of Human Development, ICG,The IIS University, Jaipur

Temperament is one of the most important dimension of personality. Temperament refers to the characteristic
phenomenon of an individual's nature including his susceptibility to emotional situations, his customary strength
mood , and all the peculiarities of fluctuations and intensity of mood , therefore largely hereditary in origin. The
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 125

various Dimensions of temperament are i.e. sociability, ascendance, secretiveness, reflectiveness, impulsivity,
placidness, acceptance, responsibility,vigorousness, cooperativeness, persistence, warmth, aggressiveness, tolerance
and tough mindedness were studied from the research. The tool used for study was Dimensions of Temperament
Scale developed by N. K. Chadha and Sunanda Chandana. The investigator studied the comparative differences in the
dimensions of temperament on 60 adolescents. The data was randomly selected, 30 from single parent family and rest
30 from dual parent family. The data was statistically analysed by t-test. The result revealed that there was no
significant difference found between the temperament of adolescents from single parent and dual parent family but
significant result were observed sex-wise.

270. Stress management during pregnancy: A study based


on case studies of pregnant ladies
Meenakshi Chauhan, Akhil Jain and Neeti Jain
Sagar, MP
This study focuses on the stress management during pregnancy. Stress is the way your body reacts to something that is
out of the ordinary, dangerous, unknown or disturbing. When under stress, your body makes physical and chemical
changes to try to protect it. Almost anything can cause stress. Everyone responds to stressful situations in their own
way. An extremely stressful situation for one person may not be at all stressful to another. Due to different reactions to
stress, it is difficult to study how stress may affect pregnancy. In this study five pregnant women were regularly
observed for three months. The stress causing situations were different in all the five cases as they were from different
backgrounds (culturally, financially, socially, etc.). Hypertension, Convulsions, Physical Weakness, Chest pain and
Continuous abdominal pain were mainly observed in the subjects. Different methods were adopted to manage the
stress in the above cases which showed significant results.

271. A comparative study of marital adjustment and


mental health among joint and nuclear family women
Krushansinh J. Zala and Ashok C. Patel
Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujrat

The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between joint & nuclear family women on marital adjustment
and mental health. The total sample consisted of 80 among 40 are joint family women and 40 are nuclear family women were
selected to different area of Rajkot city. The research tool for marital adjustment was measured by Kumar and Kanchan and
mental health tool was measured by Bhatt and Gida was used to collect the data. Here't' test was applied to check significance
difference and 'r' was applied to check correlation between marital adjustment and mental health. The finding of the study
revealed that there was a significance difference between joint and nuclear family women on marital adjustment and mental
health also. The 'r' between marital adjustment and mental health is 0.77 which is high correlation.

272. Occupational stress amongst full-time and part-time employees


Sunita and Jyoti Gaur
Department Human Development, ICG,The IIS University, Jaipur

Occupational stress is used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The stress may have to do with the
responsibilities associated with the work itself, or be caused by conditions that are based in the corporate culture or
126 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

personality conflicts. As with other forms of tension, occupation stress can eventually affect both physical and emotional
wellbeing if not managed effectively. Stress is an inherent factor in any type of vocation or career. At its best, the presence
of stress can be a motivator that urges the individual to strive for excellence. However, excess amounts of stress can lead to
a lack of productivity, a loss of confidence, and the inability to perform routine tasks. As a result, quality employees lose
their enthusiasm for their work and eventually withdraw from the company. The present study was conducted to compare
the occupational stress between part- time and full time working women from private colleges. The total sample of 120
was collected randomly. Occupational Stress Index by Shrivastav and Singh was used to collect the data .The results
showed no significant difference in stress between part-time and full time working women .

273. Influence of hardiness on waste reduction behaviour in


environment based education context
Punam Bansal
Govt. College of Education, Sector 20-D, Chandigarh

The present study examined the effectiveness of Experiential Learning Strategies on Waste Reduction Behaviour of
Secondary School students from Psychological Hardiness perspective. The sample comprised of 260 (132 males and
128 females) adolescents studying in four Government Model Senior Secondary Schools of Chandigarh.
Psychological Hardiness Scale by Nowack (1990) was administered and students were categorized in High
psychological hardiness group and Low psychological hardiness group by using Kelley's Method. The Waste
Reduction Behaviour Scale containing nine items constructed and validated by researcher was administered twice as
pre-test and post-test measurement instrument to assess Waste Reduction Behaviour changes in Secondary School
students. Experimental group (N=130) was taught by adopting Experiential Learning Strategies and control group
(N=130) was taught by Traditional Teaching Strategies in Environmental Education . The number of cases in each
cell was made equal by excluding extra cases using randomization for fulfilling the assumption of ANOVA. A 2x2
factorial design was used to study the main effects and interaction effects of the independent variables of Teaching
strategies and Psychological Hardiness on the dependent variable of Waste Reduction Behaviour. Significant main
effects of Experiential Learning Strategies were revealed on the Waste Reduction Behaviour of students at .01 level.
Results also indicated statistically significant interaction at 0.5 level between teaching strategies and psychological
hardiness on the Waste Reduction Behaviour .Further analysis of result with t-test revealed that High Hardy group
taught through Experiential Learning Strategies reported significantly higher gain on Waste Reduction Behaviour
than Low Hardy group taught through Traditional Teaching Strategies. Overall, these findings provide new insights
about how Experiential Learning Strategies may contribute to the relationship between psychological hardiness and
Waste Reduction Behaviour change in Secondary School students.

274. Impact of home and emotional adjustment on


academic achievement of dalit and non-dalit junior college students
G. Krishna Rao and K. Chandraiah
Department of Psychology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

A study was planned to investigate the impact of home adjustment, health adjustment and emotional adjustment on
academic achievement of Dalit and Non-Dalit junior college students . A random sample of 80 (35 dalit and 45 non-
dalit) students who were studying in and around Tirupati City of Andhra Pradesh were participated in the study. Only
male students were participated in the study. Bell's Adjustment inventory was used to assess home, health and
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 127

emotional adjustment of the students. the study reveals that there is a impact of home, health and emotional
adjustment on academic achievement of the dalit and non-dalit students.

275. Differences in levels of work related anxiety in relation to


differences in job sector and gender
Jotika Judge
Panjab University, Chandigarh

Gagandeep Aujla
Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Today Work related anxiety is becoming a worldwide problem as the global economic downturn continues. Work
related anxiety is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job
demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Work-related anxiety occurs when job demands are
“incompatible with mental regulation processes, such as information processing, planning, and movement
execution”. The present research focuses on if there exists any differences in levels of Work related Anxiety in relation
to Differences in Job Sector and Gender. To measure this difference the Job Anxiety Scale developed by A.K.
Srivastava is employed. It is a two choice questionnaire consisting of 49 statements which the respondent has to
answer in yes or no. The sample size for this paper is 100. Out of these hundred respondents 50 are from Government
Sector and 50 from Non Government sector. Out of these 50 respondents 25 are males and 25 are females for both the
sectors. In order to keep other factors constant, it is taken care of that all respondents are graduates, their age ranges
between 20 to 50 years and all are employed in permanent jobs. The statistical technique of two way ANOVA is used to
find the differences in levels of Work related Anxiety.

276. Risk factors related to aggression: A study among


Indian school adolescents
Arun Pratap Singh and Girishwar Misra
Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

There is paucity of Indian research addressing risk proneness for aggression due to contextual and life style factors
among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors associated with aggression among school
adolescents. We analyzed data on 1, 500 Indian school students in 6th to 11th grades selected from rural, urban and
metro-urban residential settings of the country responding to Adolescent Aggression Survey, an anonymous, self-
report survey examining an array of contextual characteristics, life style variables and involvement in physical fights
and possession of arms. The responses of students reporting for engagement in any one aggressive behavior (mild
risk) were compared with those who reported involvement in more than one kind of aggressive behavior (extreme
risk). A history of physical fighting was reported by about 93% of adolescents and possession of arms by 38% of the
sample. Using Chi-square analysis, extreme risk for aggression was identified among participants from male
category, early age-group, lower socio-economic background and among those who watched TV/Cinema, consumed
non-vegetarian food items, played videogames, or listened fast music. A history of adolescent aggression is
associated with several contextual and life style variables. Efforts to prevent adolescent delinquency should target
individuals at extreme risk. Through psychosocial assessments of school adolescents, school counselors can play a
role in identifying and counseling adolescents at extreme risk for aggression. Policy-oriented reformulations for
inculcation of life style education in schools are need of time.
128 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

277. Analysis of financial viability of Himachal Pradesh


horticulture produce marketing and processing corporation limited
Rajwanti Sharma
Department of Commerce V.A.K.(P.G.) M. Bahadurgarh, Haryana

Jai Pal Sharma


Department of Commerce G.B. D.College, Rohtak, Haryana
Lekh Ram Sharma
Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan

Himachal Pradesh has been a fruit bowl and especially known as apple state of India. Himachal Pradesh promoted
Himachal Pradesh Horticulture Produce Marketing and Processing Corporation Limited in the year 1973 to process
fruits and horticulture produce to enhance value addition and produce quality concentrates and products specially
apple and citrus/cider based products. The aim was to help horticulturists so that they can get good price of their
products. Majority of the population is dependent on horticulture as their livelihood in Himachal Pradesh. Public
sector often seeks an excuse of fulfilling the social responsibility. But in the present age of liberalization, privatization
& globalization, every business organisation must be financially viable not only in totality but in segmental
performance also. The aim of the present study is to analyse the financial viability of Himachal Pradesh Horticulture
Produce Marketing and Processing Corporation Limited. We have analysed the financial viability with the help of two
types of profitability ratios- profitability related to sales and profitability related to investments. In profitability
related to sales, we have analysed the financial viability with the help of Net Profit Ratio. Profitability related to
investments has been analysed with the help of Return on Investments Ratio and Return on Net Worth Ratio. In our
present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the present financial position and to find out the various causes of
poor financial position. The study suggests various measures to improve the financial viability of Himachal Pradesh
Horticulture Produce Marketing and Processing Corporation Limited. Improvement in working of HPMC will go a
very long way in improving the well being of large population of Himachal Pradesh who are mainly horticulturists by
profession. If the suggestions made in the study are considered by the management, it will improve the efficiency and
profitability of the corporation and will be beneficial for the fruit growers and horticulturists in the state.

278. How much aware are differently-Able person? What they


have, what they need? A survey
Sat Pal, Harish Kumar, Sushil Kumar, Poonam Rani, Virender Verma and Naresh Khatri
Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana

Research question: to assess the awareness among differently able person (locomotor disability) about availability
and lacuna of various rights and the facilities for them. Study design: study was Cross-sectional andparticipants were
given a self-structured questionnaire. Settings: HUDA complex, Rohtak. Statistical analysis: Percentage, simple
proportion, Participants: Study participants were 300 differently able persons (150 from urban and 150 from villages)
having disability more than forty percent. Results: Many participants suffered by polio (70%) out of which most of
them were not given polio drops (90%). Maximum were not satisfied with the disability certificate made by doctors
(98). All of them did not wish for their children to be disable(100%), very less number of male (20 % ) and female
129 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

(7%) were in jobs out of which many have used the disability quota(70%). Most of disables did not know
Commission for disable persons (90%), Disability Act (70%) and Rehabilitation council of India (96%). Most of
parents did not wish to take their children in any function (80%).50% are 12 passed. Maximum have felt insult due to
disability (91%). Most of buildings were not disable friendly (95%). Conclusion:Participants were found lacking of
knowledge of rights and facilities available for them and the conditions were worse for those who are living in the
villages.There is a need to develop and promote awareness among the differently able person in order to improve their
lifestyle and living standard so that they can live a quality of life as of human being.

279. Impact of mid-day meal scheme A survey


Poonam Rani, Yogesh Chander, Suman Dalal, Sat Pal, Sushil Kumar, Anju Rathee and Ritu
Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana

To assess the impact of Mid-Day Meal Scheme on education, admission, attendance, dropout and health of
children of primary schools. Cross-sectional and participants were given a self-structured questionnaire. 10 urban
and 10 rural schools from five blocks of district Rohtak, Haryana. Percentage, simple proportion, A sample of
40teachers (20 rural and 20urban) were selected from 20 government primary schools (10 urban and 10 rural) in
the district Rohtak of Haryana state. Some teachers felt of wastage of time on mid day meals (37%), mid day meal
is a factor for attracting the students for admission(57%),malnutrition has decreased (50%),some of teacher
found the children for spreading the remaining food after meals(27%), maximum teachers observed improvement
in mental status and working of students(65%), there was increase in the daily attendance in the school(65%),most
of parents support the mid day meals scheme(72%) and the there was a good response to stop the dropout
rate(57%). Mid-Day Meal Scheme has an over all positive effect on education. The admission and attendance have
increased in the schools. The school dropout rate has decreased and there is improvement in the health of children
of primary schools. It is needed to change the thinking of teacher toward this scheme and remove the lacuna to
make the mid-day meals scheme more effective, productive, purposeful and result oriented.

280. Training need analysis of school teachers


Sudhesh and Baby Shari
Department of Psychology, University of Calicut, Kerala

Training is an integral part of teacher education program in the country. In-service education programs are
undoubtedly a significant aspect of the continuous development of teachers in the desired direction. Educational
system nowadays followed in our state is undergoing many changes for the past decade. As per the training received in
the past, the teachers are not sufficient to meet the present needs of the students. So Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) is
continuously providing training for the teachers which are designed according to the different objectives. It stresses
the activity oriented teaching, student friendly classroom etc. The training going on is intended to eliminate the
deficiencies in teacher preparation and to refine accordingly. The present study is an exploration of the training needs
of primary school teachers so as to analyze and put forward suggestions for the designing of their training courses; so
that teachers can work more effectively. The study had conducted among 30 primary school teachers of Malappuram
district using semi-structured interview schedule and the data collected was content analyzed.
Keywords: teacher training, in-service training, training needs
130 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

281. Television viewing and sleep are associated with


overweight among urban and semi-urban children of Chittoor
district, Andhra Pradesh
Anwar Basha Dudekula and Jesoth Lalu Naik
Department of Anthropology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

Childhood obesity is an emerging problem in urban Indian children and increases in childhood overweight and
obesity may be major contributors to the adult obesity epidemic. Thus, identifying potential risk factors for childhood
obesity and formulating early interventions is crucial in the management of the obesity epidemic. The present study
was aimed at evaluating dietary and physical activity patterns as determinants of overweight in a sample of children.
Five hundred and ninety eight children aged 616 years (Boys and Girls), visiting Apollo Clinic and Ria Diagnosis &
Clinical Lab at Tirupati, Chittoor District for minor complaints or routine checkups was recruited into the study. These
children were studied for their physical activity patterns; sleep duration, sedentary habits and eating behaviours as
potential determinants of overweight. Decreased duration of sleep and increased television viewing were
significantly associated with overweight. Among the eating behaviours, increased consumption of fried foods was
significantly associated with overweight. Children who slept less than 8.5 hours/day had significantly higher odds
(6.7, p=0.013) and children who viewed television for greater than or equal to 1.5 hours/day was 19.6 (p=0.001) of
being overweight. Among eating behaviours, the consumption of fried food items, more than 6 times/week, was
associated with significantly higher odds of being overweight (3.1, p=0.014). Our data suggests that duration of sleep,
television viewing and consumption of fried foods may be significant factors that contribute to overweight. Further
longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

282. Health Psychology


Santosh Motiram Mulawkar
Government College of Education, Ambajogai, Maharashtra, India

By health psychology, I mean, the branch of psychology, which deals with the study of behavior of individual related
to health. As health is the phenomenon, which has its root in mental set up or brain of individual, it is necessory to
study health under psychology. Mental health and emotional health are known phenomena, which are already being
studied under psychology. According to me, it is necessory to study physical health under psychology, as physical
health is related to mental health. In addition to these known phenomena, I am going to suggest new phenomena of
health ,viz intellectual health, social health, national health, global health and universal health of individual, which are
related to healthy behaviour of individual with respect to that particular health.

283. A study of impact of hope in relation to gender differences


on personal growth initiative
Anupreet Kaur Arora and Lakhveer Kaur Dullat
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Hope is the emotional state which promotes the belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in
one's life. Personal growth initiative is a person's active and intentional involvement in changing and developing as a
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 131

person. Hope is a positive factor which helps a person to change and develop for the better. Thus, the present study
is designed to study the impact of hope in relation to gender differences on personal growth initiative. For this
purpose, the Trait Hope Scale (Snyder, Irving, & Anderson, 1991) and the Personal Growth Initiative Scale
(Robitschek, 1998) is administered to the sample. The sample for the present study consists of 120 participants
(where 60 are males and 60 are females) in the age group of 19-22 years .2*2 ANOVA is used for statistical
analysis of the results in order to determine the effect of hope in relation to gender differences on personal growth
initiative. It is expected that there will be significant differences in personal growth initiative as influenced by
hope in relation to gender differences.

284. Perception of parent child relationship: A critical


analysis of gender differences
Deepika Vig and IJS Jaswal
Department of Human Development, PAU, Ludhiana

The present study investigated gender differences in the perception of teenage sons and daughters regarding
relationship with their parents. Families for the present study were selected from four zones of Ludhiana city. Only
those adolescents (13-19 years of age) were selected who belonged to nuclear and upper- middle class families, where
both working parents were at least graduate. The total sample comprised of 400 respondents (100 of each fathers,
mothers, sons and daughters). A self structured checklist was used to identify families that fulfilled the selection
criteria. Relationship of teenage sons and daughters with their parents was assessed by using Parent child
relationships scale by Rao (2001). Each selected adolescent was examined separately for his/her relationship with
father and mother across three levels of ten dimensions of parenting. The results revealed that sons perceived their
fathers significantly more indifferent in attitude, more physically punishing whereas mothers were perceived as more
demanding in nature. Daughters perceived their fathers to less punishing and mothers to more symbolically
rewarding. The overall results showed significant differences in the perception of sons and daughters regarding
relationship with their parents that in turn indicates that family relationships are perceived differently by sons and
daughters.

285. Aggression and mental health among mobile and facebook users
Sarika Garg, Kanika Arora and Mridula Sharma
Department of Psychology, Meerut College, Meerut, UP

We are living in an era where everything of life is changing at whirlwind speed. India is a country where relations
are maintained with the core of heart. In this changing cycle the new generation of youth develops and maintains
the relation with the help of modern technology. Mobile and social networking sites are the main sources of
contacts which affect the whole aspects of the life of students. This paper purports to examine the aggression and
mental health among the professional students of Meerut city who use Facebook or mobile more than four hours.
The sample consisted of 148 male and female in the age group of 18 to 21years. Aggression scale by Roma pal and
Tasneem Naqvi and Mental Health Inventory by Jagdish and Srivastava were used for assessing aggression and
mental health respectively. Obtained data was analyzed by using Mean and 2x2 Anova. The results indicate that
the excess use of Facebook makes the students more aggressive and reduces their mental health as compared to
mobile users.
132 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

286. Effect of intelligence on dreams of adolescents girls


Mridula Sharma and Sarika Garg
Department of Psychology, Meerut College, Meerut, UP
Tanvi Agarwal
Delhi Public School, Meerut, UP

Dream is a succession of images, sounds or emotions that the mind experiences during sleep. The content and purpose
of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of speculation and interest throughout recorded
history. The formation of dreams is dependent on the personal experiences of the viewer. Intelligence is an important
component of mind and it affects the personality of a person. Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the
individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. In the present study the
effect of Intelligence on dreams and repressed unconscious desires was investigated. The study consisted of 19
adolescent girls of 9th standard from C.B.S.E. Board. The qualitative interpretation of the dreams was done on the
basis of Sigmund Freud's Dreams Interpretation. To categorize the two groups - dull group and bright group,
Intelligence Scale by Dr. Jalota was used. The results reveals that intelligence affects the thoughts and consequently
dreams. Findings show that bright students are governed and dominated by complexes, anxiety, past associations and
sexual desires on the other hand dull students are governed by imaginations and fearful thoughts.

287. A study of impact of hope in relation to gender differences


on personal growth initiative
Anupreet Kaur Arora and Lakhveer Kaur Dullat
Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Hope is the emotional state which promotes the belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in
one's life. Personal growth initiative is a person's active and intentional involvement in changing and developing as a
person. Hope is a positive factor which helps a person to change and develop for the better. Thus, the present study is
designed to study the impact of hope in relation to gender differences on personal growth initiative. For this purpose,
the Trait Hope Scale (Snyder, Irving, & Anderson, 1991) and the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (Robitschek, 1998)
is administered to the sample. The sample for the present study consists of 120 participants (where 60 are males and 60
are females) in the age group of 19-22 years .2*2 ANOVA is used for statistical analysis of the results in order to
determine the effect of hope in relation to gender differences on personal growth initiative. It is expected that there
will be significant differences in personal growth initiative as influenced by hope in relation to gender differences.

288. Examining counselling curricula from a gender and mental


Sadhana Natu
Department of Psychology, Modern College Ganeshkhind, Pune

Counselling is recognized as an important intervention in mental distress. As a result of growing mental distress the
need for Psychological Counselling in Society has gone up. In response to this need, numerous Counselling Courses
ranging from a Pune University Degree Course to various Autonomous Courses have come up in Pune City. As a part
of my Pune University Research Project, I am analyzing the Curricula of these courses. The present Paper seeks to
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 133

examine the Curricula of select Counselling Courses from a Gender and Mental Health Perspective. While doing so
one will also make references to the University Grants Commission Model Curriculum for Psychology. Various
criteria like the rationale and utility of the courses, whether the linkages between physical and mental health have been
considered in these courses will also be taken into account. Alternative Mental Health Models have explored the
connections between mind and body. By now the mind-body continuum is well established. Hence Counselling
Content has to include research on newer areas like nutrition, anemia and depression to cite an example. The paper
will examine this issue. Also Violence as a physical and mental health issue is well documented from a Gender and
mental health perspective both in the West and in India. It also has great ramifications for the entire domain of
Psychological Counselling. The Counselling Curricula will also be examined to find out the approach towards
'violence' as a topic and the treatment given to it. The last Section of the Paper will attempt to make some
recommendations in order to design Counselling Curricula that take into consideration the linkages between physical
and mental health on one hand and also incorporate the Gender and Mental Perspective on the other.

289. Inter-relationships among adolescents in nuclear and


joint-family settings
Charu Sharma
Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

This study investigated interrelationships among adolescents residing in nuclear and joint family settings belonging
to middle socio-economic background. The sample (n = 180) of adolescents was selected randomly from a particular
urban locality in Delhi. Half of the participants were residing in nuclear families while others were staying in joint or
extended families. Self-report measures were used to explore the different dimensions of interrelationships among
adolescents. The results highlighted that the participants from nuclear families had greater cohesion, expressiveness
and independence than the participants from joint families. The participants from nuclear families also showed higher
scores on achievement orientation, intellectual-cultural orientation and active-recreational orientation from the
participants from joint families but the scores were not statistically significant. However, it was found that the
participants from joint families had greater conflict and control in their relationships with family members and
showed greater moral-religious emphasis than the participants from nuclear families. The findings were discussed in
the light of recent researches in the field.

290. Self-concept and school environment perceived by orthopedic


handicapped female adolescents
Sandhya Ojha
Department of Psychology, Sri Agrasen Kanya P. G. College, Parmanandpur, Varanasi, UP

The disable face many psychological disadvantage because of their physical inadequacy, such as feeling of inferiority,
fear of social ridicule, inability to compete with the normal people, lack of self confidence and limited social
participation. The main aim of the present study was to ascertain and compare the various dimensions of school
environment and self concept of OH (female) and normal control adolescents. 50 adolescents female (25 OH (female)
and 25 normal controls) were sampled for the present study. School Environment Inventory developed by Mishra
(1984) and Self Concept Inventory constructed and standardized by Mohsin (1978) was used for the collection of
data. Result indicates that significant differences were found between OH (female) and normal control regarding
permissiveness and rejection dimension of school environment. Normal control female were experience better self
concept in comparison to OH female.
134 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

291. A study of coping behaviour among migarine patients


Rashmi Rawat
DAV PG College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

The present study is to explore the Problem “Study of Coping Behavior among Migraine patients “. For this the data
was collected from 116 Migraine patients, equally divided in to males and females. (That 58 each) in the age group of
20-60 years. The self questionnaire was utilized through by interview for collecting data. The data was analyzed using
“percentages”. The subjects' behavior with respect to the Migraine is also investigated. To identify the difference
among males and females the Migraine Characteristics, Participating Factors and Coping Pattern were measured. The
findings of the study have revealed some very interesting and significant outcomes/superiority. There is a marked
difference (variation) in the coping behavior pattern of male and female migraine patients. I have measured Migraine
characteristics, Migraine Precipitation, Factors, problem Focused, Emotion Focused by percentages

292. Child's early behaviour and mother's response as factors in the


development of needs for intimacy and affiliation among
Indian adolescent boys
Navreet Kaur
UIAMS, Panjab University, Chandigarh

The key objective of this research study was to explore the background variables associated with the development of
the intimacy motive and the need for affiliation (n Aff or n Affiliation). The participants were 100 urban adolescent
boys within the age range 13-15 years and their mothers within the age range 33-45 years. The following tools were
used: The Adapted TAT (after McClelland et al., 1953) The Mother Interview Schedule (MIS, after Winterbottom,
1958). The data obtained were subjected to Stepwise Moderated Multiple Regression Analysis with child's early
behaviour (in terms of frequency of the act) and mother's response to it(in terms of approval or disapproval) as
predictor variables and the two aspects of affiliative motivation as predicted variables. The moderating effect of the
interaction between child's behaviour and mother's response on the development of the said needs was also seen. The
obtained findings are discussed in terms of the link between affiliative tendencies and subjective well-being. The
paper is of particular relevance to the fields of Health and Positive Psychology.

293. Adolescence and health concerns: An overview


of facts and falicies
Jaskeerat Kaur and Deepika Vig
Department of Human Development, PAU, Ludhiana

Adolescence is defined as the stage of life when individuals reach sexual maturity and experience a change in their
physical, social, and emotional aspects of life. In order to effectively deal with this transition, they require information
and a clear picture of their bodily changes to prevent them from physical problems, guilt, ambiguity, and confusion.
Therefore, reproductive health of the young people is a growing concern today and is considered a corner stone of
health and a major determinant of human social development. There are over 340 million new cases of sexually
transmitted diseases (STD) every year worldwide. More than half of all STDs occur in adolescents and young adults
135 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

aged 1524 years. Moreover the brain undergoes significant development and changes in hormones can contribute to
mood disorders such as Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia and schizophrenia. It also contributes
to eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa among adolescents. Girls aged between 15 and 19 make
up 40% of anorexia nervosa cases. Adolescent pregnancies and parenthood, substance use and abuse and adolescent
delinquency are other areas of concern. Such issues need constant and consistent review by stakeholders of society so
that new ways and strategies could be chalked out to help out the adolescents in need and to help them carve out a
healthy and stress-free lifestyle for themselves.

294. Emotional intelligence test as a selection tool for military


officers: Understanding its convergent and discriminant validity
Pramod Kumar, S. K. Mishra and A. P. Tripathi
DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Selection Centre East, Allahabad

This study assessed the convergent and discriminant validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (EI). College
students (N=212) took an ability test of EI (EIT), a measure of the Big Five personality traits (NEO-PI), Trait Emotional
Intelligence Questionnaire(TEIQ), Verbal and Non-verbal Intelligence Tests and Emotional Empathy Test. The EIT
scores correlated low with Nonverbal Intelligence and moderate with Verbal intelligence, which indicates that the EI
measures different things than intelligence, although there is some relationship between them. The EIT appears to
correlate reliably with empathy scale, which means to contain the domain of empathy. The EIT only correlated with
Agreeableness trait of NEO-PI and moderately correlated with self-report Trait EI. Thus EIT measures a distinct construct
which is marginally related to intelligence but different from personality traits, in general.

295. A study of eating attitudes in relation to perfectionism,


impulsivity, locus of control, body shape and body
esteem among adolescents
Davinder Singh and Preeti Gulati
Department of Psychology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab

In the present study, a non clinical sample of 150 adolescents (75 males and 75 females) from the different schools of
Amritsar city ranging from 16 to 18 years of age were included. Majority of the students attending the private schools
were from middle to upper socio-economic status. All the participants completed six questionnaires named Eating
Attitude Test, Multi Dimensional Perfectionism Scale, Barrat's Impulsivity Scale, Locus Of Control, Body Esteem
Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire and along with these their Height and Weight were also measured. The study
revealed that the eating attitudes of females differ from males. The males score higher on all the subscales of eating
attitude test. The physical condition of males is better than females. The phenomenon of eating attitudes is more
complex among females than males. It is evident that attitudes in females are related to number of aspects whereas in
case of males it is related to 3 or 4 variables.
Keywords: eating attitudes, perfectionism, impulsivity, body shape, body esteem
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296. Relationship of psychosocial factors and depression in


adolescent girls
Sarbani Chowdhury
Indian Air Force, New Delhi

Major depression affects one in every fifty school children. Countless others are affected by milder cases of
depression, which may affect school performance (Lamarine 1995). Variables of key influence include peer
relationship, academic performance, self-esteem and socio economic status. This paper reports results from a sample
of fifty (50) adolescent girls, chosen randomly out of universe of 325 adolescent girls from a school in North India to
investigate the relation between the various variables and depression level. From a survey of those fifty girls (n=50),
thirty-five girls (n=35) from low economic status and fifteen girls (n=15) from high economic status were interviewed
regarding their coping capabilities and psychosocial problems. Semi structured interviews and questionnaires were
developed and standardized psychological tests were conducted to assess the influence of variables on the depression
level of adolescent girls. A regression analysis showed that statistically significant explanatory factors of depression
i.e. - the outcome variables are self-esteem, peer relationship and academic performance. Socio economic status was
not statistically significant.

297. Meaning of work: An essential requisite for enhanced


employee commitment
Taranjeet Duggal and Shivani Tandon
Department of Human Resource, Amity Business School

Albert Einstein once said: “Three Rules of Work: Out of clutter find simplicity; from discord find harmony; In the
middle of difficulty lies opportunity.” Work and its meaning have always been an issue of discussion in the world. This
is not limited to the domains of science; the corporate world too is not untouched. Organizations are struggling hard to
know and to understand the “Meaning Of Work” to increase the productivity thereby contributing to increase the
bottom line. With rapid change in the working conditions throughout the world with 24/7 work life, being tied to the
job via inescapable wires of technology all day and every day. And even the best doer gets tired and looses interest.
Allocating responsibility, building a varied and interesting work environment and particularly permitting autonomy
all supplemented considerably to enhanced level of work centrality. The focus here is on the needs that affect the
working environment, it is important to understand first what work means to people from different backgrounds. For
most people, the basic meaning of work is tied to economic necessity (money for food, housing, and so forth) for the
individual and for society However, the additional connotations of work are more subjective, especially about what
work provides other than money - achievement, honor, social contacts etc. Along with the industrialization of the
societies, work was organized in a scientific manner. Constant effort is done in order to maximize the efficiency of
operations and the productivity of workers. People were then treated as if they were an extension of the machine and
expendable spare parts; they were asked to exert simple, narrow skills, and their performance was closely monitored
by foremen dedicated to the hierarchy. But the changing times have brought the organizations into a state where they
need to focus on what is exactly required by an employee, to fulfill their needs to the fullest so as to increase
organizational effectiveness and attainment of organizational goals. And in order to accomplish this task they first
need to define “what is work” actually. Meaning at work and of work can be derived out of several factors both
primary and secondary. The primary meaning factors being from the work they do. For example if their purpose is to
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 137

save environment, their need for meaning through their work must be satisfied while secondary factors are more
highly valued, they satisfy meaning quotient in a multi-faceted way. Organisations today want their employees to be
completely committed so as to give their best. Through this research it is expected to find out whether Meaning of
Work does have any significance on Employees Commitment.

298. Association between stigmatization and self-esteem in people


with recovery from mental illness
Ruby Charak, Jaitte Vaid Eisha Gohil and Samia Kohli
Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir

Numerous studies have documented the existence of negative attitude towards people with mental illness and
associated perceived stigma. In the present study the aim is to assess the effect of aspects of perceived stigma namely,
disclosure, discrimination and positive aspects of mental illness on self esteem in people recovering from mental
illness. A sample of 300 patients (114 female, 186 male) in the age range of 18-79 years with mean age being 34.8
years was collected using cross sectional design from Psychiatric Diseases Hospital and De-addiction Centre in
Jammu City. Using multivariate analysis, results indicated that 3.6 % variance in self esteem was predicted
significantly by the variables disclosure, discrimination and positive aspects of mental illness. Individually, variables
disclosure and discrimination significantly predicted self esteem in people with mental illness. Perceived stigma can
have a detrimental effect on the prognosis of an illness and hence needs to be curbed for an individual to lead a good
quality of life.
Keywords: mental illness, perceived stigma, disclosure, discrimination, positive aspects, self esteem

299. Community media for human development : Empowerment


through the psychological route
Bala Lakhendra and Abhijit Bora
Department of Mass Communication & Journalism., Tezpur University, Assam

There is no need to reiterate that mass communication and media exerts a tremendous and far-reaching influence upon
the human mind with its contents and agenda-setting. By way of reach and influence media is a highly powerful tool
for spreading developmental messages to the masses even in far-away places of the world. And particularly
community media is much more suitable for this task as it enjoys a very cosy closeness to the masses at grassroots
level. The major advantages of this media is that it needs to address a limited and smaller number of audiences
compared to mass media, these can be run by the community itself in which it is set up, convenient in keeping a tab on
the contents and the resource persons. Hence, the authors of this paper would like to examine how community media
can be utilized as a medium for passing of information on developmental concerns to the masses and thereby
contribute towards enhancing their standard of living with a newer enlightenment. In other words - to discuss about
the role of community media in bringing the change in life style of people with regard to the development of the
society and finally the empowerment of the rural mass. Media, particularly the community media has started playing a
vital role in Education, Capacity Building and Training. The mainstream media with Radio, Television, Magazines,
and Newspapers and of course the Internet is playing a very important and significant role in every walk of life. The
primary objectives of media are to inform, educate and entertain the largest possible audience. In the process of
information, education and entertainment media can concentrate on a particular issue related to the mass and can bring
138 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

a social change but the main stream media have their own limitations. Here Community Media in the form of
Community Radio, Community Video, and Community Press are becoming the tool for communication and bringing
change in the society. The paper would also like to examine to what extent this media would prove to effective for our
country in the near as well as distant future.
Keywords : education, capacity building, community media, community radio, media technologies, e learning,
public service broadcasting, empowerment.

300. Psychological well being in relation to emotional quotient and


locus of control among criminals
Shiv Kumar
Department of Psychology, G J U S & T Hisar
Brij Lata Kotia
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

The present study was designed to investigate the psychological well being in relation to emotional quotient and locus
of control among criminals. The study was conducted on 100 criminals of different type i.e. 20 murder convict, 20
rape convict, 20 dowry convict, 20 robbery convict and 20 ndps act convict . Upinder Dhar et al (2001) Emotional
Quotient test, Rotter's (1966) Locus of Control scale, Varma and Varma (1969) Psychological Well Being Measure
were used to collect the data. The results of the study reveal that emotional intelligence and locus of control have
significant correlation with Psychological well being. Subjects with high emotional Quotient and internal locus of
control scored significantly high on Psychological well being.
Keywords: psychological well being, emotional quotient, locus of control.

301. Socio-psychological impact of television


advertisements on youth
Sewa Singh Bajwa
Department of Journalism & Mass Communication, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana

Advertisements endeavour to instill the psyche of consumers by way of various types of emotional appeals. They
create need in the consumers by conveying that the product is essential for their betterment, success, personality and
social status. Various advertisements of eatables, vehicles, domestic appliances, cosmetics, gadgets and life insurance
etc. are based on the perception that they will help dramatically in enhancing the influence, rapport and social stature
of the consumer. Persuasive advertisements strive hard to convince the consumer about the indispensability of the
product for the consumer and spread a feeling of insecurity if the consumer does not make use the product.

302.. Digital addiction - Impact on quality of life of the youth


P. Jayanthi
SPW Degree & PG College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

Many people think of technology as a lifeline. It seems that digital media is rewiring our brain for addiction,
multiplying our need for external validation a thousand-fold, and creating a feeling of panic when faced with open,
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 139

disconnected space. The constant barrage of digital information affects our brain chemistry because it increases levels
of dopamine, a chemical associated with the pleasure system. Too much dopamine can make us addicted to food, sex,
drugs and even technology. In addition to (or maybe because of firing up the brain's reward system), constant online
engagement has the power to momentarily quell deep-seated feelings of loneliness, anxiety, depression, low self-
esteem, and other pesky emotions. But this escapism from our fundamental discomforts only brings more suffering in
the end. Digital frenzy also feeds the minds deeply ingrained habit toward distraction, which takes us further and
further away from our true self.

303. A study on self-esteem of first and second born college students


N.V. Amudhadevi
PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu

The present study aims to find out the self esteem of first born and second born college students. the age level for the
study is between 18-23 years. 100 samples were taken for the study in various departments of a private college at
Coimbatore. The study is done by using convenience method. The data was collected using the self-esteem
questionnaire developed by Karunanidhi(1996).The questionnaire measures six dimensions such as competency,
global self-esteem, moral and self-control, social scale, family ,body and physical appearance. Student t- test was
used to ascertain the difference between first and second born children. The study shows that there is no significant
difference among the first born and second born children in all the six dimensions.

304. A comparative study of actualparenting and perceived parenting


Ranjeeta Jain and Shilpi Tomar
D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Muzaffar Nagar

The purpose of the present study was to find out the effect of parenting style (mothers) on perceived parenting (their
daughters). The study was conducted on the total sample of 60 (30 mothers and 30 daughters) t test was used in the
study. Results showed that there is significant difference between perceived parenting and actual parenting.
Keywords: parenting style, perceived parenting, actual parenting.

305. Social adjustment of adolescents in relation to anger


management: The role of positive therapy
Anita Sharma
Department of Psychology, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla

This study attempted to explore the role of positive therapy in the management of anger and thereby increasing the
social adjustment level of the adolescents. Initially, the sample of 500 students were screened from different schools
of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh using the Case Study Schedule (Natesan, 2003), State Trait Anger Expression
Inventory(Spielberger, 1998), Social Adjustment, a subscale of Adjustment Inventory(Bell,1937). From them,200
students(100 boys and 100 girls) within the age range of 14-17 years( mean age =15.45) with high anger and low
social adjustment were selected to serve as the final sample. The treatment in terms of positive therapy (Natesan,
2002) was given to the selected sample every day for one hour per session over a period of one month and after that, all
the students were retested using the same tools, hence, pre-test and post-test scores were compared by computing the
140 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

t-test. The results revealed the importance and effectiveness of the positive therapy in terms of the sharp reduction of
anger experience and expression from pre-test to the post-test with t = 23.66** and 9.66**, p<.01 and in increasing
the level of social adjustment with t=22.42**, p<.01. Further, the results also showed the negative correlation between
the anger experience, anger expression with the social adjustment(r's being .57** and .63**, p<.01).

306. Stress and psychological hardiness among college


students: A cross gender perspective
Jagpreet Kaur and Sandeep Kaur
Department of of Education, Punjabi University, Patiala

College students face a significant amount of stress due to various factors. Many aspects of college life, as well as the
stress that comes with in, can all impact a student's physical and emotional health. The major objective of the present
study was to study gender differences in stress and psychological hardiness among college students. The study was
conducted on a stratified random sample of 210 college students studying in final year in different private and
government degree colleges of Patiala district of Punjab. The Life Experience Survey (Johnson and Sarason, 1978)
and Psychological Hardiness Scale (Nowack, 1990) was used to assess stress and psychological hardiness among
college students respectively. The results of the t-test revealed significant gender differences in stress (both positive
and negative) and psychological hardiness among college students. Implications of the results are discussed.
Keywords: positive stress, negative stress, psychological hardiness, college students

307. Child's early behaviour and mother's response as factors in the


development of needs for intimacy and affiliation among
Indian adolescent boys
Navreet Kaur
UIAMS, Panjab University, Chandigarh

The key objective of this research study was to explore the background variables associated with the development of
the intimacy motive and the need for affiliation (n Aff or n Affiliation). The participants were 100 urban adolescent
boys within the age range 13-15 years and their mothers within the age range 33-45 years. The following tools were
used: W The Adapted TAT (after McClelland et al., 1953) W The Mother Interview Schedule (MIS, after Winterbottom,
1958) The data obtained were subjected to Stepwise Moderated Multiple Regression Analysis with child's early
behaviour (in terms of frequency of the act) and mother's response to it(in terms of approval or disapproval) as
predictor variables and the two aspects of affiliative motivation as predicted variables. The moderating effect of the
interaction between child's behaviour and mother's response on the development of the said needs was also seen. The
obtained findings are discussed in terms of the link between affiliative tendencies and subjective well-being. The
paper is of particular relevance to the fields of Health and Positive Psychology.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 141

308. Background factors as determinants of entrepreneurial


self-efficacy belief among micro and small enterprises operators
Habtamu Kebeu Gemeda and M.V.R. Raju
Department of Psychology & Parapsychology, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

The present study examined the extent to which micro and small enterprises operators' background factors interact
with their entrepreneurial self- efficacy belief. Two hundred twenty two micro and small enterprises operators
selected using stratified simple random sampling techniques from Adama and Bishoftu towns of East Shoa zone,
Oromia region (Ethiopia) fill in a battery of self-report questionnaire consisting of biographic information and
entrepreneurial self- efficacy belief scale. The results were analyzed using simple correlation and multiple regression
analysis. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that except age and marital status all background variables (sex,
general educational level, technical and vocational education and training, and exposure to entrepreneurship) had
some relationship, though varied in degree of strengths, with entrepreneurial self- efficacy belief. However, the
multiple regression analysis disclosed that only prior exposure to entrepreneurship and technical and vocational
education and training as significant factors for variability in entrepreneurial self-efficacy belief among participants
of the study. Besides, gender difference in entrepreneurial self-efficacy belief (in favors of males) was also observed.
Implications of the study are discussed.

309. Effect of gender and age on job-satisfaction among


college teachers of different sectors (private and government sector)
KarunaAnand
Department of Psychology, Gokul Das Hindu Girls College, Moradabad, U.P.

The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of gender, and age on Job-satisfaction among College teachers
of different sectors (Private and Government Sector). 40 males from private as well as government sectors, age 30 to
60 and females from private as well as government sectors, age of 30 to 60 years were selected. The result shows that
there is significant effect of gender and college teachers belonging to the private and government sectors. And there is
also found the significant effect of age. There is exists a significant second order interaction between gender and age
on job satisfaction among College teachers of different sectors (Private and Government).

310. Hope and personal stress: Manifestation of gender and age


Pravakar Duari and Surendra Kumar Sia
Department of Psychology, Pondicherry University

Hope, an aspect of positive mental health, plays a crucial role in eliminating personal stress in contemporary life,
especially during the phase of emerging adulthood. This study was designed to assess the role of biological age and
gender in hope and personal stress of emerging adults, and to explore the relationship between hope and personal
stress. It is hypothesized that there will be difference between biological age group and gender with reference to hope
and personal stress. This cross-sectional study includes 2 x 2 between groups factorial design involving 120
participants selected by random sampling method, out of which 60 (30 males and 30 females) belong to in the age
group of 18-21 years and 60 (30 males and 30 females) to the age group of 25-28 years. The results reveal that the
142 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

participants of younger age group are more hopeful than of the older age group, and the males are more hopeful than
the female. Personal stress has been experienced more by older age group and males than that the younger age group
and females, respectively. It is found out that the participants when become more hopeful they are less susceptible to
personal stress. Implications and future direction of the study have been discussed in light of related literature.
Keywords: hope, personal stress, emerging adulthood.

311. Body dissatisfaction in relation to peer attribution ad


parental bonding in adolescents
Neelam Goyal and Sunil Saini
Indian Association of Health, Research and Welfare, India

Now a day there is a growing crisis among adolescent boys and girl about their body image and dissatisfaction.
Adolescence is referred to as a time of special body image instability as well as a time of adaptation to one's own body
because of overall radical body transformation (Fisher, 1986). The present examined body dissatisfaction in relation to
peer attribution and parental bonding adolescent boys and girls. The sample was comprised of 200 boys and 200 girls in
the age range of 13-19 years. Body dissatisfaction Scale (Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983), Parental Bonding
Instrument (PBI, Parker, Tubling, & Brown, 1979):The Peer Attribution Scale (Lieberman, 2001) were used to assess
body dissatisfaction, peer attribution and parental bonding respectively. Pearson correlation method and t-test was used to
analyse the results. The findings body dissatisfaction in boys and was found to be positively related with peer attribution.
Body dissatisfaction in girls was found to be negatively related with mother-child relationship. The findings have
important implications in understanding increasing body dissatisfaction among adolescents, and how to cope with it.

312. Subjective wellbeing for employees in an organization


Gunjan Sharma and Babita Tolani

Subjective well being in corporate parlance is becoming very much important for the well being of the employees in
an organization which has been prove to be something more than employee satisfaction. Subjective well being in an
organization not only includes the cognitive aspect but also take physical fitness into the consideration. Being a
secondary research we had taken two research papers which highlights different perspectives regarding the subjective
well being of employees in an organization. It captures the dynamics of subjective well being in work settings on a
daily basis, it suggest that optimal job performance is most likely when subjective well being is a combination of high
activation and high pleasure. It has long being recognised that workplace practices like work attitude, wages and
quality of work affect employees motivation and firm performance.

313. Relationship study between personality and


employees motivation
Punithavathi, S.
Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore

The present study was aiming at finding the significant relationship between personality and motivation. Sample size
consist of 100 men employees of salem steel plant. They were selected by simple random sampling method. The
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 143

following tools were used for collecting the data. Personality inventory developed by Robert A. Baron and Employee
motivation questionnaire developed by Jinnah University. The product movement correlation was employed for
finding the relationship between the personality and employee motivation. It was found that type A personality
employees have lack of motivation towards their work and type B personality employees have work their work
motivation. From the study it is concluded that the employees are very much contented with their assigned jobs , in
addition to support and recognition they do get from their superiors.

314. Stress management-The agenda of student life


S.K. Tripathi
Clinical psychologist, Psychotherapist & Counsellor, Tantia General Hospital, Sriganganagr, Rajasthan

The Student of adolescence age is the period through which a growing person makes transition from student of
childhood to maturity. Adolescence has been defined as that time of life, when an immature individual IN his teens
approach the culmination of his physical and mental growth. Physiological and Individual becomes adolescence with
the advent of puberty ability to reproduce his kind. Chronological puberty generally occurs in girls between the 12th
and 15th years with a range of above 2 years on either side of figures. For boys puberty tends to occur from 1-2 years
later than it does for girls. Student of adolescence ages are broadly classified into early teens and late teens.
Accordingly, their personality characteristics defined in terms of physical changes, psychological aspects of growth,
emotional life and socialization, affect how they perceive problems and stress. Effect of stress, and how the adolescent
reacts to stress and manages it, has been studied intensively in clinical psychology. An attempt has been made in this
paper to review how stressful life events affect the students of adolescent age group.

315. Subjective wellbeing for employees in an organization


Gunjan Sharma and Babita Tolani

Subjective well being in corporate parlance is becoming very much important for the well being of the employees in
an organization which has been prove to be something more than employee satisfaction. Subjective well being in an
organization not only includes the cognitive aspect but also take physical fitness into the consideration. Being a
secondary research we had taken two research papers which highlights different perspectives regarding the subjective
well being of employees in an organization. It captures the dynamics of subjective well being in work settings on a
daily basis, it suggest that optimal job performance is most likely when subjective well being is a combination of high
activation and high pleasure. It has long being recognised that workplace practices like work attitude, wages and
quality of work affect employees motivation and firm performance.

316. A discourse analysis on the Relevance of non-profit


management education in India
Rajkumar Siwach
Department of Public Admn

During the last three decade we have witnessed the emergence of rapidly changing world of new organizations and
partners which make inroads in to the public policy domain of the government. This has not only affected the
government but the business and Third Sector too, by inculcating new values of 'social responsiveness' and 'strategic
144 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

alignments' into their respective domain for showing sensitivity towards social concerns. Owing to these developments,
the Civil society or Third Sector comprising NGOs, Voluntary Organizations and Residents Welfare Associations,
Neighborhood Associations and other organizations capturing public space are playing vital roles in democracy,
development and governance. The Aspen Institute's Non-Profit Sector Strategy Group, Washington DC has enumerated
the factors causing paramount importance of Third Sector including civil society organizations. This sector is stood at the
cross roads, because of its slack performance to tackle poverty, These, by and large include constantly evolving mix of
people and culture, instant and interactive technology in all areas of life, downsizing and developed governments, a global
market place, a commercial presence reaching into almost every aspect of life, and a volatile economy. squalor and equity
related issues. Hence, capacity-building initiatives and strategic thinking to face these growing challenges emerge as a
dire need of the time. So, the Non-Profit Management Education (NPME) programmes- formal degrees and diplomas
useful for learning and acquiring innovative insights and knowledge in the field of Third Sector- becomes sine quanon.
The unemployed youths, the managerial bodies of third sector and NGOs engaged in the designing of various
developmental projects and middle and higher level managers who are concerned with in policy execution shall be
benefitted greatly if such programmes are launched in India Not only this, the socio-economic status of the country would
improve if academic learning centers are opened to start such courses aiming at new career opportunities in the field of
Non- Profit Education Status of NPME in India. It is widely known that the aptitude and professional competence of the
Indian NGOs workforce, both paid and unpaid, is not up to date and excellent, which, it is hoped, would be dramatically
improve with the launching of education and training curriculum courses in the field. Presently, diploma and degree
holders from the traditional disciplines of the Social Work, Public Administration, Economics and Sociology, etc, are
recruited as NGOs workforce. In this age of globalization and ICT, the knowledge is growing complex and complicated,
hence, the need of specific NPME courses becomes relevant. A cursory look at course curriculum of Indian universities
reveals that only Madurai-Kamraj University, Madurai (Tamil Nadu) offers M.S. (Master of Science) in Non-
Governmental Organizations. The other universities like IGNOU, however, are following the suit. Even the subject-wise
representation at post graduation level in the streams of Sociology, Social Work, Public Administration, Master of Social
Work, Psychology, Environment and Ecology and Rural Development, from where NGOs employees are generally
drawn, as compared to other disciplines is negligible. (Universities Hand Book, 29th Edition, New Delhi - 2002). Thus the
people, the as per the National Policy on Education, 1986 “miss an opportunity to learn knowledge and skills reflecting
the critical social, economic, cultural and spiritual dimensions” (p. XI) in the emerging areas of voluntarism, philanthropy
and charity. This paper seeks to explore the viability of NPME courses in India in the light of the practice followed in the
developed countries. Thus, information is furnished in this paper on numerous dimensions of NPME including training
centres on NGOs, Academic centres on NPME, Think thanks, Journals and periodicals, Non-profit organizations,
Academic Research Association and online programmes on NPME.

317. Effect of Yoga on mental health of adolescents


Priti Sharma
Department of Psychology, C.C.S.University Campus, Meerut. (U.P.) India

The aim of this study was to explore the effect of yoga on mental health of adolescents subjects. The sample was
consisted of 90 subjects of age range 16 to 19 years who were randomly selected from the Yoga Centers & Locality of
Meerut City. The sample was further consisted of three groups of practing Yoga at Yoga Center (30 Ss), practing Yoga
at home (30Ss) and non practioners of Yoga (30 Ss). An experimental design with one factor was employed in the
study. Data was collected with the help of standarized mental health battery and statistically analysed with the help of
one way ANOVA. Results reaveled that Yoga practioners have shown a significantly higher score of metnal health as
compared to other two groups.
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 145

318. Changes in few Psychological parameters due to the alteration


of the diurnal rhythm
Shaifali Agarwal
Department of Psychocology, G.D.H.G.D. College, Moradabad, U.P.

One of the reasons of the alteration of the diurnal rhythm is the prolonged disturbance of the day night schedules seen
in the employees of many companies, factories, call centers, night guards, watchmen, police men doing the night beat,
railway drivers, guards doing the night shift etc. The manifestations of such disturbances can be observed, externally,
in the behavior and the psyche of the workers, moreover the prolonged exposure to such conditions can also lead to
physiological changes. The present study was conducted in Moradabad among the brass factory workers working the
night shift. The study was conducted on three test groups of ten each and a group was kept as control. The parameters
used to determine the results for the study are as follows: aggression, anxiety, and job satisfaction.The study shows a
remarkable change in the psychological condition of the subjects as compared to their other counter parts working the
day shift. The results clearly indicate A directly proportional relationship between altered diurnal rhythm and
aggression.A directly proportional relationship between altered diurnal rhythm and anxiety and an inversely
proportional relationship between altered diurnal rhythm and job satisfaction.
Keywords: diurnal rhythm, behavior alteration, aggression, job satisfaction, anxiety

319. Stress amongst adolescents and paranayam as its coping strategy


Deepty Sharma
Ryan International School, Mayur Vihar III, New Delhi

Stress is the "wear and tear" that our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment; it has
physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can
help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it
can result in feelings of distrust, rejection anger and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as
headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure and stroke. With the death of a loved one, the
birth of a child, a job promotion, or a new relationship, we experience stress as we readjust our lives. In so adjusting to
different circumstances, stress will help or hinder us depending on how we react to it. Although we tend to think of
stress as caused by the external events, events in themselves are not stressful. Rather, it is the way in which we
interpret and react to events that makes them stressful. Thus, stress is a particular pattern of disturbing psychological
and physiological reactions that occur when an environment event threatens important motives and taxes one's ability
to cope. Pranayam has been used as a coping strategy during the present study. Pranayam is made of two words "pra"
meaning to fill is added to the root word "an" (to breathe or to live) creating new the new meaning life that fills with
breath.Thus the objective of Pranayama is to stimulate, communicate, regulate and control the vital life force that
exists in the body. There is no penance greater than Pranayam. It blemishes the ignorance: and helps the knowledge to
rise. Pranayam helps in reducing different kinds of diseases. Moreover, because Pranayam (breathing) is the
important means of supplying our body and its various organs with prana (oxygen) it is vital for our survival. Another
important reason that Pranayam is important is that it is because breathing is one of the most important ways that we
are able to get rid of waste products and toxins from our body. Pranayam is considered the highest form of penance.
Objectives of the study are to study the stress among adolescents, to study coping strategies of stress with special
emphasis on Pranayam and to study affect of Pranayam on stress. A sample of students from Vivekananda College and
146 1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011)

Amity University, Noida were taken for the study. The sample size was kept small since the study required the select
group of students having high stress level to undergo rigorous training on various Pranayam techniques and it also
required them to devote dedicated time for practicing the same for a period of month. Perceived Stress Scale was used to
measure their stress levels and it consisted of 10 items. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used during the study.
Questionnaire was filled and the respondents were asked about their feelings and thoughts during the one month. Finally
the study showed that application of breathing exercises was beneficial in lowering the level of perceived stress.

320. Subjective wellbeing for employees in an organization


Gunjan Sharma and Babita Tolani, Pune

Subjective well being in corporate parlance is becoming very much important for the well being of the employees in
an organization which has been prove to be something more than employee satisfaction. Subjective well being in an
organization not only includes the cognitive aspect but also take physical fitness into the consideration. Being a
secondary research we had taken two research papers which highlights different perspectives regarding the subjective
well being of employees in an organization. It captures the dynamics of subjective well being in work settings on a
daily basis, it suggest that optimal job performance is most likely when subjective well being is a combination of high
activation and high pleasure. It has long being recognised that workplace practices like work attitude, wages and
quality of work affect employees motivation and firm performance.

321. “HINGLISH” A new Avataar of English language


Keerty Goyal and Anuradha Vashisth
Department of Communication Management & Technology, GJUS&T, Hisar

The lingo of the urban youth in India is all set to get a voice in the form of a unique language- Hinglish. Hinglish, a
portmanteau of the words Hindi and English, is the arbitrary usage of Hindi and English, combining both, in one sentence.
This is more commonly seen in urban and semi-urban centers of population, but is slowly spreading its root into rural and
remote areas via media and word of mouth, slowly achieving vernacular status. Many speakers do not realize that they are
incorporating English words into Hindi sentences or Hindi words into English sentences. Hinglish speakers, for whom
either Hindi or English is their first language, dip in and out of these two 'foreign' languages with perfect ease and fluency.
For the young are linguistic magpies, borrowing from any language, accent or dialect that seems fashionable, it is
becoming panache for the young minds to mix and remix everything, why to leave language alone. In urban India, it is
very common to see young people code-mixing and code-switching between various languages. It is not easy to separate
the use of English in India from the general multilingual flux. In addition to code-mixing and code-switching, other
languages are constantly drawn into English discourse and English into the discourse of other languages, especially
Hindi. This highly popular mixing of both the languages in most parts of northern and central India has grown from the
fact that English is a popular language of choice amongst the urbane youth who finds itself comfortable in its lexicon. It is
already the medium for imparting education in many schools across the nation. The advent of cable television and its
pervasive growth has seen the masses exposed to a wide variety of programming from across the world. As local words
creep into English, some fear that communication between India and the rest of the world could suffer. What kind of
English should Indians be learning? Purists argue that language skills must meet international standards, but experience
tells us that local languages will add flavour to the mix. The result may be fine for the street, but when it comes to the
workplace, it is just not good enough. English plays an important role in the domains of education, administration,
business and political relations, judiciary, industry, etc. and is therefore a passport to social mobility, higher education, and
better job opportunities. English will always be the language of opportunity, Hindi will always be the language of pride,
1st International Online Conference on Psychology & Allied Sciences (2011) 147

dignity and Indianess but Hinglish is the language of amity, concord and friendship.Thus today, we may say that
though English has almost lost its pre-colonial beauty of literariness, but it has acquired a very colourful
communicative mode. Just like the fast-moving consumer goods, English language is transforming its multi-
dimensional communicative structure day by day, and in the process has enhanced its utility quotient, in India.

322. Analysis of moderating effect of emotional intelligence in


adjustment and mental health of adolescents witnessing parental conflict
Tarundeep Kaur
Department of Psychology, GGDSD College, Chandigarh

The study examined the moderating role of emotional intelligence in adjustment and mental health of male and female
adolescents witnessing frequent and intense inter-parental conflict. The sample comprised of 500 adolescents (270 males,
230 females) in the age group of 15-18 years. The Youth Self Report Inventory was used to assess adolescent adjustment
problems and an Emotional Intelligence Scale was administered to study their Level of EQ. Results further revealed the
moderating role of Emotional Intelligence in the link between adjustment problems and marital conflict. Results, using
moderated multiple regression analysis, revealed that emotional quotient acted as a significant moderator in reducing the
effect of inter-parental conflict on the adjustment problems of adolescents especially in female adolescents.

323. A study existential vacuum in working women in relation to


perceived stress and positive affective states
Sangeeta Trama and Neeraj Panwar
Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

Meaninglessness in life has significantly been reported as a contributing factor towards the experience of existential
vacuum, stress, burnout, negative emotions and lower level of happiness. The very term existential vacuum is not a new
one but lacking the research work under its head. The phenomenon of existential vacuum refers to the feeling of 'inner
emptiness' or 'void within oneself' that creates meaninglessness or lack of meaning in life, and is being observed
throughout the world. Once an individual's search for meaning in life is successful, it not only bestows him happy but also
gives him the capability to cope with suffering. Moreover, happiness comes from identifying one's most fundamental
strengths thereby rendering meaning in life and overcoming existential vacuum. It is expected that Indian adult working
women would be high on existential vacuum as they have to play multiple roles and responsibilities at home as well as the
work place. Multiple roles produce role strain and role conflict. To add to this problem is the changing family scenario
(such as empty nest syndrome) and personal variables (such as worthfullness versus worthlessness, loss of identity)
which make the situation more intricate, leading to meaninglessness and existential vacuum. For the present investigation
347 adult working women within the age range of 45-50 years were randomly contacted. These women were serving as
teachers in public and private schools of Ambala Cantt and Patiala. Out of these, 150 scored high on existential vacuum
(cutoff was mean +½ S.D.), who were eventually considered in the present investigation. Inter-correlations were
computed and multiple regression analysis was applied. Happiness emerged as the main negative predictor of existential
vacuum in working women and explained 62% of variance in the same. This was followed by perceived stress, which
explained an additional 2% of the variance in existential vacuum, (over and above that explained by happiness). Hence,
the present findings reveled the significance of positive correlates such as happiness in determining existential vacuum in
fact, positive states like happiness are more deterministic (rather than negative states such as perceived stress) in
predicting existential vacuum in working women.
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