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Stealth aircraft

Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of technologies that
reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared,[1] visible light, radio frequency (RF)
spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.[2] Well-known
modern examples of stealth of U.S. aircraft include the United States' F-117
Nighthawk (1981–2008), the B-2 Spirit, the F-22 Raptor,[3] and the F-35 Lightning
II.[4]

While no aircraft is totally invisible to radar, stealth aircraft make it more difficult
for conventional radar to detect or track the aircraft effectively, increasing the odds A U.S. Air Force F-117 Nighthawk
of an aircraft successfully avoiding detection by enemy radar and/or avoiding being stealth strike aircraft flying over
successfully targeted by radar guided weapons. Stealth is the combination of passive Nevada in August 2002.

low observable (LO) features and active emitters such as low-probability-of-


intercept radars, radios and laser designators. These are usually combined with
active measures such as carefully planning all mission maneuvers in order to minimize the aircraft's radar cross-section, since
[5] It
common actions such as hard turns or openingbomb bay doors can more than double an otherwise stealthy aircraft's radar return.
is accomplished by using a complex design philosophy to reduce the ability of an opponent's sensors to detect, track, or attack the
stealth aircraft.[6] This philosophy also takes into account the heat, sound, and other emissions of the aircraft as these can also be used
to locate it. Sensors made to reduce the impact of current low observable technologies exist or have been proposed such as IRST
(infrared search and track) systems to detect even reduced heat emissions,[7] long wavelength radars to counter stealth shaping and
RAM focused on shorter wavelength radar,[8] or radar setups with multiple emitters to counter stealth shaping.[9] However these do
so with disadvantages compared to traditional radar against non-stealthy aircraft.

Full-size stealth combat aircraft demonstrators have been flown by the United States (in 1977), Russia (in 2010) and China (in
2011).[10] As of March 2017, the United States Armed Forces utilize three models of dedicated, manned stealth aircraft and the
Chinese Air Force operates one, with a number of other countries developing their own designs. There are also various aircraft with
reduced detectability, either unintentionally or as a secondary feature.

Contents
Background
World War I and World War II
Modern era
General design
Limitations
Instability of design
Aerodynamic limitations
Electromagnetic emissions
Vulnerable modes of flight
Reduced payload
Sensitive skin
Cost of operations
Countermeasures
Reflected waves
Infrared (heat)
Longer wavelength radar
OTH radar (over-the-horizon radar)
Operational usage of stealth aircraft
List of stealth aircraft
Manned
Dedicated reduced cross section designs
Accidental or secondary function reduced cross section designs
Unmanned reduced RCS designs
See also
References

Background

World War I and World War II


During World War I, the Germans experimented with the use of Cellon (Cellulose
acetate), a transparent covering material, in an attempt to reduce the visibility of
military aircraft. Single examples of the Fokker E.III Eindecker fighter monoplane,
the Albatros C.I two-seat observation biplane, and the Linke-Hofmann R.I prototype
heavy bomber were covered with cellon. In fact, sunlight glinting from the covering
made the aircraft even more visible. The material was also found to be quickly
degraded both by sunlight and in-flight temperature changes so the attempt to make The Linke-Hofmann R.I prototype. An
transparent aircraft was not proceeded with.[11] experimental, German World War 1
bomber, covered with transparent
In 1916, the British modified a small SS class airship for the purpose of night-time covering material (1917–1918)
aerial reconnaissance over German Empire lines on the Western Front. Fitted with a
silenced engine and a black gas bag, the craft was both invisible and inaudible from
the ground, but several night-time flights over German-held territory produced little useful intelligence, and the idea was dropped.[12]

Nearly three decades later, a more serious attempt at radar "invisibility" was tried with the Horten Ho 229 flying wing fighter-
bomber, developed in Nazi Germany during the last years of World War II. In addition to the aircraft's shape, the majority of the Ho
229's wooden skin was bonded together usingcarbon-impregnated plywood resins designed with the purportedintention of absorbing
radar waves. Testing performed in early 2009 by the Northrop-Grumman Corporation established that this compound, along with the
aircraft's shape, would have rendered the Ho 229 virtually invisible to the top-end HF-band, 20–30 MHz primary signals of Britain's
Chain Home early warning radar, provided the aircraft was traveling at high speed (approximately 550 mph (890 km/h)) at extremely
low altitude – 50–100 feet (15–30 m).[13] >

Modern era
Modern stealth aircraft first became possible when Denys Overholser, a mathematician working for Lockheed Aircraft during the
1970s, adopted a mathematical model developed by Petr Ufimtsev, a Soviet scientist, to develop a computer program called Echo 1.
Echo made it possible to predict the radar signature of an aircraft made with flat panels, called facets. In 1975, engineers at Lockheed
Skunk Works found that an aircraft made with faceted surfaces could have a very low radar signature because the surfaces would
radiate almost all of the radar energy away from the receiver. Lockheed built a model called "the Hopeless Diamond", a reference to
the famous Hope Diamond and the design's predicted instability. Because advanced computers were available to control the flight of
even a Hopeless Diamond, for the first time designers realized that it might be possible to make an aircraft that was virtually invisible
to radar.[14][15]
Reduced radar cross section is only one of five factors the designers addressed to create a truly stealthy design such as the F-22. The
F-22 has also been designed to disguise its infrared emissions to make it harder to detect by infrared homing ("heat seeking") surface-
to-air or air-to-air missiles. Designers also addressed making the aircraft less visible to the naked eye, controlling radio transmissions,
and noise abatement.[3]

The first combat use of purpose-designed stealth aircraft was in December 1989 during Operation Just Cause in Panama. On 20
December 1989, two United States Air ForceF-117s bombed a Panamanian Defense Force barracks in Rio Hato, Panama. In 1991, F-
117s were tasked with attacking the most heavily fortified targets in Iraq in the opening phase of Operation Desert Storm and were
[16]
the only jets allowed to operate inside Baghdad's city limits.

General design
The general design of a stealth aircraft is always aimed at reducing radar and thermal detection. It is the designer's top priority to
satisfy the following conditions, which ultimately decide the success of the aircraft:-

Reducing thermal emission from thrust


Reducing radar detection by altering some general configuration (like introducing the split rudder)
Reducing radar detection when the aircraft opens its weapons bay
Reducing infra-red and radar detection during adverse weather conditions

Limitations

Instability of design
Early stealth aircraft were designed with a focus on minimal radar cross section
(RCS) rather than aerodynamic performance. Highly stealth aircraft like the F-117
Nighthawk are aerodynamically unstable in all three axes and require constant flight
corrections from a fly-by-wire (FBW) flight system to maintain controlled flight.[17]
As for the B-2 Spirit, which was based on the development of the flying wing
aircraft[18] by Jack Northrop in 1940, this design allowed for a stable aircraft with
sufficient yaw control, even without vertical surfaces such as rudders.

B-2 Spirit stealth bomber of the U.S.


Aerodynamic limitations
Air Force
Earlier stealth aircraft (such as the F-117 and B-2) lack afterburners, because the hot
exhaust would increase their infrared footprint, and flying faster than the speed of
sound would produce an obvious sonic boom, as well as surface heating of the aircraft skin, which also increases the infrared
footprint. As a result, their performance in air combat maneuvering required in a dogfight would never match that of a dedicated
fighter aircraft. This was unimportant in the case of these two aircraft since both were designed to be bombers. More recent design
techniques allow for stealthy designs such as the F-22 without compromising aerodynamic performance. Newer stealth aircraft, like
the F-22, F-35 and the Su-57, have performance characteristics that meet or exceed those of current front-line jet fighters due to
[3][19]
advances in other technologies such as flight control systems, engines, airframe construction and materials.

Electromagnetic emissions
The high level of computerization and large amount of electronic equipment found inside stealth aircraft are often claimed to make
them vulnerable to passive detection. This is highly unlikely and certainly systems such as Tamara and Kolchuga, which are often
described as counter-stealth radars, are not designed to detect stray electromagnetic fields of this type. Such systems are designed to
detect intentional, higher power emissions such as radar and communication signals. Stealth aircraft are deliberately operated to
avoid or reduce such emissions.
Current Radar Warning Receivers look for the regular pings of energy from mechanically swept radars while fifth generation jet
fighters use Low Probability of Intercept Radarswith no regular repeat pattern.[20]

Vulnerable modes of flight


Stealth aircraft are still vulnerable to detection during, and immediately after using their weaponry. Since stealth payload (reduced
RCS bombs and cruise missiles) is not yet generally available, and ordnance mount points create a significant radar return, stealth
aircraft carry all armaments internally. As soon as weapons bay doors are opened, the plane's RCS will be multiplied and even older
generation radar systems will be able to locate the stealth aircraft. While the aircraft will reacquire its stealth as soon as the bay doors
are closed, a fast response defensive weapons system has a short opportunity to engage the aircraft.

This vulnerability is addressed by operating in a manner that reduces the risk and consequences of temporary acquisition. The B-2's
operational altitude imposes a flight time for defensive weapons that makes it virtually impossible to engage the aircraft during its
weapons deployment. New stealth aircraft designs such as the F-22 and F-35 can open their bays, release munitions and return to
stealthy flight in less than a second.

Some weapons require that the weapon's guidance system acquire the target while the weapon is still attached to the aircraft. This
forces relatively extended operations with the bay doors open.

Also, such aircraft as the F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter can also carry additional weapons and fuel on
hardpoints below their wings. When operating in this mode the planes will not be nearly as stealthy, as the hardpoints and the
weapons mounted on those hardpoints will show up on radar systems. This option therefore represents a trade off between stealth or
range and payload. External stores allow those aircraft to attack more targets further away, but will not allow for stealth during that
mission as compared to a shorter range mission flying on just internal fuel and using only the more limited space of the internal
weapon bays for armaments.

Reduced payload
Fully stealth aircraft carry all fuel and armament internally
, which limits the payload.
By way of comparison, the F-117 carries only two laser- or GPS-guided bombs,
while a non-stealth attack aircraft can carry several times more. This requires the
deployment of additional aircraft to engage targets that would normally require a
single non-stealth attack aircraft. This apparent disadvantage however is offset by
the reduction in fewer supporting aircraft that are required to provide air cover, air-
defense suppression and electronic counter measures, making stealth aircraft "force
multipliers".

Sensitive skin
Stealth aircraft often have skins made with Radar-absorbent materials or RAMs.
Some of these contain Carbon black particles, some contain tiny iron spheres. There
are many materials used in RAMs, and some are classified, particularly the materials
In a 1994 live fire exercise near Point
that specific aircraft use.[21]
Mugu, California, a U.S. Air Force B-
2 Spirit dropped forty-seven 500 lb
(230 kg) class Mark 82 bombs, which
Cost of operations
represents about half of a B-2's total
Stealth aircraft are typically more expensive to develop and manufacture. An ordnance payload in Block 30
example is the B-2 Spirit that is many times more expensive to manufacture and configuration
support than conventional bomber aircraft. The B-2 program cost the U.S. Air Force
almost $105 billion.[22]
Countermeasures

Reflected waves
Passive (multistatic) radar, bistatic radar[23] and especially multistatic radar systems detect some stealth aircraft better than
conventional monostatic radars, since first-generation stealth technology (such as the F117) reflects energy away from the
transmitter's line of sight, effectively increasing the radar cross section (RCS) in other directions, which the passive radars monitor.
Such a system typically uses either low frequency broadcast TV and FM radio signals (at which frequencies controlling the aircraft's
signature is more difficult). Later stealth approaches do not rely on controlling the specular reflections of radar energy and so the
geometrical benefits are unlikely to be significant.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign with support of DARPA, have shown that it is possible to build a
synthetic aperture radarimage of an aircraft target using passive multistatic radar, possibly detailed enough to enable automatic target
recognition.[24]

In December 2007, SAAB researchers revealed details for a system called Associative Aperture Synthesis Radar (AASR) that would
employ a large array of inexpensive and redundant transmitters and a few intelligent receivers to exploit forward scatter to detect low
observable targets.[25] The system was originally designed to detect stealthy cruise missiles and should be just as effective against
aircraft. The large array of inexpensive transmitters provides a degree of protection against anti-radar (or anti-radiation) missiles or
attacks.

Infrared (heat)
Some analysts claim Infra-red search and track systems (IRSTs) can be deployed against stealth aircraft, because any aircraft surface
heats up due to air friction and with a two channel IRST is a CO2 (4.3 µm absorption maxima) detection possible, through difference
comparing between the low and high channel.[26][27] These analysts point to the resurgence in such systems in Russian designs in the
1980s, such as those fitted to the MiG-29 and Su-27. The latest version of the MiG-29, the MiG-35, is equipped with a new Optical
Locator System that includes more advanced IRST capabilities. The French Rafale, the British/German/Italian/Spanish Eurofighter
and the Swedish Gripen also make extensive use of IRST.

In air combat, the optronic suite allows:

Detection of non-afterburning targets at 45-kilometre (28 mi) range and more;


Identification of those targets at 8-to-10-kilometre (5.0 to 6.2 mi) range; and
Estimates of aerial target range at up to 15 kilometres (9.3 mi).
For ground targets, the suite allows:

A tank-effective detection range up to 15 kilometres (9.3 mi), and aircraft carrier detection at 60 to 80 kilometres (37
to 50 mi);
Identification of the tank type on the 8-to-10-kilometre (5.0 to 6.2 mi) range, and of an aircraft carrier at 40 to 60
kilometres (25 to 37 mi); and
Estimates of ground target range of up to 20 kilometres (12 mi).

Longer wavelength radar


VHF radar systems havewavelengths comparable to aircraft feature sizes and should exhibit scattering in the resonance region rather
than the optical region, allowing most stealth aircraft to be detected. This has prompted
Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Radio
Engineering (NNIIRT) to develop VHF AESAs such as the NEBO SVU, which is capable of performing target acquisition for
Surface-to-air missile batteries. Despite the advantages offered by VHF radar, their longer wavelengths result in poor resolution
compared to comparably sized X band radar array. As a result, these systems must be very large before they can have the resolution
for an engagement radar. An example of a ground-based VHF radar with counter-stealth capability is theP-18 radar.

The Dutch company Thales Nederland, formerly known as Holland Signaal, developed a naval phased-array radar called SMART-L,
which is operated at L Band and has counter-stealth. All ships of the Royal Dutch Navy's De Zeven Provinciën class carry, among
others, the SMART-L radar.

OTH radar (over-the-horizon radar)


Over-the-horizon radar is a concept increasing radar's effective range over conventional radar. The Australian JORN Jindalee
Operational Radar Networkcan overcome certain stealth characteristics.[28] It is claimed that the HF frequency used and the method
of bouncing radar from ionosphere overcomes the stealth characteristics of the F-117A. In other words, stealth aircraft are optimized
for defeating much higher-frequency radar from front-on rather than low-frequency radars from above.

Operational usage of stealth aircraft

A U.S. Air Force B-2 Spirit


A U.S. Air Force F-117 A U.S. Air Force F-35
strategic stealth bomber
Nighthawk stealth attack Lightning II fifth-generation
aircraft. stealth multi-role fighter

The U.S. is the only country to have used stealth aircraft in combat. These deployments include the United States invasion of
Panama, the first Gulf War, the Kosovo Conflict, the War in Afghanistan the War in Iraq and the 2011 military intervention in Libya.
The first use of stealth aircraft was in the U.S. invasion of Panama, where F-117 Nighthawk stealth attack aircraft were used to drop
.[29]
bombs on enemy airfields and positions while evading enemy radar

In 1990 the F-117 Nighthawk was used in the First Gulf War, where F-117s flew 1,300 sorties and scored direct hits on 1,600 high-
value targets in Iraq[30] while accumulating 6,905 flight hours.[31] Only 2.5% of the American aircraft in Iraq were F-117s, yet they
struck 40% of the strategic targets, dropping 2,000 tons of precision-guided munitions and striking their targets with an 80% success
rate.[31][32]

In the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia two stealth aircraft were used by the United States, the veteran F-117 Nighthawk, and the
newly introduced B-2 Spirit strategic stealth bomber. The F-117 performed its usual role of striking precision high-value targets and
performed well, although one F-117 was shot down by a Serbian Isayev S-125 'Neva-M' missile commanded by Colonel Zoltán Dani.
The then-new B-2 Spirit was highly successful, destroying 33% of selected Serbian bombing targets in the first eight weeks of U.S.
[33]
involvement in the War. During this war, B-2s flew non-stop to Kosovo from their home base in Missouri and back.

In the 2003 invasion of Iraq, F-117 Nighthawks and B-2 Spirits were used, and this was the last time the F-117 would see combat. F-
117s dropped satellite-guided strike munitions on selected targets, with high success. B-2 Spirits conducted 49 sorties in the invasion,
releasing 1.5 million pounds of munitions.[33]

During the May 2011 operation to kill Osama bin Laden, one of the helicopters used to clandestinely insert U.S. troops into Pakistan
crashed in the bin Laden compound. From the wreckage it was revealed this helicopter had stealth characteristics, making this the
first publicly known operational use of astealth helicopter.
Stealth aircraft were used in the 2011 military intervention in Libya, where B-2 Spirits
dropped 40 bombs on a Libyan airfield with concentrated air defenses in support of the
UN no-fly zone.[34]

Stealth aircraft will continue to play a valuable role in air combat with the United States
using the F-22 Raptor, B-2 Spirit, and the F-35 Lightning II to perform a variety of
operations. The F-22 made its combat debut over Syria in September 2014 as part of the
A U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor fifth US-led coalition to defeat ISIS.
generation stealth air superiority
fighter The People's Republic of China started to flight testing its Chengdu J-20 stealth
multirole fighter around in 2011 and made first public appearance at Airshow China
2016. The aircraft entered service with the People's Liberation Army Air Force
(PLAAF) in March 2017.[35][36][37] Another fifth-generation stealth multirole fighter
from China, the Shenyang J-31 is also under flight testing.[38]

The Russian Sukhoi Su-57 stealth multi-role fighter is scheduled to be introduced from
2019, to perform various missions.
A PLA Air Force Chengdu J-20
fifth-generation stealth long-range List of stealth aircraft
combat aircraft

Manned

Dedicated reduced cross section designs

In service
A Russian Air Force Sukhoi PAK
B-2 Spirit – Northrop Grumman
FA fifth-generation stealth
F-22 Raptor – Lockheed Martin
multirole fighter
F-35 Lightning II – Lockheed Martin
Chengdu J-20 – Chengdu Aircraft Corporation

Retired

A-12 – Lockheed Martin


SR-71 Blackbird – Lockheed Martin
F-117 Nighthawk – Lockheed Martin
A PLA Air Force Shenyang J-31
fifth-generation stealth multirole Under development
fighter
Kamov Ka-58 – Kamov
Sukhoi Su-57 – Sukhoi
MiG LMFS – Mikoyan
PAK DA – Tupolev
MiG-41 – Mikoyan.[39][40]
FGFA – Sukhoi / HAL.[41][42]
Shenyang J-31 – Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Xian H-20 - Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation
AMCA – ADA / HAL
TAI TFX – Turkish Aerospace Industries
HESA Shafaq – HESA / IAMI
B-21 Raider – Northrop Grumman
KAI KF-X - Korea Aerospace Industries/ Indonesian Aerospace
Project-AZM - Pakistan Aeronautical Complex/ Chengdu Aircraft Corporation[43]
Flygsystem 2020 – Saab
BAE Systems Tempest
New Generation Fighter– Tornado/Rafale replacement byDassault Aviation and Airbus Defense and
Space

Cancelled

Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA


Linke-Hofmann R.I – version covered with transparent covering material
FMA SAIA 90 – Multirole fighter
MBB Lampyridae – West German stealth fighter prototype[44]
IML Addax – New Zealand multi role fighter prototype
BAe P.1214 Harrier 2
A-12 Avenger II – McDonnell-Douglas / General Dynamics
RAH-66 Comanche – Boeing Sikorsky
Sukhoi T-4MS - Stealth bomber concept to compete with the AmericanB-1 Lancer, the project was put aside to
give priority to the Tupolev Tu-160.[45]
Sukhoi T-60S - Cancelled project to replace theTu-22 bomber; the T-60S was supposed to have alow-profile
design in order to be stealthy.[46]
Myasishchev M-67 LK-M- Flying wing stealth bomber (similar to USB-2) proposed by Myasishchev to replace
the Tu-22 bomber. Cancelled due to the lack of fund[47][48]
Tupolev Tu-202 - flying wing stealth bomber intended for surface attack and anti-submarine warfare, abandoned
with the end of the cold War.[49]
Yakovlev Yak-43 - upgraded Yak-41 with a stealthier design
Mikoyan MiG 4.12 - proposed smaller and single engine variant of theMiG 1.44[50]
EADS Mako/HEAT
Boeing Model 853 Quiet Bird
Convair Kingfish
BAE Systems Replica – BAE Systems
Lockheed Senior Peg – The Lockheed proposal for theAdvanced Technology Bomber
Future Offensive Air System
Novi Avion – Yugoslav prototype, designed to have a features to lower its RADAR cross section
Horten H.XVIII[51] - Horten brothers

Technology demonstrators

Northrop XST – stealth technology demonstrator


YF-22 – Developed into F-22 Raptor
YF-23 Black Widow II – Northrop / McDonnell Douglas prototype
Boeing Bird of Prey – Boeing
Have Blue – Lockheed
Mitsubishi X-2 – Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
Northrop Tacit Blue – Northrop
MiG 1.44 – Russian 5th generation fighter prototype
Sukhoi Su-47 – Russian technology demonstrator
X-35 – JSF winning contender developed intoF-35 Lightning II
X-32 – JSF losing contender
McDonnell Douglas X-36
Accidental or secondary function reduced cross section designs

B-1B Lancer – RCS to about 1.0 m2[52]


Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle[53]
Dassault Rafale – RCS to about 0.20–0.75 m2[52]
Eurofighter Typhoon – RCS to about 0.25–0.75 m2[52]
2[52]
F-16C/D and E/F Fighting Falcon– from Block 30 has got reduced RCS to about 1.2m
Messerschmitt Me 163B – Rocket-powered point defence interceptor aircraft.[54]
[55]
Horten Ho 229 – Flying wing design and partially buried engines may have given a low RCS [56] [57] [58] [59]
[60] [11]

F/A-18E/F Super Hornet– The F/A-18E/F's radar cross section was reduced greatly from some aspects, mainly
the front and rear. RCS to about 20 dB loweras a F18 C/D[61]
McDonnell XP-67 – Blended wing surface reduced radar detection
Mitsubishi F-2– composite materials for reduced RCS[62]
Northrop YB-49[63]
Scaled Composites 401– obvious stealth shaping plus composite materials
HAL Tejas – Incorporates high degree of composites andradar absorbent materialand a Y-duct inlet that shields
the engine compressor face from probing radar waves.
Tupolev Tu-160M2[64][65][66]
[67]
Sukhoi Su-35 - Radar absorbent material on the engine inlets and compressor to halve its RCS

Unmanned reduced RCS designs


IAI Harop – loitering munition designed to minimize its radar-signature
Ryan Model 147 various RCS reduction measures, see article
Ryan AQM-91 Firefly engine on top of fuselage, fuselage with radar absorbent material, flat bottom and sloped
sides, canted vertical stabilizers to conceal the exhaust stream.
Sharp Sword – Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Wind Blade – Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Star UAV System Star Shadowobvious stealth shaping
CASC CH-7 obvious stealth shaping
FL-71 obvious stealth shaping
CASIC Sky Hawk Tian Ying Flying wing version
[68][69]
CH-805 Flying wing target drone, RCS of 0.01 square meters, for simulating stealth aircraft
CK-20[69][70]
Boeing X-45 – Boeing, based on the manned Boeing Bird of Prey demonstrator (technology demonstrator)
BAE Taranis – BAE Systems (UCAV Technology Demonstrator)
Dassault nEUROn – technology demonstrator
EADS Barracuda – EADS (technology demonstrator)[61]
Rheinmetall KZO – Rheinmetall (tactical UAV)[71]
Sofreh Mahi – IAMI[72] (UCAV)
Armstechno NITI – Armstechno (tactical UAV)
Lockheed Martin Minion(RCS smaller than F-22 or F-35)
Lockheed Martin X-44 (UAV)
Lockheed Martin Polecat
Lockheed Martin RQ-170 Sentinel– Lockheed Martin
Northrop Grumman RQ-180– Northrop Grumman
MiG Skat – Mikoyan[73]
Sukhoi Okhotnik (stealth UCAV unveiled in 2017, first flight planned for 2019).[74]
Simonov unnamed strike drone- Simonov (ISR UCAV with a stealthy design similar to he
t General Atomics
Avenger, planned for 2020 or later.[75] )
Northrop Grumman X-47B– Northrop Grumman (technology demonstrator)[76]
DRDO AURA
Hamaseh (In Service)
General Atomics Avenger (3 in service/developing)
Kratos XQ-222 Valkyrie Low-Cost, Attritable Strike Unmanned Air System Demonstration (LCASD)trapezoidal
fuselage with a chined edge, V-tails, and an S-shaped air intake[77]
Korea Aerospace IndustriesK-X UCAV obvious stealth shaping flying wing[78]
Boeing MQ-25 Stingray[79]
LoFLYTE (Low Observable Flight Test Experiment)[80]
[81]
Saab FILUR (Flying Innovative Low-observable Unmanned Research)
Saab SHARC

See also
Metamaterial
Stealth helicopter

References
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