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2M 3M 4F 5M


Facilitator 2 Facilitator 1 6M

Group Demographics
 Five males and one female
 Three of the participants answered as being 20 years old, one answered as being 18 years
old, another reported as being 22 years old, and finally one participant as being 30 years
 All six of our participants reported their race as Caucasian or white.
 Five participants reported as being from Utah, and one reported as being from Iran.
 Participants varied in their reported majors. Two participants reported their major as
Business Administration, one reported Web and User Experience, one reported
International Economics, one reported Accounting, and one reported Finance
 Three participants did not report a political affiliation, two reported republican, and one
reported democrat

Group Climate
All group members were able to participate throughout the focus group. This group took a little
time to warm up to each other, but everyone was able to contribute to the conversation. Everyone
was respectful to others opinions and they all took turns speaking. 1M contributed the most,
sometimes dominating the conversation. The group continuously contributed to the discussion
through the use of nonverbal gestures. Head nods were common as individuals agreed with what
the speaker was saying. The group responded well to vote-style closed questions. They did a
great job of elaborating on their choices when they were asked.

Question #1
By the raise of hands, which of the three topics, water usage, auto emissions, and land use are
you most interested in.
Water usage: 1
Auto emissions: 4
Land use: 1
Question #2
How do you usually get to school?
2M: Drive a car
Raise your hand if you drive to school
Five people drive and one walks because he lives really close
Why have you chosen this route to get to school?
4F: I think just convenience
6M: I mostly drive because of the weather. It gets really cold and I live in Layton. If
weather was a little warmer, I would consider using the bus.
3M: Convenience
1M: Convenience for sure
2M: Yeah, convenience. If I need to leave, I have a place to go. I don’t have to wait for a
Question #2
Do you feel like the way you get to school has any impact on air pollution?
All nod in agreement
6M: I have 3 roommates that go to Weber State, so at least we can travel together
1M: I think it has an effect, but it is not a huge effect
What are some reasons you feel like you do have an impact on the environment?
1M: Discusses the fact that we live in a dessert and there are a lot of people on the roads.
He touches on information about increase of carbon in this environment.
4F: “It would be easy for me to take the bus to reduce carbon in the environment, but I
am lazy. It is just convenient for me to take my car.”
1M: Thinks that busses are not that effective in reducing carbon emissions because even
when there is no one on the bus, it will still run. There is no guarantee that public
transportation helps reduce air pollution.
6M: “At least in Utah.”
Do you know anyone that has strong opinions about this topic that differ from yours?
6M: “Our professor. He is really strict on that.”
Question #3
How do you feel about people idling their cars?
1M: “I feel like I want it to be warm when I get into it.”
So it doesn’t bother you?
1M: “No”
4F: Used to idle her car often, but has since changed her mind to the point that it actually
bothers her when she sees people idling their cars.
3M: Doesn’t think that people idling their car is a big deal compared to the plants in Salt
Lake that are polluting. He thinks that the bigger problems of pollution should be
addressed first.
Do you think there is a problem with people idling their cars?
2 raise their hand to show they think it is a problem, 4 raise their hand to show they think it is
not a problem.
Facilitator 1: Let’s go around and every one can share why or why not they believe this is
a problem.
1M: Doesn’t think it is a problem because he values heat when he gets into his car over a
little bit of carbon that is released. He is not worried about climate change based on the
predictions for future change.
2M: Thinks that if they are putting signs up everywhere then there is an issue. “If
everyone stopped idling their cars, it probably would have an impact.”
3M: Thinks that idling may be a bigger problem in the winter time with the inversion, but
it is not a problem in the summer.
4F: “I just feel like when I walk through the parking lot I see lots of cars just idling.” She
suggests just going inside a warm building instead of sitting in a car.
5M: Walks to school every day and always walks through a campus parking lot. From
what he has observed, he thinks that there are a lot less people who idle their cars, then
those that do not. Overall, he does not see idling as a major issue.
6M: Thinks that the pollution is worse in the summer months.
Question #4
How do you feel about people being fined for idling?
5M: “What is considered idling though? You’re parked, but your car is still on? You’re in
there for a few minutes gathering up your crap? Is that still considered idling?
What do you think? What is the definition of idling?
1M: Thinks that idling is sitting in your car without using it for more than one minute.
4F: Agrees with 1M’s definition, but does not think you should be fined for sitting in
your car for one minute. Thinks it should be more of a personal responsibility.
6M: Thinks that one of the biggest problems with idling on Weber States campus is the
fact that there is not enough parking. Because students have to get to campus early for a
parking spot, they sit in their cars waiting for their classes to start.
5M: Thinks that people who drive up to a building and leave it running while they go into
the building should be fined. Anytime a car is running and no one is in it, it should be
ticketed. If someone is in the car, they shouldn’t get a ticket.
What are some other solutions to get people to stop idling their cars besides ticketing them?
1M: “I don’t care if they are idling so why do we need to stop?”
3M: Thinks that auto manufactures are trying to address this issue. He just bought a new
truck that has an auto stop feature. When he gets to a stoplight the engine shuts off. As
soon as he steps off the break it starts back up. However, because his car is turning off
and on so much, he feels it is deteriorating his car more than it is helping the
1M: On the flip side of an auto stop feature, some cars have the remote start.
Question #5
So overall, do you think that everyone driving together is effecting global warming?
Everyone raises hands in agreement.
So why do you all think that auto emissions are effecting global warming?
1M: Because global warming is cause by an increase of carbon monoxide content in the
air. Obviously we are burning gas which is carbon. Even if you have an electric vehicle
you are still emitting carbon, but instead of coming from your car it is coming from the
manufacturing plant.
Question #6
Are there any more comments about auto emissions?
5M: Thinks that we are already paying enough in our emission taxes. Even though we
may not recognize it, we are paying for emitting emissions through taxes. If we raise
emission taxes, it may help people acknowledge the issue more.
1M: Thinks that we don’t need to be fined for idling a car because you are already paying
the fines in gasoline.
5M: If electric and hybrid cars were made more easily available to more people, that it
could help auto emissions decrease.
1M: “Just because it is a hybrid car, does not mean that it is helping the environment any
more than a regular car.” Has a relative that has a hybrid car and has to replace the
battery every few years. The emissions that are release to make that battery are equal to 8
years of driving a gas car. You have to look at it all around.
2M: Thinks that if everyone stopped idling it would only help a little bit.
3M: “Only a little bit!”
Question #7
What issues are you aware of concerning water usage specifically in Utah?
1M: Governor Herbert sold almost all of Utah’s water rights in order to fund his
education program. He discusses water shares, water rights and water theft.
Are the rest of you aware of the issues 1M is talking about?
6M: “So what you are saying is that water is owned by private individuals?”
1M: “Yes. It is illegal for you to put a barrel under your drain and collect water. That
water is legally owned by the state and distributed to those with water shares.”
Question #8
What are your feelings about water restrictions?
4F: “If we are using too much water, then we need restrictions.
1M: Thinks restrictions are bad all around because it is the government limiting. It should
be up to the free market to manage water. Restricting is bad because water usage can vary
based on household. If you have a family of five they will use more water than a
household of one, but that does not mean that they should be restricted on their use.
How many of you agree with this statement?
Five out of six agree.
6M: Disagrees and thinks that if water prices rise, people are going to be protesting. We
need to inform people about how much water they are using. Have a graph showing
people how much water you they are using and how this effects people or how it could be
useful to people in Africa would being awareness because bringing up prices is going to
face a hard protest from the people because aren’t able to pay for water, yet water is a
necessity. At least private owned businesses should get subsidized. This is a big step.
1M: “Alright, I have some counter points.” We are not going to ship water to Africa it
doesn’t matter what it can be used in Africa.
6M: That idea was more about informing people.
1M: Yeah, but it tells you on your water bill how much water you are using, but if you
don’t look at it that is your own choice. I don’t look at mine. I don’t care to look at it
because of how cheap it is. It wouldn’t be the government increasing the prices, it would
be the fair market increasing the prices. In Davis County they charged fair market rate
and people’s water bills went up 30 dollars. “One person had a bill of 1200 in a month. It
would inform people, you cannot use water just because you want to.”
Okay so for the more of the people who have more quiet. How do you feel about watering
throughout the day?
3M: “I think it is useless.” It is just burning off, especially in the summer time.
2M: I agree.
4F: I agree
5M: Correct me if I am wrong, the rates change based on when you are watering? You
get charged more when it is in high demand, you get charged for your own water?
1M: Yes.
5M: “I think people intentionally water at a weird time to save money.” People water at
night to save money and that is a good thing. There is a big issue that the fact that water
is government owned. You can’t collect your own water off your own roof, they can fine
you for that because it is illegal. That is really dumb.
1M: “You can actually collect water up to 40 gallons.” Forty gallons plus you cannot
collect. You can buy a water share and you can collect because you legally own the water
now, up to a certain amount.
5M: Can’t they legally funnel it off of you if public water is running low?
1M: There is clean water, which is what we drink and agriculture water that the fields are
flood with. What they are doing, they steal the water from the agriculture and just pump it
out, clean it, and send it to everyone. That is what they do with Pineview water, the only
difference is that, that water is owned by someone else because someone needs it to drink
and stay alive.” We have decided that it is better to keep people alive than enforce the
Question #9
How do you feel about people who water when it is raining?
1M: “I feel like, I understand it is a problem, but I am not home all the time and my
sprinklers are on an automatic timer and I cannot control the weather.” I have my
sprinklers on an automatic timer and I do not even think about it.
2M: I think it is dumb to water when it is raining, but most people do not think about
their sprinkler system.
4F: I agree. It is obvious you don’t need to water you lawn when it is raining, but in cases
when you are not home or sleeping, you can’t always control it all the time.
Does anyone disagree with that?
Everyone agreed.
So for people who water throughout the day and for people who water when it is raining, do you
think that fines should be attached to these actions?
1M: No.
4F: I don’t know if any of you heard about Farmington in the summer and their
sprinklers. Some from the state was fining people who were water their lawns, people
eventually were putting their sprinklers on for spite and eventually they just had to shut
off the water. “I think just from that fines are not a good idea.”
How many of you agree with that?
2M: “Agree with no fines?”
Everyone agreed
1M: Like I said, I think that there should be a monetary cost, but that should come from
Do any of you know anyone who has differing opinions from the group or yourself? Like family
or friends who think like, yeah we should fine for that? Anyone you know?
2M: I know the guy that did the fines for tickets for water and he got so many phone
calls. It was bad news for him.
Did he personally agree with giving out those tickets?
2M: I don’t think he had a say. He was just told what to do.
5M: If they want to give tickets for that, they need to stop fining people for having bad
lawns. I had a $200 fine in the summer because my lawn was yellow.
1M: “I agree with that, I did not even think about it in that way.” You get fined if you
have a bad yard, but you get fined if you are taking care of your lawn.
6M: I would rather pay for water than for a fine.
1M: I had to clean up my invest property that we don’t rent out. We got a notice from the
city that we were going to get fined 1,500 dollars f we did not come up and clean it up.
Question #10
We have talked a lot about water prices and things like that. Some people do have access to
secondary water to water their lawns, but other people have to use unfiltered water. Some people
are charged for every drop of water that they use and some people are charged one base price,
just depending on where you live. Do you think that is fair for people?
1M: I feel like no one is excluded from it. “You can have it if you want it.” You can
purchase piping to get to your property. The cost is the only problem.
But is that fair that some people just automatically have the access to the secondary water, but
some people have to pay to then have access to it?
1M: Yes it is because people who have secondary water have already paid for it. There
are two ways that is gets paid. One, you personally pay for it or the second one is, you
pay through property taxes or sales taxes because the city has put it in for you.
What other opinions are there about this topic?
5M: I feel like it is definitely fair because not everyone gets to live on a mountain. If the
water is there, great you get it. I do not think it is unfair.
1M: Plus if you find it unfair, the only way to bring water to everyone it is going to have
to be done by paying taxes.
Question #10
How many of you are familiar with the contamination at Pineview Reservoir?
5M: The algae?
1M: The algae?
Probe: Yes. Raise your hand if you have heard about it before.
Three of them were aware of it. Three of them were not aware of it.
For those of you who are aware of it, can you give the others a background of what happened at
Pineview Reservoir.
3M: I don’t know it happened, is it because of the warm weather?
3M: There was an algae bloom and the water was toxic. Like what Dr. Naggi said, he
took his dog up there. Everything was shut down, but he let his dog swim and nothing
was harmed. “That is about as much as I know. It is down it Provo too.”
These algae blooms are happening throughout Utah. A bunch of lakes have had it happen to
them. So when this happens do you think there should be restrictions on water motorized,
watercraft to avoid more contamination?
1M: There already is. You have to clean off your motorboat before you go into any
public water.
5M: “You are supposed to, but they do not enforce that.”
1M: I got a $30 fine for it, so I don’t know what you mean?
So why do you think that they don’t impose it?
5M: I mean, I don’t have a boat, but I have been out with people. They take it out to
Pineview to Willard and to Bear Lake and there are not people checking boat to see if
you washed it.
3M: I disagree. Every time you go to the boat ramp there is DWR person there asks you
where you last boat has been, how long it has been, and if it was washed before you can
put it in the lake.
1M: “Yeah.”
3M: Everywhere I have been: Flaming Gorge, Willard, Bear Lake, Pineview.
1M: At Pineview, even if you have told them you washed it, they force you to wash it
there now. “The regulations are pretty good already.”
Okay so for those of you were not aware of this situation, do you think these restrictions that are
in place are a good idea?
3M: Sounds like a good to prevent more algae blooms.
6M: It is a good idea, but if the water is still contaminated, you should just stop them.
1M: This is where the problem of water rights come in. All the water of Pineview is
owned by people, but managed through the public area. The only way I could see to keep
it clean is to have it privately run.
Question #12
That leads to our last topic, which is public land use. Going along with this one, but moving back
to Utah, what issues are you all aware concerning public land use in Utah?
1M: People let their animals graze on public lands and it gives them a benefit. If that
person has a benefit everyone does it, “until the public lands aren’t worth that much.”
Can anyone else think of any public land issues that are currently happening?
3M: The only one I can think of is Bears Ears.
1M: Yeah, decreasing the size.
6M: Yeah food trucks right? If I sale my food from my food trucks on the street, it is a
public land, but I am not paying for it.
Okay what do you guys think about food trucks on public land? Do you think this is an issue?
1M: “I feel like we should just get rid of most of the public stuff it doesn’t really matter.”
3M chuckles
6M: As long as if there are enough public lands for people to use, it is no issue.
1M: “Two thirds of Utah is owned by any government enitity so to say that we do not
have enough public lands is just outrageous.”
6M chuckles
1M: Yeah, we would need ten Utah’s to satisfy Utah. It is part of scarcity.
6M: So basically public land is not scarce yet, at least in Utah?
Does everyone in the group agree with that or does anyone disagree with that statement?
1M: I think that it is scarce and because everyone brings their cattle to graze on it so then
they run out of the resource.
6M: Yeah, I agree.
1M: So then no one else can use that public land because we are now out of whatever
they are eating.
6M: I would say it depends on what public land you are looking at.
1M: But even road space is scarce. Try parking at the side of the street at Weber.
6M: “Oh yeah.” while chuckling
1M: I think all public lands are that way. Take I15 that is owned by the government.
There are a lot of cars on there. Everyone uses that resource because it is free. If you
charged a dollar per mile on I15 it would clear up.
Question #13
How many of you have visited a National Park in Utah before?
Five people had visited a National Park. 6M had not visited a National Park.
6M: I have just been here for two years.
Okay so five out of six of you have visited a National Park. So when you went to the park, did
you feel like paying that entrance fee was necessary?
1M: I feel like it is the best thing because the alternative is going to be through taxes. But
if I do not go to the National Park for 20 years, I am still going to pay for the National
Park to be open, which I do not believe is fair. The people going to it should have to pay
for it.
So you are shaking your head, what is your opinion as well?
4F: I agree with that, if you aren’t going to the park, you should not be taxed for it. There
should be an entrance fee.
Question #14
Okay, any other opinions? How did you feel about paying an entrance fee when you went?
2M: I was going to say a ton of people work there, so you have to pay them somehow.
Probe: Okay, what do you think?
3M: “You are providing for your entertainment to go, so I think it is worth it.”
Probe: Okay. And what do you think?
5M: No one likes to pay, but it makes sense because the parks need to be up kept and
maintained to protect it.
1M: If you go to the grocery store no one questions whether or not you should have to
pay for it, but when we go to the National Park we question why we have to pay.
So do you think that the fees that are in place now are enough or do you think that these fees
need to be raised?
1M: “Higher.”
6M: How much is it right now?
Facilitator 2: Thirty dollars for National Parks and ten dollars for state parks.
1M: Yeah, but you can buy a year- long pass for the state parks for 50 bucks a year.
6M: Don’t you think it is unfair to the people who are paying taxes to keep these National
parks open and to be able to afford 30 bucks to get in?
1M: “Exactly, so get rid of the taxes and charge 100 dollars.”
6M: So they have to cut taxes to do that…. (Got interrupted by 1M)
3M: No one is going to pay 100 dollars to go see the grand staircase or something like
1M: That is great, if they do not want to pay 100 bucks maybe we get rid of the public
Group chuckles
What do the rest of you think? What are your opinions if you have opposing views that is okay?
1M: “I don’t mind.”
4F: “Don’t raise prices.” If it is more than 30 dollars, I am not going and I am sure that is
what a lot of people would say.
6M: I would say it is still too much for people to pay 30 bucks to get in. “It is still not
affordable.” If they are charging taxes, they better bring down the prices.
Question #15
So who has been to a National Park really recently?
Five group members raised their hands.
Did you feel like there were too many people there that it was too crowded?
2M: “I went to Yellowstone. There were a lot of people there.”
1M: There are always people in Yellowstone. We went to Lake Powell really early in the
season before school even got out, so it was fine.
5M: I went down to Zions. I don’t know, is that a National Park?
1M: Yeah, that is a National Park.
So do you feel like raising the prices to get into these places would help control how many
people are there?
5M: Yeah, definitely.
2M: Yeah, it would definitely control it.
And do you think that, that is worth it?
1M: I feel like the prices don’t have to be as big to go up to 30 to 100. The National Park
is under the forest park. Them and the IRS bring in more money than they spend so it is a
net positive. “The taxes are very little of it because people will pay to get into these
things.” I feel like it is fairly set. I could see if you were in peak season in the summer
months, to charge more because there is a scarcity of resource, so you need to limit it
somehow. I think this would help even out. People how could not afford to go in peak
season, could go not in peak season when the prices are lower.
What are some thoughts about what he suggested?
4F: I agree. When there is a ton of people, I could see raising the prices. It makes sense.
You are shaking your head no. What do you think?
6M: I don’t know. It feels bad to ban something to someone because they cannot afford
it, but it is the right thing to do.
1M: “If I do not have 50 bucks, I cannot get into Lagoon that does not mean that, that is
ban for me.
6M: “But that is discrimination, I would say…” (Got cut off my 1M)
1M: No. You only get what you get from society. “If you do not do anything, why should
you be allowed to go into the National Park?” You have to provide something to society
and you can get money and then you can go buy something. ”Prices are not discrinatory,
you either pay it or you don’t.”
Question #16
So does anyone have any last minute thoughts on this topic? Anything concerning, land use? Or
National Parks that you would like to share? Any thoughts?
1M: “I think we need to sell off the land.”
Group chuckles

Land Use:

National Parks: The focus group spend the majority of the time at the end of the focus group
talking about National Parks on the subject of land use. All the students beside one had been to a
National Park recently. The students who had been to National Park recently agreed that there
were a lot of people when they went, almost too many people. One student thought that 30
dollars to get into a National Park was too much money and that was discriminating people who
could not afford to go. All students agreed that you needed to pay some sort of fee to enter into
the parks, to pay for workers, maintenance on the park, etc. One student thought that National
Park fees should be higher and no other students agreed. The students who did not agree, thought
that no one would go to the National Parks if the fees were way too high. One student suggested
that they should raise National park prices in the summer, when it is at high demand. And lower
the prices to the National Park in the winter months, therefore this would even out the people
going all year long and give everyone an opportunity to go if they desired. Once this was
suggested, most group members agreed with it.

Food trucks: The students also brought up the idea of food trucks selling food on public land and
they came to the conclusion that if there was enough public land, there was no issue with food
Grazing: One student felt strongly that animals grazing on land, made land not as valuable.

Auto Emissions:

Idling cars: It seemed that all the students thought it was silly and not fair to charge people for
idling their cars. Students agreed that idling your car was defined as sitting in your car without
using it for more than one minute. One student mentioned at Weber State campus specifically,
you have to arrive early on campus to get a good parking spot. They mentioned also that it is
getting cold outside, so people sit in their cars with the heat on, waiting for their class to start.
One student, recently became bothered by people idling their cars Five students drove to school,
and one student walked. When the facilitator and myself asked the others why they did not ride a
bus, walk, etc, the group members mentioned that they drove because of convenience for
themselves and their time. All the students agreed on global warming, but most group members,
felt that one person stopping driving to school, could not make a difference in stopping global
warming. One student did not think that the way they got to school affected global warning.
Another student mention, “If everyone stopped idling their cars, it would probably would have
an impact.” One student felt that idling in the winter was a bigger problem than in the summer
because of inversion. Because the students did not agree with giving fines to people idling cars,
when asked for another solution, one student brought up how manufactures are trying to address
the issue, by making cars turn off when you stop the car.

Water Usage:

Water restrictions: One student felt that people needed to be informed about how much water
they are using. One student felt that if we were using too much water, we needed to have
restrictions. One student disagreed with water restrictions. And one student said, “If water prices
rise, people are going to protest.”

Fined for watering during the day/when it is raining: The group agreed that people should not be
fined for watering during the day or watering when it is raining. One student brought up a really
good point and said, “The city will fine you if you are watering in the day or when it is raining,
but they also will fine you for not taking care of your lawn.” The students agreed. One student
mentioned how he was fined this summer twice for having a yellow lawn. Another student
mentioned how in Farmington, a city worker, went around and fined people for watering their
lawns during the day, this made people so mad that many people purposefully watered their
lawns during the day to prove a point and eventually Farmington’s water had to be shut off for
the day. Students agreed that you could not control if you were sleeping or not home and your
sprinkling system when off, when it started to rain. So therefore the students did not agreeing
with fining under those circumstances.
Secondary water: The majority of the group agreed that if you lived somewhere, like on the
mountain, where you paid for one fee for water, no matter how much you used, they thought that
was fair. One student said, “you can get it if you want it.” If you want the kind of water where
you only pay one fee for how much water you use, you can move somewhere where you can get
it. One student said, “I feel like it is definitely fair because not everyone gets to live on a
mountain. If the water is there, great you get it. I do not think it is unfair.”

Algae blooms in Pineview Reservoir: When talking about the algae blooms in Pineview
Reservoir, one student felt strongly that they should stop motorcraft from going into the water to
stop the pollution of water, but others thought that the regulations of cleaning off your boat
needed to be enforced still or enforced stronger.