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SuccessfullySpecify

Three-Phase
Separators
t is often necessaryto separatetwo section calm to promote the separation.
Hereis a stepwise immiscible liquids, the light and
heavy phases,and a vapor. A typi-
There are different variations of hor-
izontal three-phasevapor-liquid separa-
procedure for cal example in petroleum refining tors. The liquid separation section is
is the separationofwater, and a hydro- usually a variationof a deviceto provide
designing carbon liquid and vapor. Little has interface level control, which may
been published on three-phase (liq- include a boot or a weir. A boot typical-
liquid/Iiquid/vapor uid/liquid/vapor) separarion, with ly is specifiedwhen the volume of heavy
most information available only in liquid is not substantial(< l5-207o of
separutors. corporate design files. This article total liquid by weight), while a weir is
attempts to alleviate this situation by used when the volume is substantial.
covering the basicsofthree-phase sep- Thesehorizontal separatorsare illustrat-
arator design. The authors provide a ed in Figure 2. The bucket-and-weir
Step-by-Step procedure and worked type design is used when interface level
out examples. Further, the examples control may be difficult, such as with
offer guidanceon making assumptions heavy oils or when large amounts of an
for the calculations. emulsionor a paraffin are present(1).

Selectingthree.phareseparatore $tokos'lawappliee
As with two-phase designs, three- Separatinga vapor from a light liquid
phaseunits can be either vertical or hor- (two-phaseseparation)has been covered
izontal, althoughthey typically are hori- in a previous article (2) and will not be
zontal (seeFigures l and2). The verti- discussedhere. However, all necessary
cal orientation.Figure 1, is only used if information for performing this part of
there is a large amount of vapor to be the calculation is provided here. The fol-
WayneD.Monnery separatedfrom a small amount of the lowing discussioncoversthe separation
andWilliam
light and heavy liquid (< l0-207o by of light and heavy liquids.
Y.Svrcek,
weight). Unfortunately, there are no The flow of rising light droplets in
University
of Calgary
simple rules for separator selection. the heavy liquid phase or settling heavy
Sometimes,both configurationsshould dropletsin the light liquid phaseis con- ,
be evaluatedto decide which is more sidered laminar and is soverned bv
economical. Further, the available plot Stokes'law:
space(footprint) may be a factor.
The design of three-phaseseparators
is similar to their two-phase counter- rt -
1,488g,fi(p,- pr) (l)
v T -
parts, except that the liquid section dif- 18F
fers. For the vertical type, a baffle com-
monly keeps the liquid separation where 1,488convertsviscosityof the

CHEMTcAL pRoGREss. SEpTEMBER


ENGTNEERTNG rgga . 29
MULTIPHASE FLOW

Vapor is more diffi- For horizontal separators with a


nozzle cult (requires given diameter,the heights of the light
more time) to set- and heavy liquids are assumedso that
tle the droplets the cross-sectionalarea can be calcu-
out of the contin- lated. With the vapor disengagement
Wire mesh uous phase with area set by guidelines, the lengths
the greater vis- required by holdup requirements and
+ D - cosity, since U. is vapor/liquid separationare calculated.
i
I
1 -i n .
Feed
nozzle
lower. Practically Then, with the assumedheights of the
speaking, U, is light and heavy liquids and calculated
vent M a x i m u m
I liquid
typically limited values of settling velocities, the set*
H"ls"rg" I level in calculations tling times are calculated.
t
to 10 in./min The actual residence times for the
= maximum. light and heavy liquids are subse-
Baffle
=
^.[- Holdup
il -*
A
For vefiical sep- quently calculated and comparedwith
!
E arators,the diame- the required settling times. as in the
Lioht r- Lishtliq.
: ' ter required for vertical case. If the residence times
tiq"uiO +r'-\ Baffleto provide
_T
nozzle l H '
lnterface
c a l m i n gz o n ei s
recommended
vapor disengage-
ment is calculated
are not greater than the required set-
tling times, then either the diameter
heavyliquid SectionA-A as in our previous should be increased or. for a given
{ Hrl diameter, the length should be
I article (2). In siz-
J ing a separator,the increased(liquid separationis con-
heightsof the light trolling). In the subsequentdesign
I procedures, the laner approach is
and heavy liquids
Heavy
liquidnozzle are assumed, and used, along with the procedures dis-
the settling veloci- cussed in our previous paper for
ties and settling vapor/liquid separationr2).
I Figure l.Vertical three-phase separalors are used with high times are then The following desi-rn procedures
vapor loadings calculated. and heuristics are a result of a review
continuous phasefrom lb/(ft)(s) to cP. The residencetimes of the light and of literature sources and accepted
Simplifying Eq. 1 and converting heavy liquids are determinednext. For industrial design guidelines.
the units of the terminal settling the liquids to separate,the residence Horizontal design proceduresare pre-
velocity to in./min from fUs results in: time of the light liquid must be greater sented for the four separator types
than the time required for the heavy shown in Figure l. The horizontal
droplets to settle out of the light liquid design procedures incorporate opti-
2.0615l xl}-s|f,QH-pL) phase; and the residence time of the mizing the diameter and length by
,r rr = T minimizing the approximate weight
heavy liquid must be greater than the
time required for the light liquid of the shell and heads.To add a degree
(2) droplets to rise out of the heavy liquid of conservatismto the design,the vol-
whereDo is in microns(1 micron = phase.Ifthese conditionsarenot satis- ume available in the headsis ignored.
6
3.28084x 10 feet) andU7,in./min. fied, then liquid
Eq.2 maybe rewrittenas: separationis con-
trolling and the
vessel diameter
rt kt(Pu - Pr)
u r=---T (3) must be increased.
Holdup time for
where liquids must be
addedto residence ...
ks=2.0615t xl\-sfi . time. The height
oi iausti, 121
or causiic 89
Values of ft, are given for some sys- of the vertical Furfural 89 0is3'
tems in Table 1. three-phase sepa- Methylethyl ketone Water 89 0.i63
rator is calculated sec-Butyl alcohol Water 8g 0.163
From Eqs. 1-3, it can be seenthat
Methylisobutylketone Water 89 0.163
the settling velocity of a droplet is in the same man- Water 89 0.163
Nonylalcohol
inverselyproportional to the viscosi- ner as for-the two-
ty of the continuousphase.Hence, it phasecase.

30 . 1994.
SEpTEMBER pRocREss
ENGTNEERTNG
CHEMIcAL
3. Interfacecontrol with weir
Feed
inlet
l,v
Min.12in.
Min.12in.

Heavy Light
liquid liquid
outlet outlet
* l N , *l L NI*-
',l^n. - l
* * u,n.l
2. InterJacecontrol with boot 4. Bucketand weir
Vapor Vapor
outlet outlet

Lightliquidholdu/surge

Heavy Light
liquid liquid
outlet outlet
| -t -t -t -l

I L, lLzlLslL4l
Heavyliquid
outlet Note:N= 112d7,1+6in.
I
t - L -
drv= Nozzledia'

I Figure 2. Basic designs of horizontal three-phase separators,

5. Similarly, calculate the rising


Vertical design.procedur€ 140-,\"' velocity of the light liquid out of the
Refer to Figure 1 for dimensions:
D""=l# | (6)
heavy liquid phaseusing Stokes' law:
1. Calculate the verlical terminal
\nu, )
vapor velocity: If there is a mist eliminator, add 3-6
in. Io D, to accommodatea support ur ru . J-- k t ( P r - P t ) (8)
ring and round up to the next 6-in. ILH
Pv (4)
U- = ylPt - rtt2 increment to obtain D; if there is no 6. Calculate the light and heavy
Pv mist eliminator,D = Dur. liquid volumetric flow rutes, Q* and
Calculate the K value, using one of 4. Calculate the setting velocity of QnL:
the methods in Thble 2 and set Uu = the heavy liquid out of the light liquid
A.l5Ur for a conservativedesign. using Stokes'law (the maximum is 10
o
w--
"LL (9)
2. Calculate the vapor volumetric in./min): w-r .L-_
flow rate: 60pL

WV kt(Pn - Pr)
Qv= 3,600pu
(s) vr tH L -- 0\ n -Wrt
unr- 60pa (10)
ltr
3. Calculate the vessel internal where ft, is obtained from Table 1 or is 7. Assume Hr = I ft (minimum)
diameter,Dur: calculated(seeEq. 3). and calculate the settling time for the

. sEprEMBERrggr
CHEMTCALENGTNEERTNGpRocREss . 31
MULTIPHASE

^ =(t.+aeal\/oo
o,in{ (0- .0rl\
a, r,
l- I--T-/\----G-/
) Equation13

- 0.6973=2.14ftJs
Ur =0' 313 53.95
I EquationEl
-
-* 415.000lb/h =165.32ft'ls
Qv=
= 3.600s/hx 0.69731Vff
: lEquation E2
=
--
=
^
r-\o= 1TVT4STFIs
--irISHs - r0.13ft
V
I
2
lEquation E3

16.5000lb/h = 5.10ft'lmin
ou -
60 minthx 53.95lbtftt
a EquationE4

"=,{*t#d) vnr=ffi
l,3o0lb/h = 0.35ft'lmin

whereD"is inft. lEquation E5


Note:1 micron= 3.28084
x 10{ft

g. Use Table 3 to determineAo lA. basedon the required holduP


heavy liquid droplets to settle through
this distance(12 is a conversionfactor h. CalculateA= (nl4)D2.
for ft to in.): i. Calculate Ar.
j. Selectthe larger value ofAr.
k. Calculate the area of the baffle
H.=+ ( 1s )

t -
l2H,
----------= (11) plate - settling area for the light liq- Check this r-alueu'ith that assumed
,HL_
U,, uid;A.-A-Ao. in Step 9b to ensurethat the assumed
8. Assume Hn = | ft (minimum) 10. Calculate the residence time value is reasonable. ft- surge is not
and calculate the settling time for the of each phasebased on the volumes specified, calculate the surge height
light liquid droplets to rise through occupied by the light and heavY basedon surgetime:
this distance:
( 12 )
phases:
(eu* eo)r, (16)
t -
,LH -
LzH ,
---:
TI
uLH

9. If there is a baffle Plate, calcu-


s*=w (I4a)
Hs=\---TL

The minimum is 6 in.


12. Calculate the vessel height
late the area:
A - HuAu (14b) using the guidelines:
a. Calculate(P. - P). vHL-
Qrt He= 6 in. minimum.
b. Assume 11* (use 9 in. as a mini-
If eLL < tu, or Iur 1 trr, \tctease H aio= h d. + greater of (2 ft or /1t
mum) and calculate Ht+ H^.
the diameter and repeat the procedure + 0.5 f0.
c. Use Figure 3 to obtain G.
from Step 7 (liquid separationis con- Ho=0.5D or a minimum of:
d. CalculateAr:
trolling). Note that An= A. 3 6 i n . + V z d r( w i t h o u t m i s t
S e eE q . ( l 3 ) i n t h eb o x .
e. Assume Wo = 4 in. 11. Calculate the height of the eliminator), or
light liquid above the outlet (holdup 24 in. + t/zd* lwith mist eliminator):
f. Calculate WD/D.

32, . CHEMICALENGINEERINGPRoGRESS
sEprEMBERlggd
10,000
c 24in.
o_

o
F
c
9,000
-
-o
G 8,000

G
r.i
High liquid levelaboveinterface

/= 4.0184a8
. = _ J . 9 t 6 4tt
= -i.801705
= :l 1.i5348
pr- pu,lblft3
t. \, to H/D+
= HID
= \/.\r I Figure 3. G is found from the downconterallowableflow.

= 0.00153756
' = 16.787101 the time lbr the
= 1.299201
light liquid to
: - i.2.923932 rise out of the
. = 1.1.353518 heavy liquid
'= 11.844824 phase:
- = -36.999376 trH=(12)(1.0)
: = 10.529572 ll.lJ=6.9min
: = 9.892851 9. Calculate
2 . C a l c u l a t et h e r a p o r '\ r r l u r r - t r i " iili ti-:,r-r' :'1:ri- i1f-;1:
:.luivalent
expressions,
suchasH',/D _ r _ i l , ) <
flow rate,seeEq. El in the bor. r r l n t l l l _ i l ) S

3. Calculatethe vesselinner diam- lL.it'


eter,seeEq. E3 in the box. . . \ : > . r 1 .H' t -. = I ) i n . .H r + H n = 2 4
n, = Hn+ H, + HR+ O^* Ufii Use 1J = 10.5fi. i n . L ' . : r g F r , r L r r-e1 .G = 9 . 8 0 0g p h / f t z .
.a - jr
4 . C a l c u l a tl h
e c : e t t l i n \ge l o c i l r, r l {. = 0 i n i h )( 5 . 1 0
_ c a l i i t ' r r 6m
the heavyliquid out of the iight liqLrid - o.-1-i r ii' 9..\00gph/iir = 0.25 ft2
It' a mist eliminatorpad is used, p h a s e .U s i n g T a b l e l , f t s = 0 . 1 6 3 ..\...ll ti ll = J jp..
-,-riionalheightis addedas shownin Then: \ \ . , D= - 1 l r 1xl 1 0 . 5=) 0 . 0 3 1 7
: - - l r eI . Um = 0.163(62.11 53.95)/0.630
= 2 .1 1 i n . / m i n
E x a m p l e1 5. Calculatethe settlingvelocitl of
Sizea verticalseparatorwith a baf'- the light liquid out of the heavyliquicl
': :lltc
and wire-meshmist elimina- phase:
: i,.r separatethe mixture given in U r a = 0 . 1 6 3 ( 6 2 . 1-1 5 3 . 9 5 ) / 0 . 7 6 1
. -,rleJ. The operatingpressureis 165 = l.l4 tn.lmin
'..,:, rrild it is
Jr'(rcarbon
necessaryto have a
liquid holduptime of 25
6. Calculatethe light and hearr
Iiquid volumetric flow rates. see Eq. ^=#6
:: and a surgetime of only 5 min. E4 and E5 in the box.
1. Calculatethe vertical terminal 7 . A s s u m eH r = 1 f t a n d c a l c u l a t e 1oa,r= Ar+A, ft3ls
- .iitr'. Using Table 2, calculateK the tirne fbr the heavy liquid to sertle
- ' i t h e Y o r k D e m i s t e re q r r r t i o n s . out of the light liquid phase: Q , -- vr ,u : . 60
Tt:2
. . . E q . E 1 i n t h eb o x . ,fF;
t n , . =( 1 2 )( 1 . 0 )l 2 . l 1 = 5 . 7m i n 4u,
, : n JL ' 1= 0 . 7 5x 2 . 1 4= 2 . 0 5f t l s . 8. AssumeHn = 1 fi and calculate

CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING . SEPTEMBER
PROGRESS 1994. 33
MULTIPHASE FLOW

. Using Table 3, AD/A = 0.0095:


1= (nl4)(10.5 ft)2 = 86.59 ftz
A, = (0.0095)(86.59ft2)= g.g21r2
. Use A, = 0.82 ft2.
A, = 86.59- 0.82 = 85.11 ft2
10. Calculate the residencetime of
eachphase:
0r. = (1.0 fI) (85.77 112115.10
ft3lmin = 16.8min
lnr = (1.0 f0 (86.59 ftz)10.35
ft3lmin = 241.4 min
11. Calculate the height of the light
liquid above the outlet, based on
holdup:
tlo = (5.10 ft3imin) (25 min)/85.77
ftz = 1.5 ft
/1s = (5.10 + 0.35)(ft3/min)(5
min)i86.59 ft2 = 0.31 ft
Use I/r = 0.5 ft.
12. Calculate d, according to
Table 5:
)"= Qrl(Qr + Q) = (5.10 +
0 . 3 5 Y ( 5 . 1 0+ 0 . 3 5 + 1 6 5 . 3 2x 6 0 ) =
0.0006
Use Eq. E6 (see box) to calculate
Pr
pu = pLX+ pll - l.) = (54.55)
(0.0006) + (0.6913) (l - 0.0006) =
F Fuelgasknock-out drum 0.730
fuelgaslinebetween
ZOft.ilug in theincoming NLt andhighlevelshutdown Qu = 165.32+ (5.10 + 0.35)/60=
165.4I ft3/s
G.FlareKnock-outdrum Use Eq. E7 (seebox) to calculated*
20to 30minto Hll dN > 2l in.; use dt = 24 in.
Calculate Ho'.
factors(optionall:
bythefollowing
Multiply
Ho = 0.5 (10.5)= 5.25ft or
Personnel Factor Instrumentation Factor Ho = 24 + 2412= 36 in. = 3.0 ft
(minimum)
Experienced 1.0 WellInstrumented 1.0 Use 11, = 5.5 ft. From Figure 1, I1t
= I ft and s = 0.5 ft. Calculate Ilur:
Trained 1.2 Instrumented
Standard 1.2
Hsw='/,(2.0 f0 + 2 ft = 3 ft
Inexperienced 1.5 PoorlvInstrumented 1.5 Set 11, = 0.5 ft. Final dimensions:
D = 10.5 ft, HH= I.0 ft^ HL = 1.0 ft,
Hn= 1.5 fr, Ho = 0.5 ft. HB.,= 3.0 ft,
andHo = 5.5 ft. Add 1.5ft for the mist
eliminator.
p,=## . +ffi x62.It= 54.55
x 53.es rbtft3 Hr= l4'0 ft
HID=14.0i10.5=1.3
Add 2 ft to H, (Hp = 2.0 ft, Ho =
l EquationE6 7.0 f0 so that HlD = 1.52 (HlD
shouldbe in the rangeof 1.5 to 6.0).
=r.rrr, Horizontaldesign procedure:
)''' no boot or weir
I EquationE7 1. Calculate the vapor volumetric
flow rate, Qu, using Eq. 5.

34 . 1994.
SEpTEMBER pRocREss
ENGTNEERTNG
CHEMTCAL
2. Calculate the light and heavy
liquid volumetric flow rates, Q' and I\ A ', - A , -. A 1u , l\ L 1 ?| q r
' . /
O711, using Eqs. 9 and 10. Qrr=
3. Calculate the vertical terminal Q,,
velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4. (selecta K 17.If gHL< tLHor 0,-, < t", then
r alue from Table 2) and set Uu = increasethe vessellength (liquid sep-
0.75Ur. arationcontrols):
4. Select holdup and surge times
t-romTable 6 and calculate the holdup velocity:
and surgevolumes,V, atd Vr, (unless trrQ* tntQ,
surgeis otherwisespecified,suchas a Uw= Qr/Av ()L\ '= -"{
>lus volume):
e*'(h-Av-o*)
12. Calculatethe minimum length
Vo= To Q, (18) required for vaporiliquid separation:
(30)
Vs=TsQr (19) Lum= UvlQ (2s) 18. CalculateUD.If UD << 1.5,
decreaseD (unlessit is alreadyat its
5. Obtain an UD from Table 7 and 13. If L 1 Lr,,,r, then set L = Lr,* minimum), and if UD >> 6.0 then
initially calculate the diameter (here, vapor/liquid separation con- increaseD; repeatfrom Step 5.
accordingto: trols). This simply results in some 19. Calculate the thickness of the
extra holdup and residencetime. If I shell and headsaccording to Table 8.
11 Lr,*, then increase Hu and recal- 20. Calculate surface area of the
culate Au, and repeat, starting from shell and headsaccordingto Table 8.
(20)
Step 9. If L > L*n, the design is 21.Calculate t h e a p p r o x i m a tvee s -
acceptable for vapor/liquid separa- sel weight accordingto Table 8.
tion. If L )) Lr,,.,(liquid holdup con- 22. Increaseor decreasethe vessel
Calculate the total cross-sectional trols). I can onlr,be reducedand l.rrr. diameter by 6-in. increments and
ilea: increasedif H,, is reduced. F1, ma1' repeat the calculations :until the UD
only be reducedif it is _ureater than the ratio ran-eesfrom 1.5-6.0.
minimum specifiedin Step 6. (With 23. Using the optimum vesselsize
A _ TED' (2r) reduced 11* recalculateAu and repeat (minimum wei-eht).calculatethe nor-
4
the procedurefrom Step9.) Note: For mal and high liquid levels:
6. Set the vapor space height, 11, this and other calculations, "much
, rhe larger of 0.2D or 2 ft; I ft if greater than" (>>) and "much less Hau= D - H, ( 31 )
:.-,ereis no mist eliminator. Using than" (<<) mean a variance of greater
1 ,/D in Table 3, obtainAr/A, andcal- than 20Vo. Anrr= (Am+ Arr) + Vo/L (32)
--llateAu. 14. Calculate the settling velocities
7. Set the heightsof the heavy and of the heavy liquid out of the light liq- Obtain 11r.. using Table 3 with the
;ht liquids, Hrrand Hr, uid phaseand the light liquid out of the value of A*ro/Ar.
8. Find (AnL+ AL)lAr, using (I1", heavyliquid phase,U". and U.o, using
- fl -tlD inTable 3,andcalculateA* Eqs. 7 and 8 (find ft, from Thble 1). Horizontaldesign procedure:
15. Calculatethe settling times of heavy liquid boot
9. Calculatethe minimum length to the heavy liquid out of the light phase 1. Calculate the vapor volumetric
-- -,rmmodatethe liquid holdup/surge: and the light liquid out of the heavy flow rate, Q, using Eq. 5.
phase: 2. Calcrilate the light and heavy
liquid volumetric flow rates, Q* and
r _ V, +V, tur= 12 (D - Hv- HH)IUHL (26)
L _
(22) Q n r , p e rE q s . 9 a n d 1 0 .
tr-Au_ (our*,4rr) 3. Calculate the vertical terminal
tro= 12 HHL/ULH (21) velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4 (the K value
10. Calculate the liquid dropout comes from Table 2) and set Uu =
-:a:
16. Calculate the residencetimes 0.15 Ur.
of the light and heavy liquids: 4. Select holdup and surge times
I = H,./L't Q3) from Table 6 and calculate the holdup
0ur= AorLlQu, (28) and surge volumes, V, and Vr, from
| [. Ca]culate the actual vapor Eqs. 18 and 19 (unlesssurgeis other-

CHEMTcAL pRocREss. SEpTEMBER


ENGTNEERTNG rgs+ . 35
?=
:.::
:-=
:-:
-.
:: MULTIPHASE FLOW

,,,:

wise specified,such as slug volume).


5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and
initially set the diameter according to:

/ l?\

I Then calculate the total cross-sec-

lt
14
tional area,A, using Eq. 21.
6. Set the Yapor spaceheight, F1*
F to the larger of 0.2D or 2 ft (l ft if
F
there is no mist eliminator). Using
7
HutD in Table 3, obtainAv/Ar and cal-
E
F culate Au. DishedHeads
F
7. Set the light liquid heights in the
vessel and boot, HrN and Hrrt. Approximate
8. Calculate the cross-sectional
area of the light liquid above the bot-
'=(t+
tom of the vessel,Ar., using Hrtt/D
in Table 3.
9. Calculatethe minimum length to
accommodatethe liquid holdup/surge:

V., +V"o
f - n (34)
"- Ar-Au-ArN
10. Calculate the liquid droPout the heavy liquid out of the light liquid 19. Calculate the thickness of the
time, $, using Eq. 23. phase: shell and headsaccording to Table 8.
1L. Calculate the actual vaPor 20. Calculate the surface area of
velocity, Uuo,using Eq.24. tm= 12 (Hrrn + D - H)IUHL Q5) the shell and headsaccording to Table
12. Calculate the minimum length 8.
required for liquid/vaporseparation. 16. Calculate the residencetime of 21. Calculate the aPProximate
Lrr*, usingBq.25. the light liquid: weight of the shell and heads accord-
13. If L 1 Lr,*, then set L = Lr,* ing to Table 8.
\ (vapor/liquid separation controls). 22.Increaseor decreasethe vessel
: (,q,,-e,)r (36) diameter by 6-in. increments and
This simply results in some extra
ou= repeat the calculations until 1,/D
holdup and residence time. If I eu rangesfrom 1.5-6.0.
11Lr,*, then increaseH, and recalcu-
lateAr, thenrepeatfrom Step9.If L> Note: This volume of light liquid 23. With the optimum vessel size
Lr,*, the design is accePtable for ignores the light liquid volume in the (minimum weight), calculate the nor-
vapor/liquid separation.If L >> LMrN, boot. mal and high liquid levels:
liquid holdup controls. I can only be I7. If 1LL < to, then increase the
vessellength (liquid separationcon- Hnu= D - Hu (38)
reduced atd L*,* increased if I1u is
reduced.Humay only be reducedif it trols):
Attrr= Arru + VrlL (39)
is greater than the minimum specified
in Step 6. (37)
With reduced Hu, recalailate A, Determine H*rrusingTable 3 from
and repeat from Step 9. A*r/Ar.
14. Calculate the settling velocity 24. Design the heavy liquid boot:
of the heavy liquid out of the light liq- 18. CalculateUD.If UD << 1.5 Set the height of the heavY liquid,
uid phase, U"., using Eq. 7 (obtain ks then decreaseD (unlessit is already at Hur; calculate the rising velocity of
from Table 1). a minimum) and if UD >> 6.0 then the light liquid out of the heavy liquid
15. Calculate the settling time of increaseD; rcpeatfrom SteP5. phase,Uru, using Eq. 8 (find ft, from

36 . 1994.
SEpTEMBER PRocREss
ENGINEERING
cHEMICAL
Table 1); set U, - 0.15 ULHicalculate
the heavy liquid boot diameter:

Then calculate the settling time of the


light liquid out of the heavy liquid the light liquid comparlment using
phase: Eq. 44 or read it from Table 9. tru= l2Hrx/Uro (4e)
ttr= l2Hu1/Us1 (4r) Htu= 0.5D + 1 (44) 14. Calculate minimum I, to facil-
itate liquid-liquid separation as the
Calculate the residencetime of the where D is in feet andHrrrin inch- larser of:
heavyliquid: es (round up to nearestin.). If D < 4.0
ft, then Hrm= 9 in. Using HoytD in
Table 3, CalculateArrr.
( t,,o-, trrQrr\ (50)
A -ndH* L1 =maxl:ff , A,, I
- (42) 8. Calculate the weir heisht: \ nur
"ut 4en
Hw=D-Hv (4s) Round to the nearest % ft.
If eHr < tru, then the boot 15. Find l,:
diameter. If Hw< 2 ft, increaseD, and repeat
the calculationsfrom Step 6. L= Lt+ Lz ( s 1)
Horizontaldesign prooedure: 9. Calculate the minimum length
weir of the light liquid compartment to 16. Calculate the liquid dropout
1. Calculate the vapor volumetric accommodate holdup/surge, 1,. in time, Q, using Eq. 23.
flow rate, Qu, using Eq. 5. Figure 2 : 17. Calculate the actual vapor
2. Calculate the light and heavl' velocity. U,,.,.using Eq.24.
liquid volumetric flow rates, Qu and
Vn+V, (-+6) 18. Calculatethe minimum length
Q11y.as per Eqs.9 and 10. required for vapor/fliquid separation,
3. Calculate the vertical terminal Ar- Ar.- AuL
1.,rr,..using Eq. 25.
vapor velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4 (find K Round to the nearest 7: ft. The 19. lf L ( Zr'.r- then set L = L*r
tiom Table 2) and set Uv = 0.l5Ur. minimum for Lr= d, + 12 in. (vapor/liquid separation controls).
4. Select holdup and surge times 10. Set the interface at the height This simply results in some extra
tiom Table 6, and calculatethe holdup H,*12, obtaining the heights of the holdup and residence time. If L <<
and surge volumes, V, and V., from heavy and light liquids, Hrrand Hrr. Lr,*, then increase Hr, recalatlate A,
Eqs. 18 and 19 (unlesssurgeis other- 11. For the liquid settling com- and repeat the calculations from Step
ir ise specified,suchas a slug volume). partment,calculatethe cross-section- 6. If L > L*,r, the design is acceptable
5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and al area of the heavy liquid, using for vapor/liquid separation. If Z >>
initially calculate the diameter Hr/D in Table 3 and calculate the .Lrr, (liquid separation and holdup
accordingto: cross-sectionalareaof the light liquid control), Z can only be reduced and
from: Lr,* increased if Hv is reduced. //u
may only be reduced if it is greater
Arr=Ar- A,- A* (4',7) than the minimum specifledin Step 9.
(43)
With reduced Hr, recalculate A, and
12. Calculate the settling velocity repeat from Step 9.
of the heavy liquid out of the light liq- 20. CalculateUD.If UD << 1.5,
Then calculatethe total cross-section- uid phase,Uur, andthe light liquid out then decreaseD (unlessit is already at
1 a r e aA
. . . u s i n gE q . 2 l . of the heavy liquid phase, U"r, using a minimum) and repeat from Step 6.
"l
6. Set the vapor spaceheight.Hu. Eqs 7 and 8 (find ft, from Table 1). If UD >> 6.0, then increase D and
ro the larger of 0.2D or 2 ft (1 ft if 13. Calculate the settling times of repeat from Step 5.
t. lhere is no mist eliminator). Using the heavy liquid out of the light liquid 21. Calculatethe thicknessof the
{
ft H../D in Table 3, obtainAu/A, and cal- phase and the light liquid out of the shell and headsaccording to Table 8.
I
u ;ulateAu. heavy liquid phase: 22. Calculate the surface area of the
n 7. Calculatethe low liouid level tur= l2Hr1/U* (48) shell and headsaccordins to Table 8.

CHEMTCAL pRoGREss. SEpTEMBER


ENGTNEERTNG 1994. 37
MULTIPHASE FLOW

23. Calculate the approximate ves- there is no mist eliminator). Using


sel weight according to Table 8. Hr/D inTable 3, obtainAu/Arand cal-
24. Increase or decreasethe diam- culateAu.
eter by 6-in. incrementsand repeatthe 7. Calculatel,:
calculations untiT UD ranges from
1.5-6.0.
25. With the optimum vessel size
(o,,e,,+o-,e-,1
-,'.''.] 155)
f -
L l -
(minimum weight), calculate normal Ar-4,
and high liquid levels:
8. Calculate the liquid dropout
Hnu=D-H, (52) time, Q, usingEq. 23.
9. Calculatethe actualvapor veloc-
Atrrr= Arrr+ V,1L, (53) Uuo,usingEq.24.
10. Calculate the minimum length
Obtain Hr' using Table 3 with 60 min for reflnery service,or 10-15 required for vapor/liquid separation,
ANLL|Ar. min for chemical-plant service. For L*,r, using Eq. 25 .
amine regeneratorfeed drums, 0o. = ll.If Ll 1 Lr,*, then set Lt = Luru
Horizontaldesign procedure: 10-15 min. (vapor/liquid separation controls).
bucket and weir 5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and This simply results in some extra
1. Calculate the vapor volumetric initially setthe diameteraccordingto: holdup and residencetime. lf Lt <<
flow rate, Qu, using Eq. 5. LM,N,th.enincreaseIlr,. recalculateAu
2. Calculate the light and heavy and repeat the calculations from Step
liquid volumetric flow rates, Q, and +(e,,0,,re,,,O,,(s4) 1. If Lt ) Lr,*, the design is accept-
Qnr,perEqs.9 and 10. ,=( ablefor vapor/liquidseparation.
3. Calculate the vertical terminal 0J0n(r1r) 12. Calculatethe light liquid layer
vapor velocity, Ur, using Eq. 4 (flnd K thicknessbased on the heavy liquid
from Table 2) and set Uv= 0.75 Ur. Then calculatethe total cross-section- settlins out:
4. Select residencetimes for light . . u s i n gE q . 2 1.
a l a r e aA
and heavy liquids, 0r, and 0o.. For 6. Set the vapor spaceheight, 11u,
sour water stripper feed drums, 0o. = to the larger of 0.2D or 2 ft. (1 ft if

g,, = 235'ooolblh =343.5'7ft3/s Ur = 0' 175


3.600s/hx 0.190lb/ff
I EquationE8 I Equation811

o,,=
45'ooorblh -=18.52ft'lmin -, ,-- ( 4 r 2xt.7
7 r . 8 0 " ' ' = 11'15
ft' usel1'0ft
60min/hx 40.5lb/ft' \0.6ru xr/i)
I Equation E9 I EquationE12

7'5oolb/h
o-, =
60 min/hx62.0lblfr'
=2.y2ft'lmin 4=ffi=14.54ft
I Equation810 - Equation813

tutQrt - 2.0 min x2.02ft3hn1n=0.45ft


A,, s.%ft
I Equation814
trrQo - 2.0 min x 18.52ft3lmin =2.41
ft
ALL rs.02ff
I Equation E15

rr ff ls = 4.83ftls
Q u = 343.51
ure=
T 7r.08
te
I Equation816

38 . 1994.
SEPTEMBER PROGRESS
ENGINEERING
CHEMICAL
w,D,
tlni

prop€r- Nomenclbture

"'
engli
lne
:, =;il;:::T:1",,-*lllllJli,
=
0
S
= v o l u m e t r i cf i o w . f l r / s o r l t r / m i n
- vessem l l l e r i a l s t r e s sv a l u e .p s i
^- liquidabor.e
vessel
bor- ASu = 5psqif. gravity differenceberween

==,1'l :#, ?:light I i g h ra n d h e a v yl i q u i d r

l: = :-i;iliill,1l11;1",, "'*ftJil],."',0,'o TC

'7\
il,,l,l,1l;; "'"'.'"
l,'.;l:l
= 0,"0,",,
TH
tut

D = ressel
diemeler.
n ttu = *'
o u t o l l i g h t I i q u i d 'm i n

" r p r e l so u l
"r'llu'
iiii,r;
i:i::';i'J'
of Western
degreesin
3' =llJli';,ilr,.ormicrons
D , = r 3 p r l r ' J i s e n g a g e m edni a
t =
t . .f r
e f f i c i e n c yd. i m e n s i o n -
1s
TH =;5.,ff::;l
= \ u r g et r m r .m i n .
TS

0.00128e'(AsG)Dpr
r-i6,
-'
;::]o.oLoint
= c f a \ i t a r i o n acl o n s t a n tJ, 2 . 1 7 f r , / s r Y:,
vHL
= a l l o r l a b l eb o r i z o r r n lv c l o c i t l . f r l s
= s e t t l i n qr e l o c i t vu f h e r v r l i o u i d
u 6 = baffle liquid toad.gph/fr) d r o p l e i so L r o
r f l i g h r l i q u i d .i n . t m i n
V,' H = h e i g h r .f t u,., = r i s i n g v e l o c i t )o f l i g h r l i q u i d d r o p l e r s
H.. = liquid level above baffle, in. or ft o u t o f h e a v yl i q u i d ,i n . i m i n
,.hereD" is in microns.
HB,. = liquid height from abor.ebaffle to Un = mixture velocity, tVs
13. Calculate the differenc- rl
leed nozzle.ft Up = boot velocitr'.in.lmin
:rsht betweenthe light and he;:,,., = disengagementheight. fi
H;, f = l c f r n i l r Jilg l 6 . i 1 _ 1 r i.. ' .c r i n . / r r i n
quid weirs: = htrldupheisht. fi
H. L = \ i - L p i \rre l . r c i t r .f L l :
H- = t e i , s h tl r . . = l i ; . : : i : : : : : = : : ii li
i o. r : : , z z : : .: '
_\H=H --\r r l l - X l i: -.
Pu l ,
a,
= --- .-.-:.:. :'
H,,;
1 - 1D . e s i g nt h e l i g h t l i q u i d b u c k e r : H,,-
': the top of light liquid u eir'= D
H,.. - - - :-- - : - - - . . ' - _ - .
, i l s s u m et h e b o t t o n rr s a t 0 . 1 l 5 D l = :::::::::-::::,
. . r t t i e a h o l d u p / s u r g e( t 1 , p r c a l l r .
H,,,u ::-
HP. = heiSi:t:i,'::r iiir:
' . -i min.); assume
HLL is 6 in. fle. 11 = ::-:: ailrdenaa time. min
, rrl the weir height andLLL is 6 in.
Hs = irrroe heiohr ri - ::'.:::,i:. liquid ifaction
i e the bottom of the bucket. g
= totai vertical separarorheight.ii = l\:.:::\. !-P
. r,c Table 3 with HrrrlD and
nv = vapor disengagementareaheighi. ir = :::.:::.lbr'ft]
D. calculate Au' and Arr.r. = weir height. ft
H,,, = :, :: j irLrloui time- s
-ulateL,: = h e i g h ld r f l e r e n c eb e l i i e e nl i g h i u n J
heavy iiquid weirs. in. )lr'-:-

lro + r,)9,, fts = S t o k e s l' a u .t e r m i n a lr e l o c i r r c o n - li. l';L I - , ; i

T _ (58) l s r a n t .r i n . / m i n )cr P r i t l b / f r r ;JL: :.::: l;;iri,l ;evei

(Ar,'r_ Arr,') K = t e r m i n a lr e l o c i t yc o n s L a n fl .r , i s L, L; i:i:i .;;iriti


L = vessellengrh.ft LLL : , , . r , r q l i i i e re l
l : . \ssume 1., is the largerof D/l2 L*,* = v a p o r , 4 i q u isde p a r a r i o m
n irrrrnum 1/
l in. -:.
.\ lI r I li.','i,l l-. ^l
t 6 , Design the heavy liquid com-
rnt: Set the top of the heavy liq-
. - i r ' = D - H v - A 1 1 ;a s s u m ea
;'':liilr,r-Hj I ',:a.tI

:r \Lrr_se(typically, 5-15 min);


: HLL is about 6 in. below the then decreaseD trndlepeatfi'onl Step
:r,ght and LLL is about 6 in. (r, + rr)9,, 5 Ii UD >> 6.0. then increaseD and
I _ (5e)
.h- bottomof the vessel.Using repeatfi'om Step-5.
: v,trh Hrrr/D and Hr,,y/D, ca7- lAorr- Arrr) 19. Calculatethe thicknessof the
i . ...andAr_r... 17. CalculateL = L, + Lr+ L. + L^. shel1and headsaccordingto Table8.
- L L l . i t eL . , : 1 8 . C a l c u l a t eU D . I f U D < < 1 . 5 . 20. Calculate tl're surf'acearea of

cHEMTCAL pRocnEss. sEpTEMBER


ENGTNEERTNG 1994. 39
MULTIPHASE FLOW

w h e r eP: = d e s i g p
n r e s s u raen dD = d r u md i a ,

shell and headsaccordingto Table 8. about827oof theloading,setF1yto be 18. LurN = (4.83 ftls)(4.03 s ) =
21. Calculatethe approximateves- much greaterthan the minimum. 19.5fr
sel weight according to Table 8. AssumeHv = 0.70D= (0.70)(1 1.0f0 19. Since L 1 Lr,*, set -L = 19.5 ft
22. Increase or decreasethe diam- = 7.70 ft. Using Table 3, Av/Ar = (setZ, = 16.0ft, lr = 3.5 ft)
eter by 6-in. incrementsand repeatthe 0.148, Av= 71.08ft2 20. UD = 19.5/11.0= L78
calculations until UD ranges from 7 , H r r r =( 0 . 5 ) ( 1 1 .+07) = I 2 . 5 i n . , 21. Assume dished heads per
t.5-6.0. use13in. Table11.
Hrr/D = 13/(11.0 x 12)= 0.098 AssumeE = 0.85
Example2 UsingTable3, ALLrj/Ar = 0.051 Use SA-516 70 carbon steel,
Design a three-phasehorizontal Aur= (0.051X95.03 fP) = 4.95112 design temperature= 650o
separatorwith a weir to separatethe 8. H, = 11.0- 1.10= 3.30ft S = 17,500psi; from Ref. (3).
mixture in Table 10. The operating 9. SeeEq.El3, box,p. 38 Corrosionallowance= Vrsin.
pressure and temperature are 25 psig Usel,r = 15.0ft. P=25+30=55psig
and 100, respectively,and it is neces- 10.HHL- Hrr= 3.3012 = 1.65ft SeeEq. E17, box on this page.
sary to have a liquid holdup and surge ll. HH//D= 1.65111.0 = 0.150 Use r, - 7s in.
time of 15 min. FromTable3, AH/A, = 0.094 SeeEq. E18, box on this page.
1. SeeEq. E8, box, p. 38 Aur= (0.094X95.03 ft2)= 8.93ft2 Use /" = Vz in; use t = Vzin.
2. SeeEqs.E9 and E10, box, p. 38 Au=95.03- 71.08 - 8.93= 15.02 ftl 2 2 . A s = ? I ( 1 1 . 0f 0 ( 1 9 . 5 f 0 =
3. K = 0.175 (the Gas Processors 12.FromTable1, ks= 0.333 673.81ftz
Suppliers'Associationvalue in Table Uur= (0.333)(62.0 - 40.5)/0.24 = Au= (0.842)(11.0fO'z= 101.88ft2
2 was divided by 2 since there is no 29.83in./min 23. SeeEq. E19, box on this page.
mist eliminator). Use 10in./min(maximum) 24. In this example, calculations
S e eE q . E 1 1 ,b o x , p . 3 8 Uro= (0.333)(62.0 - 40.5)10.682 = were performed for only one diame-
U v = 0 . 7 5 x 2 . 5 5 = 1 . 9 1f t l s 10.50in./min ter. However, nearly the minimum
4. Holdup + surgeas specified= 15 Use 10in./min(maximum) UD corcespondedto a diameter of
min. 13, tHL = Q2 in./ft)(1.65ft)ilo 11.0 fU therefore. the next diameter
Vu+ V, = (15 min) (18.52ft3lmin) in./min= 1.98min, use2.0mins should be smaller, resulting in a
= 211.80 ft3 tr, = tnr = 2.0 min laryer UD. Also, calculationsshould
Assume 10 min holdup, 5 min 14. SeeEqs.E14 and E15. box, be performed using a diameter of
surge. p .3 8 I 1 . 5f t .
5 . A s s u m eU D = l . l . Uselr = 3.0ft. 25. For the light liquid compartment:
SeeEq. El2, box, p. 38 1 5 .L = 3 . 0+ 1 5 . 0= 1 8 . 0f t Hnrr= Hw= 3'3 ft - 3 ft, 4 in'
'7.10
Ar=n/4 (11.0f|'z = 95.03ft2 16.0 = ftll.gI ftls = 4.03s A x L r = 4 . 8 5+ 1 8 5 . 2 0 1 1 6=.106 . 4 3 f P
6. Since the mass rate of vaoor is 17.SeeEq.El6, box.p. 38 A*t/Ar= 16.43/95.03 = 0.713
Using Table 3, HNLrt/D= 0.229
Htrrr= (0.229)(11.0)= 2.52 ft - 2
ft, 6 in.
1_ 55xI32 *l|rc= 0.307in. HLLL= 13 in'
"-2xl7M Comment: Due to the small
I Equation 817 amount of heavy liquid and large
amount of vapor, a better design
. .-= = , = 0 . - -x8l=! f8 1-10?. 1? - - * r , 1=60 . 4 9i5n .
'rH would have used a boot. A vertical
2 x 1 7 . 5 0x00 . 8 5 x 55
vessel should be comoared. as
I EquationE18
we11. @
t = rt2 n')= ' 7.s20tb
+2x r0r.88 Toreceivea free copyof this article,
ff'ltff#(on.at sendin theReader Inquirycardin this
I EquationE19
issuewith the number153circled,

40 . 1994.
sEpTEMBER CHEMTCAL pRocnEss
ENGTNEERTNG