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Sequencers

Sequencers are used whenever a repeatable operating


pattern is required.

Motor Sequencers are used for control


Contacts of dishwashers, material
handling mechanisms,
mechanical presses, packaging
machines, rotary tables, and in
many other applications where
accurate, repetitive, and
sequential operations are
required in control circuitry.
Dishwasher sequencer switch
Mechanical Sequencers

Mechanical sequencers are often referred to as drum


switches, rotary switches, stepper switches, or cam
switches.
The mechanical cam-operated
sequencer switch uses an an
electric motor to drive the
cams. A series of leaf-spring-
mounted contacts interacts
with the cam so that, in
different degrees of rotation of
the cam, various contacts are
closed and opened to energize
and de-energize various
electrical devices.
Mechanical Cam-Operated Sequencer
Mechanical Drum-Operated Sequencer
A mechanical drum-operated sequencer switch consists
of series of contacts that are operated by pegs located on
a motor driven drum.

The pegs can be placed at random locations around the


circumference of the drum to operate contacts.

When the drum is rotated, contacts that align with the


pegs will close, while the contacts where there are no
pegs will remain open.

The presence of a peg can be thought of as logic 1, or on,


while the absence of a peg can be logic 0, or off.
Mechanical Drum-Operated Sequencer
Dishwasher Sequencer Switch
The sequencer switch found in dishwashers is used to
pilot the machinery through a wash cycle.
Dishwasher Sequencer Switch

The cycle is
always the
same, and
each step
occurs for a
specific time.
Sequencer Instructions
The PLC sequencer instruction can be used to replace
electromechanical drum switches.

Sequencer instructions can perform the same specific


"on" or "off" patterns of outputs that are continuously
repeated, but with more flexibility.
Sequencer Instructions
Sequencer instructions simplify your ladder program by
allowing you to use a single instruction or pair of
instructions to perform complex operations.

SQO SQC SQL

SQC
SQL
SQO
Sequencer Compare
Sequencer
Sequencer Load
Output
Controls sequentialconditions
Capture reference machine operation by transferring
by manually stepping the 16-bit
machine
Controls
through sequential
aitsmask machine
to image operation by transferring 16-bit
addresses to reference data for
through
through a maskoperating sequences.
to image addresses for controlling outputs.
monitoring inputs.
Programmed Sequencer Control

Sequencer instructions can make programming many


applications a much easier task.

The on/off operation of 16 discrete


outputs can be controlled, using a
sequencer instruction, with only one
ladder rung. By contrast, the
equivalent contact-coil ladder
control arrangement would need 16
rungs in the program.
Programmed Sequencer Control

To program a sequencer binary information is entered


into a series of consecutive memory words. These
consecutive memory words are referred to as a word
file.
As the sequencer advances through the steps, binary
information is transferred from the word file to the
output word(s).

The sequencer output (SQO) instruction can be used to


control output devices sequentially. The desired
sequence of operation is stored in a data file, and this
information is then transferred sequentially to the
outputs.
Sequencer Control Of Two-Way Traffic Lights

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Using A Mask Word
When a sequencer operates on an entire output word,
there may be outputs associated with the word that do
not need to be controlled by the sequence and could be
used elsewhere in the program.

To prevent the sequencer from controlling these bits a


mask word is used.

The mask word selectively screens out data from the


sequencer word file to the output word.
Using A Mask Word
For each bit of output word 050 that the sequencer is to
control, the corresponding bit of mask word 040 must be set to
1. All other bits of output word 050 are set to 0 and can be
used independently of the sequencer.
Programmed Sequencer Control
The advantage of sequencer programming over the
conventional program is the large savings of memory
words. Typically, the sequencer program can do in 20
words what a standard program can do in 100 words.

By setting up a sequence of events, sequencers make


programming simpler and any future changes easier to
make.

The sequencer output (SQO) instruction can be used to


control output devices sequentially. The desired
sequence of operation is stored in a data file, and this
information is then transferred sequentially to the
outputs.
Programmed Sequencer Control
Sequencer instructions are usually retentive and there
can be an upper limit to the number of external outputs
and steps that can be operated on by a single
instruction.

Many sequencer instructions reset the sequencer


automatically to step 1 on completion of the last sequence
step. Other instructions provide an individual reset
control line or a combination of both.
Programmed Sequencer Control

Each time PB1


changes from
false-to-true, the
sequencer will
increment to the
next step
When the last word
in the sequencer file
is transferred the
done bit is set and on
the next transition
the instruction is
reset to step one.
Sequencer Program
A sequencer program can be event-driven or
time-driven.

An event-driven sequencer operates similarly to a


mechanical stepper switch that increments by one
step for each pulse applied to it.

A time-driven sequencer operates similar to a


mechanical drum switch that increments automatically
after a preset time period.
Time Driven Sequencer
The following slide shows the program of a time-driven
sequencer used for traffic light control at a four-way
intersection.
In this example the control of traffic is accomplished using two
Sequencer Output (SQO) instructions and a single Timer On
Delay (TON) instruction.
The first sequencer file (#N7:0) is set for the four states that the
traffic lights will go through. Information from this file is moved
by the program to output (O:2).
The second sequencer file (#N7:10) contains the preset timer
values (25s and 5s). The program moves information from this
file to timer T4:1's Preset.
The mask allows the proper data to pass and blocks the
unnecessary data.
Timer Driven Sequencer
Sequencer Output (SQO) Instruction

File #B3:0
Mask 001Fh
Dest O:2
Control R6:0
Length 4
Position 2

File - identifies where the output pattern data is stored


Mask - filter through which all data from the sequencer file must pass before
being placed in the destination or output word

Des - the destination or address of the output word


Control - stores the length, position, and status bits for the instruction
Length number of steps
Position tracks what the current position or step is
Sequencer Output (SQO) Instruction
1. Sequencers are used whenever a ___________
operating pattern is required.
(a)analog (b) digital
(c) repeatable (d) non- repeatable

2. Mechanical sequencers are often referred to


as:
(a) drum switches (b) rotary switches,
(c) cam switches (d) all of these
3. For the mechanical sequencer shown, the step
represented by the equivalent sequencer data
table file is:
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
4. A single sequencer instruction can be used the
on/off operation of 16 discrete outputs.
(True/False)

5. To program a sequencer, binary information is


entered into a word file. (True/False)

6. Which of the following instructions is used


to control output devices sequentially?
(a) SQC
(b) SQO
(c) SQL
(d) all of these
7. The _________word selectively screens out
data from the sequencer word file to the output
word.

(a) control
(b) mask
(c) destination
(d) position