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# Experiment Number 8a

Group No. G6

## A. Assumptions and formulae [1 mark]

1. Instruments are working properly and don’t give much error. Reading were taken carefully.
2. Assuming that the day is sunny and there is no shadow on the collector
3. Flow rate remains the same throughout.

Formulae:
qu= ṁ CP (Tfo- Tfi)
η = qu /Ac IT
η = FR [ηo - UL (Tfi- Ta ) / IT]
IT = Ibrb + Idrd + rr (Ib + Id)
Where: qu: useful heat gain rate η: efficiency ṁ: flow rate Cp: fluid specific heat Tfo: outlet Tfi:
Inlet temperature Ac: aperture area IT: solar insolation on the plane of the collector Ib: Beam

B. Sample Calculations
C. Table of results: calculated values and graphs​ [2 marks]

Forced Circulation:
S. no. Time(PM) Tinlet(deg C) Toutlet(deg C) T ambient

1 14:35 35 46 41

2 14:45 34 45 41

3 14:55 30 42 41
4 15:05 30 42 40

5 15:15 30 42 41

)

## D. Key observations, discussion (including answers to questions in the manual), and

conclusion ​[2 marks]

## 1) 1. What are some advantages and disadvantages of using ETCs?

a. They can achieve very high temperature as compared to flat plate collectors
b. Collector efficiency on higher temperature is high
C. Convection and Convection losses are low.

a. They are fragile.
b. Have very high cost of installing and purchasing

## 2) How do ETC work?

Solar Water Heater (ETC System) works on a simple principle ‘Black body heat absorption
principle’. The principle says, ‘black colour absorbs maximum heat, more than any other
colour’.Solar water heating systems using vacuum tubes made of borosilicate glass with special
coating to absorb the solar energy are called as Evacuated Tube Collector system (ETC
Systems).​Air between the gap of two glass tubes is evacuated. It results in high level of
vacuum, which acts as the best insulation to minimize the heat loss from inner tube. The black
coating on the inner tube absorbs the solar energy and transfers it to the water. The water on
upper side of Vacuum Tube becomes hot and thus lighter, so it starts moving upwards in the
tank. At the same time cold water, which is heavy, comes downward from the tank and is stored
at the bottom.

## 3) Some uses of evacuated tube collector?

Evacuated tube solar collectors are used for commercial and industrial hot water heating
applications and can be an effective alternative to flat plate collectors for domestic space
heating.

## 4) Suggest some proposals for increasing efficiency in the present model?

We can pre decide the temperature to be achieved. Now that we have a specific value to
attend, we don’t need to reheat the same water again and again and hence heat more quantity

Conclusion:
At the end of the experiment we understood the proper working of the natural as well as forced
circulated ETC heating system. We are getting efficiency in the range of 50-60%, which means
there are losses, but it is anyday efficient than the traditional flat plate collectors. We think that
more development and research needs to be done to deal with its fragile nature and then
increase its use in the industries.

E. Your suggestions to improve the overall experiment including the set-up, the manual,
etc.​ [1 mark]
1) Proper connectors should be used in the reading apparatus to get non-fluctuating
2) The manuals should be more detailed. Some information like aperture area of natural
circulation ETC, the tilt angle, was not given in the manual.

Graph -
η = FR [ηo - UL (Tfi- Ta ) / IT]

0.54 = A - B(-​0.0067/865.24) = A + 0.0000074 B

Experiment Number 8b

## Experiment Name Performance of solar hot water systems with

natural circulation

Group No. G6

## A. Assumptions and formulae

● We are taking irradiation constant for our calculation of efficiency, i.e. we are taking it
same for 10 min interval.
● There is no shading on collector tubes.

Formula used:
D. Sample Calculations:
C. Table of results: calculated values and graphs
D. Key observations, discussion (including answers to questions in the manual), and
conclusion
1. Explain the losses.

Heat losses from any solar water heating system take the three modes of heat transfer :
radiation, convection and conduction. The conduction heat losses occur from sides and the
back of the collector plate. The convection heat losses take place from the absorber plate to the
glazing cover and can be reduced by evacuating the space between the absorber plate and the
glazing cover and by optimizing the gap between them. The radiation losses occur from the
absorber plate due to the plate temperature.

The heat losses from the transparent cover to the ambient air are due to radiative and
convective exchanges which are affected by the wind velocity, ground, surrounding condition
and by long wave radiation from the sky.​They can be considerably reduced by selective black
coatings which have high solar absorptivity and low long wave emissivity.

## 2.Suggest any two modifications to improve the efficiency.

Insulation on Tanks and Piping​ - It's important to insulate properly because the less standby

heat lost the longer the water will stay warm and the less the homemade solar water heater

system has to work to heat it up again. It also helps to extend the time hot water will be

## available under cloudy conditions.

The Surface Area of the Solar Collectors​ - This factor is pretty obvious as the bigger the

collector area the more water you will be exposing to the heat of the sun.

The size of the storage tank will determine the size of the collectors with the rule of thumb in
moderate climates being 1.5 gallons (​5.6 litres)​ per square foot (​0.09 m²​).

In hot climates increase the storage to 2 gallons (​7.5 litres​) per square foot (​0.09 m²​). If you
don't get this ratio right, there's a possibility that the system will overheat during summer or not
heat the water enough during winter.

## 3.How can you justify your results?

● Our results can be partly justified by the high value of solar insolation thus helping
quicker heating.
● Since it is natural circulation and the water heater kept out, the water was sufficiently
● X​c​ value is high as the heater was on for a long time.

4.On cloudy day which is more effective forced circulation or natural circulation?

In our case, the tank height in forced circulation solar water heater was lower than the highest
point of tube carrying heat transfer fluid. If we can have it at the topmost level, like we have in
case of natural circulation solar water heater, we can save on the amount of energy we need to
input to pump the water to that height.

## 5.How does efficiency vary with:

Change in capacity of storage​ - A large hot water storage tank keeps its contents warmer for
a longer period of time due to a property called thermal inertia.
So the bigger the tank is the more you will have in reserve to cover several cloudy days and
incoming cold water will have a lower overall effect when you draw off hot water.
Change in area of collector​ - This factor is pretty obvious as the bigger the collector area the
more water you will be exposing to the heat of the sun.
The size of the storage tank will determine the size of the collectors with the rule of thumb in
moderate climates being 1.5 gallons (​5.6 litres)​ per square foot (​0.09 m²​).

Conclusion:

● According to our readings, first efficiency is coming more than 100% which is not
possible. This can be due to discrepancy in readings.
● Natural circulation solar water heater does not need a different heat transfer fluid - water
itself is the heat transfer fluid there. Whereas in forced circulation solar water heater - the
heat transfer fluid absorbs heat coming from the sun, and transfers it to water thereafter.
We conclude that forced circulation solar water heater is more efficient as compared to
natural circulation solar water heater. Also evacuated tube solar water heater is more
efficient as compared to normal solar water heaters (not having vacuum).

E. Your suggestions to improve the overall experiment including the set-up, the manual,
etc.
● Manual should be updated, including more theory and required data for experiments like
reflectivity.