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GERMINATION OF KAMAGONG (Diospyrus Philippinensis)

AND BITAOG (Calophyllum inophyllum)








Nature and Importance of the Study

Habitat destruction, land conversion for agriculture and development,

climate change are the grounds that reduce large parts of the Philippines forest

area. Ecosystem collapse threatens human welfare on a global basis. And most

consequences are irreversible, leaving future generations to live on a greatly

impoverished planet.

Bitaog (Callophyllum inophyllum) is tending to be one of the endangered

species in the country as well as Kamagong tree (Diospyrus philippinensis) and

may become extinct in the near future through anthropological activity and

extravagant usage of it. Germination of this seeds using various treatments will

be very useful in order for this species to dominate. It will also useful for those

who want to establish plantations of Bitaog and Kamagong tree because

seedling production is the most important and critical aspects of plantation

establishment. When we can be successful in seedling production we can have

successful plantation in this forest commodity.

Kamagong is a fast growing tree that’s why it is not easily to plant unlike

the Bitaog tree which is a slow growing tree. Finding the best treatment for this

seed has very important in order to hasten the propagation of it.

The study is significant such that when the researcher will discover the

best treatment for Bitaog and Kamagong germination in the shortest possible

time, then, many will be encouraged to produce Bitaog, Kamagong seedlings for

plantations as business and also this species will not be listed as endangered

species perhaps it will become more useful in our forest land. Germination of

Bitaog and Kamagong seed using different treatment could be relevant

information in formulating Bitaog and Kamagong plantations and seedling


Objectives of the Study

Generally, the study aim to see the germination of Bitaog and Kamagong

seeds in different seed treatment methods.

Specifically here are the following studies:

1. To determine the best treatment that hastens the germination of Bitaog

and Kamagong seeds based on germination test:

a. Percent Germination

b. Germinative Energy
c. Germinative Capacity

d. Mortality Rate

2. To determine the economic significance between Kamagong and


a. Profit

b. Net return

Time and Place of the Conduct of the study

The study will be conducted in CSU nursery, to have a proper guidance of

the seed, low transportation cost and for the proper list of time duration when will

the seed germinate.


General Overview

Seeds are living organisms held in a state of suspended animation or

dormancy. There are many factors that can affect the viability of seeds, including

moisture, air, temperature, and light. In an ideal situation and environment, every

single seed we planted would grow into a seedling, but as we all know, that

doesn’t normally happen (High Moving Organic Seed).

Trees are important, valuable and necessary to our very existence. It's not

too hard to believe that, without trees we humans would not exist on this beautiful

planet. In fact, some claim can be made that our mother's and father's ancestors

climbed trees. Still, trees are essential to life as we know it and are the ground

troops on an environmental frontline. Our existing forest and the trees we plant

work in tandem to make a better world (Steve Nix, About.com).

Bitaog tree is distributed throughout the Philippines, indigenous in

Southeast Asia to tropical coasts, in the Pacific (Polynesian Islands). India to

East Africa, northern Australia, Central and Northern Queensland. Bitaog in now

rare in Central Visayas. There are only 10 mature trees in Siquijor. In Cebu,

bitaog is found in Bulhoon Municipal Hall and few trees in Osmeña Reforestation
Project, Camp 7, Minglanilla, Cebu. In Magallanes, Agusan del Norte, you can

see more than a Century Old Bitaog Tree that was recognized by the National

Historical Commission as the Philippine Century Tree (Research Information

Series On Ecosystems Volume 16 No. 1).

Kamagong tree grows well in areas with a monsoon climate from sea level

to 800 m elevation, and on almost any soil. Diospyrus philippinensis is very

common and widespread in the Philippines and is found in both primary and

secondaryforest. D. philippinensis is indigenous to the Philippines where it is very

common and widely distributed in primary and secondary forests at low and

medium altitudes. It is also distributed in Taiwan, and cultivated in Peninsular

Malaysia, Sumatra and Java, and other tropical countries. It is also cultivated in

backyards. It has been introduced in other tropical countries ( Plant Resources of

South-East Asia).

The primary product of this tree is timber. Most Bitaog timber is harvested

from wild stands. Since Bitaog is a large tree, a relatively wide spacing is a good

distance between trees for planted stands. It is also a favorite ornamental tree.

Its tolerance of poor soil conditions, salt spray, and poor air quality make it hardy

in urban conditions. The large size makes it an impressive plant along wide

avenues, but it is not suited to confined spaces. Kamagong timber is extremely

dense and hard and is famous for its dark color. Like many other very hard
woods, it is sometimes called "iron wood" so called because its wood is iron-like

and nearly unbreakable (traditionaltree.org).

The heartwood of the mabolo tree is extremely strong and considered

almost indestructible. Originally it was used in the Philippines by tribal people to

make weapons for hunting, such as spears and knife handles. These days the

exotic hardwood is carved to fashion necklaces, hair combs, utensils and to

make furniture for export. Black is the rarest and most desirable color. Generally

speaking the older the tree, the darker the wood and the higher the price of its

timber. Some people even stain the wood black to increase its value or substitute

less valuable wood, such as tamarind wood that has been dyed black. Due to

illegal logging in recent years, kamagong wood is now protected by Philippine

law (food-nutrition.knoji.com).

Bitaog has its great contribution in the economic industry. The oil of

extracted from the seed of Bitaog is a potent healing agent that promotes the

formation of new tissue, thereby accelerating wound healing and growth of

healthy skin, a process known as cicatrisation. Bitaog oil is one of the most

effective and known cicatrizing agents in nature. The oil with its unusual

absorption and mild and pleasant aroma makes it ideal for use in lotions, creams

and other cosmetic products (Nancy Cudis).

Seed oil from bitaog can help lessen green house emissions and lower

demands for conventional diesel fuel because of its ability to counteract the

carbon dioxide emission in vehicles.

Both trees and plant has bigger contribution to the environment wether

tangible or intangible. An increase in the earth's population has created more and

more demand for products that come from trees. Fortunately, trees are a

renewable resource. But even though we have many trees, they are a valuable

resource, and we don't want to waste them ( mothernaturenetwork.com).

Botanical Description of Bitaog

Bitaog (Callophyllum inophyllum) is a medium-

sized tree that grows up to 25 meters tall, sometimes as

large as 35 meters. It has sticky latex that is clear or

opaque and white, cream, or yellow. The bole is usually

twisted or leaning up to 150 centimeters in diameter,

without buttresses (ORWA et al. 2009).

Leaves are elliptical, thick, smooth and polished, ovate, obovate or oblong,

rounded to cuneate at base, rounded, retuse or subacute at apex with latex

canals that are usually less prominent; stipules absent. Inflorescence axillary,

racemose, usually unbranched but occasionally with 3-flowered branches.

Flowers usually bisexual but sometimes functionally unisexual, sweetly scented,

with perianth of 8 petals in several whorls, usually whitish; petals 4; stamens

numerous, yellow, grouped in 4 bundles, anthers changing from deep yellow

through khaki to brown. Only the hermaphroditic flower has an ovary, a bright

pink ball that is left at the end of the stem when the petals drop


The fruit of the tree is ball-shaped light green that grow in cluster. Fruit are

2-5 cm in diameter. The skin, which turns yellow and then brown and wrinkled

when the fruit is ripe, covers the thin pulp, the shell, the corny inner layer, and a

single seed kernel. The fruits are usually born twice a year. The seed of the tree

are one large brown seed which is 2-4 cm in diameter is found in each fruit. Seed

are prepare by cleaning of the skin and husk from the shell of the seed, with

shells intact but husk removed (traditional tree.org),

Botanical Description of Kamagong

Mabolo, Velvet Apple or Kamagong

(Diospyros philippinensis) is a plant of the genus of ebony

trees and persimmons, Diospyros. Its edible fruit has a

skin covered in a fine, velvety fur which is usually reddish-

brown, and soft, creamy, pink flesh, with a taste and aroma

comparable to fruit cream cheese. It is native to the Philippines, where

kamagong usually refers to the entire tree, and mabolo is applied to the fruit. It is

a dioecious tropical tree that grows well in a diversity of soil, from the sea level to

the 2,400 feet above sea level. Seed trees are normally planted 30 or 45 feet

from each other; this one can be planted from 25 to 30 feet from each other. It

needs a good distribution of rainfall through the year. Trees that were planted by

seeds could take 6 or 7 years to give out fruit, but trees that were propagated by

cuttings produce fruit in 3 or 4 years. It is a very productive tree.(Wikipedia.com).


Materials and Procedure used

The researchers will be preparing the materials such as the polyethylene bags

(3x5), the mature fruit of Bitaog tree and Kamagong, the soil ratio of Bitaog is sowing in

the medium containing 1:1:1 ordinary garden soil, dried humus, and fine sand. The soil

ratio of Kamagong 1:1:0 garden soil and humus. ( Florido, Helen and Fe Cortiguerra)

Seed Collection

Collecting seed from superior parent stock has been practiced for thousands of

years. Collect the seeds from the tree either by picking individual fruits, looping off the

branches with pruning poles, or collecting them from the ground. ( Florido, Helen and Fe


Seed Sourcing

The researchers will be collecting the Bitaog fruits at Magallanes, Agusan

del Norte and the Kamagong fruits at CSU. Only ripe Bitaog and Kamagong fruits
will be collected for seed extraction since only seed from ripe fruits would give

good germination percentage.

Seed processing

a. Extraction

Extract the pulp manually by pressing the fruits in between the fingers. Seeds

were gently extracting from the fruits by crushing with hands. (Florido, Helen and

Fe Cortiguerra).And to have a less consume energy for the extract of the pulp,

place the big mat or the “trapal” and place all the ripe fruits and the extractor will

used the boots and stamp their feet unto the fruits.

b. Cleaning

Wash the seeds properly until no flesh remain .The necessity of cleaning

away the duff of seed is that: 1) it will rot in the dampness of seed-sowing

medium and may promote "damp-off", a fungus that kills seedlings; 2) the duff

may hold moisture in whatever container you store the seed and cause mildew or

mold which will kill the seed; and 3) cleaning is a courtesy and will help you know

if you really have ripe seed. (Gardenweb.com)

c. Drying

Air dries the seeds of Bitaog and Mabolo within 5hrs. Drying the seeds by air

and store the seeds at an MC of 20% and above In a refrigerator or in air tight

container. (Nancy.Cudis)

Experimental Treatment

1. Hilar Removal

a. Locate the hilum.

b. Slightly press the scalpel tip tangentially at the hilar cover.

c. Apply an opposite upward and detach the hilar cover off the testa

and embryo.

2. Tap Water

a. Soak seeds in tap water for 24 hours before planting.

3. Hot Water

Water treatment on seeds helps reduce the seed borne pathogens

that cause diseases on plants. Here are the following processes,

a. Pour hot water (boiled, and then cooled for about 5–10 minutes

to 80 °C) into a container with seeds.

b. Let stand for 5 minutes or until water cools off.

Data to be gathered

Percent Germination

Germination percentage is an estimate of the viability of a

population of seeds. The equation to calculate germination percentage

is: GP = seeds germinated/total seeds x 100.(Dr. Stephen G. Saupe)

To compute the percentage this is the formula:

%G=Number of seeds germinated x100

Total number of seeds

Germinative Energy

Germinative energy is a measure of the rate of germination. The

percent of seeds in a given sample that have germinated up to the time of

peak germinating generally taken as the highest number of germination.(

Society of American Foresters)

Number of seeds germinated during a given period.

%GE=Number of seeds germinating in a period x100

Total number of seeds of the whole sample

Germinative Capacity

The percent of seeds in a given sample that actually germinate

irrespective of time and the effective germination capacity excludes cull

seedlings therefore a lower measure than total germinative capacity. The

percent of seeds germinating within twice the period of the number of

seeds that germinate in a germinator, plus the number of sound seeds

remaining at the end of the test, expressed as a percent of the total

sample.( Society of American Foresters).Expresses the number of viable

seeds among representative sample of 100 seed kernel out of a certain


%GC= Number of viable seeds x100

Total number of seeds of the whole sample
Percent Mortality

Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in a population.

Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths which refer to the

number of individuals in poor health during a given time or period. ( Jha P.)

%PM= Number of death seeds x100

Total number of seeds of the whole sample

Economic Significance


The surplus remaining after total costs are deducted from total

revenue, and the basis on which tax is computed and dividend is paid. It is the

best known measure of success in an enterprise.

Profit is reflected in reduction in liabilities, increase in assets, and/or

increase in owners' equity. It furnishes resources for investing in future

operations, and its absence may result in the extinction of a company. As an

indicator of comparative performance, however, it is less valuable than return

on investment (ROI). Also called earnings, gain, or income.

Net Return

Investors use net returns to calculate the return on their

investments after all expenses and profits have been included. For example,

stocks may have brokers fees associated with their purchase and sale as well as

extra income such as dividends. The net return is measured as a percentage of

the cost paid to obtain the asset. To calculate the net return, you need to know

how much the asset cost, how much it was sold for and any other costs or

income associated with the asset (Mark Kennan).

Experimental Design

The experimental was layout in Split-Plot Design (Two-Factor Experiment)

with three blocks:

Whole Plot Treatments

Callophylum inuphylum (S1)

Diospyrus philippeninses (S2)

Subplot Treatments:

T1= Control (seed without treatment)

T2= Hilar Removal

T3= Tap Water Treatment (24hrs seed soaking in Tap Water)

T4 = Hot Water Dip (soaking of seeds in 800c for 5 minutes)

Block 1 Block 2 Block 3

S1 S1 S1





S2 S2 S2





Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)


DR. STEPHEN G. SAUPE; College of St. Benedict/ St. John's

University; Biology Department; Collegeville,
DE GUZMAN, MOISES. 2010. Plant Propagation and Practices Hudson T.
Hartmann. North Carolina State University Campus Box 7890

FLORIDO, HELEN and FE CORTIGUERRA.January – April 2004 Research Information

Series on Ecosystems. Volume 16 No.1..EcosystemsResearch and Development
Bureau. College, Laguna

GardenWeb 2010. Florida Coastal Mangroves. St. Lucie, Florida


High Mowing Organic Seeds 2012. 76 Quarry Road: Wolcott, vt

05680 802-472-6174

Mark Kennan 2012. Demand Media, Inc. Business and Finance

Htth//:www.ehow.com eHow contributor

M.D Salinas 2007. Ecosystem and Development Bureau, DENR, College,

http://www.traditional tree.org

Malakand Social Forestry Project 1990. Nursery Techniques Training Manual.

DHV Consultants. The Netherlands.

MBONYE, ARSEN AND KIHISA KIAMBE 1986. How to Collect, Handle, and
Store Seeds. Kengo. Nairobi, Kenya.

Nancy Cudis 2011. Ramon Abortiz Foundation Inc. Nancy.Cudis@rafi.org.ph


NORMAN JONES 1 Bradfield Avenue, BRIDGEND, Mid-Glam CF31 4HL, United

Kingdom e-mail: njones18@compuserve.com

Steve Nix. About.com

nts.htmlCopyright © 2008 Society of American Foresters

The Varsitarian http://www.varsitarian.net/

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