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INTRODUCTION TO HOUSING

Ar. Ravindra Patnayaka,


B.Arch, M.Tech Planning, PGDESM, (PGDDM)
Assistant Professor,
GITAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE,
Visakhapatnam.
BASIC NEEDS OF LIFE

Food
Clothing
Shelter
HOUSING:
Living accommodations available for the inhabitants of a community.
DREAM for a HOME

A House is built by Hands… Home is built by Hearts.


HOUSEHOLD SIZE :
Number of persons living together in one house.

Average Household size in India : 4.8 Source – Census 2011


Conceptualization
HOUSING THROUGH HISTORY : INDUSTRIAL CITY

THE FACTORY TOWN


- The factory was the nerve center of the city.
- Railroad with its network of tracks penetrated the town with a network of tracks.
- Every amenity of urban life was sacrificed to the requirement of industrial production.
HOUSING THROUGH HISTORY

- The Haphazard , uncontrolled development of Slums within the vicinity


resulted in epidemics.
- BRITISH HEALTH CARE INSTITUTE in late 1880s conceptualized the prototype
for mass housing with set of guidelines, assuring the better standard of living.
PROTOTYPE HOUSING UNITSTHROUGH HISTORY

Row Housing Railroad Plan / Dumbbell Plan


HOUSING THROUGH HISTORY

Prizewinning Plan 1899


Housing
Models - Visionaries
HOUSING THROUGH HISTORY

Le Corbusier - The City of Tomorrow


HOUSING THROUGH HISTORY

Frank Lloyd Wright - Broad Acre City


UNITED – D’ HABITATION : by Le-Corbusier
A VERTICAL SELF SUFFICIENT NEIGHBORHOOD
“LUMBA LUMBA” HOUSE MASSING
KANCHANAJUNGA APARTMENTS : By Charles Chorrea
STACKED DUPLEX
LOW COST HOUSING BY LAURIE BAKER
FORMAL MASS HOUSING
A NEIGHBORHOOD WITH EAERMARKED AMENITIES
Affordable Housing
Concerns and Issues

w.r.t Socio Economic Concern


AFFORDABLE HOUSING - H.I.G
AFFORDABLE HOUSING - M.I.G
AFFORDABLE HOUSING - L.I.G
AFFORDABLE HOUSING - URBAN POOR (E.W.S)
CO - EXISTANCE
HOUSING SHORTAGE
HOUSING SHORTAGE
HOUSING SHORTAGE
HONG KONG . 4’ X 7’ HUMAN BATTERY HENS
FORMAL HOUSING
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES - INDIVIDUAL HOUSING
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES - CLUSTERED HOUSING
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES - ROW HOUSING
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES - GROUP HOUSING
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES - APARTMENTS
MASS HOUSING IN URBAN AREAS
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES - SLUM REVITALIZATION
GOVT., SCHEMES - RAJIV SWAGRUHA
HOUSING FOR MIDDLE INCOME GROUP
GOVT., SCHEMES - HOUSING FOR URBAN POOR
LAUNCHING HOUSING
CHARACTER - SHORTAGE - NEED - DEMAND

Ar. Ravindra Patnayaka,


B.Arch, M.Tech Planning
Assistant Professor,
GITAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE,
Visakhapatnam.
HOUSING
CHARACTER & ATTRIBUTES
CHARACTER ATTRIBUTION

• Spatial quality through grouping.

•Varying degrees of housing quality.


•Horizontal or vertical assemblage.
•Generating spaces with public, semi-public or private character.
•Collective housing : common path serving all the units.

https://densityarchitecture.wordpress.com/category/paper
CHARACTER ATTRIBUTION

The individual unit is usually related to the terrain, benefiting of a court or a terrace and of
direct individual or paired access from the ground level.

This category makes the transition from individual housing to collective housing of a higher
degree of density.
CHARACTER ATTRIBUTION

The block height is moderate, usually ranging between 3 and 5 levels; this height is traditionally
justified by the number of levels convenient for walking.

The block can be freestanding on the plot, it can have free sides or it can continue an existing
building by cleaving onto a party wall.
CHARACTER ATTRIBUTION

The city block is an urban building flanked


on all sides by streets in relation to the
urban fabric.

The city block generally involves a large spatial diversity and a relatively high privacy degree.

Buildings ranging between 4 to 7 levels are ideal in terms of energy footprint, which is lower
than that of tall buildings.
CHARACTER ATTRIBUTION

The high-rise type, also known as tower block, is represented by tall buildings with multiple
levels. There is no universal definition for the number of levels that determines a building to
gain this status; this height is variable according to different geographic areas.

This typology is justified by economic considerations, not only in relation to construction costs,
but also in relation to urban infrastructure and land resources.
DENSITY
DENSITY
Plays an important role in determining the urban form.

Population density is defined building density


as the number of individuals or
households per given area.

The building density is defined as the ratio


population density of building structures related to plot surface.
TYPICAL DENSITY INDEX

Zoning Category Density (persons/acre)


Residential - single 5-35
Residential - multiple 30-100
Apartments 100-1000
Commercial 15-30
Industrial 5-15
Open 0
DENSITY
DENSITY - RISE MATRIX

DENSITY RISE
 Low Density - Low Rise
LOW LOW
 Low Density - Medium Rise
MEDIUM Vs MEDIUM
 Low Density - High Rise
HIGH HIGH

 Medium Density - Low Rise  High Density - Low Rise


 Medium Density - Medium Rise  High Density - Medium Rise
 Medium Density - High Rise  High Density - High Rise
LOW DENSITY - LOW RISE
LOW DENSITY - MEDIUM RISE
LOW DENSITY - HIGH RISE

rg luxury homes, Noida extension


MEDIUM DENSITY - LOW RISE
MEDIUM DENDITY - MEDIUM RISE

Shree Manibhadra Group,Pune Residential Property


MEDIUM DENSITY - HIGH RISE

Sunworld Group Housing Sunworld Vanalika, Project by Sunworld Group


Housing in Sector-107 Noida, Delhi / NCR
HIGH DENSITY - LOW RISE
HIGH DENSITY - MEDIUM RISE

A Prudent Housing Solution, Roorkee


HIGH DENSITY - HIGH RISE

Public housing in Hong Kong


HOUSING SHORTAGE
HOUSING SHORTAGE:
A deficiency or lack in the number of houses needed to
accommodate the population of an area.

Unauthorized Housing sectors


HOUSING SHORTAGE

Tenements : Inevitable Vertical expansion and Intensifying Densities


HOUSING SHORTAGE

Squattered Settlements onto hill slopes


HOUSING SHORTAGE

Informal, Unauthorized shelter forms


HOUSING SHORTAGE

Pavement Dwellers
HOUSING SHORTAGE

Minimum Standards of life – In Abstention!!!


HOUSING SHORTAGE

Social Insecurity
HOUSING SHORTAGE:
Distribution by states (in million units)

housing shortage in 2007, as calculated by the technical group constituted by the


Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
NEED - DEMAND
NEED AND DEMAND

Housing ‘need’ is an indicator of existing deficit: the


number of households that do not have access to
accommodation that meets certain normative
standards.

Housing ‘demand’ is a market driven concept and


relates to the type and number of houses that
households will choose to occupy based on preference
and ability to pay.

The term ‘housing requirement’ is sometimes used to combine


these two measures to generate an overall picture of the housing market.

“Population Projections with reference to Authentified Demographic data


obtained from CENSUS REPORTS, are required to assess the actual Housing
Requirement.”
POPULATION PROJECTIONS

• Population forecasts depend on the amount and type of data available


• Population forecasts also depend on the resources available.

PROJECTION METHODS

1. Graphical
2. Decreasing rate of growth
3. Mathematical or Logistical
Arithmetic or linear
Geometric progression
1. Ratio and Correlation
2. Component
3. Employment forecasts
POPULATION PROJECTIONS

Example

Arithmetic or Zero Order

P = P1 + Ka (t - t1)

Ka = P2-P1 / t2-t1

P = population
t = time
Ka = arithmetic growth constant (dP/dt)
INNOVATIVE & FUNCTIONAL HOUSING
PROJECTS
THE INTERLACE . SINGAPORE

CTBUH Urban Habitat Award Winner, 26 Jun 2014

Ole Scheeren of OMA introduces a new residential typology to Singapore with The Interlace, a
large-scale complex of interconnected apartment buildings stacked in an innovative hexagonal
arrangement, developed by CapitaLand and Hotel Properties Limited.
THE INTERLACE . SINGAPORE
NEED AND DEMAND

The Urban Tree project was designed by


Geotectura, and award-winning
architectural studio based in Israel
NEED AND DEMAND

mixed-use housing in the periphery of Milan


NEED AND DEMAND MISSION HOUSING
Affordable Housing

Ar. Ravindra Patnayaka,


B.Arch, M.Tech Planning
Assistant Professor,
GITAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE,
Visakhapatnam.
Affordable Housing Defined

Jones Lang LaSalle’s Definition of Affordable Housing.

 Minimum volume of habitation.

 Provision of basic amenities.

 Cost of the house.

 Location of the House.


Affordable Housing Defined in INDIA

 Affordability in the context of urban housing means provision of ‘adequate shelter’


on a sustained basis, ensuring security of tenure within the means of the common
urban household.

 Affordable Housing is a Relative Term in different contexts.

 According to the Task Force on Affordable Housing set up by the MHUPA (Ministry of
Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation) in 2008, affordable housing for various
segments is defined by size of the dwelling and housing affordability derived by the
household income of the population
Definition of Affordable Housing in INDIA
– MHUPA (2011)

 According to the KPMG Report on ‘Affordable Housing – A Key Growth Driver in the Real
Estate Sector’, affordable housing is defined in terms of three main parameters, namely
income level, size of dwelling unit and affordability.
Case Specific Charecteristics
Affordable Housing in India

Source: Report of the Technical Group (11th Five Year Plan: 2007-12) on Estimation Of
Urban Housing Shortage.

INFERENCE: housing percentage shortage in EWS is 99.9 % which is double than the
estimated number of households.
Where as in HIG and MIG it is so less 0.2% only.
Issues in the Development of
Affordable Housing

Developing affordable housing in Indian cities faces significant challenges due to

several economic, regulatory and urban issues.

 Excessive Control on Development of Land Creates Artificial Shortage.

 Lack of Marketable Land Parcels.

 Titling Issues and Lack of Information.

 Rising Threshold Costs of Construction.

 Lack of Access to Home Finance for Low-Income Groups.


Issues in the Development of
Affordable Housing

REGULATORY CONSTRAINTS

Lengthy Approval and Land Use Conversion Process. The process of real
estate development is particularly affected by the efficiency of urban local bodies,
which undertake city planning, deliver utility services and regulate controls on
development through approvals.

India is ranked 177 out of 183 countries with respect to dealing


with construction permits, which indicates the challenge developers face in India in
development of real estate.

 Lack of clarity in Building Bylaws and Guidelines.

 Continuation of archaic (out dated) Laws.


Strategic Multitude of
Statutory Approvals for Housing Projects in India

INFERENCE : construction process with statutory approvals adds upto 2-2.5 years in India
Factors effecting Affordable Housing
Home Loan Disbursals by Housing Finance Companies
(HFCs)

INFERENCE: The home loan for above 10 lakhs is more every year.
Estimated Construction Costs for Low-Income Housing

INFERENCE: for one sq ft , the selling price will be Rs 1,400 to 1,700.


Major Hubs of Affordable Housing Development

INFERENCE: distance from centre of the city plays an important role creating
affordable housing hubs .
The Landscape of Affordable Housing Development (units priced < INR 10 Lakhs) in Major
Indian Cities
Institutional Approach Towards Affordable Housing
Institutional Approach Towards Affordable Housing
Conclusion

 Historically, housing for the poor and the economically weaker sections of the society
( EWS) has been provided by the government under various welfare schemes.

 Nevertheless, this is insufficient compared to the existing shortage in the segment,"


says report on urbanization and housing shortage in India by Jones Lang LaSalle India.

 The main reasons for rise in shortage in affordable housing on the supply side is lack of
availability of urban land, rising construction costs and regulatory issues while lack of
access to home finance for low income groups are constraints on the demand side.
REAL HOUSING
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES AND PROGRAMMES FOR AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Ar. Ravindra Patnayaka,


B.Arch, M.Tech Planning
Assistant Professor,
GITAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE,
Visakhapatnam.
STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION

I Housing Policies over the years

II Urban Housing Scenario in India

III Major Government Initiatives and


Programme for Affordable Housing

IV Way Forward
HOUSING POLICIES OVER THE YEARS

 First National Housing Policy (NHP) in India formulated in 1988.

 With change of Government in 1990, a new National Housing Policy


announced in August, 1994.

 Further, new National Housing & Habitat Policy (NHHP) announced in


July, 1998

 Involvement of multi-stakeholders

 Repeat of Urban Land Ceiling Act

 Permitting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in housing and real


estate sector, etc.
HOUSING POLICIES OVER THE YEARS

 However, all these policies were generic and applicable to both rural
and urban areas.

 Taking into account emerging challenges of required shelter and


growth of slums, the first ever urban areas specific National Urban
Housing and Habitat Policy (NUHHP) was announced in December
2007.
URBAN HOUSING SCENARIO IN INDIA

• Survey conducted by MoHUPA and


other Govt. Agencies on Housing stock
and requirement as per 2001 census
demographics.
• Indian urban population in 2001 was
27.8% of the total population.
• Over 5 decades, annual growth of
urban population ranged between 2.7
to 3.8%. During last decade it increased
at annual rate of 2.7%.
• The process of urbanisation is marked
by increasing concerntration in larger
cities.
• It is projected that by 2041, India’s
urban population will be 50%.
URBAN HOUSING SCENARIO IN INDIA…Contd.,

Access to Housing : 2001

Household character: % of Households

No Exclusive Room 2.3

One Room 35.1

Two Rooms 29.5

More than two Rooms 33.1


HOUSING CONSTRUCTION TYPOLOGIES
wrt Building Materials

Kutcha House:
Dwelling Unit where both roof and walls built with Mud and Hatch
HOUSING CONSTRUCTION TYPOLOGIES
wrt Building Materials

Semi-Pucca House:
Dwelling Unit where either roof or walls built with Mud or Hatch
HOUSING CONSTRUCTION TYPOLOGIES
wrt Building Materials

Pucca House:
Dwelling Unit built with permanent building materials such as bricks,
Concrete, R.C.C etc for both Walls and Roof.
QUALITY OF HOUSING STOCK

50 47.49
Pucca 41.17
45
Semi-Pucca
40
Kutcha
No of Houses (in Million)

35 29.79
30
25
18.09
20
15 11.8
8.08 9.16
6.8 6.21
10 4.35
2.35 3.11 3.3 2.7 2.18
5
0
1971 1981 1991 2001 2007
(18.5) (28) (39.3) (52.06) (58.83)

Year

* Source: Technical Group on Estimation of Urban Housing Scenario, NBO, MoHUPA


GROWTH OF SLUMS

61.8

46

28

90% belong to informal sector with no assurance of a steady income.


HOUSING SHORTAGE – BREAK-UP

Estimated Urban Housing Unit Shortage as on 1.4.2007

Total : 24.71 million

EWS : 21.78 million


LIG : 2.89 million
MIG/HIG : 0.04 million

 More than 99% shortage is for EWS/LIG segments

– Technical Committee set up by Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty


Alleviation
HOUSING CONSTRUCTION TYPOLOGIES
wrt Building Materials

AIM:
Assured Pukka Housing for
LIG and Economically Weaker Sections
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES & SCHEMES
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES & SCHEMES

 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)2005

 Formulation of National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy (NHHP)2007

 Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP)

 Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHIP) : Modification in JNNURM

 Setting up of a High Power Task Force on Affordable Housing

 Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)


CHARACTER ATTRIBUTION

 There is no specific target fixed in the plan document. However, the


strategy to deal with Housing shortage of 24..71 million will be:

- (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission)


JNNURM > 1.5 million
- (Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor)
ISHUP 0.31 million

- (Affordable Housing in Partnership)


AHIP 1.00 million

In addition to this, State sectors, HUDCO, HFIs/Banks and Cooperative Sector


will also contribute.
STATE Govt., CONCERN

 ‘Land’ and ‘colonization’ being State subjects, Housing is a State


subject and the responsibility for tackling the housing shortage
primarily vests with the State Governments.

 Thus, State Housing Boards Captivated


SALIENT FEATURES . NHHP

 Goal of the Policy is Affordable Housing for All with special emphasis on
the urban poor.

 Strategy framework is multiple partnership of States with various


stakeholders, cooperatives, employee welfare housing organisations,
private sector, state, para-statals.

 Special emphasis has been laid on SC/ST/BC/Minorities, empowerment


of women within the ambit of the urban poor with emphasis on security
of tenure.
SALIENT FEATURES . JNNURM

 JNNURM was launched in December 2005 with aim to cover construction of


1.5 m houses for urban poor during the Mission period (2005- 2012).

It has two Sub-Missions :

 Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP)

seeks to provide 7 entitlements/services - security of tenure, affordable


housing, water, sanitation, health, education and social security in
low income segments in the 65 Mission Identified Cities.

 The Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) seeks to


provide the above mentioned 7 entitlements, services in towns/cities other
than the Mission Cities.
JNNURM Mass Housing for EWS and Low Income Group People, Visakhapatnam
JNNURM Mass Housing for Middle Income Group People, Hyderabad
HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

Slum Re-Vitalization
INTEREST SUBSIDY SCHEME FOR URBAN POOR (ISHUP)

 A new Pilot Scheme for providing interest subsidy on housing loans


availed by EWS/LIG availed for acquisition/construction of house

 Encourages poor sections to avail of loan facilities through Banks/HFCs

 Subsidy will be 5% on the interest charge for EWS/LIG upto Rs.1 lakh for
the full period of the loan

 Loan repayment period permissible 15 to 20 years.

 Targets to cover 0.31 million households under EWS/LIG segments

 Repayment liability of borrowers has been considerably reduced (EMI is


less than 20% of monthly household income)

 Total subsidy during 11th Plan Rs.1100 crore.


RAJIV AWAS YOJANA

 Pursuance to the announcement made in the address of the

President of India to the Joint Session of Parliament on 4.6.2009


considerable exercise is going on in the Ministry in consultation with
Planning Commission for launching Rajiv Awas Yojna (RAY) aimed at
Slum Free India based on ‘whole city approach’.
WAY FORWARD…….

 Central Government

 JNNURM and social housing to be given stronger boost with


reform emphasis, additional funds and new components

 State Governments

 State Housing Board to be reactivated with definite purpose and


definite targets.

 Land to be provided at nominal cost for economically weaker


sections and controlled prices for LIG and MIG

 Cooperative Societies to be encouraged

 Effective partnership between Govt. and private sector in the


form of earmarking of land for EWS/LIG
WAY FORWARD…….Contd.,

 Partnership
 Effective partnership between central government, state Govts.,
para-statals, private sector, cooperative sector, employees
welfare housing societies

 Rental Housing
 Rental housing is to be encouraged by way of amendment in the
rent control laws and also using as a tax instrument which need
to be crafted to avoid evasion.

 RAJIV AWAS YOJANA – A RAY OF HOPE to Slum Dwellers and


Urban Poor
Development of a roadmap jointly for
achieving the objective of

“Affordable Housing for All”


THANK YOU
National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (NUHHP). 2007

Ar. Ravindra Patnayaka,


B.Arch, M.Tech Planning
Government of India Assistant Professor,
Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation GITAM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE,
New Delhi Visakhapatnam.
PREAMBLE of HUHHP

To promote sustainable development of habitat in the country

(with a view to ensuring equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable
prices to all sections of society. Given the magnitude of the housing shortage and
budgetary constraints of both the Central and State Governments, it is amply clear
that Public Sector efforts will not suffice in fulfilling the housing demand)

Focuses the spotlight on multiple stake-holders namely,

The Private Sector,


The Cooperative Sector,
 The Industrial Sector for labor housing and the Services
Institutional Sector for employee housing.

Goal : Affordable Housing For All


POLICY INITATIVE

The National Housing Policy, 1994

sought to increase supply of land serviced by basic minimum services


with a view to promoting a healthy environment.

The National Housing & Habitat Policy, 1998

Emphasis on the aspect of “Habitat” as a supplementary focus to


housing.
Quality and cost-effectiveness especially to vulnerable sections of
society.
Spotlight on ‘habitat’ with a ‘Regional Planning approach’
The role of Government as a ‘facilitator’ and ‘regulator.’
Earmarking of land for the EWS/LIG groups in new housing projects.
THE NEED FOR POLICY
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Urbanization and Development”

“Urban” in India is defined as a human settlement with a minimum population of 5000


persons, with 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural activities
and a population density of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Further, all statutory towns
having a Municipal Corporation, Municipal Council or Nagar Panchayat as well as a
Cantonment Board are classified as “urban.”

Typology % share of urban


(2001 Census) population
Cities (Class 1) 68.7
Medium Towns 21.9
Small Towns 9.4

National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 61st Round reports that the number of urban
poor has risen by 4.4 million persons, between 1993-94 to 2004-05. It is, therefore, of vital
importance that a new National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy carefully analyses ways
and means of providing the ‘Affordable Housing to All’ with special emphasis on the EWS and
LIG sectors.
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Rural To Urban Shift of Labor”

Further, it is of critical significance that 79% of the new jobs totaling 19.3 million
between 1991-2001 were generated in urban areas and only 5 million jobs were
generated in rural areas.

It is important to highlight the fact that the informal sector in urban areas is growing
exponentially.

wage employment is being progressively replaced by sub-contracting.


THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Balanced Regional Development”

As India’s labour force witnesses a rural to urban shift, it is of critical importance that
the rural and urban areas develop in a systematic manner.

The way to bring about such a symbiotic development between rural and urban areas
is by adopting “A Regional Planning approach.”

The objective of such an approach is to develop a symbiotic rural-urban continuum,


which is ecologically sustainable.

 The Town & Country Planning Acts of some States provide an ideal basis for Regional
Planning.
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“New Integrated Townships & Green-Field Development”

50% of India’s population is forecasted to be


living in urban areas by 2041

green-field townships should generally be located on comparatively degraded


land excluding prime agricultural areas growing more than one crop with the
help of assured irrigation.

These green-field townships should be located at a reasonable distance from


medium or large existing towns.

mass rapid transport (MRTS) corridors between existing medium and large
towns and new green-field towns
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Role of Housing”

The Housing Sector contributed 4.5% to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
at current prices. Where as, Housing in Urban Areas: 3.13%.

- Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) estimate (2003-04)

The housing stock in India stood at 50.95 million for 55.8 million urban households.

Significant segments of this housing stock was characterized by congestion and


obsolescence.

61.82 million persons or 23.1% of the urban population resides in slums.

Further, the enhancement of housing stock must be accompanied with high quality
provision of basic services. It is a well established fact that safe, hygienic and spacious
provisioning of housing duly buttressed with adequate basic services and a congenial
habitat promotes significant improvement in productivity of workers.
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Inferences”

Incremental Housing Needs

Non-affordability of housing by economically weaker sections of society

Exponential Growth in Urban Poverty

One fourth of the country’s total urban population

80.7 million persons is below the poverty line

The urban poor constitute 26.7% of the total poor in the country

According to the 2001 census, there is a 9% deficiency in drinking water, 26% in toilets and

23% in drainage
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Development of Sustainable Habitat”

‘the Regional Planning approach’


maintenance of the ecological balance
developing urban extensions of existing towns
New integrated townships
Provision of ‘green lungs of the city’
Protecting water bodies
Developing green belts around cities
goal of 20-25% recreational land use area in Metro-Cities (UDPFI)
Gross Geographic Product (GGP) of a given sub-region and endeavor to enhance it
while developing new urban settlements
Emphasize the mutual inter-dependence between towns and villages
importance of small and medium urban agglomerates/towns which have potential for
future urban growth
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Policies & Programmes by The Government”

The National Slum Development Programme (NSDP)


provision for adequate and satisfactory water supply, sanitation,
housing, solid waste management, primary and non-formal education.

The Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)


provide gainful employment to the urban poor by encouraging setting
up of self-employment ventures and provision of wage employment
opportunities for families below poverty line in urban areas.

The Two Million Housing Programme (TMHP)

‘housing for all’ with particular emphasis on the needs of economically


weaker sections and low income group categories

The Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)

Providing subsidies for construction of housing and sanitation for urban


slum dwellers living below poverty line.
THE NEED FOR POLICY
“Policies & Programmes by The Government”

Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)

 JNNURM was launched in December 2005 with aim to cover construction of 1.5 m houses for
urban poor during the Mission period (2005- 2012).

It has two Sub-Missions :

 Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP)

seeks to provide 7 entitlements/services - security of tenure, affordable housing, water,


sanitation, health, education and social security in low income segments in the 65
Mission Identified Cities.

 The Integrated Housing and Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) seeks to provide the
above mentioned 7 entitlements, services in towns/cities other than the Mission Cities.
AIMS
AIMS

Urban Planning
Affordable Housing
Increase flow of Funds
Spatial Incentives (FAR Relaxation / Promotion of TDRs)
Increase Supply of Land
Special Provision for SC/ST/OBC/Minorities/Disabled
Special Provision for Women
Employment Generation
Public-Private Partnerships
Management Information System (MIS)
Healthy Environment
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT, URBAN LOCAL BODIES
AND
OTHER AGENCIES
THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT WOULD …
(in consultation with State Governments)

Create a Supportive Environment


‘facilitator’ and ‘enabler’
Legal & Regulatory Framework
National Building Code (NBC), 2005

Housing Finance
Supply & Management of Land
Environment and Ecology
Management Information Systems
Research & Development
alternate building materials and technologies
energy conservation practices
THE STATE GOVERNMENT WOULD …
(under framework and in consultation with Urban Local Bodies)

Create a Supportive Environment


Prepare the State Urban Housing & Habitat Policy (SUHHP)

Legal & Regulatory Framework


Public –Private Partnerships
Skill Up gradation
Management Information Systems
Research & Development
Optimum Utilization of Land
Integrated Townships, Urban Extensions & SEZs
THE URBAN LOCAL BODIES/ DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES/
HOUSING BOARDS WOULD …
(Under framework and in consultation with all local stakeholders)

Create a Supportive Environment

Sensitize Urban Planning aspects

Promote Public-Private Partnerships

Focus Special Programme for Disadvantaged Sections

Consider Environment and Ecology

Ensure Security & Safety


ALLIED AGENCIES WOULD….

Banks and Housing Finance Institutions (HFIs) / Public agencies/


Para-statals /Cooperative and Private Sectors would

Outreaching Mechanisms

Fiscal planning for Housing Finance

Formulate-Implement Special Programmes for Vulnerable Sections


SPECIFIC “AREAS OF ACTION”

Land

Finance

Legal and Regulatory Reforms

Technology support and its transfer

Infrastructure

Sustainability Concerns

Employment issues relating to the Housing Sector

Slum improvement and up gradation


CO-OPERATIVE SECTORS

The Cooperative Sector

The Labor Housing Sector

The Employee Welfare Housing sector

The Employer Housing Sector

The Private Sector


INTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
ESSENTIAL INSTITUITIONAL FRAMEWORK & GUIDELINES
HOUSING SECTOR

Guidelines for affordable housing in partnership (JNNURM)


Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA) (JNNURM Mission Directorate)

HUDCO Nav Nagar Yojana (HuNNY)


Housing & Urban Development Corporation

Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP)


Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA)

Rajiv Aawas Yojana (RAY) , Guidelines for Slum-free City Planning


Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA)

Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojna (VAamAY)


Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)
ESSENTIAL INSTITUITIONAL FRAMEWORK & GUIDELINES
HOUSING SECTOR

URBAN INFRASTRUCURE DEVELOPMENT SCHEME FOR


SMALL & MEDIUM TOWNS (UIDSSMT) GUIDELINES – 2005
Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)

URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS FORMULATION AND


IMPLEMENTATION (URDPFI) GUIDELINES - 2014
Town and Country Planning Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)

Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)


Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, & The Energy and Resources Institute
(TERI)

Model guidelines for urban land policy


Town and country planning organization, Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD)
THANK YOU
FORMULATION OF HOUSING STANDARDS
METHODOLOGY

 Execution of Housing “Shortage – Need – Demand” Analysis.

 Parametric Analysis (Qualitative and Quantitative)

 Correlating and referring to affective bye-laws, guidelines, regulation etc.,

- Design criteria

 Capital Pooling / Funding / Fiscal Planning

 Module / prototype design Synthesis

 Execution SWOT analysis / SCBA for validation and implementation of standards.


PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

S.No Qualitative Quantitative Relevant Standards

1. Socio economic stature Demographic data and Census data


and affordability projections
2. Minimum Standards of • Anthropometry • TSS, Newfert’s
habitable space (Room • Space Standards Standards,
Space) and volume. • Volumetric Analysis Architect’s
Handbook.
• NBC etc.,
3. Ambient air quality and •Volume of air •Ambient air quality
fenestration •Ventilation standards
•Solid void ratio •Lighting and
•Lighting illumination
standards
•HVAC standards
4. Additional spaces •Space standards •Local bye laws
•Common •Offsets •GOs
•private •Setbacks
PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

S.No Qualitative Quantitative Relevant Standards


5. •Amenities Percentage classification of Schemes and guide
•Services land use lines URDPFI , NBC
6. Environmental •Climatic responsive LEED, IGBC, GRIHA,
•Solar heat gain TERI, BEE, ECBC,
•CO2 emissions WRI guidelines etc.
•HVAC calculations EIA and EIS
•Energy flow/ Optimization
•Vernacular building
material
7. Community interests •Social fabric Conservation
•Cultural charters (INTACH),
•Historical TSS and NBC
•Vocational/occupational
8. Technology •Intelligent system
•Smart system
•Security
•BIM & BIS
•BMS
PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS

S.No Qualitative Quantitative Relevant Standards


9. Barrier free •Universal design Universal design
•Disable friendly stratagies, CPWD
•Walkable community norms
•Elderly, woman and
children friendly
10. Affordability fiscal planning, Fund flow, World bank, HDFC,
Capital pooling Loans, Microfinance etc. HFCs, HUDCO etc.
DESIGN CRITERIA

•Minimum space standards


•FSI
•Density (Gross and Net)
•Height restriction
•Permissible ground coverage
•Abutting road width and plot configuration
•Available land parcel
•Threshold of population

referring to affective bye-laws, guidelines, regulation etc.,

Developing a prototype/module based on


Concept-Context-Content

Execution of Strength Weakness Opportunities and Threats analysis (SWOT) / Social Cost
Benefit Analysis (SCBA) for validation and implementation of standards.
THANK YOU

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