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WiMAX

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CONTENTS

I Introduction

 

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II What is WiMAX

 

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III Standards Associated with WiMAX

 

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Why WiMAX

 

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IV-A

Data Rates

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IV-B

Timing

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IV-C

IV-D

. Quality of Service .

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V How WiMAX works

 

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VI Types of WiMAX

 

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VI-A

Fixed WiMAX

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VI-B

Mobile WiMAX

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VII Deployment Technologies

 

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VIII WiMAX Services

 

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IX Future of WiMAX

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X Conclusion

 

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References

 

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Information Technology

Government Engineering College, Barton Hill

WiMAX

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WiMAX

ABSTRACT

Within the last two decades, communication advances have reshaped the way we live our daily lives. Wireless communications has grown from an obscure, unknown service to an ubiquitous technology that serves almost half of the people on Earth. Whether we know it or not, computers now play a dominant role in our daily activities, and the Internet has completely reoriented the way people work, communicate, play, and learn. However severe the changes in our lifestyle may seem to have been over the past few years, the convergence of wireless with the Internet is about to unleash a change so dramatic that soon wireless ubiquity will become as pervasive as paper and pen. WiMAX which stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is about to bring the wireless and Internet revolutions to portable devices across the globe. Just as broadcast television in the 1940s and 1950s changed the world of entertainment, advertising, and our social fabric, WiMax is poised to broadcast the Internet throughout the world, and the changes in our lives will be dramatic. In a few years, WiMax will provide the capabilities of the Internet, without any wires, to every living room, portable computer, phone, and handheld device. In its simplest form, WiMax promises to deliver the Internet throughout the globe, connecting the last mile of communications services for both developed and emerging nations.

Information Technology

Government Engineering College, Barton Hill

3

WiMAX

Sudheer MS Department of Information Technology Government Engineering College, Barton Hill

sharpboy111@yahoo.com

Abstract—Within the last two decades, com- munication advances have reshaped the way we live our daily lives. Wireless communications has grown from an obscure, unknown service to an ubiquitous technology that serves almost half of the people on Earth. Whether we know it or not, computers now play a dominant role in our daily activities, and the Internet has completely reoriented the way people work, communicate, play, and learn. However severe the changes in our lifestyle may seem to have been over the past few years, the convergence of wireless with the Internet is about to unleash a change so dramatic that soon wireless ubiquity will become as pervasive as paper and pen. WiMAX which stands for Worldwide Inter- operability for Microwave Access is about to bring the wireless and Internet revolutions to portable devices across the globe. Just as broad- cast television in the 1940s and 1950s changed the world of entertainment, advertising, and our social fabric, WiMax is poised to broadcast the Internet throughout the world, and the changes in our lives will be dramatic. In a few years, WiMax will provide the capabilities of the Internet, without any wires, to every living room, portable computer, phone, and handheld device. In its simplest form, WiMax promises to deliver the Internet throughout the globe, con- necting the last mile of communications services for both developed and emerging nations.

I. INTRODUCTION

Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) has been serving enterprises and operators

for years, to the great satisfaction of its users. However, the new IP-based stan- dard developed by the IEEE 802.16 is likely to accelerate adoption of the tech- nology. It will expand the scope of us- age thanks to: the possibility of operat- ing in licensed and unlicensed frequency bands, unique performance under Non- Line-of-Sight (NLOS) conditions, Qual- ity of Service (QoS) awareness, exten- sion to nomadicity, and more. In parallel, the WiMAX forum, backed by industry leaders, will encourage the widespread adoption of broadband wireless access by establishing a brand forthe technol- ogy and pushing interoperability between products. The purpose of this seminar is to highlight and assess the value of WiMAX as the right solution to:

extend the currently limited coverage of public WLAN (hotspots) to city- wide coverage (hot zones)

use the same technology at home and on the move

blanket metropolitan areas for mobile data-centric service delivery.

offer fixed broadband access in ur- ban and suburban areas where copper quality is poor or unbundling difficult

WiMAX

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II. WHAT IS WIMAX

WiMax delivers broadband to a large area via towers, just like cell phones. This enables your laptop to have high-speed access in any of the hot spots. Instead of yet another cable coming to your home, there would be yet another antenna on the cell-phone tower. This is definitely a point to- wards broadband service in rural ar- eas. First get the signal to the area, either with a single cable (instead of one to each user) or via a point-to- point wireless system. Then put up a tower or two, and the whole area is online. This saves the trouble of dig- ging lots of trenches, or of putting up wires that are prone to storm damage. WiMAX is a standards-based tech- nology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to wired broadband like cable and DSL. WiMAX provides fixed , nomadic, portable and, soon, mobile wireless broadband connec- tivity without the need for direct line- of-sight with a base station. In a typ- ical cell radius deployment of three to ten kilometers, WiMAX Forum Certified systems can be expected to deliver capacity of up to 40 Mbps per channel, for fixed and portable access applications. Mobile network deployments are expected to provide up to 15 Mbps of capacity within a typical cell radius deployment of up to three kilometers. It is expected that WiMAX technology will be incor- porated in notebook computers and PDAs by 2007, allowing for urban areas and cities to become "metro zones" for portable outdoor broad-

band wireless access.

III. STANDARDS ASSOCIATED WITH WIMAX

wireless access. III. S TANDARDS A SSOCIATED WITH W I MAX Figure 1. Standards Associated with

Figure 1.

Standards Associated with WiMAX

IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area net- works and metropolitan area net- works. More specifically, the IEEE 802 standards are restricted to net- works carrying variable-size pack- ets. (By contrast, in cell-based net- works data is transmitted in short, uniformly sized units called cells. Isochronous networks, where data is transmitted as a steady stream of

octets, or groups of octets, at regular time intervals, are also out of the scope of this standard.) The number 802 was simply the next free number IEEE could assign, though 802 is sometimes associated with the date the first meeting was held February

1980.

A. IEEE 802.16

The IEEE 802.16 Working Group on Broadband Wireless Access Stan- dards, which was established by IEEE Standards Board in 1999, aims to prepare formal specifications for

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WiMAX

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the global deployment of broad- band Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks. The Workgroup is a unit of the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Stan- dards Committee. A related future technology Mobile Broadband Wire- less Access (MBWA) is under devel- opment in IEEE 802.20. Although the 802.16 family of stan- dards is officially called Wireless MAN, it has been dubbed WiMAX (from "Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access") by an indus- try group called the WiMAX Forum. The mission of the Forum is to pro- mote and certify compatibility and interoperability of broadband wire- less products. Types of 802.16 In January 2003, the IEEE ap- proved 802.16a as an amend- ment to IEEE 802.16-2001, defining (Near) Line-Of- Sight capability. In July 2004, IEEE 802.16REVd, now published under the name IEEE 802.16- 2004,introduces support for indoor CPE (NLOS) through additional radio capabilities such as antenna beam forming and OFDM sub-channeling Early 2005, an IEEE 802.16e variant will introduce support for mobility.

IV. WHY WIMAX WiMAX stands for wireless in- teroperatibility for microwave access. WiMAX is expected to do more for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) and what Wi- Fi has done for local area net-

works (LANs)? WiMAX is not projected to replace Wi-Fi, but to complement it by connecting Wi-Fi networks to each other or the Internet through high- speed wireless links. You can therefore use WiMAX technol- ogy to extend the power and range of Wi-Fi and cellular net- works. However, in developing countries, WiMAX may become the only wireless technology be- cause Wi-Fi and cellular have not penetrated areas that can be reached with WiMAX tech- nology. Range The wide range of the WiMAX technology de- pends on the height of the antennas, if they are installed at the suitable position from where there is no barrier be- tween the transmitter and re- ceiver, and then we can get bet- ter range and service from it. The WiMAX can support 30 to 50 kilometres distance with Line-of-Sight (LOS) links. As far as Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) links in concerned WiMAX can support the broad range from 3 to 10 kilometres using advanced modulation algorithm that can overcome many interfering ob- jects that Wi-Fi systems cannot pass through.

A. Data Rates

The technology used for WiMAX is Orthogonal

Frequency

Multiplexing (OFDM), it is not appreciably more supernaturally

Division

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WiMAX

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efficient then the technology commonly used for 3G that is Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). However OFDM is coupled with a high channel bandwidth, that allows greater data rates. So, on average, for an equivalent spectrum allocation, users will see similar data rates. In specific simulations, where there are few users, it is possible that WiMAX will provide a higher data rate than 3G. However, in commercial systems, such simulations are likely rare.

B. Timing

It is normally believed that WiMAX will enter into the mar- ket some five years after 3G is well established. This drawback in time is likely to be impor- tant since without a convincing advantage only a few service providers will choose to move from 3G to WiMAX. However, those yet to deploy a system may find the choice balanced between the two technologies.

C. Cost

The network costs of WiMAX will be likely to be higher than for 3G because of the reduced range and hence the necessity to build more cells. The sub- scriber subsidy costs may be lower if WiMAX is built into processor chips, although this may not apply if users wish to have WiMAX handsets.

D. Quality of Service

Excellent Quality Of service management donates from vari- ety of WiMAX features. Just as on a Wi-Fi network, WiMAX users share a data pipe and QoS can degrade as more users are added to the network. Using the QoS features of WiMAX service providers can guaran- tee certain users specific band- width amounts by limiting the bandwidth consumption of other users. Grant request mechanism for accessing to network is the first aspect of Quality of Ser- vice. The WiMAX functioning of disagreement allocates only a fixed amount of time to be given to these grant requests. Disagreement refers to the act of competing for access to the network. Because of the lim- ited amount of time available, bandwidth cannot be consumed by contention requests. When a disagreement request comes into the network, the system com- pares the request with a ser- vice level agreement for the user making the request, and they are granted, or denied, access ac- cordingly. Link by link modula- tion schemes is another benefit of WiMAX Quality of Service. In other words, the base sta- tion can use different modula- tion schemes for different links. The modulation scheme used is related directly to the distance of the link. Rather than all users’ links being downgraded by the

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user farthest away, link by link modulation enables closer users to use higher data-rate modula- tion schemes

V. H OW W I MAX WORKS

In practical terms, WiMAX would operate similar to WiFi but at higher speeds,

over greater distances and for

a greater number of users.

WiMAX could potentially erase the suburban and rural blackout areas that currently have no broadband Internet access because phone and cable companies have not yet run the necessary wires to those remote locations. A WiMAX system consists of two parts

A WiMAX tower:similar in concept to a cell-phone tower.A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area as big as 3,000 square miles. A WiMAX receiver:The re- ceiver and antenna could be a small box or PCMCIA card, or they could be built into a laptop the way WiFi access is today.

A WiMAX tower station can

connect directly to the Internet using a highbandwidth, wired connection (for example, a T3 line). It can also connect to another WiMAX tower using a line-of-sight, microwave link. This connection to a second tower (often referred to as a backhaul), along with the ability

(often referred to as a backhaul), along with the ability Figure 2. of a single tower

Figure 2.

of a single tower to cover up to 3,000 square miles, is what allows WiMAX to provide cov- erage to remote rural areas. What this points out is that WiMAX actually can provide two forms of wireless service:

There is the non-line-of-sight, WiFi sort of service, where a small antenna onyour com- puter connects to the tower. In this mode, WiMAX uses a lower frequency range of 2 GHz to 11 GHz (similar to WiFi). Lower-wavelength transmissions are not as eas- ily disrupted by physical ob- structions – they are bet- ter able to diffract, or bend, around obstacles.

There is line-of-sight service, where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole. The line-of-sight connection is stronger and more sta- ble, so it’s able to send a lot of data with fewer er- rors. Line-of-sight transmis-

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WiMAX

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sions use higher frequencies, with ranges reaching a pos- sible 66 GHz. At higher fre- quencies, there is less inter- ference and lots more band- width. WiFi-style access will be lim- ited to a 4-to-6 mile radius (perhaps 25 square miles or 65 square km of coverage, which is similar in range to a cell-phone zone). Through the stronger line-of-sight an- tennas, the WiMAX transmit- ting station would send data to WiMAX-enabled comput- ers or routers set up within the transmitter’s 30-mile ra- dius (3,600 square miles or 9,300 square km of cover- age). This is what allows WiMAX to achieve its max- imum range.

VI. TYPES OF WIMAX

The WiMAX family of stan- dards concentrate on two types of usage models a fixed usage model and a mobile usage model. The basic ele- ment that differentiates these systems is the ground speed at which the systems are de- signed to manage. Based on mobility, wireless access sys- tems are designed to oper- ate on the move without any disruption of service; wire- less access can be divided into three classes; stationary, pedestrian and vehicular. A mobile wireless access sys-

tem is one that can address the vehicular class, whereas the fixed serves the station- ary and pedestrian classes. This raises a question about the nomadic wireless access system, which is referred to as a system that works as a fixed wireless access system but can change its location

A. Fixed WiMAX Service and consumer usage of WiMAX for fixed access is expected to reflect that of fixed wire-line service, with many of the standards-based requirements being confined to the air interface. Be- cause communications takes place via wireless links from Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) to a remote Non Line- of-sight (NLOS) base station, requirements for link security are greater than those needed for a wireless service. The se- curity mechanisms within the IEEE 802.16 standards are sufficient for fixed access ser- vice. Another challenge for the fixed access air interface is the need to set up high per- formance radio links capable of data rates comparable to wired broadband service, us- ing equipment that can be self installed indoors by users, as is the case for Digital Sub- scriber Line (DSL) and ca- ble modems. IEEE 802.16 standards provide advanced

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WiMAX

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physical (PHY) layer tech- niques to achieve link mar- gins capable of supporting high throughput in NLOS en- vironments.

B. Mobile WiMAX

The 802.16a extension, re- fined in January 2003, uses

a lower frequency of 2 to

11 GHz, enabling NLOS con- nections. The latest 802.16e task group is capitalizing on the new capabilities this pro- vides by working on devel-

oping a specification to en- able mobile WiMAX clients. These clients will be able to hand off between WiMAX

base stations, enabling users

to roam between service ar-

eas.

VII. DEPLOYMENT TECHNOLOGIES

Several topology and back- hauling options are to be supported on the WiMAX base stations: wire line back- hauling (typically over Eth- ernet), microwave Point-to- Point connection, as well as WiMAX backhaul. With the latter option, the base station has the capability to backhaul itself. This can be achieved by reserving part of the band- width normally used for the end-user traffic and using it for backhauling purposes.

the end-user traffic and using it for backhauling purposes. Figure 3. Topologies VIII. W I MAX

Figure 3.

Topologies

VIII. WIMAX SERVICES

WiMAX services can have potential applications in var- ious fields. Different appli- cations can demand different QoS, which can be classified as follows

like

Web Browsing, Game interface,etc

like

VoD ,MPEG ,etc. · Backgroung

Services

like FTP,E-Mail, SMS, Multicast/Broadcast ,MMS, PUSH TO TALK Possible services provided by WiMAX are widespread over various data communication services including entertainment, information and commerce services. The first round of WiMAX technology is expected to be nomadic,meaning that CPEs will be portable, but

· Streaming

· Interactive

Services

Services

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WiMAX

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WiMAX 10 Figure 4. Services not truly mobile. But with Samsungs new developments on hand-over, the

Figure 4.

Services

not truly mobile. But with Samsungs new developments on hand-over, the technology may become truly mobile, offering the 20 Mb/s to 30 Mb/s at speeds up to 120 km/h WiMAX enthusiasts are touting. For entertainment services, WiMAX will provide high quality VoD/MoD/AoD, real- time streaming broadcasting, 3G network games and MMS. Web Browsing, file downloading and interactive information services will be provided as information services by WiMAX. Commerce services such as m-commerce, mobile banking, trading will be also provided by WiMAX as well.Below Table summarizes possible services to be provided by WiMAX.

IX. FUTURE OF WIMAX The IEEE 802.16 standard body members are work-

OF W I MAX The IEEE 802.16 standard body members are work- Figure 5. Comparison ing

Figure 5.

Comparison

ing toward incremental evo- lution, from fixed operation to portability and mobility. The IEEE 802.16e amend- ment will amend the base specification to enable not just fixed, but also portable and mobile operation. IEEE 802.16f and IEEE 802.16g task groups are addressing the management interfaces for fixed and mobile oper- ation. Clients will be able to hand-off between 802.16 base stations, enabling users to roam between service ar- eas. In a fully mobile sce- nario users may be moving while simultaneously engag- ing in a broadband data ac- cess or multimedia stream- ing session. All of these im- provements will help make WiMAX an even better Inter- net access solution for grow- ing economies like that of In- dia.

X. CONCLUSION

The latest developments in the IEEE 802.16 group are

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WiMAX

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driving a broadband wireless access (r) evolution thanks to a standard with unique technical characteristics. In parallel, the WiMAX forum, backed by industry leaders, helps the widespread adop- tion of broadband wireless access by establishing a brand for the technology. Initially, WiMAX will bridge the dig- ital divide and thanks to competitive equipment prices, the scope of WiMAX de- ployment will broaden to cover markets where the low POTS penetration, high DSL unbundling costs, or poor copper quality have acted as a brake on extensive high-speed Internet and voice over broadband. WiMAX will reach its peak by making Portable Internet a reality. When WiMAX chipsets are integrated into laptops and other portable devices, it will provide high-speed data ser- vices on the move, extend- ing today’s limited cover- age of public WLAN to metropolitan areas. Integrated into new generation networks with seamless roaming be- tween various accesses, it will enable end users to en- joy an "Always Best Con- nected" experience. The com- bination of these capabilities makes WiMAX attractive for a wide diversity of people:

fixed operators, mobile oper-

ators and wireless ISPs, but also for many vertical mar- kets and local authorities. Al- catel, the worldwide broad- band market leader with a market share in excess is committed to offer complete support across the entire in- vestment and operational cy- cle required for successful deployment of WiMAX ser- vices.

REFERENCES

[1] W.H Tranter, K.S Shanmugam, T.S Rappaport and K.L Kos- bar"Principles of Communication System Simulation with Wireless Applications " Prentice Hall 2002 [2] T.S Rappaport"Wireless Commu- nications:Principles and Practices " 2nd Edition Prentice Hall 2002 [3] A Paul Raj,D.Gore "Introduction to Space Time Wireless Commu- nications" Cambridge University Press 2003

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Government Engineering College, Barton Hill