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ART IX-B Section 2.

(1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions,

instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-
owned or controlled corporations with original charters.

(2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and
fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which
are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by
competitive examination.

(3) No officer or employee of the civil service shall be removed or suspended

except for cause provided by law.

(4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly,
in any electioneering or partisan political campaign.

(5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees.

(6) Temporary employees of the Government shall be given such protection as

may be provided by law.

The Civil Service now covers not all government-owned or controlled

corporation but only “those with original charters,” that is, those corporation
which have been created by special law and not through general corporation
law. Thus the test for determining whether officers and employees of a
government owned or controlled corporation comes under Civil Service System
is the manner of creation of the corporation to which they belong.


Are those by nature are policy-determining, primarily confidential or

highly technical


One charged with the duty to formulate a method of action for the
government or any of its subdivision


Occupant is required to possess a technical skill or training in

supreme or superior degree

o When the president, upon recommendation of the Civil
Service Commission has declared the position to be primarily
o When the position, by its nature, is primarily confidential.