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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

UNIT I

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI UNIT I HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE – VI

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE VI CLASS 3A MARG INSTTUTE OF DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE SWARNABHOOMI AR .MEENA.K

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Team 10

Team 10 Team 10, just as often referred to as "Team X", was a group of architects and other invited participants who assembled starting in July 1953 at the 9th Congress of C.I.A.M.(International Congresses for Modern Architecture) and created a schism within CIAM by challenging its doctrinaire approach to urbanism.

The group's first formal meeting under the name of Team 10 took place in Bagnols-sur-Cèze in 1960; the last, with only four members present, was in Lisbon in 1981.

They referred to themselves as "a small family group of architectswho have sought each other out because each has found the help of the others necessary to the development and understanding of their own individual work."

"Core family members" included:

Jacob B. Bakema, The Netherlands

Aldo van Eyck, The Netherlands

Georges Candilis, Greece

Shadrach Woods, USA/France

Other participants and their contributions are of course important, particularly those of José

Team 10's theoretical framework, disseminated primarily through teaching and publications, had a profound influence on the development of architectural thought in the second half of the 20th century, primarily in Europe.

Concepts/Contributions of TEAM X

Alison and Peter Smithson , John Voelcker and William Howell developed a tool they referred to as the scale of Association’ which was meant to encourage architecture and town planning to be socially and topographically responsive instead of stylistically or historically based.

Jacob Bakema argued that modern architecture ought to be democratic and provide variety so that people could exercise the right of choice.

Aldo Van Eyck operated from a philosophically anti rationalist and anthropological premise.

Georges

Candilis

International style.

built

on

the

basis

of

a culturally

and

regionally

sensitive

Ernesto Rogers argued for a modernism that took into account present conditions which in his understanding included everything that led to the present-its historical context.

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Two different movements emerged from Team 10:

Brutalism

New

Brutalism

Smithson)

Structuralism

Bakema).

of

the

English

members

(Alison

and

Peter

of the Dutch members (Aldo van Eyck and Jacob

Brutalism is a movement in architecture that flourished from the 1950s to the mid-1970s, descending from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.

The term originates from the French word for "raw" in the term used by Le Corbusier to describe his choice of material brut (raw concrete).

"brutalism" (originally "New style.

Characterisitc features:

Brutalism") to identify the emerging

Brutalist buildings are usually formed with repeated modular elements

forming masses representing specific functional zones, distinctly

articulated and grouped together into a unified whole.

Concrete is used for its raw and unpretentious honesty, contrasting

dramatically with the highly refined and ornamented buildings

constructed in the elite Beaux-Arts style.

Surfaces of cast concrete are made to reveal the basic nature of its

construction, revealing the texture of the wooden planks used for the in-

situ casting forms.

Brutalist building materials also include brick, glass, steel, rough-

hewn stone, and gabions.

Exposure of the building's functionsranging from their structure and

services to their human usein the exterior of the building.

Examples: In the Boston City Hall, designed in 1962, the strikingly different and projected

portions of the building indicate the special nature of the rooms behind those walls, such as

the mayor's office or the city council chambers.

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British

➢ British architectural critic Reyner Banham adapted the term into
➢ British architectural critic Reyner Banham adapted the term into
➢ British architectural critic Reyner Banham adapted the term into

Banham adapted

➢ British architectural critic Reyner Banham adapted the term into

the

term

into

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

From another perspective, the design of the Hunstanton School included placing the facility's

water tank, normally a hidden service feature, in a prominent, visible tower.

Structuralism as a movement in architecture and urban planning evolved around the middle of the 20th century.

It was a reaction to CIAM-Functionalism (Rationalism), which had led to a lifeless expression of urban planning that ignored the identity of the inhabitants and urban forms.

Two different manifestations of Structuralist architecture exist. Sometimes these occur in combination with each other. On the one hand, there is the Aesthetics of Number, formulated by Aldo van Eyck in 1959.

This concept can be compared to cellular tissue.

The "Aesthetics of Number" can also be described as "Spatial Configurations in Architecture".

On the other hand, there is the Architecture of Lively Variety (Structure and Coincidence), formulated by John Habraken in 1961. This second concept is related to user participation in housing.

The "Architecture of Lively Variety" can also be called "Architecture of Diversity" or "Pluralistic Architecture".

Structuralism in a general sense is a mode of thought of the 20th century, which came about in different places, at different times and in different fields.

It can also be found in linguistics, anthropology, philosophy and art.

Origins

 

Structuralism in architecture and urban planning had its origins in the Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) after World War II.

Between 1928 and 1959, the CIAM was an important platform for the discussion of architecture and urbanism.

Various groups with often conflicting views were active in this organization; for example, members with a scientific approach to architecture without aesthetic premises (Rationalists), members who regarded architecture as an art form (Le Corbusier), members who were proponents of high- or low-rise building (Ernst May), members supporting a course of reform after World War II (Team 10), members of the old guard and so on.

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Individual members of the small splinter group Team 10 laid the foundations for Structuralism.

As a group, Team 10 was active from 1953 onwards, and two different movements emerged from it:

- New Brutalism of the English members (Alison and Peter Smithson)

- Structuralism of the Dutch members (Aldo van Eyck and Jacob Bakema).

Outside Team 10, other ideas developed that furthered the Structuralist movement - influenced by the concepts of Louis Kahn in the United States, Kenzo Tange in Japan and John Habraken in the Netherlands (with his theory of user participation in housing).

Herman Hertzberger and Lucien Kroll made important architectural contributions in the field of participation.

In this context, Hertzberger made the following statement: "In Structuralism, one differentiates between a structure with a long life cycle and infills with shorter life cycles."

CIAM-Congres internationaux d Architecture Moderne

CIAM captured the spirit of the machine age but before it had done too much damage to the urban environment and in particular urban housing,some younger member began to question their architectural solutions.

Under the leadership of Le Corbusier , CIAM’S vision was of a utopia, a city which could provide the perfect life for its inhabitants.

His vision inspired hope but ultimately failed to create such a place resulted instead in destroying places and a memories which are integral to a person’s identity.

Signed by 24 European Architects representing France, Germany, Italy, Austria, Belgium ,Spain, Holland, Switzerland.

Le Corbusier ,Helene de mandrot and sigfried giodian

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Other founder members include Karl moser(First president),VictorBourgeois, PierreChareau, Josef frank, Gabriel Guevrekian, Max Ernst Haefeli, Hugo Haring, Hochel ,Huib Hoste, Carlo Enrico Rava ,Gerrit Rietveld, Alberto sartoris, Hansschmidt, mart stam, Rudolf Steiger, Henri-Robert, Von der muhll and juan de Zavala

Other notable members later included Alvar Alto and Henrik Petrus beriage.

CIRPAC

The elected executive body of C.I.A.M was CIRPAC ,the cmite international pour la Resolution des problemes de I’Architecture Contemporaine.

‘It is possible for a city to have an ideal arrangement for its industry, commerce and transport,to be equipped with magnificient public buildings and yet fail as a social community through lack of suitable housing conditions for large number of its inhabitants’

Patric Abercrombie

By 1939 forshaw and Abercrombie had already identified four major defects in their country plan for London,

Over crowding and out of date housing

Inadequate and misdistribution of spaces

Jumble of houses and industry compressed between road and rail communications

Traffic congestion

between road and rail communications ➢ Traffic congestion The white city housing estate in hammersmith. MIDAS

The white city housing estate in hammersmith.

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One of the first solution to the housing problems in London was the white city housing estate in hammersmith.

It was recognised even a far back in 1936 that high rise housing solution would need to have more space around them due to the amount of people per acre.

CIAM’s conferences consisted of:

1928, II,La sarraz,

“URBANISM”

1929 II,Frankfurt, 1930, III,Brussels, 1933, IV,Athens,

1937,V,Paris,

1947,VI,Bridgewater,

1949, VII,Bergamo, 1951, VIII,Hoddesdon,

1953,IX,Aix-en-Provence,

1956, X, Dubrovnik,

Foundation of CIAM Architecture must face new social and economica reality-

“Low income housing “ “Land organisation and city zoning” “THE FUNCTIONAL CITY” Planning based on principles of:

Dwelling, Work,Recreation,Transportation Otimal density,modern technology Minimal distance between dwelling and work areas “Standardization Public housing” Criticism of primacy of industry dictates Reaffirmation of the Aims of CIAM “URBAN CORE” / “ THE HEART OF THE CITY” Study of the nature of human habitation Breaking up of CIAM and emergence of TEAM X

The C.I.A.M Organisation disbanded in 1959 as the views of the members diverged.

Le Corbusier had left in 1955,objecting to the increasing use of English during meetings.

Link between the phenomenon of architecture and the general economic system.

‘Economic Efficiency’ = maximum commercial profit with production demanding minimum working effort.

Economic efficiency needed for all impoverished states.

Efficient method of production arises from ‘rationalization’ and ‘standirdization’ both in architecture(conception) and Building industry(Realization)

Simplification of working methods

- Reduction of skilled labours & more unskilled labours under highly skilled technicians.

- A revisions in demands with consumer himself.

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EMPHASIS (CIAM DECLARATION) BUILDING than ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI ➢ Architecture

EMPHASIS (CIAM DECLARATION)

BUILDING than ARCHITECTURE

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

Architecture contingent on issues of Politics and economics

Depend on the universal adoption of RATIONALISED PRODUCTION METHODS (for the level of quality not on craftmen)

Need for planned economy and Industrialisation.

Advocated introduction of NORMATIVE DIMENSION AND EFFICIENT PRODUCTION Method as the 1 st step.

PRE REQUISITIES:

Preference for regularity- FORMAL

For increasing Housing production

And superceding methods of a craft era

TOWN PLANNING (radical attitude)

“RADICAL ATTITUDE” towards TOWN PLANNING

Need for collective and methodical land Policy

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The re distribution of land must include-The just division between the owners and the community of the unearned increment From works of joint interest

The essence of Urbanisation Functional Order Cannot be conditioned by pre existent “Aestheticism”

The chaotic division of land resulting From sales, speculations, inhertances must Be abolished by the adoption of a Collective and methodical land policy.

3 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT CIAM

STAGE 1 1928 1933

“DOCTRINAIRE”

Problems of minimum living standards

Issues of optimum height and block spacing for the most efficient use of land and materials.

Establishment of CIRPAC

STAGE II 1933 1947

Domimated by Le Corbusier

Functinalism envisions the city as a collection of uses to be accommodated:

Residence, work, Leisure and the Traffic systems that serve them.

FIRST The city was characterised as a machine

LATER As a complex organism and as a network or constellation of community centres linked to and directed by central core.

A functionalist city is equitable:

It does not favour or neglect social groups

Everyone benefits from adequate sunlight, Fresh air and access to open spaces.

Functionalist theory treats residence, work, and leisure as discrete elements.

Activities should not mix.

Hence zoning is a key element of the functionalist city, for in a zoned environment, activities can proceed with little or no inference from other activities.

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In functionalist urban planning, organizing functional relations in a two- dimensional plan usually takes precedence over organising other relations.

Through functionalist theory calls for the separation of activities , in one local .the heart core of the city, these must be commingled.

ATHENS CHARTER

Idea ➢ Dwelling ➢ Recreation ➢ Work ➢ Transportation ➢ Historical buildings Short comings
Idea
➢ Dwelling
➢ Recreation
➢ Work
➢ Transportation
➢ Historical buildings
Short comings

Rigid functional zoning

‘Single type of Urban housing’ termed as ‘high and widely spaced apartment blocks.

Idealistic, Rationalistic, unrealizable.

1.

Single open space for a living - the modernist city would be a single,open space for living that was organised by a central state planning authority.

2.

Traffic system with a hierarchy- In place of the mixed- use road syste, modernist city would have a traffic system separated hierarchically according to function.

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3. Mass housing - The housing would be dealt with by erecting whole areas of mass housing, all built to the same standard , and offering light, air, and sun for all.

4. The charter of Athens became the guide book for all new town planning and building world wide in the decades that followed.

5. Its emphasis on the functionalist theory treats residence, work and leisure as discrete elements.

ATHENS CHARTER

FUNCTIONALIST THOUGHTS

as discrete elements. ATHENS CHARTER FUNCTIONALIST THOUGHTS ➢ The idealized purpose of the urban centre is

The idealized purpose of the urban centre is “ to enable people to meet one another to exchange ideas”

Therefore that centre “must be attractive to all types of people in the region it serves”

In sum, the urban centre should engender “civic consciousness”

It is more than a machine for making money and more than a cross roads for traffic and goods.

“The core includes other elements of interest too”

Necessary to the success of the urban centre is the absence of vehicular traffic, for the urban centre is the domain of pedestrians.

The quality of functionalist design depends on how competently it accommodates needs and activities and how well it uses light,space, and greenery.

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For Aldo van Eyck, “ The time has come to bring together the old into new: to rediscover the archaic principles of human nature”

The humanist urban designer pays attention to small scale , superimposed geometries.

Design in human scale achieves familiarity and the sense that things have been made by and for people.

Van eyck affirms the importance of fitting architecture to the people who inhabit it: the mission of architecture , in other words, is to assist in man’s homecoming.

Humanist designers, moreover, advocate a mixed use of the urban environment.

moreover, advocate a mixed use of the urban environment. STAGE III – 1947- 1956 Human emotions

STAGE III 1947- 1956

Human emotions in art form

Liberal idealis triumphed over materialism.

Monumental Approach

Attempted to transend abstract sterility of the functional city.

The city is shaped by and reflect the indviduals and groups who inhabit them.

Humanist designers expect the inhabitants of a city to :appropriate” the environment and make it their own:they believethat the city should be that which people should specify and help to create what they want.

END OF CIAM

Critique / challenge of the four functionalist categories of the Athens charter by Alison and Peter smithsons , Aldo van eyck in CIAM IX 1953

DWELLING,WORK,RECREATION ,TRANSPORTATION

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The smithsons, Eyck, Bakema, Candilis and woods searched for

Structural principles of urban growth

The next unit above the family cell

Dissatisfaction with modified functionalism, with the “idealism “ of Le Corbusier, sert, Alfred Roth, Groupius

Responded to the simplistic model of the urban core by positioning a more complex pattern which would be responsive to the need of the society.

“BELONGINGS” IS A BASIC HUMAN NEED Its associations are of the simplest order

From belongings- identity comes sense of neighbourliness

Man may identify with his own hearth but not with the town within which it is placed Dismissed the rationalism of the Functional city

The critical drive to find more precise relation between the physical form and socio psychological need became subject matter of CIAM X

and socio psychological need became subject matter of CIAM X ALISON AND PETER SMITHSON ➢ English

ALISON AND PETER SMITHSON

English architects Alison Smithson (22 June 1928 14

August 1993) and Peter Smithson (18 September 1923 3 March 2003) together formed an architectural partnership, and are often associated with the New Brutalism (especially in architectural and urban theory).

(Peter was born in Stockton-on-Tees in north-east England,

and Alison was born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire.

They met while studying architecture at Durham University and married in 1949.

Together, they joined the architecture department of the London County Council before establishing their own partnership in 1950.)

They first came to prominence with Hunstanton School which used some of the language of high modernist Ludwig Mies van der Rohe but in a stripped back way, with rough finishes and deliberate lack of refinement.

They are arguably among the leaders of the British school of New Brutalism.

They were associated with Team X and its 1953 revolt against old Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM) philosophies of high modernism.

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Among their early contributions were streets in the sky in which traffic and pedestrian circulation were rigorously separated, a theme popular in the 1960s.

were rigorously separated, a theme popular in the 1960s. ➢ Smithdon High School: (formerly known as

Smithdon High School:

(formerly known as Hunstanton Secondary Modern School) is a comprehensive school in Hunstanton,

Norfolk.

Designed by the architects Peter

and Alison Smithson and completed in 1954, the school was immediately acclaimed by the architectural critics.

However, its stark and

uncompromising design, particularly the large expanses of glass (inspired by the work of Mies van der Rohe) caused some practical problems with heating and cooling, and this has since been modified by the addition of black panels in place of glass.

modified by the addition of black panels in place of glass. ➢ Inspired by the concepts

Inspired by the concepts of Patrick Geddes; a biologist, sociologist and urban planner who was interested in the relationship between life and its environment, The Smithson’s used Geddes’ Valley Section to devise a range of house types to suit different communities; the hamlet, the village, the town and the city.

These designs were hugely influential, with a number of housing schemes taking inspiration from them. The term ‘Cluster’ is used to avoid association with the concept of the ‘street’; a place that the Smithson’s felt was outdated, since the use of cars prevents the street from being a place for a resident to identify with their environment.

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This led to their project ‘Golden Lane’, designed in 1952, a multi level project with housing occupying one side of wide ‘streets in the sky’, designed to provide residents with direct pedestrian access to activities intended to give the community a strong sense of identity.

The Smithsons' house type designs appear in a number of urban planning schemes, most notably ‘Hamburg Steilshoop’.

This project is discussed in one of two chapters entitled ‘Connection allows scatter’, along with ‘Berlin Haupstadt’

Both were large utopian masterplans for development, designed with similar basic concepts; allowance for maximum mobility, which was done by separating pedestrian and vehicular movement as much as possible with pedestrian ‘streets in the sky’; the creation of an inverted profile to allow for open space in the centre; allowance for growth and change and the inclusion of green space.

Both schemes are designed with transportation networks forming the primary structure; connections and routes, whether vehicular or pedestrian, are the main focus for much of the Smithsons' urban planning.

or pedestrian, are the main focus for much of the Smithsons' urban planning. Hamburg Steilshoop MIDAS

Hamburg Steilshoop

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI ➢ ‘Connection allows scatter’ is a concept that is

‘Connection allows scatter’ is a concept that is also reflected in the projects studied in the chapter ‘Cohesion’; which concerns the ‘poetry of movement, the connection of the city’.

In this chapter we see plans for a triangulated net of urban motorways, as well as ‘greenways and land castles’; intended to allow London to develop as a motorised city while maintaining safe, green pedestrian and cycle connections.

Similar to the ‘Greenways’ of London are the ‘Wild Ways’ of Berlin; a leisure network of green routes created using the disused railways in Berlin.

Alison and Peter Smithson also briefly introduce their ‘ideal city’ as an infrastructure of motorways connecting scattered points of intensity which are three miles apart; the ‘3 mile measure’.

These proposals are illustrative of a recurring concept in the book, ‘Pavilion and Route’.

The Smithson’s idea was to separate the two, and allow them to develop independently.

Robin Hood Gardens is a residential estate in Poplar, London designed in the late 1960s by architects Alison and Peter Smithson and completed in 1972.

It was built as a council housing estate with homes spread across 'streets in the sky':

social housing characterised by broad aerial walkways in long concrete blocks, much like the

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Park Hill estate in Sheffield; it was informed by, and a reaction against, Le Corbusier's Unité d'Habitation.

against , Le Corbusier's Unité d'Habitation. The landlord is Tower Hamlets Council. As with many other

The landlord is Tower Hamlets Council.

As with many other council housing blocks in the UK, tenures have diversified somewhat and include social housing tenants, leaseholders who exercised the right to buy and subsequent private owners, and private tenants of leaseholders.

The estate comprises two long curved blocks facing each other across a central green space, and in total covers 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres).

The blocks are of ten and seven storeys, built from precast concrete slabs and contain 213 flats.

In the central green area is a small man-made hill.

The flats themselves are a mixture of single-storey apartments and two-storey maisonettes, with wide balconies (the 'streets') on every third floor.

The complex is 200m north of Black wall DLR station, with its direct links to the City of London and separated by a bus terminus.

It is within sight of the nearby Balfron Tower; both are highly visible examples of Brutalist architecture.

Following the approval of a redevelopment scheme as part of a wider local regeneration project in 2012, demolition of the estate began in 2013.

An earlier attempt, supported by a number of notable architects, to head off redevelopment by getting the estate listed status, was rejected by the government in 2009.

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THE ECONOMIST BUILDING

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

This austere tower is considered one of the key architectural designs of the 1960s in Britain.

of the key architectural designs of the 1960s in Britain. ➢ Impressively situated among the grandiose

Impressively situated among the grandiose 18th

century streets of St James’s is The Economist Plaza.

This group of three iconic buildings is a

testament to the inimitable style of the 1960s and epitomises everything that is cool and minimal about

the structural design of the time.

The Plaza exudes a chic and vibrant quality

where art meets architecture to create the ultimate

office environment.

The Economist Buildings in London are widely recognised as one of the great triumphs of 1960s architecture.

The modest development based on the tower and plaza format, achieves rare elegance and structural logic, while showing great consideration for its sensitive location amongst the 18th Century streets of London’s St James.

Despite the radical proposals for building put forward by its architects throughout the post-war era, it is this rather conservative building that is their greatest legacy in the city.

In 1988 it received Grade II listed status and is an enduring

is their greatest legacy in the city. ➢ In 1988 it received Grade II listed status

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI Robin Hood Gardens is a residential estate in

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

Robin Hood Gardens is a residential estate in Poplar, London designed in the late 1960s by architects Alison and Peter Smithson and completed in 1972.

It was built as a council housing estate with homes spread across 'streets in the sky':

social housing characterised by broad aerial walkways in long concrete blocks, much like the Park Hill estate in Sheffield;

The estate comprises two long curved blocks facing each other across a central green space, and in total covers 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres).

The blocks are of ten and seven storeys, built from precast concrete slabs and contain 213 flats.

In the central green area is a small man-made hill.

The flats themselves are a mixture of single-storey apartments and two-storey maisonettes, with wide balconies (the 'streets') on every third floor.

Concept

In this construction there are two fundamental concepts: the tall building in the green and the building and street-link neighbourhood social relations, movement of vehicles is completely excluded from the area of design.

The architects Alison and Peter Smithson conceived the project of Robin Hood Gardens in the debate on collective housing buildings as generated by the Unite d´habitation of Marseille of Le Corbusier.

Project

The project was carried out in an area of east London a little planning and socially degraded. The idea was to build two huge concrete blocks flanking a central green area of the landfill obtained from the rubble of the work.

One of the characteristics of the project was access to housing is through long corridors outside, rigidly excluding vehicle traffic around the area of the complex.

Spaces

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI • Context of the residential ➢ The residential complex

Context of the residential

The residential complex that occupies about two hectares, consists of two long blocks containers facing each other, at whose head sits the busiest route, thereby exerting an effect buildings barrier that protects the large interior space the land where they were built is exposed to traffic on three sides.

The external facades overlook the streets of the city and are preceded by a garden

Buildings

One of the blocks has ten plants and another seven, bringing a total of 213 apartments surrounding a central garden area, some of a plant, other duplex.

Departments in the bedrooms and kitchens and dining are into the green, away from the noise, leaving the access gateways and living rooms on the side closest to the street noise.

Balconies

Every three floors are wide open balconies were designed with the idea of serving to children's play and neighborhood meetings, as traditional streets, similar to what has been done by Le Corbusier inUnite d´habitation of Marseille

Garden

A large green, protected from the bustle outside, where children can play and can be performed outdoors. But rescuing the concept of street as a passage and encounter,

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as well as the wide corridors of buildings, the garden is crossed by streets, some upward, with its plazas and community spaces.

Materials and Structure

The building structure is made of iron and covered with precast concrete.

Doors and woodwork are made of wood.

The balconies are placed every three floors were closed with iron bars for security.

The small hill which forms part of the garden area was created by debris left over from construction

ALDO VAN EYCK

Van Eyck’s thinking fundamentally proceeded in terms of reconciling opposites.

Throughout his career, he applied himself to the exploration and the relationships between polarities, such as past and present, classic and modern, archaic and avant-garde, constancy and change, simplicity and complexity, the organic and the geometric.

WORKS:

Amsterdam playground project (1947-78), he conceived of elementary forms that included both architectonic and biomorphic connotations: on the one hand low, massive concrete sandpits and stepping stones, on the other, slender somersault frames, arches and domes made of metal tubing.

All of these elements lent themselves to various kinds of child play but at the same time their archetypal forms implied multiple meanings.

The arches and the domes were basic tectonic forms that fitted seamlessly in the language of the city.

forms that fitted seamlessly in the language of the city. ➢ Playground Zaanhof, Amsterdam, 1948. ©
forms that fitted seamlessly in the language of the city. ➢ Playground Zaanhof, Amsterdam, 1948. ©

Playground Zaanhof, Amsterdam, 1948. © Aldo van Eyck Archive, photo Wim Brusse

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The sandpits, round or square, were simple geometric forms but at the same time they constituted receptive bodies, welcoming and sheltering the playing child.

In some cases this applied to the playground as a whole.

The playground in Mendes da Costahof (1957, built 1960) for example, consisted of three circles of different diameters, linked by an axial path.

They could be seen as an axial succession of simple geometric forms, but at the same time the composition evoked a somewhat anthropomorphic figure, a shape ‘carved out’ from the surrounding shrubbery.

The playing children were harboured within a body-like space, in a kind of maternal body.

This was, however, but one of Van Eyck’s compositional techniques, all of which were aimed at evolving different forms of non-hierarchical order.

Time and again he set up shifting frames of reference, marked out equivalent vantage points, and relativized the conventional spatial hierarchy by establishing excentric centres and symmetries.

In the playgrounds, Van Eyck succeeded, in the words of Georges Candilis, in creating an architecture of exceptional quality using the most modest of means, an architecture ‘that consisted not only of hard, tangible materials but also of immaterial materials.

The Amsterdam Municipal Orphanage (1955-60)

materials. The Amsterdam Municipal Orphanage (1955-60) ➢ After a decade of experimenting with elementary forms

After a decade of experimenting with elementary forms and their interrelations, Van Eyck’s views were synthesized in an iconic building, the Amsterdam Municipal Orphanage (1955-60). Here he succeeded in reconciling a great many polarities.

The Orphanage is both house and city, compact and polycentric, single and diverse, clear and complex, static and dynamic, contemporary and traditional; rooted as much in the classical as in the modern tradition.

The classical tradition resides in the regular geometrical order that lies at the base of the plan. The modern one manifests itself in the dynamic centrifugal space which traverses the classical order.

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The archaic tradition shows up in various aspects of the building’s formal appearance.

Due to the soft, biomorphic cupolas which cover the entire building, the first impression it evokes is that of an archaic settlement, reminiscent of a small Arabic domed city or an African village.

evokes is that of an archaic settlement, reminiscent of a small Arabic domed city or an
evokes is that of an archaic settlement, reminiscent of a small Arabic domed city or an

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The geometrical order of the building is articulated by a contemporary version of the Classical Orders, composed of columns and architraves.

The columns are slender concrete cylinders with fine ‘fluting’ left from the shuttering; the architraves are concrete beams, each with an oblong slit at the centre.

Their joined extremities give the impression of a capital, though capitals as such are absent.

The small domes form a grid that extends evenly across the entire building so that the overall pattern can be read at every point.

Along the axial lines of this grid, pillars, architraves and solid walls mark off a number of well-anchored, enclosed spaces:

The living rooms and adjoining patios, the festive hall, gymnasium and central court.

All are spaces related primarily to their centre, a centre established by the large dome- shapes, the axial lines of the grid generated by the small domes, and the axially placed doors.

The inner court seems to be a latter-day version of a Renaissance ‘cortile’ and the

Romanesque clois

interior

streets

at

times

recall

and the Romanesque clois interior streets at times recall ➢ The focus of the interior court

The focus of the interior court is a circular seat marked by two lamps, which rather than occupying the geometric centre of this space, is shifted four metres or so diagonally from it.

And if this piazza is indeed the centre of the entire settlement, it does not dominate as such.

From it the settlement fans out centrifugally in all directions; it is the fixed point from which decentralization is developed and delineated.

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI ➢ Thus, the axial ordering of the square

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

Thus, the axial ordering of the square does not extend in any way to the internal circulation areas.

It merely provides the initial impulse for the two interior streets, which branch out in contrary zigzag movements, to give access, via interior and exterior courtyards to the various units.

The basic forms of the two groups of residential units are a union of distinctly ‘open’ and distinctly ‘closed’.

The ‘rear’ of the units that back on the north consists of an unbroken, solid right-angled wall, their south-facing front being a right-angled succession of glazed walls.

In the quarters for the older children, glazed and brick walls unite in a simple elongated L-shaped space, but in the units for the younger ones, the brick wall envelops most of the domed area and the entire dormitory wing.

The glazed walls jut southward to mark out an additional shifted space, upon which, returning to the dormitory wing, they penetrate the building perimeter to hollow out a roofed terrace beyond the columns and architraves.

Embodying a maximum amount of both closeness and openness, these units also represent a striking example of Van Eyck’s view that architecture should, just like man, breathe in and out.

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And remarkably, the ground plan of these interlocking units appears to resemble that of the whole building.

In this ‘little city’ as a whole, the ‘houses are linked to the outside world by articulated external spaces with loggias. These outside spaces, both large and small, are characterized by a similar centrifugal structure.

Similarly, the diagonal direction which cuts across the orthogonal structure of the whole building is also recognizable in the residential units.

The large-domed spaces which are primarily centralized, self-contained places, are not confirmed in their centralism by the arrangement of the built-in elements.

The focus of the interior, a round or square playhouse, is offset diagonally with respect to the geometric centre.

Furthermore, the main central axes of the domed space are offset by secondary axes marked by the three columns which delimit the open south-east corner of the space.

Together with the eccentric playhouse, these shifted axes give the domed space a diagonal direction that relates to the second, southwards-shifted living room.

The third tradition, the ‘vernacular of the heart’, fuses organically with the classical one.

The perforated architrave combines with the dome into an expressive biomorphic form which, variously underpinned, evokes a changing archetypal image.

It may be firmly planted in the ground on two columns, spanning a bay which may be filled in with two-part glazing; or resting on a solid wall and articulated into a pregnant T-shape by an axially placed window or door.

Thus, in the orphanage, Van Eyck turned not only to the idea of the Classical Orders, which, as well known, are considered to be anthropomorphic, but in the rather reduced sense of being an abstraction of human proportions. Inspired by archaic form language, he made this anthropomorphism more tangible by reverting to the communicative features of the human body, the symmetry of its frontal appearance, the binary appeal of the human face.

The residential units are much like the recurring theme in a fugue, a single theme in various shapes which, linked by modulating ‘interludes’, interlock contrapuntally.

This impression is indeed produced by the roof which displays a grid of identical squares.

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But the conceptual sketches show clearly that this grid was by no means a basic assumption.

It did not appear before the final stage of the conceptual process, when Van Eyck decided to cover the building with a structure of domes.

Nor do the conceptual sketches start form an a priori concept, a preconceived ‘pre- form’ (to use the word of Kahn) that maintains itself through the processing of the ‘circumstances’ contained in the brief.

The design process proves to be a patient ars combinatoria, an unremitting exploration of the ways to connect the various parts of the programma, a gradual development of relevant patterns that eventually coalesce into a balanced, non-hierarchical organism.

ALDO ROSSI (1931-1937)

Theorist

Writer

Product Designer

Artist and Painter

Architect

MOST OF HIS WORKS WERE BASED ON FORMS.

MANY OF HIS BUILDINGS ARE BOX LIKE WITH PITCHED ROOF.

HE LIKES TO REPEAT IDENTICAL FORMS TO MAKE A BIGGER WHOLE.

His signature gestures of the cone, the cylinder and the square endlessly recombined with colonnades, windows at unexpected scales and towers might have seemed coldly mechanical if it were not for his skill at manipulating the rhythms of shadows and light.

First to use steel

He held that the city remembers its past and uses that memory through monuments; that is, monuments give structure to the city.

He argued that a city must be studied and valued as something constructed over time;

TEATRO DEL MONDO

According to Rossi theatres were “ places where architecture ends and world of imagination begins

Architect: ALDO ROSSI

Construction year: 1979

Location: Venice, Italy

Type: temporary theatre

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Style: modern

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI Style: modern GROUND FLOOR PLAN FIRST FLOOR PLAN ➢
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
GROUND FLOOR
PLAN
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
FIRST FLOOR
PLAN

Floated in water, The idea was to recall the floating theatres which were so characteristic of Venice and its carnivals in the 18th century , the floating theater gives a dream-like impression in its formal simplicity and bold colors.

Constructed of wood (relating to Venice's wood pile foundations) and iron scaffolding the temporary structure has become Rossi's most famous, and possibly most important, building.

Rossi believed, it tapped into the collective architectural memory of the city.

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI ➢ Use of basic geometrical shapes. Octagon theatre. ➢
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI ➢ Use of basic geometrical shapes. Octagon theatre. ➢
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI ➢ Use of basic geometrical shapes. Octagon theatre. ➢

Use of basic geometrical shapes. Octagon theatre.

The form includes a conical dome, and a composition of basic geometry, often seen in all his designs

His theater is not a place solely to watch performances but also a place to be watched, a place to observe and to be observed.

This is accomplished on two levels, by placing the theater as an object in the water and, on the inside, by placing the stage in the center of the seats. 250 people

Bold colours to give the theatre dreamlike fairytale look. Yellow against the blue brings out the contrast. Square windows

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Zinc cladded roof Central stage
Zinc
cladded
roof
Central
stage
Upper galleries
Upper
galleries

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Tubular steel frame
Tubular
steel
frame

Wooden

cladding

The building was built with a tubular steel frame covered with wood and reached a height of 25 m.

The main body is composed of a parallelepiped under 9.5 square meters side with a height of 11 m.

At the height topped octagonal drum, whose roof is zinc. Inside the scene was placed at the center, the public is located on the sides or on two platforms in the galleries located on the upper floors accessed via stairs that are placed on the sides of the parallelepiped.

SAN

CATALDO

CEMETERY,

on the sides of the parallelepiped. SAN CATALDO CEMETERY, MIDAS MODENA ITALY Architect: ALDO ROSSI Year

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Architect: ALDO ROSSI Year of completion: 1971 Location: Modena, Italy Type: Cemetery Complex Style: Neo Rationalism

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI MIDAS AR.K.MEENA
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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI MIDAS AR.K.MEENA

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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI PURPOSE OF THE BOOK: Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI PURPOSE OF THE BOOK: Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (1916-2006)
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI PURPOSE OF THE BOOK: Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (1916-2006)
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI PURPOSE OF THE BOOK: Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (1916-2006)

PURPOSE OF THE BOOK:

Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (1916-2006) was an urban writer and activist who championed new, community-based approaches to planning for over 40 years. Her 1961 treatise, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, became one of the most influential American texts about the inner workings and failings of cities, inspiring generations of urban planners and activists. Her efforts to stop downtown expressways and protect local neighborhoods invigorated community-based urban activism and helped end Parks Commissioner Robert Moses’s reign of power in New York City.

DEATH AND LIFE OF AMERICAN CITIES

Attack on the current methods of city planning and rebuilding

Explanation of new principles

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An argument for different methods from those now in use

An alternative to conventional city planning

Reasons cited by conventional city planners decline of cities

Blighted by too many people

Mixtures of commercial , industrial, residential uses

Old buildings and narrow streets.

Small landholders who stand in the way of large scale development.

Results:

Breed apathy and crime

Discourage investment

Contaminate areas around them

Solutions:

Tear them down

Scatter inhabitants

Rebuilt area to integrated plans

Lay out super blocks

Influences City planning range from…

Ebenezer Howard

-

Garden city

Patrick Geddes

-

Regional planning

Mumford

-

Culture of cities

Le Corbusier

-

Radiant city

Daniel Burnham

-

City beautiful

Diversity requires 4 essential conditions:

1. Mixed land uses

2. Small blocks

3. Buildings from many different eras

4. Sufficient building densities

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PERSPECTIVES Cities as Ecosystems.

PART 1 THE PECULIAR NATURE OF CITIES

Social behaviour of people in cities

Uses of sidewalks

Safety

Contact

Assimilating children

Uses of neighbourhood parks

Uses of city Neighbourhoods

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

Jacobs approached cities as living beings and ecosystems.

She explained how each element of a city sidewalks, parks, neighborhoods, government, economy functions together synergistically, in the same manner as the natural ecosystem.

This understanding helps us discern how cities work, how they break down, and how they could be better structured.

SAFETY

Streets in cities serve many purposes besides carrying vehicles, and city sidewalks Pedestrian parts of the streets- serves many purposes besides carrying pedestrian.

If the streets are safe from barbarism and fear the the city is tolerably safe.

Well used in the city street apt to be safe street

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Three main qualities are essential for a street HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

Three main qualities are essential for a street

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE & CULTURE - VI

> Firstly, there must be clear demarcation between what is public space and what is private

space

> Second, there must be eyes on the street, eyes belongs to those we might call the natural proprietors of the street.

> All the buildings must face the street.

> Third sidewalks must have users on it fairly continuously.

> The street should be able to induce users.

sidewalks must have users on it fairly continuously. > The street should be able to induce

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PART 2 THE CONDITIONS FOR CITY DWELLERS

Economic behaviour of cities

>The generators of diversity >The need for primary mixed uses >The need for small blocks >The need for aged buildings > some myth about diversity safety

CHILDREN

Children in cities need a variety of places in which to play and to learn.

They need among other things,oppurtunities for all kinds

At the same time they need unspecialised home base from which to play, to hang around in, and to help form their own notions of the world. lively sidewalks.

Sidewalks thirty feet can accommodate virtually any play and loitering potential for youths.

virtually any play and loitering potential for youths. Four conditions are required to generate diversity >The

Four conditions are required to generate diversity

>The district ust serve more than one primary function: preferably more than two. These must insure presence of people who go outdoors on different schedules and are in places for different purpose but are able to use functions in common

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>Most blocks must be short: that is streets and opportunities to turn corners must be frequent >The districts must mingle dwellings that vary in age and condition ,including a good proportion of old one that they vary in the economic yield they must produce >There must be sufficient dense concentration of people: for whatever purpose they may be there . This includes dense concentration in the case of people who are there because of residences.

Mixed-Use Development.

Jacobs advocated for “mixed-use” urban development the integration of different building types and uses, whether residential or commercial, old or new.

According to this idea, cities depend on a diversity of buildings, residences, businesses and other non-residential uses, as well as people of different ages using areas at different times of day, to create community vitality.

She saw cities as being “organic, spontaneous, and untidy,” and views the intermingling of city uses and users as crucial to economic and urban development.

Bottom-Up Community Planning.

Jacobs contested the traditional planning approach that relies on the judgment of outside experts, proposing that local expertise is better suited to guiding community development.

She based her writing on empirical experience and observation, noting how the prescribed government policies for planning and development are usually inconsistent with the real-life functioning of city neighborhoods.

The Case for Higher Density.

Although orthodox planning theory had blamed high density for crime, filth, and a host

of other problems, Jacobs disproved these assumptions and demonstrated how a high concentration of people is vital for city life, economic growth, and prosperity.

While acknowledging that density alone does not produce healthy communities, she illustrated through concrete examples how higher densities yield a critical mass of people that is capable of supporting more vibrant communities.

In exposing the difference between high density and overcrowding, Jacobs dispelled many myths about high concentrations of people.

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Local Economies.

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By dissecting how cities and their economies emerge and grow, Jacobs cast new light

on the nature of local economies.

She contested the assumptions that cities are a product of agricultural advancement; that specialized, highly efficient economies fuel long-term growth; and that large, stable businesses are the best sources of innovation.

Instead, she developed a model of local economic development based on adding new types of work to old, promoting small businesses, and supporting the creative impulses of urban entrepreneurs

JANE JACOBS OBSERVES THE CONDITIONS OF Mixed uses

Dense population Old buildings >Decentralised ownership Create Opposite of slum Neighbourhood and regenerate themselves spontaneously Full of variety of diversity Attract large numbers of casual visitors ad responsible new residents

Encourage investment Revitalize areas around tem Eg BOSTONS NORTH END, GREENWICH VILLAGE,

CHRISTOPHER ALEXANDER

Cristopher Alexander was born in Vienna, Austria in 1936.

 

He graduated with degrees in mathematics and architecture from Cambridge

University and with a Ph.d in Architecture from Harvard University.

 

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For his doctoral dissertation, Alexander developed a computer program that attempted

to analyze and create new environments based on logical programmatic analysis.

 

This interest in creating new environments would mark all of his future works.

 

Christopher Alexander is a practicing architect, builder, and Emeritus Professor of Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley.

He is also the author of numerous articles and books,

including The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe (2004) a four-volume compilation representing 30 years of work and offering three vital perspectives on our world:

(1) A scientific perspective;

(2) a perspective based on beauty and grace; and

(3) a common sense perspective based on our intuitions about everyday life.

This series provides a new framework for perceiving and interacting with the world, a methodology for creating beautiful spaces, and a cosmology where art, architecture, science, religion and secular life all work comfortably together

PERSPECTIVES

The Phenomenon of Life (Nature of Order Book One). Alexander proposes a

scientific view of the world in which all space-matter has perceptible degrees of life and

sets this understanding of order as an intellectual basis for a new architecture.

With this view as a foundation, we can ask precise questions about what must be

done to create more life in our world whether in a room, a humble doorknob, a

neighborhood, or even in a vast region.

He introduces the concept of living structure, basing it upon his theories of centers and

of wholeness, and defines the fifteen properties from which, according to his

observations, all wholeness is built.

Alexander argues that living structure is at once both personal and structural.

The Process of Creating Life (Nature of Order Book Two).

In the 20th century our society was locked into deadly processes which created our

current built environment, processes of which most people were not really aware and

did not question.

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Despite their best efforts and intentions, architects and planners working within these processes, could not achieve a living built environment.

In this book, Alexander puts forward a fully developed theory of living process. He defines conditions for a process to be living: that is, capable of generating living structure. He shows how such processes work, and how they may be created.

At the core of the new theory is the theory of structure-preserving transformations. This concept, new in scientific thinking, is based on the concept of wholeness defined in Book 1: A structure-preserving transformation is one which preserves, extends, and enhances the wholeness of a system.

Making changes in society, so that streets, buildings, rooms, gardens, towns may be generated by hundreds of such sequences, requires massive transformations.

This book is the first blueprint of those transformations.

A Vision of a Living World (Nature of Order Book Three).

Providing hundreds of examples of buildings and places, this volume demonstrates proposes forms for large buildings, public spaces, communities, neighborhoods, which then lead to discussions about the equally important small scale of detail and ornament and color.

With these examples, laypeople, architects, builders, artists, and students are able to make this new framework real for themselves, for their own lives, and understand how it works and its significance.

The Luminous Ground (Nature of Order Book Four).

The mechanistic thinking and the consequent investment-oriented tracts of houses, condominiums and offices in the 20th century have dehumanized our cities and our lives.

How are spirit, soul, emotion, feeling to be introduced into a building, or a street, or a development project, in modern times? In this final text, Alexander breaks away

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>completely from the one-sided mechanical model of buildings or neighborhoods as mere assemblages of technically generated interchangeable parts.

He shows us conclusively that a spiritual, emotional, and personal basis must underlie every act of building.

This radical view can conform to our most ordinary, daily intuitions.

It may provide a path for those contemporary scientists who are beginning to see consciousness as the underpinning of all matter, and thus as a proper object of scientific study.

And it will change, forever, our conception of what buildings are.

Looking closely at the living structure in good and bad buildings, human artifacts, and natural systems, Alexander proposes that the living order depends on those features that closely connect with the human self.

The quality of works of art, artifacts, and buildings is defined not merely in terms of living structure, but also in their capacity to affect human growth and human well-being.

The Overlapping Organization of Cities.

In his classic essay, “A City is Not a Tree,”(1965) Alexander explains why separate functions have come to dominate the world of urban planning, and why this is an unhealthy way of building our cities.

City-building, he holds, has become dominated by narrowly focused professions, mainly because human beings do not seem to possess the mental capacity to holistically perceive the complex social, environmental, and economic processes that collectively shape urban life.

Referring to a variety of experiments, Alexander demonstrates how the human mind tends to separate elements and arrange them in categories and visually separate spaces.

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When people are faced with complex organization, they reorganize natural overlap into non-overlapping units.

He refers to this non-overlapping structure as a “tree,” and argues that the complex organization of cities is in fact more suited to “semi-lattices”– which are healthy places, although extreme compartmentalization and dissociation of internal elements can lead to destruction.

In a human, dissociation marks schizophrenia, and in a society it marks anarchy.

For a city to remain receptive to life, social interaction, and human prosperity, it must unite the different strands of life within it.

Planners and designers must therefore allow for a mix of functions and be open- minded to organic change.

Interactions between Cars and Pedestrians.

While most people are either for cars or for pedestrians, Alexander believes the two can function as a pair. While the relationship between pedestrians and cars has always been an uneasy one, their simple separation is not a sustainable solution for making cities livable.

He has instead developed a pattern for analyzing and improving the interactions between cars and people.

In the ideal interaction between pedestrians and cars, both are vibrant, and the two zones are separate but touch everywhere. He describes five ways in which this can happen:

Where cars are moving slowly, people and cars can mix up, meaning that at very low density traffic, there do not necessarily need to be sidewalks.

Creating quiet places with good space for pedestrians and narrow slow space for cars.

Wide, densely traveled pedestrian streets may cross densely traveled roads with cars and buses, best at a right angle.

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Pedestrian lanes can be designed to be internal to a block. According to Alexander’s observations, most points on pedestrian paths should be within 150 feet of the nearest road.

Where cars dominate there should be easy access to beautiful and pure pedestrian space.

Starting with What is Beautiful Now.

By beginning with spaces that are already beautiful, Alexander shows how we can adopt an organic process of city-building and discover the “right” order of places.

Designing places in the right order has a major impact on the quality of community life. The right order for a place is often unexpected.

To discover the right order of a particular place, we should begin by implementing any tiny improvements that are feasible now. Specific spots or segments in a city that work well do so for a reason, and because they are naturally used by the community, these spaces form the “spine” of the area and making good starting points for wider improvements.

According to Alexander, small incremental changes will enhance the spirit of the place and encourage the accumulation of further changes.

Using this approach, we can connect new spaces to already beautiful ones while allowing for change and adaptation through lived experience.

Harmonizing the Shape of Public Buildings.

The quality of public buildings depends on how they harmonize with their surrounding environment.

A great public building makes the environment better, but its construction must draw upon the existing positive patterns in that environment.

Alexander emphasizes that great buildings emerge without artifice and without egos, and that the volume and space around the building site must inspire the building’s construction.

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His pattern language provides guidelines for how to proceed through such a process of inspiration in a logical but also emotional way.

Triangulation: Arranging Overlapping Functions in Small Spaces.

Although he was not the first to use the term, Alexander has greatly enriched our understanding of how triangulation fits into larger patterns of urban life.

Triangulation occurs when a space allows for two or more overlapping functions and thus facilitates additional activity and interaction between people.

It often occurs in small spaces through the precise positioning of an object or two around a key location, such as a street corner, a bus stop, a newsstand.

Such objects might serve a necessary activity, or might simply engage or entertain the passer by. Alexander explains how triangulation works, and also how it can create great public spaces

Pattern language is a significant effort to understand environmental wholeness because, first, it provides a compilation of time-tested environmental possibilities, envisioned and arranged from larger to smaller scale, that contribute to a place exuberance; second, the approach provides a programmatic means for explicating new patterns as needed and integrating them with existing patterns to concretize new pattern languages for buildings, places, and situations not imagined in the original language of 253 patterns.

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