In this paper, we obtain a sharp (improved) lower bound on the locating-total domination number of a graph, and show that the decision problem for the locating-total domination is NP-complete.

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In this paper, we obtain a sharp (improved) lower bound on the locating-total domination number of a graph, and show that the decision problem for the locating-total domination is NP-complete.

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doi:10.7151/dmgt.1961

IN GRAPHS

University of Newcastle, Australia

Department of Mathematics

University of West Bohemia, Pilsen, Czech Republic

e-mail: mirka.miller@gmail.com

R. Sundara Rajan

e-mail: vprsundar@gmail.com

e-mail: jgopal89@gmail.com

indrarajasingh@yahoo.com

and

Paul Manuel

e-mail: pauldmanuel@gmail.com

Abstract

total domination number of a graph, and show that the decision problem

for the locating-total domination is NP-complete.

Keywords: dominating set, total dominating set, locating-dominating set,

locating-total dominating set, regular graphs.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C69.

746 M. Miller, R.S. Rajan, R. Jayagopal, I. Rajasingh and P. Manuel

1. Introduction

in V (G) \ S is adjacent to some vertex in S. The set S is said to be a total

dominating set of G if every vertex in V (G) is adjacent to some vertex in S. The

domination problem is to determine the minimum cardinality of all dominating

sets in G. Similarly, the total domination problem is the problem of determining

the minimum cardinality of such sets in G. A locating-dominating set in a con-

nected graph G is a dominating set S of G such that for every pair of vertices u

and v in V (G) \ S, N (u) ∩ S 6= N (v) ∩ S. The minimum cardinality of a locating-

dominating set of G is the locating-domination number γ L (G) [6]. A locating-total

dominating set in a connected graph G is a total dominating set S of G such that

for every pair of vertices u and v in V (G)\S, N (u)∩S 6= N (v)∩S. The minimum

cardinality of a locating total-dominating set of G is the locating-total domination

number γtL (G) [6]. Determining if an arbitrary graph has a dominating set and

locating-dominating set of a given size are well-known N P -complete problems

[1, 5].

Total domination plays a role in the problem of placing monitoring devices

in a system in such a way that every site in the system, including the monitors,

is adjacent to a monitor site so that, if a monitor goes down, then an adjacent

monitor can still protect the system. Installing the minimum number of expensive

sensors in the system which will transmit a signal at the detection of faults and

uniquely determine the location of the faults motivates the concept of locating-

dominating sets and locating-total dominating sets [6].

The locating-total domination problem has been discussed for trees [2, 3],

cubic graphs and grid graphs [8], corona and composition of graphs [10], claw-

free cubic graphs [7], and so on.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we obtain an improved bound

for locating-total domination of regular graphs. Further we prove that the bound

is tight for certain families of regular graphs. In Section 3, we prove that the

locating-total domination problem is N P -complete.

the shadow of a vertex u ∈ V (G) on S, we mean the set Su = S ∩ N [u] where

N [u] = N (u) ∪ {u}. The profile of u ∈ V (G) is defined to be the (dG (u) + 1)-tuple

π(u) with entries |Sx | where x ∈ N [u], in ascending order. The share of a vertex

A Note on the Locating-Total Domination in Graphs 747

u ∈ S in S is defined by

X 1

γ(u, S) = .

|Sx |

x∈N [u]

When the set S is clear from the context, we refer to γ(u, S) simply as the share

of u and denote it by γ(u).

The following lemma is a powerful tool in obtaining lower bounds on various

flavors of domination numbers. This result was given in [11].

of G. Then u∈S γ(u) = n.

In what follows, we give an improved lower bound for γtL (G) when G is

regular.

Henning et al. [8] have proved that the locating-total domination number for a

graph G satisfies the inequalities γtL (G) ≥ ⌊log2 n⌋ and γtL (G) ≥ (diameter(G)

+ 1)/2.

In this section, we have obtained an improved lower bound for the locating-

total domination number for regular graphs. For proving the main result, we

need the following.

order n, for some positive integer k ≥ 2. Then γ(u) ≤ k+2

2 , for each u ∈ S.

Proof. Let u ∈ S. Since S is a total dominating set, at least one vertex v in N (u)

belongs to S. Now for any two distinct vertices x and y of N [u] we claim that

|Sx | = |Sy | = 1 is not possible. For, if |Sx | = |Sy | = 1, then N (x) ∩ S = N (y) ∩ S,

a contradiction. Therefore |Sx | = 1 for at most one vertex x of N [u]. For all

vertices y 6= x in N [u], |Sy | ≥ 2. Hence for all vertices y 6= x in N [u], |S1y | ≤ 12 .

Thus we have γ(u) = w∈N [u] |S1w | ≤ 1 + k( 21 ) = k+2

P

2 .

l m

2n

Theorem 2.3. Let G be a k-regular graph of order n. Then γtL (G) ≥ k+2 .

γ(u) ≤l k+2

2 m, for all u ∈ S. By Lemma 2.1, n =

k+2

u∈S γ(u) ≤ 2 |S| . Therefore

2n

|S| ≥ k+2 .

l m

2n

Remark 1. For a given k, there exists an integer n, n large, such that k+2 >

⌊log2 n⌋. Such a pair of numbers is denoted by n(k). Thus our bound obtained

in Theorem 2.3 is better than the bound obtained by Henning et al. [8].

748 M. Miller, R.S. Rajan, R. Jayagopal, I. Rajasingh and P. Manuel

In the sequel we prove that the lower bound obtained in Theorem 2.3 is sharp

for extended cycle-of-ladders and circulant networks. Without loss of generality

we refer to the vertices in these graphs by their labels.

In [4], Fang introduced a network called cycle-of-ladder and proved that it is a

spanning subgraph of the hypercube network, thereby proving that hypercube

network is bipancyclic. In this section, we derive a new network from cycle-of-

ladder and call it the extended cycle-of-ladder network.

(c)

(a) (b)

Pn+1 is a path on n + 1 vertices, n ≥ 1.

The graph obtained via this definition has the advantage of looking like a

ladder having two rails and n + 1 rungs between them. The length of the ladder

is defined as n.

called the bone cycle and l ladders L1 , L2 , . . . , Ll with Rb (1), Rb (2), . . . , Rb (l) as

the bottom rungs such that Rb (i)’s are respectively the alternate edges in Cb ,

1 ≤ i ≤ l. We denote the cycle-of-ladder as CL(2l, s), where l and s represent

the number of ladders and the length of each ladder, respectively.

i and li where 0 ≤ j ≤ s and

For convenience we label the vertices of Li as lj,1 j,2

1 ≤ i ≤ l in CL(2l, s). Figure 2(a) illustrates (l0,11 , l1 , l2 , l2 , l3 , l3 , l4 , l4 ,

0,2 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2

1 ) as the bone cycle and the edges (l1 , l1 ), (l2 , l2 ), (l3 , l3 ), (l4 , l4 ) as

l0,1 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,1 0,2

Rb (1), Rb (2), Rb (3) and Rb (4), respectively.

We add l number of edges to CL(2l, s) to obtain a 3-regular graph and call

it the extended cycle-of-ladder ECL(2l, s).

i and li+1 , where 1 ≤ i ≤ l − 1, and between ll and

by adding edges between ls,2 s,1 s,2

1 .

ls,1

(mod 2) and s ≡ 4 (mod 5). Then γtL (ECL(2l, s)) = 4l(s + 1)/5.

A Note on the Locating-Total Domination in Graphs 749

j,2

in ECL(2l, s). See Figure 2(b). Since s ≡ 4 (mod 5), s + 1 is a multiple of 5.

We have s + 1 rungs in each ladder Li , 1 ≤ i ≤ l. Partition the s + 1 rungs

into sets P1 , P2 , . . . , P(s+1)/5 of five consecutive rungs beginning from the bottom

rung in each ladder. Let S contain the vertices in the second n and fourth rungs of

S S 2j−1 2j−1 2j−1

each partition. In other words, S = 1≤i≤⌈s/5⌉ 1≤j≤l/2 l5i−4,1 , l5i−2,1 , l5i−4,2 ,

o

2j−1 2j 2j 2j 2j

l5i−2,2 , l5i−4,1 , l5i−2,1 , l5i−4,2 , l5i−2,2 . We claim that S is a minimum locating-

total dominating set of ECL(2l, s). Clearly S is a total dominating set. We

have only to prove that S is a locating-total dominating set of ECL(2l, s). Let

u, v ∈ V \ S. If u and v are in different ladders, then N (u) ∩ S 6= N (v) ∩ S.

Suppose u and v are in the same ladder, say L. Suppose N (u) ∩ S = N (v) ∩ S.

If |N (u) ∩ S| = |N (v) ∩ S| = 3, then u, v and the three vertices adjacent to both

u and v induce a subgraph shown in Figure 1(a), which is not possible by the

definition of extended cycle-of-ladder. If |N (u) ∩ S| = |N (v) ∩ S| = 2, then u, v

and the two vertices adjacent to both u and v induce a subgraph shown in Figure

1(b), which is not possible by the choice of S. Now |N (u) ∩ S| = |N (v) ∩ S| = 1

is not possible (see Figure 1(c)), since at least one of u, v has two vertices of

S adjacent to it, contradicting N (u) ∩ S = N (v) ∩ S. Thus S is a locating-

total dominating set in ECL(2l, s). Now |S| = 8(⌈s/5⌉)(l/2) = 4l(s + 1)/5. By

Theorem 2.3, γtL (ECL(2l, s)) = 4l(s + 1)/5.

(a) (b)

Figure 2. (a) CL(8, 4).

(b) Vertices in a locating-total dominating set of ECL(8, 9) are circled.

750 M. Miller, R.S. Rajan, R. Jayagopal, I. Rajasingh and P. Manuel

Definition [12]. The undirected circulant graph G(n, ±S), where S ⊆ {1, 2,

. . . , j}, 1 ≤ j ≤ ⌊n/2⌋, the vertex set V = {0, 1, . . . , n − 1} and the edge set

E = {(i, k) : |k − i| ≡ s(mod n), s ∈ S}.

γtL (G(n, ±{1, 2})) = ⌈n/3⌉ if n ≡ 0, 1, 2, 4 (mod 6).

Proof. Label the vertices of G(n, ±{1, 2}) from 1 to n, sequentially with clock-

wise sense. We begin withSthe case when n ≡ 0 (mod 6), where all labels are

taken modulo n. Let S = 1≤k≤n/6 {n − 6k + 3, n − 6k + 1}, 1 ≤ k ≤ n/6. We

claim that S is a locating-total dominating set of G(n, ±{1, 2}). Let NV \S (S)

denote the set of all neighborhood in V \ S of members of S. For 1 ≤ k ≤ n/6,

it is easy to see that NV \S (S) = N (S) ∩ V \ S = V \ S.

Moreover (n − 6k + 3, n − 6k + 1) is an edge in G(n, ±{1, 2}). Therefore S is a

total dominating set in G(n, ±{1, 2}). We have only to show that S is a locating-

total dominating set. For 1 ≤ k ≤ n/6, N (n−6k+2)∩S = {n−6k+3, n−6k+1},

N (n − 6k + 4) ∩ S = {n − 6k + 3}, N(n − 6k + 5) ∩ S = {n − 6k + 3, n − 6k + 7} and

N (n−6k+6)∩S = {n−6k+7}, which are all distinct. Now |S| = 2(n/6) = ⌈n/3⌉.

See Figure 3(a). By Theorem 2.3, γtL (G(n, ±{1, 2})) = 2n/(k + 2) = 2n/(4 + 2) =

n/3, when n ≡ 0 (mod 6). S

When n ≡ 1, 2 (mod 6), S = 1≤k≤n/6 S {n − 6k + 3, n − 6k + 1} ∪ {1}, 1 ≤

k ≤ ⌊n/6⌋; and when n ≡ 4 (mod 6), S = 1≤k≤n/6 {n−6k+3, n−6k+1}∪{1, 3},

1 ≤ k ≤ ⌊n/6⌋ are respectively the minimum locating-total dominating sets in

G(n, ±{1, 2}). Thus by Theorem 2.3, γtL (G(n, ±{1, 2})) = ⌈n/2⌉, when n ≡ 0, 1,

2, 4 (mod 6). See Figure 3(b).

1 1

12 2 13 2

3

3 12

11

4

4 11

10

5

10

9 5 6

6 9

7

8

7 8

(a) (b)

Figure 3. (a) Vertices in a locating-total dominating set of G(12, ±{1, 2}) and

(b) vertices in a locating-total dominating set of G(13, ±{1, 2}) are circled.

A Note on the Locating-Total Domination in Graphs 751

equivalent. In other words, it is not possible to derive a minimum locating-

dominating set from a minimum locating-total dominating set and vice-versa. For

example, consider the graph G shown in Figure 4. In G the minimum locating-

dominating set T = {2, 5, 7} and hence γ L (G) = 3 (see Figure 4(a)). Now, in G

the minimum locating-total dominating set S = {2, 3, 7, 8} and hence γtL (G) = 4

(see Figure 4(b)). Locating-domination problem is N P -complete [1]. In this

section we prove locating-total domination problem is N P -complete.

1 1

G: G:

2 3 2 3

4 5 4 5

6 7 8 9 6 7 8 9

(a) (b)

Figure 4. (a) Vertices in a locating-dominating set of G are circled.

(b) Vertices in a locating-total dominating set of G are circled.

Name: locating-total dominating set (LTDS).

Instance: a connected graph G = (V, E) and an integer k ≤ |V |.

Question: is there a locating-total dominating set S ⊆ V of size at most k?

Proof. We polynomially reduce 3-SAT to LT DS. We consider any instance of

3-SAT , C = {C1 , C2 , . . . , Cm } over the set of variables X = {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn }.

For each variable xi of X, we construct the graph Gxi = (Vxi , Exi ) with Vxi =

{ai , bi , ci , di , ei , xi , xi } and Exi = {ai xi , ai xi , ai ci , bi ci , ci xi , ci xi , di xi , di xi , di ei },

1 ≤ i ≤ n.

Next for each clause Cj = {uj,1 , uj,2 , uj,3 }, we construct the graph GCj =

(VCj , ECj ), with VCj = {αj , βj , γj , µj } and ECj = {αj βj , βj γj , γj µj , γj ηj , µj ηj },

1 ≤ j ≤ m.

Finally, given formula F = C1 ∧ C2 ∧ · · · ∧ Cm we construct G = (V, E) with

[ n [ n

V = Vxi ∪ VC j ,

i=1 i=1

n

[ n

[ n

[

E= Exi ∪ EC j ∪ {αj uj,1 , αj uj,2 , αj uj,3 } .

i=1 i=1 i=1

752 M. Miller, R.S. Rajan, R. Jayagopal, I. Rajasingh and P. Manuel

with n = 3 and m = 2. In Figure 5, F = C1 ∧C2 , where C1 = (u1,1 ∨u1,2 ∨u1,3 ) =

(x1 ∨ x2 ∨ x3 ) and C2 = (u2,1 ∨ u2,2 ∨ u2,3 ) = (x1 ∨ x2 ∨ x3 ).

of size k, as follows. For all j and i where 1 ≤ j ≤ m, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, let S contain

γj , µj , ci , di , and whichever of xi and xi that has been set True. The set S thus

constructed has size 3n + 2m = k. Clearly S is a total dominating set of G. We

have only to show that S is a locating-total dominating set. Without loss of gene-

rality, assume that xi ∈ S; then N (ai )∩S = {ci , xi }, N (bi )∩S = {ci }, N (xi )∩S =

{ci , di }, N (ei ) ∩ S = {di }; moreover, N (βj ) ∩ S = {γj }, N (ηj ) ∩ S = {γj , µj } and

using the assumption that each clause contains at least one true literal, at least

one vertex of type xi or xi will be in N (αj ) ∩ S.

(ii) Now we assume that there is a subset S of V , of size at most k, which is

a locating-total dominating set. It is clear that for all j, either {γj , µj } ∈ S or

{γj , ηj } ∈ S. Suppose not. If {βj , γj } ∈ S, then N (µj ) ∩ S = {γj } = N (ηj ) ∩ S

and, if {αj , βj } ∈ S, then µj and ηj are not dominated and, if {µj , ηj } ∈ S, then

βj is not dominated. Thus in all cases, either {γj , µj } ∈ S or {γj , ηj } ∈ S and αj

must be dominated by another vertex.

Let us now consider the sets S ∩ Vxi ; we claim that at least three elements

in Vxi are necessary to make N (u) ∩ S 6= N (v) ∩ S for all u and v in Vxi \ S, and

that, moreover, if we manage with exactly three, then exactly one of xi belongs

to S. Indeed, suppose first that xi or xi are in S. Then since two more elements

are necessary in Vxi to locate bi and ei , either |S ∩ Vxi | ≥ 4 or |S ∩ Vxi | = 3

and exactly one of xi and xi belongs to S. Suppose next that neither xi nor xi

are in S. Then, in order to locate and separate ai , bi and ci , and di and ei , at

A Note on the Locating-Total Domination in Graphs 753

least three elements in Vxi \ {xi , xi } are necessary. Now if {ai , ci , di } ⊂ S, then

N (xi ) ∩ S = N (xi ) ∩ S = {ai , ci , di }; this implies that xi or xi is located by a

vertex of type α. This however contradicts the assumption on the size of |S|,

since already 3n + 2m other vertices necessarily belong to S.

Now, we know that S contains exactly k elements; in particular, exactly two

vertices belong to VCj and exactly three vertices are in Vxi , with exactly one of

xi and xi in S.

Thus, setting xi = True if S ∩ {xi , xi } = {xi } and xi = False if S ∩ {xi , xi } =

{xi } is a valid truth assignment for the variables of X. Now in order to locate

αj at least one vertex of type xi or xi must be in S, corresponding to one of the

three literals in the clause Cj . This means that Cj contains at least one true

literal and it holds for all j. Hence we have a truth assignment which satisfies F .

Problem 1. Can Theorem 3.1 be improved for bipartite graphs and chordal

graphs?

Problem 2. Can improved bounds for locating-total domination number be ob-

tained for interval graphs and split graphs?

Acknowledgements

The work of R. Sundara Rajan was supported by Dr D.S. Kothari Fellowship,

No. F.4-2/2006 (BSR)/MA/15-16/0011, University Grants Commission, Govern-

ment of India. The work of Indra Rajasingh was supported by Project No.

SR/S4/MS: 846/13, Department of Science and Technology, SERB, Government

of India.

The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their comments

and suggestions. These comments and suggestions were very helpful for improving

the quality of this paper.

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Revised 20 June 2016

Accepted 20 June 2016

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