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JOHN EDOKA

PG/MSc/07/43627

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL


PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL YOUTH
SERVICE CORPS (NYSC) KOGI STATE

ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT


PUBLIC

JANUARY, 2012
Digitally Signed by Webmaster’s Name
DN : CN = Webmaster’s name O= University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Webmaster OU = Innovation Centre

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL


PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL
YOUTH SERVICE CORPS (NYSC) KOGI STATE
BY

JOHN EDOKA
PG/MSc/07/43627

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND


LOCAL GOVERNMENT
UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA

JANUARY, 2012

APPROVAL PAGE
The dissertation has been approved for the sub-department of

public Administration and Local Government, Faculty of Social Sciences,

university of Nigeria, Nsukka.

……………………... …………………………….
Prof. C.Ofuebe. Prof. Fab Onah
Supervisor Head of Department

………………………… …………………………….
Prof. E. Ezeani External Examiner
Dean of Faculty

CERTIFICATION
I John Edoka, a postgraduate student in the department of Public

Administration with Registration number PG/MSc/07/43627 has

satisfactory completed the requirements for research work for the

Degree of Master of Science in Public Administration.

This work incorporated in this dissertation is original and has not

been submitted in part or in full for any other Diploma or Degree of this

or any other University.

…………………………….
John Edoka.
PG/MSc/ 07/43627

DEDICATION
This dissertation is dedicated to my wife Mrs. Helen Edoka and my

Children Enye-Ojo, Ojochegbe and onuche-Ojo.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
My ability to pursue a higher degree to completion inspite of the

numerous odds is a great testimony of the love of the Almighty God. To

Him be the glory

I sincerely appreciate the comments and corrections made by my

supervisor, Prof. C. Ofuebe and I also appreciate the efforts made

towards this programme by the department lectures who contributed in

one way or the other. I equally express my deepest gratitude to my elder

sister who brought me up and I thank all my elder brothers who

considered me good enough to be trained. May God bless you all. I also

thank my colleagues and all those who showed concern concerning the

completion of this programme. I say God bless you all. I must not fail to

thank Elder James Ejeh secretary to the Dean School of environment

technology who despite his busy schedules typed this work.

Abstract
The study aimed at evaluating the impact of effective leadership on
organizational performance in Nigeria using National Youth Service
Corps Kogi State office. The evaluation was done through the use of
questionnaire and structured interview question, tailored towards:
determining the impact of effective leadership on the performance of the
organization; assessing the effect of the relationship between effective
leadership and organizational performance in promoting maximization
of the objectives of the organization examining whether three are
leadership obstacles that hamper organizational performance in the Kogi
Sate NYSC; finding out if there are possible way of enhancing
organisational performance in the Kogi State NYSC. The study
employed survey research design in the work. The questionnaire was
structured in five point scale in line with the objectives set out to be
achieved in the study. The instrument was checked for reliability using
test-re-test method. A sample size of 82 was selected from a total
population of 103 and stratified random sampling was used to select the
respondents. The data generated from the field survey were presented
and analysed using quantitative method like frequency distribution
tables and simple percentage (%). The test of hypothesis was performed
using chi-square statistical test. The result arising from the primary data
tested at 0.05 co-efficient interval and degree of freedom revealed that
there is positive and significant relationship between effective
leadership and organizational performance in NYSC Kogi State. The
study also revealed that there are no leadership obstacles that hamper
organisational performance in the Kogi State NYSC resulting from the
structure of the organisation management. However, the study revealed
that in-spite of the above, there are other factors that affect
organizational performance. These factors are lack of good office,
equipments, insufficient funds and poor work environment. Again, the
work also revealed that in the Kogi State NYSC there are possible ways
of enhancing organisational leadership for effective performance. Above
all, the study revealed that there are no empirical evidence to show the
relationship between effective leadership and organisational
performance. In view of the above, since it is people that make up
organisation therefore, it has been recommended among others that all
those things the people need to enable them perform at high level
should be put in place for them.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i

Approval page ii

Certification page iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents viii

List of Tables xii

Chapter One

Introduction 1

1.1 Background of the Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problems 3

1.3 Objectives of the Study 5

1.4 Significance of the Study 6

1.5 Scope of the Study 8

1.6 Limitation of the Study 9

Chapter Two

Literature Review and Methodology 11

Review of Related literature 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 The relationship between effective leadership and

organizational performance 12
2.3 Conceptual clarification 14

2.4 Leadership and Motivation 15

2.5 Motivation and Job Performance 18

2.6 Leadership effectiveness and job performance 20

2.7 Leadership Style 22

2.8 Organisational performance 24

2.9 How to measure organizational performance 25

2.10 Leadership and communication 27

2.11 Characteristic and qualities of good leadership 30

2.12 Managing Subordinates in Organisations 36

2.13 Summary of the Review of Related Literature 38

2.14 Methodology of the Study 39

2.15 Hypotheses 45

2.16 Theoretical Framework 45-48

Chapter Three

Introduction

3.0 Background to the National Youth Service Corps

Scheme Corps Scheme 49

3.1 Objectives of the Scheme 51

3.2 Functions of National Youth Service Corps 52

3.3 National Youth Service Corps State governing Board 53

3.4 State Secretariat 54


3.5 Local Government committee on the NYSC 55

3.6 Organisational Structure of NYSC Kogi Sate 56

3.7 Occupation of the people of Kogi State 58

3.8 Geography of Kogi State. 59

Chapter Four

4.0 Introduction 61

4.1 Data presentation and Analysis 61

4.2 Presentation of Data 61

4.3 Data Analysis 83

4.4 Discussion of Findings 88

Chapter five

Summary of major findings, conclusion and recommendations

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Summary of major Findings 93

5.3 Conclusion 94-96

5.4 Recommendations 96-97

5.5 Contribution to knowledge 97-98

5.6 Suggested Area for future Research 98-99

Bibliography 100

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2:1 List of units, in NYSC Kogi State 44

Table 2:2 Number of questionnaire administered and collected 44

Table 4:1 Sex of Staff 61

Table 4:2 Age of staff in the organisation 62

Table 4:3 Type of education possesses by staff 63

Table 4:4 Length of service with the organisation 64

Table 4:5 Posts held in the organisation 65

Table 4:6 Whether or not the State coordinator is

an indigene or not 66

Table 4:7 Level of Directors involvement in the

organisation operations 67

Table 4:8 Whether or not all sectional heads report to the director

Table 4:9 The relationship between the State cooperation

at or and the subornation staff 68

Table 4:10 To find out how the sectional heads run their sections 69

Table 4:11 To find out the conduciveness of the work environment 70

Table 4:12 To find out if the staff receive on the job training or not 71

Table 4:13 This is to find out if there are factors that

can counter organisational performance 72

Table 4:14 to find out whether or not the staff are

satisfied with their present salary or not 73

Table 4:15 To know if the staff are promoted promptly 73


Table 4:16 What decides who is promoted

Table 4:17 This is to find out whether the staff are

motivated in the organisation or not 75

Table 4:18 To discuss if section heads delegates

duties to their subordinates or not 75

Table 4:19 the staff are expected to describe the

performance of the organisation so far 77

Table 4:20 This is mean for the staff to comment on

the style of leadership in the organisation 79

Table 4:21 Motivation of workers based on their efforts and

contributions 79-80

Table 4:22 Level of motivation by rank 80

Table 4:23 Performance measurement in the organisation 81

Table 4:24 Know the factors that can enhance performance

in their organisation 82

Table 4:25 Contingency table for leadership in the

organisation showing observed and expected values 84

Table 4:26 Contingency table for factors that hamper

organisational performance 85

Table 4:27 Contingency table for factors that enhance

performance in the organisation 87

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The role of leaders in ensuring excellent organisational performance can

not be over emphasized. Adequate motivation, suitable work

environment, compensation, efficient communication between managers

and subordinates play an important role in promoting this goal. Planning

and organisation of work is also very crucial in organisational attainment.

Some researchers have argued that the most common problems

affecting organisational performance in Nigeria business and other

institutions are poor attitude to work among workforce, inefficiency as

well as ineffectiveness of leaders in most places, though others share a

contrary view. This second school of thought believes that organisations

in Nigeria are manged through leadership styles that are strange to

typical Nigerian are managed through leadership styles that are strange

to typical Nigerian culture. In the wake-up call to address this issue,

management practitioners in Nigeria have embarked on series of studies

in an attempt to establish the relationship between effective leadership

and organisational performance. Some found out that effective

leadership styles are positively related to organisational performance

while others have a different view. Still there is no empirical evidence to

show how effective leadership styles impacts on organisational

performance. Again given our cultural background, educational


qualifications, environmental factors it is still not too clear how effective a

leader can be if he must combine the three types of leadership styles to

achieve high performance in Organisations Usoro 2000. given this

scenario, this study will be important in that it tries to fill this gap.

The extent (degree) to which all members of an organisation use their

abilities and influences in the effective utilization of resources depends

upon how well the leaders of the organisation understand and perform

their jobs. Maddock and fullton 1998 in Iyang (2006) explain that

leadership styles and other processes of the organisation must be such

that can ensure maximum probability within all interactions and

relationships with the Organisations, each member will in the light of his

background, values and expectation view the expenses as supportive

and one which can build and maintains his sense of personal worth and

importance.

Despite the above, we should note that individuals have their needs to

satisfy and that is why they offered their labours to become

organisational members and the extent to which they are committed to

the organisation depends on the degree of their conviction that their

membership of the organisation will enable them realize their

predetermined objectives. In this case, the support an organisation gets

from the individuals will be based on the realization that by doing that,

his personal objectives and goals will be met, otherwise his interest in
the organisation will wane. Based on that, leadership effectiveness

should be given adequate attention it the organisaiton intends to achieve

it objectives. That is why it is a common agreement among management

scholars that the success or failure of an organisation is largely a

function of leadership and its styles.

Iyang on his part sees effective leadership as a unique ways and

integrating employees with the organisation to achieve its vision or

objectives and that to a large extent the effectiveness of a leader is

largely dependent to the styles adopted by mangers which he says is

central in the management of Organisations. Speaking in the same vein

Edem, observes that failure or success of an organisation, which affect

the subordinates, the customers and agencies within and outside the

organisation. Although there is no standard method through which a

leader can be effective in achieving high performance in an

organisation but that what is required is the modification and the

combination of the variables that make a leader effective if the goals

and objectives of the organisation have to be realized (Edem 2002).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Managing people in Organisations is parts and parcel of management

Process. Therefore, managers should realize, that people are the critical

elements in rganisations and that they should be recognized as being

synonymous with the organisation. But the problem is, to what extent do
managers recognize this fact that employees are synonymous with

Organisations and that they should be adequately motivated so that they

can give their best to ensure high performance? Again the leadership

behaviour/style in most organisations which believe that workers could

be treated anyhow as a result of unemployment situation in the country

which makes job switch difficult has resulted in the hardship workers

face in their places of work in Nigeria. This behaviour/style of leadership

has an impact on reforming and/or creating organisational culture which

in turn affects organisational performance and commitment. So given

this situation, how effective can a leader be to elicit the best response

from subordinates and make for the highest or best performance (Usoro,

2000). Furthermore, some researchers are of the opinion that the most

common problems affecting organisational performance in Nigeria

businesses and other institutions are poor attitude to work among the

workforce, inefficiency and ineffectiveness of leaders in most places,

others still belief that organisations in Nigeria are managed through

leadership styles and behaviours that are strange to typical Nigerian

culture.

In view of the above contending issues, it was necessary to look at

effective leadership and organisational performance in Nigeria using

National Youth services corps Kogi State Secretariat as a case study.

Therefore, this study will be investigating the following.


- To examine the impact of effective leadership on organisational

performance.

- To study the effect of leadership behaviour on the

execution/implementation of the programmes of the NYSC in Kogi

State.

- To find out the extent to which the management structure of Kogi

State NYSC influences the performance of the organisation.

- To suggest recommendations aimed at engendering effective

leadership of the Kogi State NYSC.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine the impact of effective

leadership on organisational performance. The specific objectives are as

follows:

1. To find out the effect of the leadership behaviour on the

execution/implementation of the programmes of the NYSC in Kogi

State.

2. To examine the extent to which the management str cture of Kogi

State NYSC influences the performance of the organisation.

3. To suggest recommendations aimed at engendering effective

leadership in Kogi State NYSC.

1.4 Significance of the Study


The significance of any research study lies in the application of its

findings for operational purpose. It is believed that this study will be of

immense importance because the empirical finding will reveal how

effective leadership impacts on organisational performance.

The study among others, seek identify the weaknesses or inadequacies

of various variables of effective leadership. It is the researcher’s belief

that this work through its findings will change the perception of the

National Youth Service Corps Kogi State Secretariat leadership and

other organisation’s leaders about their leadership behaviour and styles.

Scholars and practitioners suggest that effective leadership behaviours

can facilitate the improvement of performance when organisations face

challenges (Avery 2008).

Again, leadership is viewed by some researchers as one of the driving

forces for improving a firm’s performance. That is why effective

leadership is seen as a potent source of management development and

sustained competitive advantage for organisational performance

improvement. This is because leadership helps organisations achieve

their objectives more efficiently by linking job performance to valued

rewards and by ensuring employees have the resources needed to get

the job done.

Another theoretical significance of this study is that when organisations

seek efficient ways to enable them to out perform others, a long standing
approach is to focus on the effects of leadership. This is because team

leaders are believed to play a vital role in shaping collective norms,

helping teams cope with their environments and coordinating collective

action’. The absence of leadership is so dramatic in its effects. Without

leadership, organizations move too slowly, stagnate and lose their way.

If decision making is timely, complete, and correct, than things will go

well, yet a decision by itself changes nothing. After a decision is made,

an organisation faces the problems of implementation – how to get

things done in a timely and effective way. Problems of implementation

are really issues about how leaders influence behaviour, change the

course of events and overcome resistance. Leadership is crucial in

implementing decision successfully. Furthermore, the result of this work

will be of immense benefit to the leadership of Kogi Sate National Youth

Service Corps. As managers of human and material resource, this study

will assist them to understand leadership, managing people and other

resources, harnessing resources both human and material to achieve

organisational goals and objectives and what it takes to achieve

maximum performance through effective leadership.

The result of this study will also help officers in managerial positions to

become conscious of their roles as the propelling force towards

development. It is hoped that the research findings will assist the

Federal, State and Local government Areas especially Kogi State and
the Local Governments in the state on the ways to adopt the right

leadership styles that can support them so that the state secretariat will

achieve its goals and objectives like any other state secretariat will

achieve its goals and objective like any other state secretariat in the

country.

It is also believed that the work will stimulate further interests in future

researches who will be involved in research efforts in the same

organisation. In addition to the above, it will add to already existing

literatures on effective leadership and organisational performance which

will serve as reference materials to scholars and researchers who may

be interested in embarking on a research of this nature.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers only National Youth Services Corps Kogi

State Secretariat. Thus, the focus of the study is on effective leadership

and organisational performance.

However, to facilitate a sound grasp of the subject matter within the

thought framework of the objectives of the study, the scope of the study

covered such issues as the concept of leadership, the relationship

between effective leadership and organisational performance, leadership

and motivation.

Others include motivation and job performance, leadership effectiveness

and job performance and leadership styles. It also includes


organisational performance, how to measure organisational

performance, leadership and communication, characteristics and

qualities of good leadership and managing subordinates in

organizations.

1.6 Limitation of the Study

In conducting this research project, the work would have been more

thorough if the thirty six States National Youth Service Corps offices in

the country including the National Headquarters were covered. However,

it was difficult to study all the thirty six States National Youth Service

Corps Secretariats due to costs of associated logistics and time

constraints. Owing to these constraints, this study focused on National

Youth Service Corps Kogi State Secretariat alone.

A major limitation to research work in this part of the country is the

inability of the researcher to get the necessary information which could

have made the work richer were not obtained due to the unwillingness of

the officials to give out rich information so the researcher resorted to

getting the little to give out rich information so the researcher resorted to

getting the little he could from the staff of the secretariat. Also, due to

lack of culture of proper record keeping, only very limited data were

gotten by the researcher for this work.

However, inspite of all these limitations and other constraints which may

not be mentioned here, it does not in any way affect the reliability of the
research work for the purpose of reference and its usage by all the

stakeholders in national Youth Services corps especially the Kogi State

Secretariat.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND METHODOLOGY


2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The extent to which the researcher builds his or her study on what has

already been done is an indication of his or her command of the current

state of the field, and an indication of the extent to which the proposed

work moves the field ahead in some significant manner. This study is not

an exception. It seeks an elaborate but critical assessment of effective

leadership and its impact on organisational performance.

Therefore, the following literatures have been reviewed.

- The relationship between effective leadership and organisational

performance.

- Conceptual Clarification

- Leadership and Motivation

- Motivation and Job Performance

- Leadership Effectiveness and Job Performance

- Leadership Styles

- Organisational Performance

- How to Measure Oganisational Performance

- Leadership and Communication

- Characteristics and Qualities Good Leadership

- Managing Subordinates in Organisational


2.2 The relationship between effective leadership and

organisational performance.

Avery considering the views to several scholars states that during the

past four decades, the impact of leadership styles on organisational

performance has been a topic of interest among academics and

practitioners working in the area of leadership. This according to him is

due largely to the widespread belied that leadership can affect the

performance of organisations and that the style of leadership adopted is

considered by some researchers to be particularly important in achieving

organisational goals, and in working performance among subordinates.

Several reasons he adds indicate that there should be a relationship

between leadership and performance. The first reason he said relates to

practice and that due to today’s intensive, dynamic markets feature

innovation based competition, price performance, rivalry, decreasing

returns, and the creative destruction of existing competence, scholars

and practitioners in his view are of the opinion that effective leadership

behaviours can facilitate the improvement of performance when

organisations face these new challenges (Avery 2008).

Understanding the effects of leadership on performance (Zhu et al, 2005

in Avery 2008 is also important because leaders in their view is viewed

by researchers as one of the key driving forces for improving a firm’s

performance ; effective leadership to them is seen as a potent source of


management development and sustained competitive advantage for

organisational performance improvement. In view of this relationships

Avery (2008) presents the views of (Avolio 1999 Lado et al 1992, Rowe

2007) who state that transactional leadership helps orgnisations achieve

their current objectives more efficiently by linking job performance to

valued rewards and by ensuring that employees have the resources

needed to get the job done. Visionary leaders Avery states creates a

strategic vision of some factors, communicate that vision though framing

and use of metaphor, model the vision by acting consistently, and build

commitment towards the vision. (Zhu et al, 2005 in Avery 2008) suggest

that visionary leadership will result in high levels of cohesion,

commitment, trust, motivation, and hence performance in the

organisational environments.

According to (Mehra et al 2006 in Avery 2008) when some organizations

seek efficient ways to enable them to out perform others, a long’

standing approach is to focus on the effects of leadership. This is

because team leaders are believed to play a pivotal role in shaping

collective norms, helping teams cope with their environments and

coordinating collective action. Theses leaders centered perspective has

provided valuable insights into the relationship between leadership and

team performance. (Avery 2008). International Business and Economics

Research Journal 2008 vol 7. No. 5 Https://solution.Mckinsey.com


2.3 Conceptual Clarification

Leadership is a process by which one person influences the thoughts,

attitudes and behaviours of others. Leaders set a direction for the rest of

us; they help us see what lies ahead; they help us visualize what we

might achieve, they encourage us and inspire us. Without leadership a

group of human beings quickly degenerates into argument and conflict,

because we see things in different ways and lean toward different

solutions. Leadership helps to point us in the same direction and

harness our efforts jointly. D. Quinn Mills 2005

www.mindedgepress.com/pdfs.

Mcshane defines effective leadership as the process of influencing

people and providing an environment for them to achieve team or

organisatonal objectives. He states further that effective leadership help

groups of people define their goals and find ways to achieve them.

In his view they use power and persuasion to ensure that followers have

the motivation and role clarity to achieve specified goals. Effective

resources and achieve cooperate objectives more easily (Mcshane

2003).

Koontz et al 1980 in Morehead and Griffin define leadership as

“influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive

willingly towards the achievement of group goals” (Moore Head and

Griffin 2001). Similarly Beleina (1986) in Ezeani sates that effective


leadership is the “art of influencing individual or group activities towards

achievement of enterprise objectives. (Ezeani 2006). He went further to

state that effective leadership is sometimes more that power or authority.

That it entails some degree of voluntary compliance by followers.

Effective leadership he says involves not only willingness to work on the

part of followers but also willingness to work with zeal and confidence

(Ezeani 2006).

Sugarman (2007) states that effective leaders are designers, Steward

and teachers. They are responsible for building organisations where

people continually expand their capabilities to understand omplexity,

clarify, vision and improve shared mental models- that is, they are

responsible for learning (Karsy 2007 @newsguy.com2007.

2.4 Leadership and Motivation

According to Borman, (2007) in Oluseyi and Ayo (2009) the most

important dependent variable in industrial and organisational psychology

is job performance. And that one of the major concerns of companies

has focused on improving workers productivity which is one of the job

performance measures. They also quoted Greguras who describes job

performance as the extent to which an organisational member

contributes to achieving the objectives of the organisation. According to

Kellor 2006 in Olusey and Ayo 2009, when you expect the best from

your employees they will give you their best. On the other hand, when
you expect little from employees they will give you low performance in

return, which in their view was named by Manzoni and Barsoux (2004)

as set-to fail syndrome. Employee motivation is one of the most

strategies of managers to enhance effective job performance among

workers in organisation. Motivation is a basic psychological process.

Motivating is the management process of influencing behaviour based

on the knowledge of what make people tick. Luthans (1998) in Oluseyin

and Ayo (2009) states that motivation is the process that arouses,

energizes directs and sustains behaviour and performance. That is, it is

the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task

and that one way in which employee can be stimulated is to employ

effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and

committed to their jobs. Money is not the only motivator but that there

are other incentives which an also serve as motivators. Though, in order

to observe an effective work performance in an organisation, work

motivation may not be only key factor but that leadership effectiveness is

very important to work performance.

As earlier stated, leadership is a central feature of roganisational

performance. This is an essential part of management activities of

people and directing their efforts towards the goals and objectives of

the organization. There must be an appropriate form of behaviour to

enhance performance which is part of the objective stated earlier in this


work. Leadership might be viewed in terms of the role of the leaders and

their ability to achieve effective performance from others. In this regard

one may want to state that the behaviour and role of the leaders of

National Youth service Corps in Kogi State does not encourage workers

towards work performance and this is the major issue discussed in the

statement of problem.

Leadership is vitally important at all levels within the organization.

Leadership is the moral and intellectual ability to utilize and work for

what is best for the company and is employees. Good management and

effective leadership help to develop teamwork and the integration of

individual and group goals. Leaders have to sustain performance,

sustaining current performance and growing for the future with the

workers in the organization. While keeping eyes on performance

indicators, leaders encourage creativity and innovation, risk taking and

skills for future development. Performance of all employees has to be

maintained and morale rebuilt. The vital role of the leader in shaping

performance and wading becomes fundamental to the success of an

organisation.

In view of the above, and from the statement of problems as they exist in

National Youth Service Corps Kogi State, one can state clearly that

since motivation of staff is lacking, the leadership behaviour does not

encourage high performance and because they lack proper planning and
organisation of work it certainly will affect the performance of workers in

the office.

3.5 Motivation and Job Performance

Oluseyi and Ayo presenting the views of (Burney et al 2007) are of the

view that the level of performance of employees relies not only on their

actual skills but also on the level of motivation each person exhibits.

Motivation they said is an inner drive or an external inducement to

behave in some particular way, typically a way that will lead to rewards.

Over-achieving, talented employees are the driving force of all firms so it

is essential that organisations strive to motivate and hold on to the best

employees. Harrington, 2003, in Oluseyi and Ayo state that for any

organisation to determine the best and quality employees to deliver high

performance there is need for Human Resource Planning which as we

stated in the problem statement is lacking in National Youth Service

Corps and in recognition of this Oluseyin and Ayo are of the view that

the quality of human resource management is a critical influence on the

performance of the firm. And that concern for strategic integration,

commitment, flexibility and quality, has called, for attention for

employees motivation and relation. Financial motivation has become the

most concern in today’s organisation and tying to Masllow’s basic needs,

non-financial aspect only comes in when financial motivation has failed.

That is why other motivating factors such as the environment of work


and the work issues and other non-financial expectations of the

workers are also crucial when considering workers’ performance.

Grenberg and Baron in Oluseyi and Anyo (2009) define motivation in

three ways. The first they say looks at arousal that deals with the drive or

energy behind individual(s) action. People they say turn to be guided by

their interest in making a good impression on others, doing interesting

work and being successful in what they do. The second part referring to

the choice people make and the direction their behaviour takes. That is

why the behaviour of the leader is very important when it comes to how

the leadership of National Youth Service Corps in Kogi treat the

employees especially the work environment. The last part they said

deals with maintaining behaviour clearly defining how long people have

to persist at attempting to meet their goals.

Hitt, et al state further that motivation can be intrinsic and extrinsic.

Extrinsic motivation concerns behaviour influenced by obtaining external

rewards, praise or positive feedback, money and the absence of

punishment in their view are examples of extrinsic or external rewards.

Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to do something simply for pleasure

of performing that particular activity and examples of this are interesting

work, recognition, growth and achievement. Relating this to National

Youth Service Corps secretariat in Kogi, where the work environment

dies not encourage workers it is difficult to obtain high performance.


Again one can not grow on the job if the job is not properly planned and

performance will be low as stated earlier. Several scholars have carried

out researches and have discovered that there exist positive relationship

between intrinsic motivation and job performance as well as intrinsic

motivation and job satisfaction. This relationship (Ling 2003) in Oluseyin

and Ayo say is significant to orgnaisation in today’s highly competitive

business environment in that intrinsically motivated employees will

perform better and, therefore be more productive and also because

satisfied employees will remain loyal to their organization and fill no

pressure or need to move to a different firm.

1.6 Leadership Effectiveness and Job Performance

According to Oluseyi and Ayo Leadership, or more specifically effective

leadership, is every bit as crucial (if not more so) in African organisations

as it is through out the world.

It has been argued that effective leadership has a positive influence on

the performance of organizations and it is the performance of many

individuals that culminates in the performance of the organizations or in

the achievement of organisational goals. Effective leadership is

instrumental in ensuring organisational performance. As a result, many

leadership theories have been proposed in the last fifty years which are

claimed to have influenced the overall effectiveness of the organisations

where they have been employed. In competitive world business


environment it is vital that organizations employ leadership styles that

enable organisations to survive in a dynamic environment. Performance

they said has been defined by Hellriegel et al (1999) as the level of an

individual’s work achievement after having exerted effort. Also

Cummings et al (1973) in Oluseyi and Ayo believed that performance is

ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental variables

influencing performance primarily through their effect on the individual

determinants of performance ability and motivation. They also quoted

Behling and Mitilem (1996) who confirmed the link between high

performance and leadership in the United States by developing a model

of charismatic/transformational leadership where the leaders’ behaviour

is said to give rise to inspiration, awe and empowerment in his

subordinates, resulting in exceptionally high effort, exceptionally high

commitment and willingness to take risks. That is why it has been widely

accepted that effective organisations require effective leadership, and

organisational performance will suffer indirect proportion to the neglect

of this (Olusyei and Ayo 2009)

2. 7 Leadership Styles

Ability to lead and willingness to follow are based on leadership styles.

Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction,

implementing plans, and motivating people. Prasad states that Lewin

led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This


study has been very influential and established three major leadership

styles. The three major styles of leadership are:

- Authoritarian or autocratic

- Participative or democratic

- Delegative or free reign.

Authoritarian (autocratic)

This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done

and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their

followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use are when you have

all the information to solve the problem, you are shorts of time, and your

employees are well motivated.

Some people tend to think of this style as vehicle for yelling, using

demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power.

This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive unprofessional

style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader’s

repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare

occasions.

Participative (Democratic):

This style involves the leader including employees in the decision

making process (determining) what to do and how to do it). However, the

leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is
not a sign of weakness, rather it is sign of strength that employees will

respect.

This is normally used when the leader has part of the information and

the employees on the other side have the other parts. We should note

that a leader is not expected to know everything and this is why

organisations leadership and management have to employ

knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style of mutuall

benefit, it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to

make better decision. Based on the above the National Youth Service

Corps members should be jointly planned together if the expected

results should be realized.

Delegative (Free Reign):

In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions.

However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.

This is used when employees are able to analyse the situation and

determine what needs to be done and how to do it. This is not a style to

use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather it is a

style to be used when one fully trust and confide in the people below

him Prasad 2004).

2.8 Organisational Performance


Performance has been defined by Hellriegel et al (1999) as presented by

Oluseyi and Ayo in their European journal of Economics, finance and

Administrative science (2009) as the level of an individual’s work

achievement after having exerted effort. They also present the views of

Cummings and Schwab on the same issue who believe that

performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental

variables influencing performance primarily through their effect on the

individual determinants of performance ability and motivation.

There is a direct link between the statement of problems and the

objectives stated. That is the researcher wants to discover the impact of

lack of motivation and the poor work environment as the performance of

the staff of National Youth Service Corps, Lokoja office. This is because

the availability of conducive work environment and proper motivation

will equally lead to high performance and the lack of it will have an

opposite effect.

In view of the above, Oluseyi and Ayo again state the view of Behling

and Mcfillen (1996) who confirmed the link between high performance

and leadership in the United States by developing a model of

charismatic/transformational leadership where the leaders’ behaviour is

said to give rise to inspiration, awe and empowerment in this

subordinates, resulting in exceptionally high effort, exceptionally high

commitment and willingness to take risks. They concluded by using the


words of (Marizt, 1996; Ristow et al 1999). That it has been widely

accepted that effective organisations required effective leadership and

organistional performance will suffer in direct proportion to the neglect of

this (Oluseyi and Ayo 2009). This is very much related to the National

Youth Service Corps performance in Kogi State given the position of

those scholars and what is on ground there.

2.9 How to Measure Organisational Performance

According to (Scherbaum et al 2006) in Avery 2008 how to measure

organisational performance has been a persistent source of debate and

critique. They said that previous researches have been heavily criticized

for the measures of performance used. Such performance measures

according to Hoogh et al (2004) in (Avery 2008) includes: knowledge of

prior performance, self- reports of commitment to organisational goals,

satisfaction with the leader and perceived leader effectiveness. Other

researchers such as Koene et al, (2002); in (Avery 2008) are of the

opinion that organisational performance can be done through the use of

net profit margin, business unit sales and percentage of goals met

regarding business unit percentage of goals met regarding business unit

performance. In their view, the above performance method can only be

applied to organizations that are profit oriented and that non profit

making organizations can rely on performance measures using such

methods as environmental constraints which may reflect forces outside


the control of the leader. Avery also is of the view that several scholars

have neglected to focus attention on issues such as the correlation

between financial performance, customer satisfaction and employee

satisfaction when considering organizational performance and that if the

net financial and cost controllable are combined with the environmental

constraints, employees and customer satisfaction will enhance the

validity of the research work. Numerous empirical studies such as Baurl

198; George, 1990; Johnson, 1996; Reynierse and Harncer, 1992; and a

lot others as presented by Avery suggest that positive changes in

employee satisfaction and – customer satisfaction will lead to positive

changes in organizational performance. Therefore, they are strongly

convinced that employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction remain

useful measures of organizational performance. This is very relevant to

the study in that several of the employees in National Youth Service

Corps Kogi State are not satisfied by the quality of leadership behaviour

and as such it has affected the performance of the employees. On the

other hand, the customers both the organizations where corps members

are posted to and the corps members are not too satisfied as a result of

posting of corps members without considering their training and the

relevance of their discipline to their places of primary assignments which

has resulted in several corps members being rejected which cause


frustration among the corps members and lack of satisfaction (Avery

2009).

2.10 Leadership and Communication

Effectiveness of leadership is partially determined by the adequacy and

clarity of communication. The manager exercises his leadership role

through communication with members of the organization. Justin (2006)

defined Communication as both transmission and reception of a

message. Through communication the manager explains the nature of

an assignment to his subordinate while the subordinate reports work

progress to the superior. Feelings and attitudes are also expressed in

the process of communication. Any type of organized activity demands

communication. Chester Barnard 1983 in Parasad viewed

communication as the means by which people are linked together in an

organisation to achieive a common goal (Prasad 2004). The purpose of

communication in an organisation is to affect change to influence action

towards the welfare of the organisation. Specifically, communication is

needed to establish and disseminate goals of an enterprise, to develop,

plans for their achievement, to organize human resources in the most

effective and efficient way; to select, develop, to lead, direct, motivate,

and create climate in which people want to contribute and finally to

control performance Koontz et al 1983 in (Ezeani, 2006).


For any organisation to survive or achieve its goals of profits making or

provision of essential services, it must maintain an effective network of

communication with its various publics. Communication is said to be the

blood of an organisation because it is he means by which the other

management functions are carried out.

Communication is the essence of management. We communicate every

aspect of our job, assignment or instruction. Communication is a very

important tool of transmitting information to others in order to influence a

desired action.

Without some form of communication, organized and goal-directed

activity would not exist. Communication is defined in its broadcast sense

as the transmission of meanings to others. It is a process by which

information, knowledge, feelings to others and views are passed

between individuals for specific objectives.

Communication is the act of transmitting information, ideas, beliefs and

attitudes from one person to another or from a group of persons to

another. Effective communication is a process involving an interchange

of Tacts, view points and idea between a person or an organisation and

another to achieve mutual understanding.

Effective communication is that process which results in understanding

and trust instead of tension.


Communication is a process that can be carried out in three broad ways,

that is words (spoken) non- verbal and written. This may be a problem

in National Youth Service Corps Secretariat as logistics are a major

problem as stated in the statement of problem (Yolokwu 20005).

2.11 Types of Communication

Vertical – Between the superior and his subordinate.

Horizontal- Between employees in the organisation.

Lateral Communication – Between people of the same rank in the

organization.

2.12 Pattern of Organisational Communication

Classified according to the pattern of flow:

Downward flow – flow form top management to middle level managers.

Upward flow – Two way traffic sharing of information

Horizontal Flow – Information between departments and Peers

2.13 Principles of Communication

The sender must determine the purposes of the communication and use

symbols having the same meaning for the sender and receiver.

2.14 Factors that make Communication Effective are

Adequate information about the topic (of discussion) Favorable

environment and living use of appropriate media etc.


2.15 Barriers to Communication

Anything which prevents the sender and the receiver from having the

same interpretation of the same message is a barrier. They are found in

the elements of Communication- the sender, the message, the media

and the receive.

Such barriers are:

Physical barriers e.g. noise

Psychological barriers e.g. fear, worry, etc

Physiological barriers- e.g. hunger, poor health etc.

Command of vocabulary, attitude etc.

2.16 Advantages of Effective Communication in an organization

include

Higher productivity

Higher profit

Labor stability

Low labor Turn- over

It encourages loyalty and commitment

It leads to understanding, co- operation

It increases efficiency (Yolokwu 2005)

2.11 Characteristics and Qualities of Good Leadership

Those who hold leadership positions in organizations are usually those

that have been found to possess certain characteristics and qualities.


The leader might not necessarily be the most senior person in all

situation but by virtue of having certain qualities, these is believe that

he/she will perform most effectively given the necessary resources and

supported with good policies. The qualities found in the person are

expected to help carry out some defined functions and goals every

administrator wants peace to reign in the work milieu but the only way to

achieve peace is to deliver the administrative services efficiently in order

to meet the expectations of the workers and the management board.

The qualities as discussed by Adebayo (2004) are as follows:

Tact: A leader must be tactful in dealing with this or her colleagues, he

must posses a sense of modesty, sense of judgment, foresight ability to

delegate, sympathy and Consideration, feasibility and a wide range of

initiative, imagination and perseverance. A good sense of imagination

and perseverance are two essential attributes of a leader.

A good administrator should posses the abstract, thinking and

perseverance in any situation no matter how difficult. He/she should be

able to grasp all the facts in a complicated situation, to sort them out and

to set them out in their proper relationship and to summarize them in the

fewest possible words (Adebayo, 2004). Other attributes associate with

the sense of imagination and perseverance includes:-

 The capacity to recognize the essential points in a situation

however complicated.
 The capacity to think less in terms of things as they are today but

in terms of what is going to happen.

 Ability to show fine discrimination about the points to concede and

the points on which to stand firm

 The capacity not only to understand people but also to lead them

to be conductors of orchestra.

Sense of Humor

An Administrator/leader must have a good sense of humor in other to

enhance the effect of communication, create a friendly environment and

make the interaction interesting and sustainable without losing the focus

of the issues being discussed with the staff colleague. He must in all

situations relax and sleep well, in other to appear presentable, an

administrator should develop a neat and decent way of dressing, a

dignified and calculated way of speech and always conduct him/her self

in a different manner. According to Parkinson et al (1998), the manager

or administrator should be endowed with delicate and sensitive

perception so that he can understand the changing needs of the

organization. He should have courage and faith. The leader of

administrator must be able to define clearly the objectives of the

Organisation and then direct the activities of his men to the attainment of

the objectives. Parkinson et al. (1998) equally discussed the

characteristics of the administrator as follows:


Broad familiarity with technology being used by the organisation, being

able to work with people, time management, concentration, practical

approach to issues, being able to attempt the impossible, being action

oriented, integrity and being able to calculate costs and benefits.

Peretomode and Peretomode (2005) listed the essential qualities of an

administrator as follows:

Good human relationship

A leader should possess the ability to communicate effectively using

both verbal and non-verbal methods of communication, he/she must be

a good listener and a careful observer.

 Intelligent, persuasive and diplomatic;

 Accessibility and approachability;

 Patience, tolerance and endurance. Drive and efficiency;

 Effective communication skills, including listening ability;

 Willingness to accept criticism and admit mistakes;

 Foresights and vision;

 Cheerfulness, flexibility, and adaptability;

 Physical, mental and emotional stability;

 A democratic attitude, be open-minded;

 Honest, reliable and dependable character. Trustworthiness and

good integrity.
 Assertiveness.

According to (Nwizu 2003) experts in public administration, say that no

person can acquire these without having made himself the master of at

least one branch of work, leader must manifest some characteristics that

will make them unique in the organisation so that they can successfully

lead while others will follow in order to achieve the purpose of the

organisation. Leadership can be described as the ability of an individual

to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the

effectiveness and success of an orgnisation or group of which they are

members. A person who therefore has this ability is a leader. Leaders

possess a number of common qualities:

 Self-awareness: Knowledge of your own values, passions, skills,

strengths and weaknesses, an ability to admit and learn from

mistakes and to seek information to fill knowledge gaps.

 Integrity: A strong sense of “what is right” and a demonstration of

ethnical practices that sets the tone for others. A commitment to

teaching by example.

 Courage: The strength to act in accordance with your own values

and the greater good despite pressures pushing you in other

directions. The ability to put the cause before the desire to be

popular.
 Confidence: A belief in your ability to meet most challenges that

come your way/

 Vision: A strong sense of where you are going as a person and

where you think society, your community and your organization

should be going- and how it might get there.

 Enthusiasm: A lively interest in the people, issues and events

around you, a feeling of excitement about the possibilities, and the

energy to guide them towards fruition.

 Innovation: The ability to “think outside the box;” take risks and

develop new effective solutions to old and emerging problems.

 Wisdom: intelligence coupled with insight and empathy, as

opposed to raw intelligence.

 Adaptability: A willingness to be flexible and to respond quickly

and effectively to changing circumstances, along with a

commitment to continual learning-formal and informal-and the

ability to put that learning into practice.

 Strong Inter-personal skills: An ability to interact and work

harmoniously with others, while being prepared to take on

individual responsibilities.

 Effective communication: A willingness and ability to listen to and

understand thoughts, ideas and concerns of others and to clearly


communicate your own. A vision is nothing if it can’t be sold to

others.

 Belief in others: to desires to build the capabilities of others, with

helpful feedback and motivate them to do their best.

 Peer respect: an ability to inspire respect, allowing a person to

capably lead discussions, maintain discipline and encourage the

contribution of others.

 Insight: the ability to see the big picture, a strong sense the stage

attained by followers and intuits problems before they arise or

before they become insurmountable.

 Sense of humor: The ability to laugh at yourself and relieve

tension or stressful situations with humor.

 Competence: Others are unlikely to follow the lead of a person

who does not appear to know what he/she is doing.

 Delegation skills: a willingness to trust others and cede some

responsibility.

Managing Subordinates in Organisations

Every organisation is made up of physical and human resources and

the key factor to organisational success is the optimal utilization of these

physical and human resource. The individuals in an organisation have

different needs, attitude and personality, which tend to influence their


behaviours. It is important that a manager recognizes this

factors/process working within their subordinates and determines types

of leadership style and behaviour to employ in order to make work

efficiency Effiong, 1998 in (Ohiri 2008). However, mangers should look

at organisation/members as a group working towards the

accomplishment of a single goal. The leader in trying to direct the

activities of the group must bear in mind that the individual making up

the group have different goals which the leader must know and that of

the organisation. It is the responsibility of the group leader to foster

peace and unity rather than hindering the group’s progress and

success. Leaders should be rational in their approach towards a unified

goals rather than being sentimental. Groups are dynamic and so group

leader should also be dynamic. Leaders must be able to forecast and

predict changes before they occur. He must be able to accept and

manage conflicts, communicate effectively, provide subordinates with

resources and maintain a peaceful coexistence between the workers

and the organization Effiong in (Ohiri 2006). When subordinates trust

and respect their leader he is free to vary his behaviour. A resenfful or

hostile group will require a different style of leadership from the one that

work with a well intended and friendly group. He emphasized further that

leadership behaviour that may be successful with a self reliant group

may prove a dismal failure with a dependent apathetic one.


Summary of the Review of Related Literature

This chapter has been able to review studies related to the topic

“effective leadership and organizational performance”. To facilitate a

sound understanding of the subject matter within the thought framework

of the objectives of the study and the hypotheses, the scope of the

review covered issues such as, the relationship between effective

leadership and organisational performance, concepts of effective

leadership, leadership and motivation and motivation and job

performance. Others cover areas such as leadership effectiveness,

leadership styles, organisational performance and measurement of

organisational performance. It also reviews leadership and

communication, characteristics and qualities of good leadership and

managing subordinates in organisations.

From the review, it was gathered that the concept of effective leadership

as applied to organisational performance is a social and dynamic

process directed at shaping the behaviours and activities of subordinates

in organizations without the use of coercive influence, to elicit the

subordinates’ voluntary participation in an organized effort to attain the

set organisational goals. It is the leadership that creates a vision for the

organisation and makes others to bring the vision to practical reality.

However, the level of productivity of the Nigerian workers has for long

attracted the attention of management experts who desire to improve


performance. Unfortunately, despites several empirical studies on how to

improve organisational performance the most common problems

affecting organizational performance in Nigeria institutions, social,

economic and particularly governmental establishments are poor attitude

to work among the workforce, inefficiency and ineffectiveness of leaders

in most places. Having examined these issues critically, some experts

came up with these findings that most organisations in Nigeria are

managed through leadership styles that are strange to the country’s

culture.

Methodology of the Study

Research Design

In studies of this nature, coherent and logical arrangement of materials is

very vital. This section handles how data is collected for this study to

buttress the initial statement, this section deals with the description of

procedure adopted in carrying out the study. It describes the research

design, source; of data, instruments for data collection, establishment of

research questions, population of the study, sample size and technique

of data analysis.

The research design embodies the blue print for the collection,

measurement and analysis of data related to the research questions.

Thus, the methodology used for the collection of data is mainly survey

method based on secondary primary sources of data collection.


Population of the Study

The target population for the study consists of eighty two staff of the

National Service Corps (NYSC), Kogi State. The total population of the

organization is 103. the respondents were drawn from different

departments in the organization under study.

Area of Study

The study covers the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), Kogi

State Instrument for Data Collection

The main data collection instrument employed in this study was a 25

item questionnaire.

The design included multiple-choice questions; fill in questions and

questions that require ranking of answers. The questions were clearly

simplified and structured in a manner devoid of any ambiguity and

technical details. Thus, most of the questions simple required

respondents to tick (x) against the appropriate response answer yes or

no and rank on a scale. of 0 – 5. The questionnaire was drawn to elicit

information/data on effective leadership and organisational performance.

Also the researcher made use of interview to elicit for more information

to support the other instruments used for data collection.


Validation of the Instrument

To ensure the validity of the questionnaire, it was given to an expert for

thorough scrutiny in this regard; the questionnaire was validated by the

supervisor of this research work.

Sources of Data

The data used for this study was obtained from different sources. This

ranged from questionnaires, personal interviews, observations and

library search. However, field study involves use of questionnaires and

schedules of interviews were applied in obtaining, reinforcing and cross

checking obtained data for this report. The data generated for the study

comprises of secondary (desk survey) and primary sources (field

survey).

Primary data are those obtained directly from the originators or main

source. The aim of collecting them is to obtain first hand information

about the organisation being studied and their activities. The bulk of the

primary data were obtained through interviews and questionnaires

designed via use of information generated from secondary survey (desk

survey) after taking due cognizance of the purpose and objectives of the

study.

i. Questionnaires: This formed the major source of primary data

used in the study. The data collected from this source was obtained
through use of questionnaires constructed by the researcher and as

approved by the supervisor.

The data required for this study were collected through actual visits to

the organization and face-to-face distribution and administration of

questionnaires to the eighty two (28) respondents from the Kogi State

NYSC. A copy of the questionnaire is attached as appendix one.

ii. Face-to-face Interview: Apart from use of questionnaires, a

structured interview was conducted for unit heads or supervisors directly

in charge of administrative activities for the organisation. For instance in

a situation where the question administered through the questionnaire

requires to be clarified or elaborated upon, oral interviews were

conducted. Face-to-face interview was also conducted to solicit issues

not in the questionnaire but could be of immense assistance in this

study.

Secondary data is based on past research work on this area of study.

They are data collected from Internet, textbooks, government

publication, unpublished research works and journals. Also,

acknowledged authorities within the area of study provided valuable

materials for this study.

Location of Data

The following locations were made use of in this study: libraries,

archives, government departments and Internet.


Determination of Sample Size

Stratified random sampling method was used in this study, because it is

considered the simplest, most convenient and bias free selection

method.

Sample formula

N
N=
1  N 0.05
2

Where

n = desired sample size

N = size of the population

e = Limit of error tolerance which was assured to be 5% (0.05);

confidence limit.

Computing with the above formula, number of questionnaires to be

administered was obtained

N = 103

e = 0.05 or 5%

103
n=  81.9085
1  1030.05
2

n = 82

n = 82

therefore, in order to arrive at a statistically valid conclusion, we

administered 82 questionnaires which were all filled and returned.


Techniques of Data Analysis

The raw data was classified and tabulated after ensuring that they were

carefully collated. This was followed by analysis and interpretation of

findings.

Table 1: List of units in the NYSC Kogi State

Name of the unit Nature of Activities

1 Community Services Accounts, Admin, Stores/Procurement,

Public Relations and Planning,

Research/Statistics

2 Operations Corps Mobilization, Inspectorate,

Community Development and Corps

Welfare

Source: Field survey, 2011

The units are referred to as A and B respectively in the presentation and

analysis of data in chapter 4.

Table 2: Number of questionnaire administered and collated

Unit 1 Unit 2 Total Percentage

No Issued 41 41 82 100

No returned 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

2.10 Hypotheses
1. Ho There is no relationship between leadership and organizational

performance in Kogi State NIYSC.

H1 There is a relationship between leadership and organisational

performance in Kogi State NYSC.

2. Ho There is no leadership obstacle that hampers organizational

performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

H1 There is leadership obstacle that hampers organistional

performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

3. Ho There are no possible ways of enhancing organizational

leadership for effective performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

H1 There are possible ways of enhancing organisational

leadership for effective performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

2.11 Theoretical Framework

The path-goal theory of leadership

The path-goal theory is a widely recognized theoretical development

from a contingency approach which is derived from the behaviour and

the expectancy framework of motivation theory of Victor Vroom.

Although George Poulos and his colleague at the University of

Michigrows for social Research used path-goal concepts and

terminology many years ago for analyzing the impact of leadership on

performance the modern development is usually attributed to Martin

Evens and Robert House, who at about the same time wrote separate
papers on the subject. In essence, the path-goal theory attempts to

explain the impact that leader behaviour has on associate motivation,

satisfaction and performance. The early theoretical work on the path-

goal theory proposed that leaders will be effective by making rewards

available to subordinates and by making those rewards contingent on

the subordinates’ accomplishment of specific goals (Luthans 2008). The

early path-goal work led to the development of a theory involving four

specific styles of leader behaviour (directive, supportive, participative

and achievement) and three types of subordinate attitudes (job

satisfaction, acceptance of the leader and expectations about effect,

performance reward relationships). It is argued by them that an

important part of the leader’s job is to clarify for subordinates the kind of

behaviour most likely to result in goal accomplishment. This activity

according to lvancerich is referred to as path clarification (lvancerich

2008).

This theory attempts to define the relationships between a leader’s

behaviour and the subordinates’ performance and work activities. Leader

behaviour is acceptable to subordinates to the degree that they see it as

a source of satisfaction now or as a step toward future satisfaction.

Leaders ‘behaviour influences the motivation of subordinates when it

make the satisfaction of their needs contingent on successful

performance; and it provides the guidance, support and rewards needed


for effective performance (but that goal theory of leadership and the

expectancy theory of motivation, are closely related in that leader

behaviours can either increase or decrease employee expectancies.

Relating this to the leader behaviour which was stated in the statement

of problem which says that

The leadership behaviour in most organisations which


believe that workers could be treated anyhow as a result
of unemployment situation in the country which makes job
switch difficult has resulted in the hardship workers face
in their places of work in Nigeria. This behaviour has an
impact on performing and creating organisational culture
which in turn affects organisational performance and
commitment.
This no doubt will affect the performance of the staff of NYSC in Kogi

State and will also lower his level of commitment to their work. Under

this theory, each of these leadership behaviours results in different levels

of performance and subordinates satisfaction depending on the structure

of the work task. (Leslie and Byars 2003).

Mcshane and Glinow say that path-goal theory states that effective

leaders influence employee satisfaction and performance by making

their need satisfaction contingent on effective job performance. Leaders

strengthen the performance – to- outcome expectancy and valence of

those outcomes by ensuring that employees who performance their job

well have a higher degree of need fulfillment than employees who

perform poorly. Effective leaders strengthen the effort – to- performance

expectancy by providing the information, support and other resources


necessary to help employees complete their tasks. They also emphasize

that effective leaders create conditions that enable others to realize their

potential in the work place. In other words, path-goal theory advocates

servant leadership. Servant leaders do not view leadership as a position

of power; rather, they are coaches, stewards and facilitators. Leadership

is an obligation to understand employee needs and to facilitate

employee, work performance. It is on this basis that the above literatures

on leadership were reviewed. Considering some of the issues raised in

the statement of problems it is clear that these qualities which an

effective leader should posses are not present in the leadership of NYSC

secretariat in Kogi state which many have attributed the many problems

the secretariat faces today.


CHAPTER THREE

INTRODUCTION

3.0 Background to the National Youth Service Corps Scheme

Nigeria is a country whose colonial history and experience in the

immediate post-independence are where characterized by ethnic,

loyalties, mutual group suspicion and distrust, that culminated in the

traumatic events of a bloody civil war.

As a developing country, Nigeria is further plagued by the problems

attendant upon a condition of under development, namely; poverty,

mass illiteracy, acute shortage of high skilled manpower (coupled with

most uneven distribution of the skilled people that are available),

woefully inadequate socio-economic infrastructure facilities, i.e. housing,

water and sewage facilities, road, health care services and effective

communication system. Faced with these almost intractable problems,

which were further compounded by the burden of reconstruction after the

civil war, the government and the people of Nigeria set for the country,

fresh goals and objectives aimed at establishing Nigeria as:

a) A united, strong and self-reliant nation;

b) A great and dynamic economy;

c) A land bright and full of opportunities for all citizens; and

d) A free and democratic society. These were contained in the 1972

National Development Plan.


The government and the people of Nigeria are not aware that sound and

patriotic leadership is a pre-condition for the rapid social and economic

development of the country. As a nation, Nigeria has been less fortunate

in the kind of leadership that emerge to govern the affairs of the country

since independence, a leadership whose achievements notwithstanding

was non the less ill-prepared and generally not properly motivated to

tackle the problems of socio-economic under- development in the

interest of the country as a whole. There is no gainsaying the fact that

the future of any country depends on the youths. The youth of Nigeria

acknowledge this fact, and have consistently laid to the nation’s

leadership.

It was the need to look beyond the immediate and think of the future

leadership of the country that necessitated the mobilization of certain

categories of our youth through the National Youth Service Corps

Scheme. This was done with a view to giving them the proper guidance

and orientation relevant to the needs of the country. The National Youth

Service Corps Decree No. 24 which has now been repealed and

replaced by Decree 51 of 16th June, 1993, was then formally

promulgated.

The purpose of the scheme is primarily to inculcate in the Nigeria youth

with the spirit of selfless service to the community, and to emphasis the

spirit of oneness and brotherhoods of all Nigerians, irrespective of


irrespective of cultural or social background. The history of our country

since independence has clearly indicated the need for unity amongst all

the people of Nigeria and demonstrates the fact that no cultural or

geographical entity can exist in isolation.

National Youth Service Corps Scheme in Kogi State was created in 1991

following the creation of Kogi State by the then Head of State Ibrahim

Badamasi Babangida. The secretariat was created to pilot the affairs of

the scheme at the grass- root and state level in other to carry out her

objectives.

The zonal offices were also created for purpose of administrative

convenience. (NYSC Inspectors Manual).

3.1 Objectives of the Scheme

The NYSC Decree 24 of 22nd May, 1973 which established the scheme

stated its objectives in section 1 (3) as follows:

a. To inculcate discipline in our youths by instilling in them a tradition

of industry at work and patriotic and loyal service to the nation in

any situation they may find themselves;

b. To raise the moral tone of our youths by giving them the

opportunity to learn about higher ideals of national achievements,

social and cultural improvement;


c. To develop in our youths attitudes of mind, acquired through

shared experience and suitable training which will make them

more amenable to mobilization in the national interest;

d. To develop common ties among our youths and promote national

unity by ensuring that:

i. as far as possible, youths are assigned to jobs in the states other

than their states of origin;

ii. each group, assigned to work together, is as representative of the

country as possible;

iii. the youth are exposed to the modes of living of the people in

different parts of the country with a view to removing projecdices,

eliminating ignorance and confirming at first hand the many

similarities among Nigerians of all ethnic groups;

e. To encourage members of the corps to seek, at the end of their

corps service, career employment all over the country thus

promoting the free movement of labour;

f. To induce employers, partly through their experience with corps

members, to employ more readily qualified Nigerians irrespective

of their states of origin; and

g. To enable our youths to acquire the spirit of self- reliance.

3.2 Functions of National Youth Service Corps


Since the inception of the scheme, NYSC has been operating within the

framework of its enabling decrees and their amendments to fulfill its

assigned responsibilities, though subject to financial and social dictators.

The tasks of the scheme have been broken into specific work

programmes and policies designed to facilitate the achievement of the

objectives for which the scheme was established.

At the National Directorate we have the following functions:

i. Personnel management

ii. Finance and supplies

iii. Planning, Research and statistics

iv. Community development services

v. Corps Mobilisation

vi. Corps Inspectorate

vii. Corps Welfare Service

viii. Public Relation

For purpose of emphasizing and focus, attention will be given to the

state NYSC since that is the scope of the research. However, the

functions of the National Directorate and those of the states are basically

the same.

3.3 National Youth Service Corps State Government Board

The composition of the National Directorate Board is replicated in the

states through the institutionalization of state governing Boards


comprising representatives of cognate organisations to the membership

of the National Directorate Board.

The state Government Board shall be responsible for:

i. Arranging and providing other facilities which are essential for the

welfare of members of the service corps and for the success of the

scheme in the states;

ii. Assembly reports on members of the service corps and transmitting

them to the National Directorate;

iii. Arranging the provision of facilities for orientation and winding up

exercises;

iv. Computing information on such opportunities as these may be for

employment in the states;

3.4 State Secretariat

National Youth Service Corps Secretariats are located in each of the

State capital of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory (Abuja).

The state secretariats implement NYSC policy guidelines form the

headquarters in relation to the states. The secretariat is saddled with the

duty of promoting the ideals of NYSC through correct operational

processes and positive image projection of the scheme. It has direct

responsibility for the deployment of corps members within the state and

their orientation and induction preparatory to the service year. The


secretariat ensures the provision of accommodation, transport and other

essential welfare facilities for corps members. (Enegwea &)

3.5 Local Government Committee of the NYSC

The local Government Committee of the NYSC comprises:

i. The Chairman of the local government as Chairman;

ii. A traditional ruler;

iii. A representative of the Nigeria Police Force;

iv. A representative of each of the following ministries;

a. Education

b. Health

c. Social Welfare and Community development

d. The private sector, and

e. The NYSC zonal inspector

The Local Government Committee shall have responsibility for:

i. Providing for the welfare needs of corps members deployed to the

local government area;

ii. Arranging for the collection of corps members at the end of orientation

course and returning them for the purpose of winding-up exercise;

iii. Assisting in the selection of the National Youth Service Corps

honour-award winners at the local government level;

iv. Ensuring the security of corps members deployed to the local

government area;
v. Guiding and ensuring the effective cultural integration of corps

members deployed to the local government area; and

vi. Developing and executing integrated programmes for the

development and transformation of the local government area. Through

various community development projects.

Zonal Offices

The National Youth Service Corps offices shall:

i. Comprise of a member of local government areas as may be

determined from time to time;

ii. Be headed by a member of staff of the Directorate to be known as the

zonal inspector;

iii. Coordinate the activities of the members of the service corps in the

zone. (Enegwea & Umoden 1993).

Corps Liaison Officers

In order to bring the management of corps members to their door steps,

fellow corps members, who distinguish themselves during the orientation

course, are carefully selected and assigned the responsibility of liaising

between corps members at the grass-roots level and the zonal offices.

The arrangement is however, complementary to the zonal supervision.

3.6 The Organsational Structure of NYSC Kogi State

The National Youth Service Corps secretariats are located in each of the

36 states of the federation and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The
1993 approved structured changed the nomenclature of the head of the

secretariat from state Director to State Coordinator who is a deputy

Director. The various departments and divisions at the National

Directorate headquarters are replicated at the state secretariats.

3.7 Organogram of NYSC at the State Level

STATE GOVERNING BOARD

CHAIRMAN-COMMUNITY YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

STATE COORDINATOR

Assist Director
Assist Director Operations
Community services

Corps Inspectorate
Accounts Admin Mobilization
Department

Community
Stores Developemnt Corps
Procurement Public Welfare
Relation

Planning
Research/Statistics

Source: NYSC: Twenty years of National Service


3.8 Occupation of the People of Kogi State

The people of Kogi State are predominantly peasant farmers, with about

65% of the population living on subsistence farming, about 15% of the

population lives along the Niger and Benue Rivers Banks who derive

their means of livelihood from fishing.

The working group that is those that are in the regular employment both

in the public and private sectors constitute about 15% of the total

population, while the remaining 3% are into trading. Kogi State is made

up of several ethnic groups. There are however, three dominant ethnic

groups which are the lgalas who are in the majority, the Ebira and the

Okun people. Other ethnic groups are the Kakanda, the Bassa, the

Oworo and the Nupes. Other tribes include the Ogori, the Magongo, the

Hausas and the Ibaji. These people are scattered all over the state with

the land mass of about 30,354. 74km.sq. The population of Kogi State

according to the last census figure is 2,516,414. The state was created

in August, 1991 out of Benue and Kwara States.

The purpose of this x- ray is to show the enormous challenges, the Kogii

NYSC has to face and on the need for the leadership to brace up and

address some of the problems raised in this study if the objectives of the

scheme are to be realized in the state as it is in other states.

3.9 Geography of Kogi State

Background of Kogi State People


The area, which is today known as Kogi State, were formerly geopolitical

unit called Kabba province in the then Northern Region.

It was made up of lgala, Ebira, Kogi and Kabba Divisions with its

administrative headquarters in the present state Capital Lokoja. The

state creation exercise of 1967 and the abolition of the province and

regions led to the merging of the llorin and Kabba provinces to form

Kwara State with its headquarters in llorin. This status-quo remained

until 1976 when in another state creation exercise, the former lgala

Division was excised and merged with Benue province to form Benue

state with the headquarters in Makurdi. Kogi State came into being on

27th Auguss, 1991, during the state creation exercise that gave birth to

new sates under the Babangida administration. In effect, the part of the

old Kabba province that remained in Kwara and the one that was made

part of Benue State were excised and brought back together to form

Kogi State with the headquarters in Lokoja. The State is structured into

twenty one (21) local government areas namely: Adavi, Ajaokuta, Ankpa,

Bassa, Dekina, Idah, Lgalamela/Odolu, Ibaji, Ijumu, Kabba- Bunu, Kogi,

Lokoja, Mopamuro, Ofu, Ogori-Magongo, Okehi, Okene, Olamaboro,

Omala, Yagba East and Yagba West. Kogi State is located between

latitude 6 o30’N, and 8o 50’N and longitude 5o 51 E and 30o E. The state

is bordered by the following state; Enugu (South East), Benue (East)

Nasarawa (North East), Niger (North), FCT (North), Kwara (North) Ondo
(South West), Edo (East), Anambra (South), and Ekiti (West). With a

15th largest state in the country in terems of landmass. The three major

ethnic groups in the state are lgala, Ebira and Okun. Together, they

constitute about 95% of the total population of Kogi State. The minor

ethnic groups, on the other hand, includes, Kakanda, Kupa. Ogori-

Magongo, Nupe, Bassa-Koma, (Gwari) and Bassa-Nge. Both Christianity

and Islam are widely practiced in the State, although some people are

still practicing traditional religion.


CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

Presentation of Data

The methodology described the design used in this study. Also in that

section we presented the procedure, population size and sample, source

of data and rate at which questionnaires were returned. This chapter

focused on collected data, analyses of the data, presentation and

validation of hypothesis stated in chapter one. For the purpose of this

study, A, represents Community Services and B represents Operations

while A.D. represents Assistant director.

Analysis of Data from Respondents

Question 1: Sex

Table 3: Sex of staff

No respondents

Options A B Total %

Male 19 16 35 43

Female 20 27 47 57

Total 39 43 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 35 respondents representing 42.6829 =

43% of the total respondents are male, while 47 respondents


representing 56.6265 = 57% of the respondents are female. See Table

3. There were more females than males in all the units sampled.

Question 2: Age group of staff

Table 4: Age of staff in the organization

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

18-29 6 4 10 12

30-40 18 14 32 39

41-50 12 16 28 34

51-60 5 7 12 15

61-70 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above indicates that 10 respondents, representing 12% of the

population were between the ages of 18-29, 39%, which represent 32

respondents were within the ages of 30-40, 28 respondents were within

the ages of 41-50 representing 34% while 12 respondents, representing

14.634 = 15% of the population were within the ages of 51-60.

None of the respondents were within the ages of 61-70.

With 82 of the respondents within the age range of 18-50 years, it shows

that the bulk of the work force is till young and energetic. Therefore most

members of the work force are within the productive


age. This encourages effective performance

Question 3: level education

Table 5: Type of education possessed by staff.

Option A B Total %

Primary 19 16 35 43

Secondary 20 27 47 57

Diploma/NCE 39 43 82 100

Bachelors degree

Others

Total

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 28 respondents representing 34% of the

sampled population has secondary education, while 15 out of the total

82 people sampled have national diplomas or National Certificate of

Education (NCE). People with bachelors degree are 39 respondents

accounting for 47.5609 = 48% of the sampled population.


Question 3: How long have you been with the organization?

Table 6:

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

Under 1 year 0 0 0 0

1-3 13 13 25 30

3-5 13 17 30 37

Over 5 years 15 12 27 33

Total 14 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

This deals with the longevity of staff in the organization. The table above

shows that 25 respondents representing 30% fall within 1-3 years and

30 respondents representing 37% fall within 305 years; while 27

respondents representing 33% fall within 5 years and above. This shows

that most of the staff have been with the organization consistently and

are more likely to know about the organisation’s performance.


Question 4: What post do you hold in the organization?

Table 7: Posts in the organisation

No respondents

Options A B Total %

Director

Assistant Directors 1 1 2 2

Zonal inspectors 10 11 21 26

Senior Staff 17 13 30 37

Junior staff 13 16 29 35

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows the staff positions in the organisation. Of the

total respondents, only two are in the positions of Assistant Directors.

Note also that the post of Director has been converted to a State

Coordinator. 21 of the respondents hold the post of zonal inspectors

which represents 26% of the population. They cover the 21 local

government of the State. 30 of the respondents representing 37% of the

population holds junior staff positions. The table shows that 65% of the

population under study holds the posts of senior staff and above. It

indicates that the respondents are in a better position to ascertain

leadership performance in the organization.


Question 5: Is the state coordinator indigene of the State?

Table 8:

No respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 0 0 0 0

NO 41 41 82 100

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 82 respondents representing 100% affirm

that the State coordinator is not an indigene of the state this indicates

that the organization under study a is Federal establishment.

Question 6: How will you rate the director’s involvement in the

operational level of the organization involvement?

Table 9: Director’s involvement in the organization’s operations

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

5 24 25 49 60

4 11 9 20 24

3 6 7 13 16

3 0 0 0 F

2 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The respondents’ opinions showed that 49 of them indicate that he

directors are strongly involved in the day to-day operations of the

organisation which represents 60%. Also, 20 of the respondents agreed

that their directors are strongly involved in the daily operations of the

organisation which represents 24% of the respondents.

The above table indicates that the State coordinator (Director) as well as

Assistant Directors are expected to be involved in the daily activities of

the organisation shows that 82% of the workers are of the opinion that

their directors are either very strongly involved or strongly involved.

While 13% chooses the scale of 3, which represents 16%, none of the

respondents choose a scale of 2, 1 or 0. See Table 8. This affirms that

the directors are dedicated to their duties.

Question 7: Do all sectional heads report to the Director?

Table 10: all section heads reporting to the director

No of respondent

Options A B Total %

YES 41 41 82 100
NO 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

It shows that all units heads report to the state coordinator.

Question 8: What is the relationship between the state coordinator

and the subordinate staff?

Table 11: Relationship between heads and subordinates

No of respondents

Scale A B Total %

5 23 25 48 59

4 12 11 23 28

3 6 5 11 13

3 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

It has been noted above that cordiality is very important in any

organisational activities. The level of cordiality/relationship between the

heads and subordinates in this study shows that 46% of the

subordinates agree that they have very good relationships with their
superiors which represent 59%. Also 23 out of the total population also

agree that there is a cordial relationship between them and their

supervisors which represents 28%. 1% of the staff believed that their

level of relationship is below average, while none of them agree to worst

relationship. Good cordiality promotes effectiveness and readiness of

workers to take up responsibilities at work.

Question 9: How do heads of sections run their Sections?

Table 12: How heads of sections run their Sections

No respondents

Options A B Total %

Freely 7 10 17 21

With director’s 34 31 65 79

intervention

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 17 respondents representing 21% agree

that sectional heads have free hand in running their sections while 65

respondents representing 79% say that the directors intervenes in the

running of sections.
Question 10: Is the work environment conducive for the

organization operations?

Table 13: the conduciveness of work environment

No of respondents

Scale A B Total %

5 4 6 IP 12

4 13 17 30 2837

3 5 6 11 1313

2 14 9 23 028

1 3 2 5. 06

0 2 1 3 4

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 12 of the workers are of the opinion that

their work environment is strongly suitable. 37% of the sampled

population believed that their work environment is unsuitable while 13%

and 28% are of the opinion that the work environment is average and

suitable respectively. This bears an inverse relationship to the level of

cordiality observed among the workers. It could equally be attributed to

environmental factors and geographical location.


Question 11: Do you receive job training in the organization?

Table 14: receiving job training in the organisation

No respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 30 25 55 67

NO 11 16 27 33

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 67 percent of the respondents receive on

the job training while 33% do not receive training, their lack of training

could equally be attributed to their academic qualification as well as

nature of their duties in the organisation.

Question 12: What factor(s) could counter high organization

performance?

Table 15: Factor(s) that could counter high organizational performance.

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

a 14 15 29 35

b 11 12 23 28

c 14 13 27 33

d 2 1 3 4
e 0 1 0 0

Total 41 0 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 29 respondents representing 35% agreed

that lack of good office equipment and other vital infrastructure are a

factor against high performance. 23 respondents representing 28%

choose insufficient staff and fund as the factors responsible for low

performance. 27 respondents, which represents 33% of the respondents

agreed with autocracy and bad leadership, while 3 respondents

representing 4% picked lack of attention to the staff opinion and welfare

as factors acting against high organizational performance.

Question 13: Are you satisfied with your present salary level?

Table 16: Satisfaction with wages No of respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 0 0 0 0

NO 41 41 82 100

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

None of the respondents is satisfied with his or her present salary. This

means that 0% of the 82 respondents are satisfied with his or her salary.
Based on non satisfaction, the unsatisfied workers may not have

performed their work creditably well and these no doubt would affect the

objective and efficiency of the organisation.

Question: 14: Were you recently promoted?

Table 17: Promotion of staff

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 23 27 50 61

NO 18 14 32 39

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 50 respondents representing 61% were

recently promoted while 32 representing 39% were not promoted

recently. The implication is that majority of the staff especially the senior

staff were promoted. Of the 39% that was not promoted mainly due to

their qualifications, this can lead to complacency in the workers and can

affect their efficiency and performance in the organization.


Question 15: What decides who is to be promoted?

Table 18: Factor deciding whom to promote in the organization.

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

Year of Service 16 18 34 41

Input to the organisation 5 7 12 15

Favouritism 12 11 23 28

Director’s Discretion 8 5 13 16

Others 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 34 and 12 staff representing 41 and 15 %

respectively of the staff population was of the opinion that promotion of

staff was based on years of service and input to the company

respectively. 23 and 13 respondents, which accounted for 28% and 16%

of the sampled population respectively, were of the opinion that

favouritism and directors opinion respectively were factors used when

deciding who gets promoted.


Question 16: Are you motivated in the Organisation?

Table 19: Motivation in the organization

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 31 28 59 72

NO 10 13 23 28

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

59 respondents representing 72% are motivated while 23 respondents

representing 28% are not motivated in their jobs.

Question 17: Do sectional heads delegate duties to the

subordinates?

Table 20: Delegation of duties

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 15 13 28 34

NO 26 28 54 66

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 28 respondents which account for 34%

agree that delegation of duties sexists, while 54 respondents

representing 66% agree that there is no delegation of duty in the


organization. Question 18: if yes, is responsibility backed up by

adequate authority? For those who agree that there is delegation of duty

with is good, it is very important that responsibility is backed up by

adequate authority, so that in carrying out the delegated duty, the person

performing it will have the authority to make certain decisions that will

affect that duty. Delegation of duty is very important; it makes for

flexibility, faster accomplishment of jobs and giving the staff a sense of

belonging because of the trust placed on them. This makes for better

organizational performance. While lack of it makes them feel like

outsiders.

Question 18: Who can you describe the performance of the

organisation so far?

Table 21: Performance evaluation

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

Outstanding 5 7 12 15

Average 12 9 21 26

Poor 24 25 49 59

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

The table above shows that 12 out of 82 respondents representing 15%

agree that the performance of the organization is outstanding, 21


respondents or 26% ‘agree that the organization is average while the

remaining 49 respondents representing 59% stated that the performance

of their organization is poor. These responses are based on how either

good bad leadership affect performance.

Question 19: What do you think may be responsible for this level of

performance in 18 above?

The question was asked to find out the reasons for the level of

performance indicated in question 18.

For those who agree that their organization is outstanding, their reasons

being;

1. Directors’ ability and willingness to delegate responsibility and to

manage the activity of others.

2. Free flow of information and effective communication.

Those who choose average gave these reasons;

3. Exhibition of exaggerated opinion of job perfection by the state

coordinator based on knowledge of skill.

4. Inflexibility to change and lack of innovation.

For those that choose poor, their reasons are;

5. The Directors uses own personal taste and opinion as a standard

to follow.

6. The directors resist advice from qualified sources and is stubborn

to change.
7. She sees herself as the overall boss and does not take other

peoples contributions.

Question 21: From your experience with the organisation, how do

you describe the leadership style?

Table 22: Leadership style in the organisation

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

Autocratic 11 9 20 25

Participative 15 18 33 40

Democratic 15 14 29 35

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

Form the table above, it can be seen that 20 respondents representing

25% described the management style of their organization as autocratic,

while those that choose participative are 33 representing 40%; while 29

respondents choose democratic leadership style representing 35%.


Question 22: do you think that workers are motivated in response

to their efforts and contributions?

Table 23: motivation of workers based on their efforts and

contributions No of respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 11 14 25 30

NO 30 27 57 70

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

From the table above, it could be seen that 25 respondents representing

30% agree that workers are motivated in responses to their efforts and

contribution, while the other 57 respondents representing 70% thinks

otherwise. In all, it revealed that the organisation do not motivate their

staff based on their effort and contribution. This can lead to low morale

and zeal and therefore low performance and productivity.

Tale 24 Level of motivation by rank


No of respondents
Scale A B Total %
5 5 7 12 15
4 6 7 13 16
3 0 0 0 0,
2 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
0 30 27 57 69
Total 41 41 82 100
Source: Field survey, 2011
The table above shows that 15% of the respondents agreed that the

level of motivation was good and satisfactory. 16% agreed that they are

averagely motivated, 69 % of the respondents are of the opinion that

there is no motivation.

Question 23: Are there any form(s) of performance measurement

existing in your organisation?

Table 25: performance measurement in the organisation

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

YES 11 14 25 30

NO 30 27 57 70

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

This is form of continuation from question 22 in order to ascertain the

actual forms of performance measurement applied in the organisation.

The question 24 answer is based on the following example:

1. Setting of worker standards to the attained on director’s ability and

intuition.

2. Based on punctual attendance as well’ as maintenance of regular

duty during camping.


Question 25: what factor(s) can enhance performance in your

Organisation

(a) Recruitment of well educated/experienced staff and leaders ( )

(b) Acquisition of state of the art technology ( )

(c) Participative leadership and proper Motivation of staff ( )

(d) Research and development ( )

(e) Free flow of information and personal recognition ( )

Table 26: Factors enhancing performance in the organisation

No of respondents

Options A B Total %

a 11 9 20 24

b 9 8 17 21

c 21 24 45 55

d 0 0 0 0

E 0 0 0 0

f 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

From the table above, it could be seen that 20 respondents representing

24% agreed that recruitment of well educated/experienced staff can lead

to high performance in the organisation. 17 respondents representing

21% agreed that acquisition of state of technology could lead to high


performance. While 45 respondents, which represent 55% of the

respondents agreed that participative leadership style could enhance

performance of the organisation.

Data Analysis

Having presented the data, they were analyzed in relation to the

presentation. They were then used in testing the entire hypotheses. Chi-

square (x2) was used to test the hypotheses listed in chapter 1..

This research tested the null hypothesis at 0.5 level of significance

From the table, the Chi-square method is applied with the formula:

X2 =  Oij  eij 
Eij

Hypothesis One

Ho represents the null hypothesis.

H1: represents the alternative hypothesis.

Ho there is no relationship between leadership and organizational

performance in Kogi State NYSC

Hi: there is a relationship between leadership and organizational

performance in Kogi State NYSC


Table 27: Contingency table for Leadership style in the organization

showing observed and expected values (O) and (E)

Options A B Total %

Autocratic 11 9 20 25

Participative 15 18 33 40

Democratic 15 14 29 35

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

From the table, the Chi-square method is applied with the formula:

X2 =  Oij  eij 
Eij

11  13.4   9  10.97   15  18.2  18  21.95


2 2 2 2

15  18.22  14  17 2  3.14913121
12.4 10.97 18.2 21.95 18.2 17

Degree of freedom (Df)

(DF) = (R – I)(C – I)

Where R = row

C = column

= (3 – 1) (2 – 1) = (2) (1) = 2

The tabulated Chi-square at degree of freedom (2) and level significance

0.05; (X2 (2) 0.05) = 5.99147

Decision Rule: If the Chi-Square calculated is less than Chi-Square

tabulated, we accept.
Ho: Otherwise, we reject.

Since our calculated Chi-square (5.99147) is more than the tabulated

Chi-Square (3.14913121) under 2 degree of freedom, we reject the null

hypothesis of no relationship between leadership and organizational

performance in Kogi State NYSC

Hypothesis Two

Ho: There is no leadership obstacles that hamper organizational

performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

Hi: There is leadership obstacles that hamper organizational

performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

This hypothesis was tested at significance level of 0.05

Table 28: Contingency table for factor(s) that hamper organizational

performance

Options A B Total %

a 14 15 29 35

b 11 12 23 28

c 14 13 27 33

d 2 1 3 4

e 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011


From the table, the Chi-Square method is applied with the formula:

X2 =
Oji  eij  2
 Eij



 14  17 2 

15  18.29   11  13.41  12  14.63  14  17  13  15.85  2  2.43  1  1.21 
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

 17 18.29 13.41 14.63 17 15.85 2.43 1.21 


 3.181531044 

Decision rule: If the Chi-Square calculated is less than Chi-Square

tabulated, we accept.

Ho: otherwise, we reject.

Degree of freedom (Df)

(DF) = (R – I)(C – I)

= (5 – 1) (2 – 1) = 4

The tabulated Chi-square at degree of freedom (2) and level significance

o. 05) (X2 (4), 0.05) = 7.77944.

The calculated Chi-Square = 3.18153.

Decision rule: since our calculated Ch-Square (3.18153) is less than

the tabulated Chi-Square under 4 – degree of freedom, we accept Ho

and conclude that are no leadership obstacles that hamper

organizational performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

Hypothesis Three
Ho: there are no possible ways of enhancing organizational leadership

for effective performance in the Kogi State NYSC Hi: there are possible

ways of enhancing organizational leadership for effective performance in

the Kogi State NYSC.

Table 29: Contingency table for factors enhancing performance in

the organisation

Options A B Total %

a 11 9 20 24

b 9 8 17 21

c 21 24 45 55

d 0 0 0 0

E 0 0 0 0

f 0 0 0 0

Total 41 41 82 100

Source: Field survey, 2011

From the table, the Chi-square method is applied with the formula:

2
X = X = 2 Oji  eij  2
 Eij

11  13.4   9  10.97  9  10.97  S  9.75


2 2 2 22


21  25.60 2  24  29.26 2  9.34115516
13.14 10.97 10.97 9.75 25.60 29.29

Decision rule: if the Chi- Square calculated is less than Chi-Square

tabulated, we accept
Ho: Otherwise, we reject.

Degree of freedom (Df)

(DF) = (R- I)(C – I)

= (5 – 1 ) (2 -1) = 4

The tabulated Chi- square at degree of freedom (2) and level of

significance 0.05 (X2 (4), 0.05) = 7.77944.

The calculated Chi-Square = 9.341 15516.

Decision rule: since our calculated Chi- square (9. 34115516.) is greater

than the tabulated Chi-Square under 4 degree of freedom (X2 (4), 0.05)

= 7.77944, we reject Ho and accept H i and conclude that there are

possible ways of enhancing organizational leadership for effective

performance in the Kogi Sate NYSC. The implication of the outcome is

that through participative leadership role functions of the NYSC Kogi

State NYSC would be enhanced.

Discussion of the findings

Hypothesis one

The study was evaluated through the use of questionnaire with

questions tailored towards determining the impact of effective leadership

on organizational performance. All the three hypotheses were subjected

to statistical test of significance 0.05 and degree of freedom 2. Chi-

square test of statistics was employed to test the three hypotheses.

Computer aided Microsoft for Statistical Packages for Social Sciences


(SPSS) were to aid analysis to ensure accuracy and eliminate mistake

arising from manual computations. The findings to be discussed are in

line with the objectives of the study based on the data analysed and

results of the field survey.

In an attempt to discover if there is a link between effective leadership

and organizational performance; hypothesis one was tested and the

result arising from the primary data revealed that there is a positive and

significant relationship between effective leadership and organisational

performance. This finding conforms with what Etuk (1955) says that the

failure or success of any organization is due to the leadership styles

adopted in managing the organization, which affects the subordinates,

the customers and other agencies within and outside the organization.

Sequel to the objective of the study to determine the effect of the

leadership behaviour on the execution and implementation of the

programmes of the NYSC in Kogi State, hypothesis one was tested

using Chi-square statistical analysis. Here it was discovered that

leadership behaviour significantly affects the performance of the

organization. Based on the fact that human beings become members of

an organization in order to achieve certain personal and organizational

objectives. Therefore, the extent to which they are committed to the

organization depends on their conviction that their membership will

enable them to achieve their objectives. And since every organisation is


made up of physical and human resources and the key factor to

organizational success is the optimal utilization of these physical and

human resource. In view of the above, the execution and implementation

of an organizations programme will be largely determined by how well

the leadership behaviour is tailored toward proper combination of the

physical and human resources of the organization. That the common

problem pronounced against organizational performance in Nigeria

business and institutions and particularly government establishments are

poor leadership performance, bad attitude to work among Nigerian

workers, inefficiency in most circles. According to him, organizations in

Nigeria are managed through a management system that is strange to

the country’s culture. It shows that poor leadership in all its ramifications

will lead to lower organisational performance. Based on the above, the

null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate accepted.

Hypothesis Two

This hypotheses was also tested using the same approach as

hypotheses one. The result obtained showed that the calculated chi-

square is 3.18153 while that of the tabulated is 7.7944. This shows that

the calculated chi-square is less than the tabulated chi-square. This

means that there are no leadership obstacles that hamper organizational

performance in the Kogi State NYSC resulting from the structure of the

organisations management. This is in line with the objective stated to


find out the extent of the influences of the management structure on the

organizational performance. Given the out come of the analysis that

showed cordial relationships between the leadership team and the

subordinates there is no way the structure of the management can have

a negative influence on the performance of the organization . also given

that all organisation’s management structure has a clearly defined roles

to pay towards enhancing organizational performance it can not

adversely affect the performance of the organization in a negative way.

However, when the management structure variable is held constant

there could be other factors which can affect the performance of the

organization. Such variables as lack of good office equipments and

insufficient funds and poor work environment are some of the factors

that hinder effective organizational performance in the Kogi State NYSC.

In view of the above, the null hypothesis has been accepted while we

reject the alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis Three

The chi-square value was calculated to be 9,34115516 while the

tabulated chi-square is 7,77944 a 4 degree freedom and level of

significance: 0.05. The alternative hypothesis, which states that there

are possible ways of enhancing organizational leadership for effective

performance in the Kogi Sate NYSC, was accepted while the null was

rejected. Considering this, Adebayo (2004) has stated that those who
hold leadership positions in organizations are usually those that have

been found to possess certain characteristics and qualities. These

qualities are that a leader must be tactful in dealing with his or her

colleagues, he must posses a sense of modesty, sense of judgment,

foresight, ability to delegate, sympathy and consideration, feasibility and

a wide range of initiative.

A leader must have a good sense of humor in other to enhance the

effect of communication, create a friendly environment and make the

interaction interesting and sustainable without losing the focus of the

issues being discussed with the staff and colleague. Others include

good human relationship, self awareness, integrity, courage, confidence,

vision and enthusiasm that through these ways and others organisations

leadership can be made effective for higher performance.


CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the various research results which emerged

from the study. The result were obtained in view of the objectives and

the hypotheses put forward in chapter one of the study, Based on the out

come of the findings conclusion were drawn and some

recommendations suggested from the out come of the findings.

5.2 Summary of Major Findings

Based on the objectives of the study three hypotheses were formulated

for the study. These hypotheses consisted of null hypotheses and the

alternative. The hypotheses were tested based on the information

generated and at the end the null hypothesis of the first hypothesis was

rejected while the alternative was accepted. In the same way the second

hypothesis was tested and at the end the null hypothesis was accepted

and the alternative rejected. For hypothesis three the null was rejected

while the alternative was accepted. The findings are summarized as

follows

1. That there is a relationship between effective leadership and

organizational performance.

2. That there are no leadership obstacles that hamper


organizational performance in the Kogi State NYSC. However, when

this variable was held constant other factors such as good office

equipment, insufficient funds, poor work environment and others are

some of the variables that hamper the performance of the NYSC in Kogi

State .

That there are possible ways of enhancing organizational performance

leadership for effective performance in the Kogi State NYSC. Some of

these ways are:

Managing organizations in Nigeria in a way that is consistent with

environmental variables is having in mind the culture of the people, their

needs and value preferences. Others are to ensure that for a leader to

be effective he needs to posses all the positive qualities which a leader

needs for him to lead well as we have stated in the literature review.

Also, he needs the support of the head office and that of his

subordinates if he must succeed.

5.3 Conclusion

Organisations are established for specific purpose and objectives,

people also join organisations to satisfy their needs, and in so doing they

contribute to organizational performance to achieve the objectives of the

organization. Therefore, it is the responsibility of every leader to build an

organization that will function effectively because the extent to which

he/she succeeds will depend considerably ion subordinates willingness


to corporate with him/her among other things will depend on the degree

of congruency between the leadership style adopted by the leader and

the expectations and desires of the subordinates.

In view of the above therefore, to realize the objective of the NYSC in

Kogi State, the leadership should be effective enough to recognize the

needs of the workers, employ appropriate motivational tools such as

promotion of staff based on merit, skills, provide suitable work

environment and to ensure free flow of information, personal recognition

as well as research and development.

Hence, arising from the findings of the hypotheses which were tested

with chi-square statistical method, the study concludes that there is a

positive relationship between effective leadership and organization

performance as perceived by the workers in the NYSC Kogi State Office.

Again, that there is no leadership obstacles that hamper organizational

performance in the Kogi State NYSC. But that factors such as good

office accommodation insufficient funds and poor work environment are

some of the factors which hamper the performance of the staff of the

organization which many of the staff said is beyond the control of the

leadership of NYSC in Kogi State.

Furthermore, that there are possible ways of enhancing the NYSC Kogi

State. This can be made possible through the provision of the necessary

tools, financial support office equipment, conducive work environment


and the motivation of the staff by collaborating with the head office in

Abuja so that all the supports he needs can be given to him.

5.4 Recommendations

As a result of the findings of the study, the following recommendations

have been made.

Since it was discovered that organizational members show high level of

commitment to their work if they discover that in doing that their needs

will be realized, it then manes that the behaviour of the leadership

towards execution and implementation of the Kogi State NYSC

programmes is dependent on adequate provision of all the tools that the

workers need to perform. In view of the above, if proper and adequate

combination of human a material resources of the organization is put in

place the organization will achieve its objectives.

Therefore, that NYSC leadership in Kogi State should ensure that those

behaviour and attitude to non- provision of conducive environment for

workers to perform should be seriously addressed.

Also we found out that there are no leadership obstacles that hamper

organizational performance but rather we discovered that effective

leadership role is hampered in Kogi State NYSC due largely to factors

beyond their control. Suh factors are non provision of adequate funds to

run the office, poor work environment and lack of office equipment to

enhance the workers performance if these facilities are put in place and
the office enjoys adequate funding from the National Head-quarters then

the office in Kogi will realize its set objectives. Therefore it is

recommended that those factors that hamper effective leader roles in

Kogi State NYSC should be removed to pave ways for effective

leadership role and the realization of organizational objectives.

Since scholars have stated that the failure or success of any

organization to a large extent is determined by environmental factors.

Managing Nigerian organizations quite different from the environmental

factors will not promote the success of the organization. So the people’s

culture, their value preferences, needs and other factor should be

considered if the leadership intends to realize the set objectives for the

NYSC in Kogi State. This is important because given that most

organizational in Nigeria are established and follow similar administrative

and management principles like organizations in other parts of the world

but in terms of results, achievements and objective realization they are

different due to environmental influences.

5.5 Contributions to Knowledge

The following contributions to knowledge were made.

Several studies have been carried out in Nigeria by management

practitioners in an attempt to establish a relationship between effective

leadership and organizational performance. In this studies emphasis was

placed on leadership style to make leaders effective. In the study,


scholars have different opinions on the issue. While some are of the

views that leadership styles are positively related to organizational

performance. Others have a different view. Still, empirical evidence on

how a leader can be effective to impact on organizational performance

was lacking. Also no real imperial studies was carried out on how most

organisations in Nigeria are managed without consideration to the

people’s cultural background. This study filled this gap, by showing what

can make a leader to be effective. However, given the cultural diversity

in Nigeria, the study can not be too sure that what makes a leader

effective in some parts of the country can also make him effective in

other parts. This is because members of each cultural group have their

different disposition and attitude towards work. However, it provided a

platform to assist Nigerian leaders fashion out ways of making a leader

effective to suit their organizational in order to enhance their

performance.

5.6 Suggested Area for Future Research

Future research should expand this study into profit making

organizations, so that such organizations could benefit from the findings

as well.

Future research should also be conducted to find out how workers

should perform if effective leadership role is hampered due to external

factors which the immediate leadership has no control of.


Efforts should be made to carry out comparative studies with emphasis

on the employees attitudes to work as well as their level of commitment

to discover the differences with a view to bridging them this as important

because irrespective of the cultural heritage of most Nigerians, their

background, education and exposure often affect the way and manner

they respond and carry out their duties at work.

Finally, a comparative study should be carried out to find out whether

organizational commitments influence the relationship between

leadership behaviour and job satisfaction and performance.


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APPENDIX

Department of Public Administration


And Local Government (PALG)
University of Nigeria
Nsukka

November 2011

Dear Respondents

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

The researcher is a Post Graduate student of the above mentioned

Department of University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN), presently

conducting a survey on the above topic.

The questionnaire attached here with is to elicit your views on the

subject.

The information requested of you will be treated with all

confidentiality and will be used for academic purpose only.

Thanks for your kind responses.

Yours faithfully,

John EDOKA
Researcher
QUESTIONNAIRE

Instruction: Please tick good [ ] against any option that is

appropriate to your answer in the box provided.

1. What is your sex? (a) [ ] (b) [ ]

2. What is your Age? (a) [ ] (b) [ ]

3. What is your educational qualification?

(a) SSCE/GCE [ ] (b) OND [ ]

(c) HND/B.SC [ ] (b) M.SC/PH.D [ ]

4. What is your marital status?

(a) Married [ ] (b) Single [ ]

(c) Divorced [ ] (d) Widow/Widower [ ]

5. How long have you been with the organization?

(a) Under 1 year [ ] (b) 1-3 years [ ]

(c) 3-5 years [ ] (d) over five years (5) [ ]

6. What post do you hold in the organization?

(a) Director [ ] (b) Assistant Director [ ]

(c) Zonal inspector [ ] (d) Senior staff [ ]

(e) Junior staff [ ]

7. Is the state coordinator an indigene of the state?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

8. How will you rate the director’s involvement in the operational

level of the organization involvement?


(a) Strongly agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ]

9. Do all sectional heads report to the director?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

10. What is the relationship between the state coordinator and the

subordinate staff?

(a) Very good relationship [ ] (b) Cordial relationship [ ]

(c) Below average relationship [ ] (d) unfriendly relationship [ ]

11. How do heads of sections run their sections?

(a) Freely [ ] (b) With director’s intervention [ ]

12. Is the work environment conducive for the organization

operations?

(a) Strongly suitable [ ] (b) Unsuitable [ ]

© Average and suitable [ ]

13. Do you receive on the job training in the organization?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

14. What factor (s) could counter high organizational performance?

(a) Lack of good office equipment [ ]

(c) Insufficient staff and funds [ ]

(d) Autocracy and bad leadership [ ]

15. Are you satisfied with your present salary level?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No

16. Were you recently promoted?


(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

17. What decides whom to promote in the organization.

(a) Year of Service [ ] (b) Input to the organization [ ]

(c) Director’s Discretion [ ] (d) Others [ ]

18. Are you motivated in the organization?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

19. Do sectional heads delegate duties to their subordinates?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

20. How can you describe the performance of the organization so far?

(a) Outstanding [ ] (b) Average [ ] (c) Poor [ ]

21. What do you think may be responsible for this level of performance

in 18 above?

(1) Director’s ability and willingness to delegate responsibility and

to manage the activity of others [ ]

(2) Free flow of information and effective communication

(3) Exhibition of exaggerated opinion of job perfection by the state

coordinate based on knowledge or skill

(4) Inflexibility to change and lack of innovation

(5) The Directors uses own personal taste and opinion as a

standard to follow

(6) The directors resist advice from qualified sources and is

stubborn to change
(7) She sees herself as the overall boss and does not take other

peoples contributions

22. From your experience with the organization, how do you describe

the leadership style?

(a) Autocratic [ ] (b) Participative [ ] (c) Democratic [ ]

23. Do you think that workers are motivated according to their efforts

and contributions?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

24. Are there any form (s) of performance measurement existing in

your organization? (a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

25. What factor (s) can enhance performance in your organization?

(a) Recruitment of well educated/experienced staff and leaders [ ]

(b) Acquisition of state of the art technology [ ]

(c) Participation leadership and proper [ ]

(d) Research and development [ ]

(e) Free flow of information and personal recognition [ ]