SPE 26317
This paper was prepared for presentation at the 68th Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum Engineers held in Houston, Texas, 36 October 1993.
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Abstract Introduction
This paper presents a new equation for predicting the collapse One of the most important considerations involved in the
of tubulars under external pressure. The development of the design of casing and tubing for deep oil and gas wells, and
equation is based on a large number of nonlinear finite drilling risers in deep water, is the resistance to collapse under
element simulations of tubulars with different geometrical external pressure. At the depths at which tubulars are now
tolerances and mechanical properties. The simulation results commonly used, the collapse of tubulars largely determines the
for the collapse pressure and postcollapse geometry of the wall thickness and material grade that is required for a given
tubulars were verified with full scale physical tests. A non application. In addition, there is a tremendous cost incentive to
linear regression analysis was then performed on the data design casing strings properly with respect to collapse. Over
obtained from the simulations to optimize the parameters of the design leads to costly tubular purchases while underdesign can
collapse equation. The new equation accounts for variations in lead to failures and costly repair operations. For these reasons,
the tubular diameter, wall thickness, ovality, eccentricity, and an accurate understanding of the collapse properties of tubulars
material elasticplastic behavior. is extremely valuable.
This new collapse equation provides significant advantages The collapse problem presents difficulty for two reasons. First,
over existing formulas, mainly because it was developed based the collapse of tubulars is an instability type of failure and is
on nonlinear mechanics solutions of the collapse problem as sensitive to imperfections such as ovality, eccentricity, and
compared to equations derived from statistical analysis. In localized wall reduction. The impact of these imperfections is
addition, the equation gives the true collapse pressure of the difficult to evaluate analytically. The second source of
tubular, whether the tubular collapses elastically or after it has difficulty arises because collapse can occur in two distinct
yielded. The new equation could be used to design tubulars modes  the elastic mode in which failure occurs under elastic
based on manufacturing tolerances with respect to wall deformation and the elasticplastic mode in which failure is
thickness, ovality, and eccentricity as well as material preceded by permanent deformation of the tubular. Which
mechanical properties. This allows for design optimization failure mode actually occurs depends on the ratio of the tube
which could account for significant cost savings, especially diameter to wall thickness, the tube material yield strength, and
when designing expensive nonAPI tubulars such as corrosion the elastic modulus. For tubulars that collapse elastically,
resistant alloy tubulars. The new collapse equation presented in analytical solutions have succeeded in predicting collapse
this paper provides accurate predictions of the collapse pressure pressures, but failed to account for the sensitivity of these
of tubulars and accounts for tolerances in the tubular geometry pressures to imperfections. For tubulars that collapse in the
and material elasticplastic behavior. This new equation is elasticplastic mode, analytical solutions are frustrated by
simple and could be used in optimizing tubular design.. complex material nonIinearities and a moving elasticplastic
7
References and illustrations at end of paper.
2 AN IMPROVED DESIGN EQUAnON FOR TUBULAR COLLAPSE SPE26317
interface.. Solutions for elasticplastic collapse are limited to shown in Figure 1. The elements used in this model are second
substituting the "reduced modulus" for the elastic modulus in order, isoparametric, generalized plane strain continuum
the elastic collapse solutions. These solutions are, again, elements. This element type is an eightnoded quadrilateral.
insensitive to the geometric imperfections of the tubular. modified by adding two nodes to model the outofplane loads
Because of these difficulties, the collapse pressure of tubulars such as axial and bending loads. Although it is not plainly
with imperfections are investigated using numerical visible, the finite element models were constructed with a small
simulations. initial ovality. This imperfection was introduced to allow the
coIlapse process to occur. Without this ovality, hydrostatic
A series of numerical simulations were conducted using non pressure could be applied indefinitely without collapse. The
linear finite element models to predict the coIlapse pressure of ovality was introduced through the equation:
tubulars with different sizes and strengths. The predictions
were verified with fuIlscaie physical test data for the coIlapse r =R(I+Scos29) ...(1)
pressure and postcoIlapse geometry. The numerical simulation
results were then used to develop a generalized coIlapse where r is the imperfect tube radius, R is the nominal perfect
equation. tubular radius, S is the ovality ratio, and 9 is the angular
coordinate measured from the center of the tubular as shown in
This paper presents the formulation, results, and verification of Figure 2.. An alternative measure of ovality, the ovality factor,
the methodology used in developing an improved design N is also used in this report. N can be expressed as l/S. Also
equation for tubular collapse. The dependence of coIlapse shown in Figure 2 is the chosen measure of tubular eccentricity.
pressures on the tubular diameter to waIl thickness mtio and
material yield strength is fuIly investigated for commercial The numerical simulation is performed by applying a uniform
steel tubulars. In addition, the sensitivity of coIlapse pressure pressure to the faces of the elements on the outside diameter of
to imperfections in the geometry is modeled. A single equation the tubular. Since the pressure is increased incrementally, and
that accumtely predicts the coIlapse pressure of tubulars of any since the pressure is applied along the normal to the element
diameter to wall thickness mtio, yield stress, ovality, and surfaces, the line of action of the pressure changes as the
eccentricity is presented. tubular deforms. This is an accumte modeling of the action of
pressure which always acts normal to a sutface.
Numerical Simulation of Tubular Collapse
Material Constitutive Relations
The numerical simulation of tubular coIlapse was based on the
development of nonlinear finite element models. A distinct The material constitutive relations were based on a strain
advantage of the finite element method is the capability of hardening elastoplastic material model using the Von Mises
solving nonlinear governing equations. A collapsing tubular is yield criterion. The generic shape of the material stressstrain
a complicated physical system governed by highly nonlinear relations was taken from tensile tests of the axial properties of
equations for the stresses, the strains and displacements due to commercial steel tubulars. However, it was designed to model
large deformations and material nonlinearity. the coIlapse of tubulars constructed of materials of various
yield strengths. In order to insure consistency of material yield
The finite element modeling was performed using ABAQUS I , a behavior, each point on the generic curve was shifted up or
general purpose, nonlinear finite element progmm. The down pamllel to the elastic modulus as required to create stress
program allows accurate modeling of material nonIinearities strain relations for materials with any desired yield strength. A
(plasticity) and geometric nonIinearities (large deformations). stressstrain relation for an 80 ksi yield material is shown in
The incremental loading of the tubular is controIled Figure 3.
automaticaIly by ABAQUS. The automatic incrementation
allows the progmm to follow the loaddeflection curve for the Comparison with Physical Test Data
tubular to the maximum pressure (the coIlapse pressure).
FoIlowing the maximum, the program incrementaIly reduces FuIlscale physical test data were used to verify the accumcy of
the pressure so that the collapse simulation can be continued. corresponding finite element models using two criteria:
In this way, the postcoIlapse behavior of the tubular can be coIlapse pressure and postcoIlapse geometry. The physical test
modeled. data used in the verification were obtained from collapse tests
of corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) tubulars and from the
Description of the Finite Element Model collapse test data used in deriving the plastic collapse equation
of API Bulletin 5C32 .
A finite element model of the cross section of a tubular is
8
SPE 26317 1. A. ISSA AND D. S. CRAWFORD 3
In order to demonstrate the ability of the finite element model central tendency of the API data. Also shown in these figures
to simulate collapse, each of the specimens was modeled are predicted upper and lower bounds for the API data. These
independently and the model predictions were compared with bounds are based on best case and worst case geometry and
the experimental collapse pressures. Table 1 lists the results of material properties as prescribed by the API 5CT
this comparison. All of the collapse pressures were predicted Specifications3 • The upper and lower bound curves effectively
within 6%. Such an error level is expected because of several contain all of the API test data with the exception of a few
assumptions concerning the material properties. The success of widely scattered data points.
any collapse simulation using a finite element model is
determined largely by the extent to which the circumferential Development of a Generalized Collapse Equation
material properties of the tubular are accurately represented by
the material model used. In highly coldworked tubulars, Once a reliable finite element model is developed, it is
however, significant directionality of material properties may desirable to generalize the predictions of the model in the form
be introduced. For these simulations, the axial material of a collapse equation. Such an equation would be capable of
properties of the tubulars were used since they were most predicting collapse pressures based on all of the important
readily available. Some error may therefore be expected. In parameters affecting collapse. The parameters considered here
addition, the model assumes that the material properties are are: the ratio of the diameter to the wall thickness D/t, the
uniform throughout the tubular. Variations in the quenching material yield strength Y and modulus of elasticity E, the
rate and extent of cold work around the circumference and tubular "outofroundness" or ovality S, and the tubular
along the length of the tubular, however, can introduce eccentricity e.
significant variations in the material properties.
The problem of deriving the generalized collapse equation was
In addition to predicting collapse pressures, it is important that first divided into two tasks. The first task involved fully
the finite element model is capable of predicting the post investigating the relationship between the collapse pressure P,
collapse deformation of tubulars. Figure 4 shows the finite the ratio of the outside diameter to wall thickness D/t, the
element model's prediction of the progress of collapse. Figure material yield strength Y, and modulus of elasticity E, for
5 shows the pressuredeformation response from the collapse tubulars without geometric imperfections. The second task
simulation. As shown in this figure, the pressure increases until consisted of modeling the dependence of the tubular collapse
the maximum pressure (collapse pressure) is reached, and then pressure on the geometric imperfections. In essence, the
a decrease in the pressure is observed with a large increase in following functional form was hypothesized:
the deformation. Figure 6 compares a photograph of a cross
section of the collapsed tubular with the finite element model's D D
prediction for the same tubular. The excellent agreement P = Po("t' Y, E) g (S,"t) h(e) ...(2)
between the collapse test data and the predictions of the finite
element model justify a high degree of confidence in the where P is the tubular collapse pressure, Po(D/t, Y, E) is the
model's ability to accurately simulate the collapse of tubulars.
collapse function for near perfect tubulars, and g (S,D/t) and
The accuracy of the results stems from the fact that no
h(e) are reduction functions that account for tubular ovality and
approximations were made in formulating the nonlinear
eccentricity respectively.
equations that govern the collapse phenomenon other than the
intrinsic approximations involved with numerical solutions to a
physical problem.
Near Perfect Tubular Collapse Function
Over 200 finite element models were used to investigate the
To further demonstrate the ability of the finite element model
near perfect tubular collapse function. The data from these
to simulate collapse, the collapse database that form the basis
models are shown in Figure 10. The data are plotted against
of the plastic collapse equations of API Bulletin 5C3 was
tID rather than D/t on the ordinate since they are more easily
analyzed. Included in the database are records of the actual
viewed and curves are more easily fit to the data in this format.
diameter, wall thickness, and the measured yield strength for
For low tID ratios, the collapse pressures are independent of
each collapsed specimen. The database does not, however,
material yield strength as expected and correspond closely to
include any measure of ovalities or eccentricities. As a result,
the elastic instability equation. For higher tID ratios, the
specific test cases could not be modeled. Instead, various D/t
collapse pressure depends strongly on material yield strength.
ratios were modeled with an average yield strength and an
In the region between the elastic collapse and the elasticplastic
assumed oVality ratio of S = 0.002. A comparison of the model
collapse, each of the materials undergoes a transition at the
predictions and the physical data is shown for the three tested
onset of plasticity. This can be seen in the data in Figure 10 as
materials, J55, N80, and P110 in Figures 7, 8, and 9. The
a sudden change of slope.
predicted collapse values are an excellent predictor of the
9
4 AN IMPROVED DESIGN EQUAnON FOR TUBULAR COLLAPSE SPE26317
After conducting detailed nonlinear regression analyses, the ovalities and has been used to predict the reduction in collapse
best function that fits the data in Figure 10 with an error less strength of tubulars with ovalities as high as S = 0.1 with
than 2% has the following form: reasonable accuracy.
...(3)
Eccentricity Reduction Function
...(5)
where;
Cl =0.8123. C2 = 1.1272
...(4)
where;
10
SPE26317 1. A. ISSA AND D. S. CRAWFORD 5
and the constants of the equation are defined; r = radius at an angular location
5. The new equation could be used in optimizing tubular 2. API Bulletin 5C3, "Formulas and Calculations for Casing,
design. Significant cost savings could be realized, especially Tubing, Drill Pipe, and Line Pipe Properties", Fourth
when designing nonAPI tubulars such as corrosion resistant Edition, February I, 1985.
alloys.
3. API Specification 5CT, "Specification for Casing and
Nomenclature Tubing", Second Edition, November I, 1989.
e =eccentricity ,105
1f4.Q2 110 0385 DODOS 0 =00 098
11400 110
'025
4025 0385 O,OOos 20ססoo
"""
2<HlOO 20000 100
11408 110 4025 0385 10 Oooos ~OOOOO 251S<l _0 0 ..
E =Young's modulus l1G~ 140 403 0304 133 DODOS 0 ,.... "0000 '06
P = collapse pressure 12603 '10 '02 022. 179 0001 0 11500 11200 0'7
PE =elastic collapse pressure rl1 130 289" 02444 118 00012 ·:'19000 21DtlO 2200 '06
11
0\
OVALITY ECCENTRICITY
~
~
• r = R(I +Scos(28» e=~t
~
.... ~
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FIgure 1. Finite Dement Model for CoDapse Simulation FIgure 2. Measures 01 ImperfectlODS
I\)
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110
TRUE STRESS VS TRUE STRAIN
LI=r
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80 KSI YlBLD MATBRIAL ~
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FIgure 3. Stre8lStralD Curve for 10 ksI Yield Materlal FIgure 4. Progressive Stages of Deformation FoHowing Tubular Collapse
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PLOT OF LOAD VS. DISPLACEMENT
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FINITE ELEMENT MODEL PREDICTION 00 hlj
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OJ SPLACEMENT (I NGHES I :<
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c.> til
and Physical Specimen PostCoDapse Geometry. >
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Figure 9. Comparison of Model Predictions
with P·110 Plastic Collapse Data
Figure 10. Comparison of Generalized Collapse Equation z
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Figure 11. Reduction of the Collapse Pressure Due to Ovality Figure 12. Reduction of the Collapse Pressure Due to Eccentricity ~
N

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