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2 14 CHAPTER 5 TO R S I O N

5–53. The 20-mm-diameter A-36 steel shaft is subjected *5–56. The A-36 steel axle is made from tubes AB and CD
to the torques shown. Determine the angle of twist of D, C and a solid section BC. It is supported on smooth bearings
and B. that allow it to rotate freely. If the gears, fixed to its ends, are
subjected to 85@N # m torques, determine the angle of twist of
the end B of the solid section relative to end C. The tubes
have an outer diameter of 30 mm and an inner diameter of
20 mm. The solid section has a diameter of 40 mm.
A

D 400 mm D
85 N!m
C 250 mm
30 N!m 200 mm
B 600 mm 400 mm C
20 N!m
800 mm B
80 N!m A

Prob. 5–53

85 N!m
5

5–54. The shaft is made of A992 steel with the allowable Prob. 5–56
shear stress of tallow = 75 MPa. If gear B supplies 15 kW of 5–57. The turbine develops 150 kW of power, which is
power, while gears A, C and D withdraw 6 kW, 4 kW and transmitted to the gears such that C receives 70% and D
5 kW, respectively, determine the required minimum receives 30%. If the rotation of the 100-mm-diameter
diameter d of the shaft to the nearest millimeter. Also, find A-36 steel shaft is v = 800 rev>min., determine the absolute
the corresponding angle of twist of gear A relative to gear maximum shear stress in the shaft and the angle of twist of
D. The shaft is rotating at 600 rpm. end E of the shaft relative to B. The journal bearing at E
5–55. Gear B supplies 15 kW of power, while gears A, C allows the shaft to turn freely about its axis.
and D withdraw 6 kW, 4 kW and 5 kW, respectively. If the 5–58. The turbine develops 150 kW of power, which is
shaft is made of steel with the allowable shear stress of transmitted to the gears such that both C and D receive an
tallow = 75 MPa, and the relative angle of twist between any equal amount. If the rotation of the 100-mm-diameter
two gears cannot exceed 0.05 rad, determine the required A-36 steel shaft is v = 500 rev>min., determine the absolute
minimum diameter d of the shaft to the nearest millimeter. maximum shear stress in the shaft and the rotation of end B
The shaft is rotating at 600 rpm. of the shaft relative to E. The journal bearing at E allows
the shaft to turn freely about its axis.

A B
v
C
B

600 mm C 3m D

600 mm D E
4m

600 mm 2m

Probs. 5–54/55 Probs. 5–57/58


Average Mechanical Properties of Typical Engineering Materialsa
(SI Units)

Moduls of Modulus of Yield Strength (MPa) Ultimate Strength (MPa) Coef. of Therm.
Materials Density R Elasticity E Rigidity G SY Su %Elongation in Poisson’s Expansion A
(Mg/m3) (GPa) (GPa) Tens. Comp.b Shear Tens. Comp.b Shear 50 mm specimen Ratio N (10–6)/°C

Metallic
Aluminum 2014-T6 2.79 73.1 27 414 414 172 469 469 290 10 0.35 23
Wrought Alloys 6061-T6 2.71 68.9 26 255 255 131 290 290 186 12 0.35 24
Cast Iron Gray ASTM 20 7.19 67.0 27 – – – 179 669 – 0.6 0.28 12
Alloys Malleable ASTM A-197 7.28 172 68 – – – 276 572 – 5 0.28 12
Copper Red Brass C83400 8.74 101 37 70.0 70.0 – 241 241 – 35 0.35 18
Alloys Bronze C86100 8.83 103 38 345 345 – 655 655 – 20 0.34 17
Magnesium
[Am 1004-T61] 1.83 44.7 18 152 152 – 276 276 152 1 0.30 26
Alloy
Structural A-36 7.85 200 75 250 250 – 400 400 – 30 0.32 12
Steel Structural A992 7.85 200 75 345 345 – 450 450 – 30 0.32 12
Alloys Stainless 304 7.86 193 75 207 207 – 517 517 – 40 0.27 17
Tool L2 8.16 200 75 703 703 – 800 800 – 22 0.32 12
Titanium
[Ti-6Al-4V] 4.43 120 44 924 924 – 1,000 1,000 – 16 0.36 9.4
Alloy

Nonmetallic
Low Strength 2.38 22.1 – – – 12 – – – – 0.15 11
Concrete
High Strength 2.37 29.0 – – – 38 – – – – 0.15 11
Plastic Kevlar 49 1.45 131 – – – – 717 483 20.3 2.8 0.34 –
Reinforced 30% Glass 1.45 72.4 – – – – 90 131 – – 0.34 –
Wood Douglas Fir 0.47 13.1 – – – – 2.1c 26d 6.2d – 0.29e –
Select Structural
White Spruce 3.60 9.65 – – – – 2.5c 36d 6.7d – 0.31e –
Grade

a Specific values may vary for a particular material due to alloy or mineral composition,mechanical working of the specimen,or heat treatment. For a more exact value
reference books for the material should be consulted.
b The yield and ultimate strengths for ductile materials can be assumed equal for both tension and compression.

c Measured perpendicular to the grain.

d Measured parallel to the grain.

e Deformation measured perpendicular to the grain when the load is applied along the grain.
Average Mechanical Properties of Typical Engineering Materialsa
(U.S. Customary Units)

Specific Moduls of Modulus of Yield Strength (ksi) Ultimate Strength (ksi) Coef. of Therm.
Materials Weight Elasticity E Rigidity G SY Su %Elongation in Poisson’s Expansion A
(lb/in3) (103) ksi (103) ksi Tens. Comp.b Shear Tens. Comp.b Shear 2 in. specimen Ratio N (10–6)/°F

Metallic
Aluminum 2014-T6 0.101 10.6 3.9 60 60 25 68 68 42 10 0.35 12.8
Wrought Alloys 6061-T6 0.098 10.0 3.7 37 37 19 42 42 27 12 0.35 13.1
Cast Iron Gray ASTM 20 0.260 10.0 3.9 – – – 26 96 – 0.6 0.28 6.70
Alloys Malleable ASTM A-197 0.263 25.0 9.8 – – – 40 83 – 5 0.28 6.60
Copper Red Brass C83400 0.316 14.6 5.4 11.4 11.4 – 35 35 – 35 0.35 9.80
Alloys Bronze C86100 0.319 15.0 5.6 50 50 – 35 35 – 20 0.34 9.60
Magnesium
[Am 1004-T61] 0.066 6.48 2.5 22 22 – 40 40 22 1 0.30 14.3
Alloy
Structural A-36 0.284 29.0 11.0 36 36 – 58 58 – 30 0.32 6.60
Steel Structural A992 0.284 29.0 11.0 50 50 – 65 65 – 30 0.32 6.60
Alloys Stainless 304 0.284 28.0 11.0 30 30 – 75 75 – 40 0.27 9.60
Tool L2 0.295 29.0 11.0 102 102 – 116 116 – 22 0.32 6.50
Titanium
[Ti-6Al-4V] 0.160 17.4 6.4 134 134 – 145 145 – 16 0.36 5.20
Alloy

Nonmetallic
Low Strength 0.086 3.20 – – – 1.8 – – – – 0.15 6.0
Concrete
High Strength 0.086 4.20 – – – 5.5 – – – – 0.15 6.0
Plastic Kevlar 49 0.0524 19.0 – – – – 104 70 10.2 2.8 0.34 –
Reinforced 30% Glass 0.0524 10.5 – – – – 13 19 – – 0.34 –
Wood Douglas Fir 0.017 1.90 – – – – 0.30c 3.78d 0.90d – 0.29e –
Select Structural
White Spruce 0.130 1.40 – – – – 0.36c 5.18d 0.97d – 0.31e –
Grade

a Specific
values may vary for a particular material due to alloy or mineral composition,mechanical working of the specimen,or heat treatment. For a more exact value
reference books for the material should be consulted.
b The yield and ultimate strengths for ductile materials can be assumed equal for both tension and compression.
c Measured perpendicular to the grain.
d Measured parallel to the grain.
e Deformation measured perpendicular to the grain when the load is applied along the grain.