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# Pacific School of Engineering ,Surat

## PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN- I

B.E. Semester – 6
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
An
PRESENTATION
ON
“ PROCESS DESIGN OF PIPING ”
Submitted by:
Sr.No Name Enrollment No.

## GUIDED BY : DISHANK TAILOR

CONTENT
1)Introduction
2)Optimum size diameter
3)Pressure drop in pipe
4)Standard pipes
5)Pressure valve in fitting and valve

Introduction
 Process design of pipe is a balance between size or diameter of pipe and pressure drop in the
pipe.
 For a given flow rate of fluid if larger size of pipe is selected then it gives lesser pressure drop.
 Larger size of pipe increases the fixed cost of pipe and lesser pressure drop means lesser power
consumption or lesser operating cost of pipe.
 Lesser pressure drop in pipe may reduce the size of flow
 Moving device like pump and thereby it may reduce the fixed cost of pump.

## Optimum Pipe Size

 Several equations and nomographs are available to estimate the optimum pipe diameter.
 But these equations or nomographs are not reliable as optimum pipe diameter depends on the
current cost of material, cost of power, rate of interest at particular place and at particular time.
 It changes with place and time.
One such equation derived for carbon steel pipe and turbulent
flow is
dopt = 293 G0.53 ρ-0.37
where, dopt = Optimum pipe size, mm
G = Flow rate, kg/s
ρ = Density of fluid, kg/m3

## Pressure Drop in Pipe

 Relation between pressure drop and pipe diameter is given by Fanning or Darcy equation.
 It is derived for steady flow in uniform circular pipes running full of liquid under isothermal
conditions.
For SI units, gc = Newton's law conversion factor = 1
where, Ap = Pressure drop, Pa
L = Length of pipe, m
G = Mass flow rate of fluid, kg/s
p = Density of fluid, kg/m3
D, = Pipe inside diameter, m
v = Velocity of fluide, m/s
f= Fanning friction factor

Standard Pipes
 Standard pipes are available from 3 mm (1/8 in) to 600 mm (24 in) size.
 Standard pipes are specified with three different diameters, namely inside diameter, outside
diameter and nominal diameter.
 For standard pipes having diameter more than 300 mm (12 in), nominal diameters are equal to
the actual outside diameter but for smaller pipe there is no relation between nominal diameter
and inside diameter or outside diameter.
 The wall thickness of standard pipe is indicated by the schedule number as per the US
standards.

## psf- Safe working pressure, N/mm2

σS = Safe allowable stress, N/mm2

## Pressure drop in fitting and valves

 In addition to pipes, piping system contains fittings and valves.
 These fittings and valves offer the additional frictional loss or additional pressure drop.
 This additional frictional loss of a fitting or of a valve is expressed either as an equivalent
straight pipe length {Le) or as a number of velocity heads {K), lost in pipe of same size and of
same material.