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# Assume suitable data only if necessary.

## Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

1. The layout of double-ply leather belt drive is shown in Fig. The mass of the belt is 2 kg per meter
length and the coefficient of friction is 0.35. Calculate
i) the tensions on the tight and loose side
ii) the length of the belt
iii) the initial tension. The belt is transmitting 35 kW of power

Ø 300 Ø 900
720rpm

2000

2. The layout of a crossed leather belt drive transmitting 7.5 kW is shown in Fig.
The mass of the belt is 0.55 kg per meter length and the coefficient of friction is 0.30. Calculate (i)
the belt tensions on the tight and loose sides, and (ii) the length of the belt

3. The layout of a leather belt drive transmitting 15 kW of power is shown in Fig. The centre distance
between the pulleys is twice the diameter of the bigger pulley. The belt should operate at a velocity
of 20 m/s approximately and the stresses in the belt should not exceed 2.25 N/mm2. The density of
leather is 0.95 g/cc and the coefficient of friction is 0.35. The thickness of the belt is 5 mm.
Calculate:
(i) the diameter of pulleys;
(ii) the length and width of the belt; and
(iii) the belt tensions.
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

4. The following data is given for a V-belt drive connecting a 20 kW motor to a compressor. The
centre distance between pulleys is 1 m and the dimensions of the cross-section of the belt are given
in Fig. The density of the composite belt is 0.97 g/cc and the allowable tension per belt is 850 N.
How many belts are required for this application?

5. The layout of a crossed leather belt drive is shown in Fig. The belt, 6 mm thick, transmits 7.5 kW
and operates at a velocity of 13 m/s approximately. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the
permissible tensile stress for the belt material is 1.75 N/mm2. The density of leather is 0.95 g/cc.
Calculate (i) the diameters of pulleys; (ii) the length and width of the belt and (iii) belt tensions on
the tight and loose sides.

6. A simple roller chain12B is used to drive the camshaft of an internal combustion engine. Both shafts
rotate at 400rpm and the center distance between their axes should be approximately 600mm the
number of teeth on each sprocket wheel is 19.(p=19.05) Calculate the number of chain links

7. A simple roller chain14B is used to drive the camshaft of an internal combustion engine. Both shafts
rotate at 400rpm and the center distance between their axes should be approximately 800mm the
number of teeth on each sprocket wheel is 19.Calculate the number of chain links

8. A four-wheeled automobile car has a total mass of 1000 kg. The moment of inertia of each wheel
about a transverse axis through its centre of gravity is 0.5 kg-m2. The rolling radius of the wheel is
0.35 m. The rotating and reciprocating parts of the engine and the transmission system are
equivalent to a moment of inertia of 2.5 kg-m2, which rotates at five times the road-wheel speed.
The car is traveling at a speed of 100 km/h on a plane road. When the brakes are applied, the car
decelerates at 0.5 g. There are brakes on all four wheels. Calculate:
(i) the energy absorbed by each brake; and
(ii) the torque capacity of each brake.
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

9. A single block brake with a torque capacity of 20 N-m is shown in Fig. (All dimension in mm). The
coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the maximum pressure on the block lining is 1 N/mm2 . The width of
block is equal to its length. Calculate
i) The actuating force
ii) The dimensions of the block
iii) The rate of heat generated, if the brake drum rotates at 50 rpm.
State whether the brake is self-locking.

250 500

140 R 180
70

10. A single block brake with a torque capacity of 15 N-m is shown in Fig. The coefficient of friction is
0.3 and the maximum pressure on the brake lining is 1 N/mm2. The width of the block is equal to its
length. Calculate
(i) the actuating force;
(ii) the dimensions of the block;
(iii) the resultant hinge-pin reaction; and
(iv) the rate of heat generated, if the brake drum rotates at 50 rpm.

11. A solid cast iron disk, 1 m in diameter and 0.2 m thick, is used as a flywheel. It is rotating at 350
rpm. It is brought to rest in 1.5 s by means of a brake. Calculate
(i) the energy absorbed by the brake; and
(ii) the torque capacity of the brake.
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

12. A mass of 2500 kg is lowered at a velocity of 1.5 m/s from the drum as shown in Fig. The mass of
the drum is 50 kg and its radius of gyration can be taken as 0.7 m. On applying the brake, the mass is
brought to rest in a distance of 0.5 m. Calculate
(i) the energy absorbed by the brake; and
(ii) the torque capacity of the brake.

13. A single block brake with a torque capacity of 250 N-m is shown in Fig. The brake drum rotates at
100 rpm and the coefficient of friction is 0.35. Calculate
(i) the actuating force and the hinge-pin reaction for clockwise rotation of the drum;
(ii) the actuating force and hinge-pin reaction for anticlockwise rotation of the drum;
(iii) the rate of heat generated during the braking action; and
(iv) the dimensions of the block, if the intensity of pressure between the block and brake drum is 1
N/mm2. The length of the block is twice its width.
State whether the brake is self-locking.

14. A plate clutch consists of one pair of contacting surfaces. The inner and outer diameters of the
friction disk are 100 and200 mm respectively. The coefficient of friction is 0.2 and the permissible
intensity of pressure is 1 N/mm2. Assuming uniform-wear theory, calculate the power-transmitting
capacity of the clutch at750 rpm.
15. A leather faced cone clutch transmits power at 500 rpm. The semi-cone angle is 12.50. The mean
diameter of the clutch is 300 mm, while the face width of the contacting surface of the friction lining
is 100mm. the coefficient of friction is 0.2 and the maximum intensity of pressure is limited to
0.07N/mm2. Calculate the force to engage the clutch and power transmitting capacity.
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

16. A multi-disk clutch consists of five steel plates and four bronze plates. The inner and outer diameters
of the friction disks are 75 and 150 mm respectively. The coefficient of friction is 0.1 and the
intensity of pressure on friction lining is limited to 0.3 N/mm2. Assuming uniform wear theory,
calculate:
(i) the required force to engage the clutch; and
(ii) power transmitting capacity at 750 rpm.

17. A cone clutch with asbestos friction lining transmits 30 kW power at 500 rpm. The coefficient of
friction is 0.2 and the permissible intensity of pressure is 0.35 N/mm2. The semi-cone angle α is
12.5°. The outer diameter is fixed as 300 mm from space limitations. Assuming uniform wear
theory, calculate:
(i) the inner diameter;
(ii) the face width of the friction lining; and
(iii) the force required to engage the clutch.
18. A single plate clutch consists of one pair of contacting surfaces. Because of space limitations, the
outer diameter of the friction disk is fixed as D. The permissible intensity of pressure is pa and the
coefficient of friction, m. Assuming uniform wear theory, plot the variation of the torque
transmitting capacity against the ratio of diameters (d/D). Show that the torque transmitting capacity
of the clutch is maximum, when (d/D) is equal to 0.577.

19. Derive Petroff’s equation for coefficient of friction in journal bearings and state the assumptions
20. A taper roller bearing has a dynamic load capacity of 30 kN. The desired life for 90% of the bearings
is 8000 h and the speed is 500 rpm. Calculate the equivalent radial load that the bearing can carry.
21. A taper roller bearing has a dynamic load capacity of 40 kN. The desired life for 90% of the bearings
is 9000 h and the speed is 600 rpm. Calculate the equivalent radial load that the bearing can carry.
22. A ball bearing operates on the following work cycle.

1 3000 720 30
2 7000 1440 50
3 5000 900 20
The dynamic load capacity of the bearing is 16.6 kN. Calculate
i) The average speed of rotation
iii) The bearing life
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

23. A single-row deep groove ball bearing has a dynamic load capacity of 40500 N and operates on the
following work cycle:
(i) radial load of 5000 N at 500 rpm for 25% of the time;
(ii) radial load of 10000 N at 700 rpm for 50%of the time; and
(iii) radial load of 7000 N at 400 rpm for the remaining 25% of the time.
Calculate the expected life of the bearing in hours.
24. A double block brake is shown in Fig. The brake drum rotates in a clockwise direction and the
actuating force is 500 N. The coefficient of friction between the blocks and the drum is 0.30.
Calculate the torque absorbing capacity of the brake.

## 25. The following data is given for 360 hydrodynamic bearing:

Journal diameter = 100mm, bearing length = 100mm, radial load = 50kN; journal speed = 1440rpm,
radial clearance=0.12, Viscosity of lubricant = 23cp. Calculate
i) Minimum film thickness;
ii) Coefficient of friction
iii) Power lost in friction
8 .3 p ( C F V )
iv) Temperature rise. Consider t 
FV
For (l/d) =1, dimensionless performance parameters are given
 ho   Q   r 
S       f
 c   rc n sl   c 
0.121 0.4 4.33 3.22
0.0446 0.2 4.62 1.70
0.0188 0.1 4.74 1.05
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

26. In a single stage bevel gear box with 20 deg full depth involute system of gear tooth, the shafts are at
right angle. Pinion rotates at 300 rpm. The module at the large end of the teeth is 6mm and face
width is 50 mm. The gear pair is made of grey cast iron with permissible bending stress 73.33MPa
and 230 BHN. The overload factor and factor of safety are 1.5 and 2 respectively. Considering
a. beam strength
b. wear strength
c. maximum static load the gear pair can transmit
d. rated power the gear pair can transmit

27. It is required to design a pair of spur gear with 20⁰ full-depth involute teeth based on the Lewis
equation. The velocity factor is to be used to account for dynamic load. The pinion shaft is
connected to a 10 kW, 1440 rpm motor. The starting torque of the motor is 150% of the rated torque.
The speed reduction is 4: 1. The pinion as well as the gear is made of plain carbon steel 40C8 (S ut=
600N/mm2). The factor of safety can be taken as 1.5 .Design the gears, specify their dimensions and
suggest suitable surface hardness for the gears. Consider following data for design calculation.
1/3
  
    2
60  10
6
( k W ) C s ( fs ) 3  BHN 
m     ; Cv  ; K  0 .1 6  
  z n C 
b   S ut 
 3 v  100 
 p p v   Y 
   m  3   

z 17 18 23 24 25 40 45 50
Y 0.302 0.308 0.333 0.3393 0.3456 0.389 0.399 0.408
28. A pair of bevel gears, with 20⁰pressure angle, consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 30 teeth
gear. The module is 4 mm, while face width is 20 mm. The material for pinion and gear is steel
50C4 (Sut= 750 N/mm²). The gear teeth are lapped and grounded (Class-3) and the surface hardness
is 400BHN. The pinion rotates at 500 rpm and receives 2.5 kW power from electric motor. The
starting torque of the motor is 150% of the rated torque. The error for Class-3 gear teeth with 4mm
module is 0.0125mm (e=0.0125) Determine the factor of safety against bending failure and against
pitting failure. Consider following data for design calculation
2
5 .6  BHN  2 1 v ( C e b  Pt )
Cv  ; K  0 .1 6   ; Pd  ; C  11400 N / m m
2

5 .6  v  100  2 1v  ( C e b  Pt )

z 17 18 23 24 25 40 45 50
Y 0.302 0.308 0.333 0.3393 0.3456 0.389 0.399 0.408
29. A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 30 teeth pinion meshing with a 60 teeth gear. The
pinion rotates at 1440rpm. The normal module is 5 mm, while the normal pressure angle is 20⁰. The
helix angle is 23⁰. The face width is 50mm. the pinion as well as gear is made of steel 40C8 (S ut=
600N/mm²) and heat treated to a surface hardness of 300 BHN. The service factor and factor of
safety are 1.5 and 2 respectively. Assume that the velocity factor accounts for the dynamic load and
calculate the power transmitting capacity.

30. A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 35 teeth pinion meshing with a 70 teeth gear. The
pinion rotates at 720rpm. The normal module is 5 mm, while the normal pressure angle is 20⁰. The
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

helix angle is 23⁰. The face width is 50mm. the pinion as well as gear is made of steel 40C8 (S ut=
600N/mm²) and heat treated to a surface hardness of 300 BHN. The service factor and factor of
safety are 1.5 and 2 respectively. Assume that the velocity factor accounts for the dynamic load and
calculate the power transmitting capacity. Consider following data for design calculation
2
5 .6  BHN 
Cv  ; K  0 .1 6  
5 .6  v  100 

z 17 18 23 24 25 40 45 50
Y 0.302 0.308 0.333 0.3393 0.3456 0.389 0.399 0.408
31. A pair of straight bevel gears has a velocity ratio of 2:1. The pitch circle diameter of the pinion is 80
mm at the large end of the tooth. 5 kW power is supplied to the pinion, which rotates at 800 rpm.
The face width is 40 mm and the pressure angle is 20°. Calculate the tangential, radial and axial
components of the resultant tooth force acting on the pinion.
32. A pair of straight bevel gears is made of grey cast iron FG 200 (E = 114 000N/mm2). The surface
endurance strength is 90 N/mm2 The number of teeth on the pinion and gear are 30 and 40
respectively. The module and the face width are 6 mm and 50 mm respectively. The pressure angle
is 20°. Determine the wear strength of the tooth.
33. A pair of straight bevel gears is mounted on shafts, which are intersecting at right angles. The
number of teeth on the pinion and gear are 30 and 45 respectively. The pressure angle is 20°. The
pinion shaft is connected to an electric motor developing 16.5 kW rated power at 500 rpm. The
service factor can be taken as 1.5. The pinion and the gear are made of steel (Sut = 570 N/mm2) and
heat treated to a surface hardness of 350 BHN. The gears are manufactured in such a way that the
error between two meshing teeth is limited to 20 mm. The module and face width are 6 mm and 50
mm respectively. Determine the factor of safety against bending as well as pitting
34. A pair of straight bevel gears has a velocity ratio of 2:1. The pitch circle diameter of the pinion is 80
mm at the large end of the tooth. 5 kW power is supplied to the pinion, which rotates at 800 rpm.
The face width is 40 mm and the pressure angle is 20°. Calculate the tangential, radial and axial
components of the resultant tooth force acting on the pinion
35. A pair of parallel helical gears consists of 22 teeth pinion rotating at 4000 rpm
& supplying 3 kW power to a gear. The speed reduction is 3 : 1. The normal pressure angle and
helix angle are 20° and 24° respectively. Both gears are made of hardened steel (Sut = 760 N/mm2).
The service factor and the factor of safety are 1.5 and 2 respectively.The gears are finished to meet
(i) In the initial stages of gear design, assume that the velocity factor accounts for the dynamic load
and that the face width is ten times the normal module. Assuming the pitch line velocity to be 10
m/s, estimate the normal module.
(ii) Check design for bending using Buckingham’s equation for dynamic load. If not suggest
modifications in design of helical gear (C=11400N/mm2)
36. A pair of spur gears with 20° full-depth involute teeth consists of a 18 teeth
Pinion meshing with a 36 teeth gear. The pinion is mounted on a crankshaft of 7 kW single cylinder
diesel engines running at 1440 rpm. The driven shaft is connected to a two-stage compressor.
Assume the service factor as 1.5. The pinion as well as the gear is made of steel 40C8 (Sut = 620
N/mm2). The module and face width of the gears are 4 and 40 mm respectively.
i)Determine factor of safety by velocity factor method to account dynamic load ii)If factor of safety
for pitting is 2, recommend surface hardness for gears
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

37. A pair of parallel helical gears is shown in Figure. A 5 kW power at 720 rpm is Supplied to the
pinion A through its shaft. The normal module is 4 mm and the normal pressure angle is 20°. The
pinion has right-hand teeth, while the gear has left-hand teeth. The helix angle is 30°. The pinion
rotates in the clockwise direction when seen from the left side of the page. Determine the
components of the tooth force and draw a free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the pinion
and the gear

38. The double-reduction helical gear set shown in the figure is driven through shaft a at a speed of 700
rev/min. Gears 2 and 3 have a normal diametral pitch of 12 teeth/in, a 30◦helix angle, and a normal
pressure angle of 20◦. The second pair of gears in the train, gears 4 and 5, have a normal diametral
pitch of 8 teeth/in, a 25◦helix angle, and a normal pressure angle of 20◦. The tooth numbers are:
N2=12,N3=48,N4=16,N5=36. Find:
(a) The directions of the thrust force exerted by each gear upon its shaft
(b) The speed and direction of shaft c
(c) The center distance between shafts
(Dimensions in inch)
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

39. The pitch circles of a train of spur gears are shown in Figure Gear A receives 3.5 kW of power at
700 rpm through its shaft and rotates in the clockwise direction. Gear B is the idler gear while the
gear C is the driven gear. The number of teeth on gears A, B and C are 30, 60 and 40 respectively,
while the module is 5 mm. Calculate (i) the torque on each gear shaft; and
(ii) Components of gear tooth forces.

40. Pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 100
teeth gear. The pinion rotates at 720 rpm. The normal pressure angle is 20°, while the helix angle is
25°. The face width is 40 mm and the normal module is 4 mm. The pinion as well as the gear is
made of steel 4OC8 (Sut = 600 N/mm2) and heat treated to a surface hardness of 300 BHN. The
service factor and the factor of safety are 1.5 and 2 respectively. Assume that the velocity factor
accounts for the dynamic load and calculate the power transmitting capacity of gears.
41. A pair of parallel helical gears consists of an 18 teeth pinion meshing with a 45 teeth gear.
7.5 kW power at 2000 rpm is supplied to the pinion through its shaft. The normal module is 6 mm,
while the normal pressure angle is 20°. The helix angle is 23°. Determine the tangential, radial and
axial components of the resultant tooth force between the meshing teeth.
42. It is required to design a pair of spur gears with 20° full-depth involute teeth based on the Lewis
equation. The pinion shaft is connected to a 8 kW, 1200 rpm motor. The starting torque of the motor
is 150% of the rated torque. The speed reduction is 3 : 1. The pinion as well as the gear is made of
plain carbon steel 45C8 (Sut =500 N/mm2). The factor of safety can be taken as 1.5. Number of
teeth on pinion is 20. Assume initial velocity for module estimation as 5 m/s & face width b as 10 m
Determine the module using velocity factor method to account for dynamic load, & Specify their
dimensions
43. The layout of a two-stage gear box is shown in Fig. The number of teeth on
the gears are as follows: z1= 20 z2= 50 z3= 20 z4= 50
Pinion 1 rotates at 1440 rpm in the anti-clockwise direction when observed from the left side of the
page and transmits 10 kW of power to the gear train. The pressure angle is 20°. Draw a free-body
diagram of the gear tooth forces and determine the reactions at bearings E and F.
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

44. A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 40
teeth gear. The helix angle is 25° and the normal pressure angle is 20°. The normal module is 3 mm.
Calculate
(i) the transverse module;
(ii) the transverse pressure angle;
(iii) the axial pitch;
(iv) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear;
(v) the centre distance;

45. The pitch circle diameters of the pinion and gear are 100 and 300 mm respectively. The pinion is
made of plain carbon steel 4OC8 (Sut= 600 N/mm2) while the gear is made of grey cast iron FG 300
(Sut= 300 N/mm2). The pinion receives 5 kW power at 500 rpm through its shaft. The service factor
and factor of safety can be taken as 1.5 each. The face width of the gear can be taken as ten times
that of the module. Assume that the velocity factor accounts for the dynamic load. Calculate(i)
module; and (ii) the number of teeth on the pinion and gear.
46. To avoid the problem of interference in a pair of spur gears using a 20◦pressure angle, specify the
minimum number of teeth allowed on the pinion for each of the following gear ratios.(a) 2 to 1(b) 3
to 1(c) 4 to 1(d) 5 to 1
47. A pair of spur gears with 20° full-depth involute teeth consists of a 19 teeth pinion meshing with a
40 teeth gear. The pinion is mounted on a crankshaft of 7.5 kW single cylinder diesel engine running
at 1500 rpm. The driven shaft is connected to a two-stage compressor. Assume the service factor as
1.5. The pinion as well as the gear is made of steel 40C8 (Sut= 600 N/mm2). The module and face
width of the gears are 4 and 40 mm respectively.
(i) Using the velocity factor to account for the dynamic load, determine the factor of safety.
(ii) If the factor of safety is two for pitting failure, recommend surface hardness for the gears.
(iii) If the gears are machined to meet the specifi cations of Grade 8, determine the factor of safety
for bending using Buckingham’s equation for dynamic load.
(iv) Is the gear design satisfactory? If not, what is the method to satisfy the design conditions?
How will you modify the design
48. A pair of spur gears with 20° full-depth involute teeth consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a
41 teeth gear. The module is 3 mm while the face width is 40 mm. The material for pinion as well as
gear is steel with an ultimate tensile strength of 600 N/mm2 The gears are heat treated to a surface
hardness of 400 BHN. The pinion rotates at 1450 rpm and the service factor for the application is
1.75. Assume that velocity factor accounts for the dynamic load and the factor of safety is
1.5.Determine the rated power that the gears can transmit.
49. A pair of spur gears with 20° pressure angle, consists of a 25 teeth pinion meshing with a 60 teeth
gear. The module is 5 mm, while the face width is 45 mm. The pinion rotates at 500 rpm. The gears
are made of steel and heat treated to a surface hardness of 220 BHN. Assume that dynamic load is
accounted by means of the velocity factor. The service factor and the factor of safety are 1.75 and 2
respectively. Calculate
(i) wear strength of gears;
(ii) the static load that the gears can transmit without pitting; and
(iii) rated power that can be transmitted by gears.
Assume suitable data only if necessary.
Use the tables from the book to solve the problems.

50. It is required to design a spur gear speed reducer for a compressor running at 250 rpm driven by a
7.5 kW, 1000 rpm electric motor. The centre distance between the axes of the gear shafts should be
exactly 250 mm. The starting torque of the motor can be assumed to be 150% of the rated torque.
The gears are made of carbon steel 50C4 (Sut = 700 N/mm2). The pressure angle is 20°. The
factor of safety is 2 for preliminary design based on the use of velocity factor.
(i) Design the gears and specify their dimensions.
(ii) Assume that the gears are manufactured to meet the requirements of Grade 6 and calculate the
dynamic load by using Buckingham’s equation.