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Presentation Of

Industrial Training
on
“INTRODUCTION TO CNC
MACHINES”

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS


LIMITED, HARIDWAR

BY:
DIKSHA GANGWAR
B. Tech. (EC) Final Year
SRMSCET
1101431026
CONTENTS
•About BHEL
•CNC Introduction
•History of CNC Machines
•CNC Machines-How do they look like?
•Elements of CNC Machines
•Block Diagram of CNC Machines
•How CNC works
•Control: Open loop and Closed loop
•Modes of Operation
•Features of CNC machinery
•CNC Programming Basics
•Advantages of CNC
•Challenges
•Conclusion
About BHEL
•Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited is power plant
equipment manufacturer based in New Delhi,
India

•It was established in 1964

•It has 17 manufacturing units

•It manufactures gas turbines, steam turbines,


generators and boilers

•It is 7th largest power plant equipment


manufacturer in the world
Definition:

A computer
numerical control
system is a system in
which actions are
controlled by direct
insertion of
numerical data at
some point
●The CNC machines were first introduced in
the 1950s by Prof. John T Parson
●First CNC machine was built at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
1953
●Modern CNC Machine are improving further
as the technology is changing with a variety
of functions according to applications.
CNC Machines- How do they look
like?

Display

Slides Automated
Tool changer

Controller

Chip collection and


removal
A CNC machine consist of following 6
major elements:
i. Input Device
ii. Machine Control Unit
iii.Machine Tool
iv. Driving System
v. Feedback Devices
vi. Display Unit
Input Device
•Floppy Disk
•USB Flash Drive
•Serial Communication etc.

Machine Control Unit

i. Data Processing Unit


(DPU)
ii. Control Loop Unit
Driving system

•DC Motor
•Stepper Motor

Feedback Devices

i. Positional Feedback Devices


• Linear Transducer
• Rotary Encoder
ii. Velocity Feedback Device
Display Unit

• Shows position of machine slide, part


programmes etc.
• Can also show graphics simulation of tool path
so that part programmes may be verified
Block diagram of CNC Machine
* Controlled by G and M codes.
* These are number values and co-ordinates.
* Each number or code is assigned to a particular operation.
* Typed in manually to CAD by machine operators.
* G & M codes are automatically generated by the computer
software.
In open loop systems the slide may overshoot or may not
reach desired position because of inertia, wear and tear
and friction, hence inaccurate machining.
In closed loop systems the position sensors are used to
correct slide movements and achieve higher accuracy and
repeatability
Modes of Operation
●Manual mode

●Manual Data Input (MDI) Mode

●Automatic Mode

●Input and output Mode


Manual Mode

Movement of machine slide carried out


manually by pressing particular jog
button(+ or -)
Axis is selected through axis selector
switch
Machine slide movement may also be
achieved by using a hand wheel

Manual Data Input (MDI) Mode

part programs are fed manually for each


movement of machine tool by the operator
Automatic Mode

The part program is executed continuously


While one block is being executed, next block is
read by the system and kept ready for execution

Input and Output Mode

The part programs and machine information like


machine setup data can be loaded into and unloaded
from memory of the system or floppy disks, USB flash
derives etc.
•The tool or material moves automatically.
•Tools can operate in 1-5 axes.
•Larger machines have a machine control unit (MCU) which
manages operations.
•Movement is controlled by motors (actuators).
•Feedback is provided by sensors (transducers)
•Tools can be changed automatically.
*CNC instructions are called part program commands.

*When running, a part program is interpreted one


command line at a time until all lines are completed.

*Commands, which are also referred to as blocks, are


made up of words which each begin with a letter
address and end with a numerical value.
G81 Drilling cycle

G82 Counter boring cycle

G83 Deep hole drilling cycle

G90 Absolute positioning

G91 Incremental positioning


M02 : Program end

M06 : Tool change

M08 : Coolant on

M09 : Coolant off

M30 : Program stop, reset to start


Advantages of CNC

 Increased productivity

 Consistent quality

 Automatic material handling

 High accuracy

 Reliable operation

 Reduced manpower

 Increased operation safety


i. Costly setup, skilled operators
required
ii. Programming knowledge required
iii. Maintenance is difficult
The advantage of a CNC system are that the
operation of a conventional machine is removed and
the part production is made automatic.
It reduces the labor work and hence highly efficient
in the manufacturing process.
BHEL generally uses CNC machines to achieve its
manufacturing targets. For manufacturing works of
large scale it is very difficult to work with manual
machines as they are time consuming. CNC machines
have their wide scope because they are easy to
handle, the work becomes easier and jobs are done
with perfection.