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CDR PRESENTATION CONTENT:

Introduction(Kshitij Shaekhar)-
Greeting judges. I kshitij shekhar would like to welcome you on the
continued roller coaster ride by our team BAGS. We have already marked
our words my securing the 5th rank in the PDR. But the zeal to do better
every single day has made us work harder and turn it to the 1st rank. We
are making sure that everyday goals are perfectly matched with our
schedule. So now without wasting our important time, I would handover this
presentation to Snigdha, who would share details on the system overview.
System overview(Snigdha Singh) (3 mins)-
My role is the ideation of cansat design and coming up with the most
optimized solution in terms of mass, cost and aerodynamic stability. Our
main objective is to design and fabricate a cansat with an Autogyro
mechanism with descent velocity 10-15m/s. Sub objectives may include
1. Transmission of telemetry consisting of sensor data with real time
plotting at ground station.
2. An easily accessible power switch, Power indicator and an audio
beacon.
There are some changes since PDR which are worth mentioning. Most of
the changes were done to improve weight, space and ergonomics of
cansat.
Nichrome heating setup is now placed below the bottom lid. Secondly,
orientation of PCBs are also changed from horizontal to vertical and Rotor
mount has been also thickened. In CDH, internal EEPROM of ATtiny85 is
replaced by external EEPROM 24AA64 . In EPS TIP120 NPN BJT for
nichrome heating setup is replaced by 12V relay. In GCS, telemetry data is
now stored in deque rather than array and Dash is now used to develop
instead the use of Tkinter python module.
Moving toward our layouts, Our container consist of an electronic module
and a main body with parachute attachment point at the top and a
container lid at the bottom.
our payload consist of one payload pcb section , one battery section and a
camera stabilisation pcb section at the bottom.
In stowed configuration, the nylon thread is attached to the mount on the
cylinder. It passes through a hole in the hinged lid on the other end around
which the nichrome wire is wound. A compressed spring is also used to
hold the payload in its position.
We have 3 pcbs designed for our cansat-one each for the container,
payload, camera stabilisation.

After the final checks, cansat shall be placed in the rocket. At apogee,
parachute shall deploy, then at 450m payload release shall take place
through nichrome heating setup and airfoil opening using elastic strands.
The payload shall send Telemetry data which shall end after landing and
audio beacon shall get activated to aid recovery . Roles are assigned
accordingly to team members.
Moving on to launch vehicle compatibility, we have kept height tolerance
14.36mm and width tolerance 6.54mm. Total height of the parachute
module is 27 with 2mm of height clearance.
An important note is there are no sharp edges in our cansat and no
vegetation will be harmed under any circumstances.
Now I would like to Invite divya tiwari For sensor subsystem.

Sensor Subsystem Design(Divya Tiwari) (1.5 mins)-

Sensor subsystem, being very critical broadly consists of 6 robust and


reliable sensors for executing 7 different major tasks. To measure pitch and
roll we have selected MPU9250, BMP280 was selected to measure air
pressure and temperature.UBlox neo 6m is the selected GPS. ​For
measuring pitch and roll we have selected MPU 9250 mainly due to it’s
compatibility with I2C bus and an onboard DMP(Digital Motion Processor).
For our next two tasks which is to measure air pressure and temperature,
out of other candidates we have selected BMP280, mainly due to its dual
functionality and the support for I2C bus. Then, for our next task i.e
integration with GPS module, we selected UBLOX NEO-6M with a
apparently good update rate. ​We are calculating spin rate using a magnet
connected to the blade of the autogyro and are measuring the rate of
change using Hall effect sensor. For Battery voltage measurement, we are
directly using a voltage divider with input to MCU’s internal adc.
No changes have been made to the sensor subsystem.
For the bonus objective we have selected Piquancy Ultra HD camera due
to its small form factor and it also fulfills the minimum resolution
requirements.
We have visualised camera stabilization as a Servo motor position control
problem and for the implementation of the same we are using a digital PID
controller, a 360˚ servo motor and a MPU9250. For the implementation of
PID we require precise measurements of chassis rotation(Yaw angle),
which is recorded using MPU9250 and AHRS Sensor fusion technique acts
as a filter and gives stable measurement values. Since the PID controller
tries to minimise the error, it is calculated by finding the deviation of the
yaw value from the Geographic North. The position of geographic north is
calculated by subtracting the magnetic declination at the given location
from the Magnetic north calculated using MPU9250. Error is calculated at
every moment and is fed in the PID controller which generates a suitable
control signal which is fed into the servo motor for generating the real time
control actions.
Now i would like to call Riyanshu to present Descent Control Design.
Descent Control Design(Riyanshu Motalaya)-
Descent(3 mins) -
->​The cansat will descent under parachute with terminal velocity of about
16.75m/s, at 450 meters the payload will be released and descent with
autogyro system having a terminal speed of about 13.29m/s and container
descents under parachute with a terminal velocity of 9.76m/s. By our
selected stability control mechanism payload maintains its nadir direction
and any tumbling will be avoided.
->No changes were made to the descent control design since PDR.
->however our team has successfully performed the wind tunnel test,
where blades were running smoothly and at 13m/s and drone drop test in
which payloads terminal velocity came out to be 14.1m/s, slightly different
than our calculation because of frictional losses and containers terminal
velocity was recorded to be 16m/s.
-> ​coming to payload descent control hardware, the wings will open up
using elastic strands along with the help of air pressure,its selected
because its self sustainable,reliable,light weight and cost effective.
-> ​passive components of payload descent are blades, that should provide
the calculated amount of axial forces to achieve terminal velocity. Nut and
bolts to connect blade and rotor mount together, that have high resistance
to shear and are easy to operate. Bearing to take up radial and axial loads
and is fitted b/w rotor and payload top. Rotor a support structure for
mounting and providing sufficient torsion and shear strength, rotor is also
the centrepiece for blademount and elastic strands. Elastic strands that are
heat resistant with a good fatigue strength and are used to deploy blades.
-> in active components we have hall effect sensor which measures blade
spin rate transmitted in rps. BMP280 to measure altitude. Pitch and roll
sensor to measure pitch and roll values in degrees. GPS sensor is gonna
recieve data in NMEA 0183 GGA format.
->
In this slide ​some formulas like time of flight,descent velocity and altitude
as a function of time are given, and assumptions like zero vertical velocity
of cansat at 700 meters ​after its release from rocket ​, along with air density
assumed to be constant ​at 30 degree C and 350 metres​.
-> ​And by solving second order differential equation of these we got results
of terminal velocity and total time of flight.
-> For cansat i.e. container + payload having mass 500 grams ,the total
time of flight is 22.08s and terminal velocity is 16.75m/s.
Now coming to container which descents through parachute, the total time
of flight is 46.77s and having a terminal velocity of 9.76m/s.
-> ​We obtained two first order simultaneous differential equations, first
achieved through adding forces in vertical direction and second is achieved
through adding moments in tangential direction and these equations were
simultaneously solved using fourth order Runge-Kutta methods which
gave us the terminal velocity for the payload to be 13.29m/s with total time
of flight 32.12s.
-> ​Moving on acronyms and assumptions like neglecting natural wind
velocity, tip losses, bearing losses, throughout constant coefficients and
time step constant variables like V and omega are given.
->​In those equations the coefficients​(drag + lift) were obtained using Ansys
simulation.of velocity and pressure contours.
-> ​And the last one consisting of mass, terminal velocity and time of flight
given with their respective descent system.
-> ​So,this subsystem is practical and works well because of compliance
with all requirements,ease of deployment ,release of payload with working
autogyro system and petty good descent stability strategy.
Now, Bhavya will explain mechanical subsystems.
Mechanical Subsystem Design(Bhavya Arya) (3:15)-
SLIDE 76
The aim of the mechanical team was to develop an ergonomically
sound casing and a strong support structure ​for all other
subsystems, along with keeping the mass and size requirements in
check.
For easy placements and accessibility of all the components, a
vertically modular approach has been used, which also eases the
manufacturing process
Major parts of the cansat model are the container and the payload,
which are further divided into a number of parts
SLIDE 77
Now coming to the changes that have been done from the mechanical
end
For payload, we have decided to make the payload octagonal instead
of circular, also the PCB is mounted vertically which gives more
space to mount the components, further, the rotor mount has been
thickened after the initial design failed during testing
And for the container, we have shifted the nichrome-nylon setup to
bottom of the lid, due to ergonomic issues while placing it inside the
container main body
SLIDE 80
The payload is designed to be a space frame structure with a specific
section for each component. Main mechanical parts are the
Blades - which provide the autogyro action
Rotor - Hub where the blades are hinged
Payload top - This forms the fixed part for payload
These two parts are connected using the angular bearing to avoid
frictional losses during movement
Structural support members form the space frame structure for the
payload
Payload PCB base forms the base structure where PCB is mounted
and is connected to the battery section
And finally the camera stabilisation system

SLIDE 82
For payload release ribs and similar negatives are formed in container
and payload respectively which ease the payload release at a height
of ​450m

SLIDE 83
Based on the expected failure mode of each and every component,
different materials have been selected for each component
SLIDE 84
The container consists of four major parts
Parachute module
Electronics module
Main body
And Lid
The lid is hinged to the main body and is actuated via nichrome-nylon
set-up along with elastic strand which provides the required force for
its opening, actuating set-up is places on the extra structure provided
on the lid.
SLIDE 86
Similar to the payload material selection is done on the basis of
failure modes
SLIDE 87
Payload rests on the lid of the container which is hinged to the
container and diametrically opposite end is held to the container via a
nylon thread
Payload release is controlled by nichrome-nylon set up which is
actuated by the pressure sensor. The nichrome wire melts the nylon
wire and elastic strand pull open the lid thus releasing the payload.
Rail in the container ensure smooth and straight exit of the payload

SLIDE 88
Parachute is kept inside the parachute module and the extensions of
top surface prevent parachute release inside the rocket. After
separation from rocket the air pushes it out out of the module almost
instantaneously
The shroud lines are connected via a two tab method

SLIDE 89
All the components have arrived and have been measured on a
precision weighing scale and the total weight comes out to be
approximately 507 grams, which is well within the prescribed limits
also we expect a bit of change in this weight during final assembly so
we are ready to perform topology optimizations in order to change the
weight if it doesn't fall within the prescribed range during the
complete final assembly

Now sourav will explain CDH subsystem-


CDH(Sourav Bhattacharjee) (3 mins)-
Slide 102: ​This is CDH block diagram. It has been divided into two parts. Section A is
responsible for the telemetry and has all the sensors and radio. Section B controls the camera.
Slide 103: ​The container section is responsible for releasing the payload at 450 m. So it comes
equipped with a pressure sensor and a nichrome wire burning mechanism.
Slide 104: ​We chose a 64kB I2C EEPROM rather than the internal EEPROM of the ATtiny85
for the nv storage of the container, because of higher storage space.
Slide 108: The section A is controlled by the Sparkfun’s SAMD21 mini MCU. It has a very fast
ARM based CPU clocked at 48MHz, 256kB of flash and 32kB RAM. but most importantly, it has
6 Hardware serial interfaces, which we use to implement the SPI, I2C and UARTs.
Slide 109: ​We chose an SD card instead of an EEPROM so that we can recover our data even
in the event of a cansat crash. This is the Shield we chose since it runs at 3.3v and is the most
efficient design.
Slide 110:​ We chose the Sandisk 8GB SD card because it's the most durable.
Slide 111: The Camera Section is controlled by an arduino pro mini which is fast enough to
stabilise the camera, but is 10 times cheaper than the SAMD21.
Slide 112: ​Section B also requires an SD Card, for storing the video. Again, we went for the
Sandisk 8 GB card because of its higher access speeds and storage.
Slide 113: ​The internal Real Time Counter of the SAMD21 is being used to keep time in the
cansat. It runs continuously even in standby mode, and isn’t affected by CPU reset. Only, the
SAMD21 must remain continuously powered. So we have added a coin cell to the design and
put the MCU in standby mode so that it draws very little current. (225mAh battery, 72uA sleep
current, 4.5 months).
Slide 114,115: The FXP830 Freedom antenna used in the design weighs a gram and has a
nice omnidirectional radiation pattern. We calculated the theoretical range to be 1700m based
on these parameters.
Slide 116: ​Communication for the telemetry is governed by the ZigBee 802.15.4 protocol using
the XBee pro s2c because of its high data and clock rates, low power consumption and lower
cost.
Slide 117: ​We cease Transmission once landing state is detected by processing the various
sensor data. As shown.
Here is a screenshot of the XCTU software used to programme the XBees with the PAN ID set
to our team ID, which is 1516.
Slide 117,118: ​Telemetry is performed at a rate of 1Hz, continuous mode, 9600 baud rate.
These are all the fields which we will be transmitting, including the bonus direction. Here is an
example of what a frame would look like.
Slide 120: The container is controlled by an ATtiny85 MCU. It has enough processing power to
meet the container requirements, but is very small and lightweight, and costs 3 times less than
the Arduino pro mini.
Slide 121: ​As discussed previously, we chose an external i2c eeprom; 24AA64 for the
container’s NV memory because of its higher storage.

And now Shikhar Makhija will present the EPS section.


EPS(Shikhar Makhija) (3 mins)-
Slide 1​: EPS Subsystem is broadly divided into 3 parts, namely: Payload
Section A, the Telemetry Section, Payload Section B, the Camera
Stabilisation section and the Container. A brief overview of the Electrical
Power Subsystem Design is illustrated in the block diagram.

Slide 2: ​For nichrome wire burning mechanism, the proposed power bjt
based model has been replaced by a 12V relay. The former was
supplanted because a large potential drop was observed through it, leading
to inadequate heating and thus, a slower container release than desired.

Slide 3: ​The Payload section A, is powered using a 3.6 Lithium Ion battery.
It utilises a 3.3V LDO LM1117 for powering SAM D21 and the sensor
subsystem. It also incorporates a 12V Booster, for the audio beacon. On
the right side, the switching mechanism of SAM D21 is shown. SAM D21
works in two states, namely standby and active. The former has lower
current requirements, and a simple Lithium Ion Coin cell is required for
keeping it ON and in turn the Internal RTC active at all times. While it is
pushed to the active state, using a 3.6V Li-ion battery generating an
interrupt.

Slide 4: ​Payload section B, is powered using a 9V Nickel Metal Hydride


battery. It utilises 5V and 3.3V regulators, LM7805 and LM1117
respectively for powering the Arduino Pro Mini and the Camera stabilisation
sensor subsystem respectively.

Slide 5: ​Samsung 18650, is utilised for powering the telemetry section i.e.
Payload section A. Its voltage output, 3.6V easily fits to the MCU
subsystem requirements. Moreover, it offers an apposite Wh ratings of
2500Wh and good CDR of 20A.

Slide 7: ​For powering the Camera Stabilisation section B, a 9V Envie


rechargeable battery is used.
Slide 8-9: ​A 2 min descend time, was obtained from analysis in the
Descent Control Calculations. Pre-flight time of 2hrs and Post-flight
recovery time of 1hr are utilised as safety margins, for energy requirements
calculations. The Wh requirements of each component in Payload Section
A and B are shown in the following slides.

Slide 10: ​From the specifications given in datasheets of 3.3V Lithium Ion
Battery and 9V Nickel Metal Hydride battery, a safety margin of 7.16Wh
and 2.9Wh were observed respectively.

Slide 11: ​The container subsystem requires a 3.3V LDO for powering
Attiny85 and the sensor subsystem. Similar to the Payload, it requires a
12V Booster for powering the Audio Beacon.

Slide 12: ​Samsung 18650 battery is incorporated for powering the


container subsysem. It offers a high allowable current discharge rate of
20A, which is suffice for the nichrome wire burning mechanism.

Slide 13: The Whole requirements of the container subsystem has been
summarized in this slide.

Slide 14: ​A margin of 8.453Wh was observed from the Container power
budget and the Wh offered by the 3.6V Li-ion battery.

Now, Raunit will be presenting the Flight Software Design section.


Thank You.
FSW(Raunit Singh)-

My role in FSW was to determine and code the FSW states based on
sensor information. In FSW Overview, We have used C++/Arduino as our
languages with Arduino IDE as the environment. The main tasks of this
subsystem we have identified are

1. Calibrating the sensors and resetting the mission time to 0.


2. Read the raw data from sensors and process the data and telemetry
of the same.
3. Maintaining the count of the transmitted packets.
4. Deployment of the payload and activation of the camera subsystem
when altitude = 450 meters in descent.

In the Payload FSW state diagram, we have 6 FSW states.


After powering ON the sensor subsystem we have the
FSW State 0 (Idle State) - Waiting for the rocket to launch.
FSW State 1 (Ascent State) - Rocket launches I.e current altitude >
previous altitude.
FSW State 2 (Descent) - When the current altitude < previous altitude >
450m.
FSW State 3 (Descent without container) - When the altitude = 450m, the
payload is released from the container and the auto gyro is yet to be
activated.
At this point, the camera subsystem is initialised and the camera data starts
being saved in the SD Card.
FSW State 4 (Descent with auto-gyro) - This state is attained when the
auto-gyro subsystem is activated and altitude > 5m.
FSW State 5 (Audio Beacon Activated) - When altitude < 5m, telemetry is
turned off and the the payload’s audio beacon is activated.

What if the processor resets during the flight?


Throughout the flight, it is checked if SAMD21 has been reset, if yes, then
the current altitude is compared with the EEPROM’s last altitude value and
the state is restored accordingly.

In Container FSW state diagram, we have 5 FSW states -


The first three states which are Idle, Ascent and Descent are exactly the
same as payload’s states except no telemetry is being performed.
FSW State 3 (Descent without container) - When the present altitude is <
450m > 5m
FSW State 4 (Audio Beacon Activated)- Same as the payload’s state
diagram.

Processor reset - The logic is same as the Payload State diagram. The
difference is in the micro-controller which is ATtiny85 here instead of
SAMD21.
Now we come to software development plan.
Since our FSW design is simple and easily implementable, we have used
the RAPID Software Development Life Cycle model.
The unit testing of all the sensors, review of logic and algorithm design are
being carried from the commencement of the development of the FSW.
Currently, the testing is being carried out on the bread board which would
be shifted to the PCB once it is ready.
We have followed proper timeline according to our gantt chart with
Procedural Programming design to avoid delay in software development.
Now, I would like to call Shaonak to present the GCS Design.
GCS(Shaonak Dayal) (1:30)-
Slide 152: This is the overview of our GCS structure
Slide 153: Changes since PDR-
Telemetry is stored in a deque instead of an array for easier
rendering of graphs in GUI
Plotly module is chosen instead of matplotlib extensions for
better graphs and greater functionality
Dash by plotly is used instead of Tkinter to increase
customisation, using local server to render graphs on a web
browser(We have tested it on Google Chrome v.
73.0.3683.103)and to make overall code simpler
Slide 156: This is the ground control design
Slide 157: This is the gcs flowchart. When the altitude is greater than 5m,
then gcs data is processed, saved in .csv file and plotted in real time graph
Slide 158: The GCS software does the following tasks, saving the data in
csv file, plot the required fields in real time, gps plot using google earth
engine and virtual tilt animation.
Slide 159: Telemetry is saved in .csv using python’s csv module and
handed to judges in a pen drive for inspection. It is saved in a file named
Flight_1516.csv
Slide 160, 161: These are the GUI during testing
Slide 162,163: Python code for reading data from port and saving data to
csv file
Slide 164: The following are the used software packages
Slide 165: Tilt animation and gps plot testing
Slide 166: TL-ANT2415D is our chosen GCS antenna
Slide 167: The antenna will be connected to the XBees via an rpsma
coaxial cable and it’ll be hand held by one of the team members. It has
been tested till a range of 1Km
Slide 169: This is the range calculation for the antenna Friis transmission
equation.
CanSat Integration and test(Advait Paithankar) (1 min)-

The CanSat integration and test has been divided into following
categories:

In the ​system level tests, we have successfully simulated 15gs and


30gs acceleration of the CanSat in Ansys software. 3D printing of
container and payload has been completed and models have arrived.
Drone test has been performed by dropping the model from a height
of 700m. All electronic systems have been tested individually along
with the camera and power calculations have been completed.
Integrated testing of all sensors has been completed on breadboard
and PCBs have arrived so further testing will be done on them. In
software part, the GUI for plotting of sensor data has been designed
and tested.

Moving to ​environmental test plan​, the body has been tested in a


thermal oven and vibration test was performed using orbit sander. Fit
check has been performed. Packet generation and transmission has
been tested through the xbee modules and range tests for antennas
has been conducted.

Moving to integrated level test plan, the wind tunnel testing of


autogyro blades was completed. Entire electronics subsystem along
with telemetry has been tested.
Testing of structural integrity is to be done

Now Snigdha Singh will proceed with Mission Operations and


analysis.
Mission Operation and Analysis(Snigdha Singh) (1 min)- On arrival, ground
station setup and antenna testing on XCTU software will be done.
Parachute deployment mechanism, payload deployment and Autogyro
mechanism will be verified along with camera stabilisation and senors.
Then we'll assemble the parts and prepare our cansat thereafter
integrating it into the rocket. After the launch of the cansat, telemetry
transmission for ascent will be received by GCS. At apogee, cansat would
separate from rocket and At 450m payload would deploy and would
descent from Autogyro DCS. Audio beacon would be activated on landing
and telemetry would stop at altitude less than 5m. Cansat would be
retrieved by recovery members and checked for any damage. Telemetry
data will be analysed and PFR will be presented.
To fulfil the above tasks, All members have been assigned with their roles
under-
Mission control officer
Ground Station Crew
Recovery Crew
Cansat crew
In field safety rules, we comply with all the field safety rules throughout the
mission. Mission Operations Manual has been prepared and its two copies
will be assembled in 3 ring binders.
Now i would like to call Kshitij shekher for requirement compliance
Requirement Compliance(Kshitij Shaekhar)-
By now my whole team has updated you about the major changes like the
reduction of the number of PCB’s and also the orientation of it and the
internal design for the payload deployment and the containers are
changed. I believe we are ready to face any kind of unforeseen
circumstances that might develop during the competition. Also, our team
has been performing exercises on the second prototype for the different
tests continuously so as to make everything perfect. All the changes that
have been made abide by the rules of cansat competition.

Management(Kshitij Shaekhar)-
My role in Cansat is to look at the integrated development and coordination between all
subsystems and to verify whether every subsystem plan their design and builds.
In the program schedule we have 3 critical phases-
The critical path in Phase 1 PDR included preparation of preliminary designs of all subsystems.
The critical path in Phase 2 CDR includes testing of all the components and subsystems we
have built, coding of FSW design and submission on time.
The critical path in Phase 3 mission planning and preparation includes system testing of the
entire cansat.
This is overall gantt chart which is being followed strictly. We have also made separate gantt
chart for different subsystems so as to help the team to work in a smooth manner. The dates
assigned to the tasks in the gantt chart are kept ahead of the dead line so as to avoid any last
minute hustle.
This is our detailed program schedule which again has the dead lines mentioned with the
duration of time invested in it. It also include the names of the teams member who have been
assigned the work, from whom the updates are collected on a regular basis.
Talking a bit about our cansat, it has been developed using rapid software development life
cycle model in which we have analysed the risks at every stage.
We have also made all arrangement for the shipping of our cansat model, we have chosen DHL
for the work. This is because they are taking least time and are most cost effective.
Our accomplishment would include
-All sensors tested with SAMD21 on breadboard.
-Telemetry has been tested
- Descent rate estimations have been done using numerical methods
- Mechanism for payload deployment and container opening have been tested
-Material selection and basic material testing has been done
We have received all our 3d printed cansat model parts.
This all work has been done because we have had a unidirectional mindset from the beginning
which was to give 110% at each stage of the competition.
Team BAGS is privileged to be a part of Cansat this year And as Sunita Williams said,” Don’t be
bogged down by the notion of limits. There aren’t any”. Namaste.

Total time: (20:15) excluding untimed sections