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Chapter 1


This presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, scope and

delimitations, rationale of the study, and the definition of terms.

1.1 Background of the study

What concerns the researchers is that a study shows that a large percentage of

populations purchase street foods and fast foods.( Steyn et al., 2011 ). Due to a larger

percentage of population that purchases food in fast food chain and street food, the

researchers want to know what food enterprise is the most preferred in terms of their

physical food environment.

In the Article II, Section 15 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution states that “The

State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health

consciousness among them.” The consumers must create consciousness of the importance

of healthy eating habits and lifestyle. It is very important to know the nutritional content

of the foods people are eating, especially those from fast-food chains and street foods.

Street foods, fast foods and even restaurants should be responsible in presenting and

preparing their foods. Furthermore, Article V, Section 13, Principal Responsibility of

Food Business Operators. – Food business operators shall ensure that, food satisfies the

requirements of food law relevant to their activities in the food supply chain and that

control systems are in place to prevent, eliminate or reduce risks to consumers.

To stay competitive with the growing trend of healthy eating, many chains

have begun to change their menus to stay in line with the trend of “healthy

eating.”About 34 % of all children and adolescents, aged 2 to 19, consume fast food on a

given day. (Fryar, 2015)

Zagorsky and Smith (2017) used data from about 8,000 people who were asked

about their fast-food consumption in the 2008, 2010 and 2012 surveys. Participants, were

asked how many times in the past seven days they had eaten "food from a fast-food

restaurant such as McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, or Pizza Hut." Overall, 79 % of

respondents ate fast food at least once and 23 % ate three or more meals during any one

of the weeks.

In the report, 25% of consumers eat out at fast food restaurants at least once a

week, a contrast to a year ago with only 14%. The proliferation of convenience stores

across the Philippines offering prepared meals similar to quick serve restaurant is also

encouraging Filipinos to dine out rather than eat at home. The offerings of fast food

restaurants and convenience stores cater to shoppers’ increasing desire for convenience,

quick preparation and ready-to-eat meal options. (Nielsen, 2014)

Most street food is both finger food and fast food. (Soijo, 2010) Street food

costs less than a restaurant meal. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization,

2.5 billion people eat street food every day. Filipinos are known to enjoy the average

three meals a day plus desserts or “merienda” and snacks. One of the qualities that

Filipinos possess is their ingenuity to create almost anything into something new and

creative yet cost-sufficient. Even though the customer was conducted during college

vacation, 16% of the street food customers were students. This figure surely doubles

during term. The 4% of all customers who never cooked at home included many students.

A quarter of the customers, many of them students, were from outside the city.

The food sold by street vendors or street foods is defined as foods and beverages

ready for consumption, prepared and/or sold in public places without the need for another

process or preparation. Street foods are a source of culturally accepted, inexpensive, and

convenient and often appealing foods for both urban and rural populations worldwide.

The fast food chain provides more facility. Typically, customers sit at tables, their orders

are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready, and the customers pay the bill

before leaving. Street foods and fast foods are low in cost compared with restaurant

meals and offer an attractive alternative to home-cooked food. In spite of these

similarities, street food and fast food enterprises differ in variety, environment, marketing

techniques and ownership. The people can sit and they are served by others and they can

enjoy the meal in fast food chain and in the street foods, it provides less facility (Ramani,


Street foods are known because of their affordability and enchanting tastes, and

because it’s near the school that it’s easy to reach (Acabo et al. 2010). Environmental

factors may play an important role in health and food perception of the customers.

Moreover, environmental factors linked space and place may in turn contribute to and

reinforce socioeconomic (Bleich et al, 2012: Laviest et al., 2011). Furthermore, factors

influencing fast food and street food purchasing were also evaluated. The main focus of

the study is to determine the food preference of the students between street foods and fast

food chain in terms of physical environment.

1.2 Statement of the problem

This study aims to determine the comparison between street foods and fast food

chain in the buying preference among the students.

Specifically, it aims to answer the following question:

1. What are the differences between buying in street foods and in fast food chain to

the food preference of the students referring to its environmental factors?

1.1 Service

1.2 Sanitation

1.3 Accessibility

1.4 Availability

1.4 Scope

The general purpose of the study is to determine the comparison between eating

street foods or in the fast food chain in the buying preference among the Grade 12 ABM

students considering its environmental factors. The data will be gathered in PHINMA

Hall PHINMA - Cagayan de Oro College during second semester of the Academic Year

2018-2019. The researchers will survey 100 random respondents from the Grade 12

ABM students who will answer the survey questionnaires.

1.5 Delimitation

Even though they reached its aims, there are some unavoidable limitations. The

information that will be gathering from the respondents is limited; the researchers only

get the information that is required for their study. Some of the respondents answer the

questionnaire casually which might affect the conclusion, because of the unwillingness of

providing any information. The researchers also have limited time; the busy schedule of

respondents also makes the collection of information a difficult one.

1.6 Rationale of the Study

This study is of great importance in the sense that it will reveal the comparison

between eating street food and in fast food chain in a buying preference among the

students. In addition, it reveal the number of reasons why most of the students purchase

street foods and why some students prefer more fast food than street foods. The

researchers hoped that this study would serve as guide to the vendors and other business

entity to provide clean and safety environment and efficient service for the customer.

The result of the study are beneficial to the students, customers, and to the food

enterprises, because it is intended towards determining between the two business

enterprises base on the students food preference, and appreciation among the following:

To the students, the result of the study will serves as their voice, to satisfy their

needs and to try something new. This will also help the students to be aware on the

possible effect of patronizing street foods or fast food chain

To the customers, this study will serve as guide to the customers in identifying

what food enterprise is the most effective service. The result of the study will help the

customers on how to choose the best business food enterprise and to apply being

meticulous in purchasing food.

To the school institution, this study will serve as guide to the school institution

to minimize the number of student that will go out the school just to buy a food. This will

help the school canteen to add something on their menu and improve their service and its

physical environment so that the students will prefer to buy foods inside the school


To the food enterprise, the result of this study will serve as guide for the

business to establish new strategy to attract and retain customers. And this information

will also help the business to continuously improve their product and to provide efficient


To the street food enterprises, the result of the study will serve as additional

information that will help them know and hear the feedback of their customers about their

product and service. It will also help street food vendors to improve their social status and

the poor sanitation of their products. To retain customers and to meet or surpass

customer’s expectation.

To the other researchers, this study will serve as hint for those who are

commencing a study like this. This study also serves as foundation for further research in

this field.

1.7 Definition of Terms

For better clarification and understanding of the terms related to this study, the

following terms are defined operationally:

Fast Food Chain - is a food enterprise which prepares and serve food and beverages to

customers in return of money. This enterprise is used by the researchers to test its

effectivity in foods services in the buying preference of the students.

Buying Preference – the selection of one food over another. In this research it is a way a

student’s will choose between the two enterprises; this is the dependent variable of the


Street food - ready-to-eat foods and beverages prepared and sold in streets and other

similar public places. In this research it is used as one of the food enterprises to be tested

by the researcher.

Customers - people who buy a particular product and have the right to decide what type

of food they will buy. In this study they are used as respondents of the study.

Chapter 2


This chapter presents literatures and studies related to the present study that

guided the researcher in the formulation of the conceptual framework as developed from

different related literatures. It also aims to review the published written works and

provide basic information on the findings of the previously conducted researches both

foreign and local.


Customer’s ultimate satisfaction may have significant affect of atmosphere.

Physical surroundings are helpful to create image in the mind of customer and to

influence their behavior. Physical atmosphere of the restaurants have the significant

impacts on the customers satisfaction. Lightning, furnishing, scent, music and different

other atmospheric factors among them influence on customer satisfaction (Lim, 2010).

Food choices are influenced by different domains such as personal factors, social

environment and physical environment. Personal factors such as the individual choice of

food and food behaviours and interests. The social environment, which includes people

who surround the individual, relatives, friends and family members. Physical

environment and materialistic surrounding such as eating utensils, equipment and places

of eating and shopping (WHO & Consultation, 2003)..

Most of the time students prefer this kind of ready to eat foods to save both time

and money due to its easy accessibility and availability (Jaworowska et al., 2013).

According to the journal of Bitner (2000), “The impact of physical surroundings

on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing” it shows that the distinguished three

dimensions of atmospherics that she called the SERVICESCAPE: ambient conditions,

spatial layout and functionality, and signs, symbols, and artifacts. Ambient conditions are

the intangible background characteristics that tend to affect the non-visual senses and

may have a subconscious effect on consumer. Bitner stated that ambient conditions refer

to the background characteristics of the environment, such as temperature, lighting, noise,

music, and scent. While spatial layout refers to the ways in which machinery, equipment,

and furnishings are arranged, the size and shape of those items, and the spatial

relationships among them, with functionality indicating the ability of those items to

facilitate performance and the accomplishment of goals. Moreover, signs, symbols, and

artifacts, which include signage, personal artifacts, decor, and other physical elements

that serve as explicit or implicit signals that communicate with users.

An important meta-factor in food choice is the context in which the food is served

and consumed. This includes the physical environment, including lighting, decoration,

and comfort. While suggestions and guidelines have been presented with regard to the

physical environment, little is known about food choice from an empirical standpoint.

Some studies on atmosphere have shown that music, climate, and other contextual factors

influence choice and consumption (Meiselman et al., 2000).

Physical environment factor on price perception and then the effect of the price

perception on repurchase intention in the area of the fast food restaurants. However, as a

restaurant’s physical environment is the first element to be perceived upon entering a

restaurant, it forms a key factor for customers. Second, customers want to dine out at a

restaurant not only for nutritional needs, but also to form a memorable experience, to be

together with others and get away from problems and the routine of life. For these

reasons, restaurant physical environments need to provide customers with attractive

elements. The physical environment is an important determinant of consumer psychology

and behavior when a service is consumed primarily for hedonic purposes and when

customers spend moderate to long periods of time immersed in a particular physical

environment (Raajpoot, 2002).

School or university food environments are also influenced by many factors such

as location, school size, age and health food knowledge, which limit the presence and the

excessive consumption of foods. What is provided in schools and universities for students

to eat plays an important role in influencing the eating behaviour of students and the food

chosen (Masse & De Niet, 2013).

The physical environment where people live and how easy it is for them to reach

food stores determine their food choice and consumption of certain food (Jago et al.,


Availability refers how close a person stay and work from a place selling

foodstuffs, such as fruit and vegetable store, or grocery store or supermarkets, etc. On the

other hand, the term availability and easy access are used to show how available healthy,

safe food is in food stores. Cost plays a major role in food choice; if prices of food are

high, this may be an obstacle to the customer to choose healthy food. Diet management is

a key factor when it comes to the food money value (Guenther et al.,2008).

On the other hand, article of entitled “ Fast food , Junk food and Street food:

Understanding the Difference”, In Fast food, Health, Opinion that fast food is essentially,

quick and convenient food that is easily accessible and requires very little preparation and

is also affordable for almost anyone. Usually, your purchase it from a fast food restaurant

chain either at the counter or at the drive-thru. Mcdonald’s and Burger King and KFC.

When fast food companies were first introduced into the market, they spent lots of money

to target teenagers and young children of low economic status to get access to low

economic or to inexpensive food. However street foods are accessible and cheap also.

Usually brought off of a cart ora food truck, it’s sort of like a pop-up restaurant because it

could be there one day and gone tomorrow. It’s usually made fresh, right in front of you,

or made of ingredients that were pre-mixed and cut and then put together in front of you

(Anna, 2016)

According to the article of Philippine primer (2016) entitled “List of Filipino fast

food restaurants “. The Expat’s guide to the Philippine lifestyle that fast food is the best

place to go if you want a quick bite specially if you’re running late for meeting. It also

known for being affordable component to other restaurants in the Philippines, only beaten

by hawker stands or “carinderias”. The top 5 list of some of the most popular fast food

restaurant in the Philippines are Jollibee, Mang inasal, Chowking, Greenwich Pizza and

Tropical Hut.


Foreign Studies

Tuzunkan and Albayrak (2016) in their study on “The Importance of Restaurant

Physical Environment For Turkish Customers” states that the physical environment

elements are most important for Turkish customers. Moreover, this study investigates

whether the importance rate of restaurant physical environment varies depending on

customer characteristics. Most of the participants were highly educated middle aged

(mean was 36.3) females. Half of the participants dined at restaurants 2-3 times a week

and their three important aims were nutritional needs, social interaction and engagements

while dining at restaurants. The most important restaurant physical environmental

element for Turkish customers was ‘Service Staff’ as this constituted the first element to

be recognized upon entering a restaurant. 'Facility Aesthetics’ (including clean furniture,

inviting colors, nice paintings/pictures, furniture quality and wall decoration) constituted

the second most important physical environment element. These factors conveyed

information about the restaurant quality and image much like the service staff. The third

important restaurant physical environment element was the ‘Layout’ (including enough

room for comfortable seating arrangement, private layout, layout size and shape, and

proper layout plan). This factor was especially important for the highly educated Turkish

customers most of whom visited restaurants for business purposes. ‘Ambience’ was the

fourth important restaurant physical environmental factor for Turkish customers and

included temperature, scent, music, and noise. The fifth important restaurant physical

environmental element for Turkish customers was ‘Table Setting’ including table ware

quality, window shades and attractive table linens. The findings show which restaurant

physical environmental elements are important for Turkish customers so that restaurant

designers can use these findings as a guide for planning restaurants; it is crucial that

restaurant managers and marketers understand how restaurant physical environment

elements affect customers’ dining experience for successful management.

In a study by Khan et al., (2013) ”Determinants of Customer Satisfaction in Fast

Food Industry A Study of Fast Food Restaurants” shows that concerning all types of

business organization customer satisfaction is the most important issue, and considered as

most reliable feedback, for the excellence of any business organization. Customer

satisfaction is the part of marketing and play important role in the market. And for

measuring the customer satisfaction this study was conducted and to examine the

relationship between the customer satisfaction to Promotion, Service quality, Customer

expectations, Brand, Physical Environment, Price, and Taste of the product. Brand,

Service quality, physical environment and promotion are the key determinant of customer

satisfaction in the purchase of fast food industry. At the end it could be concluded that,

there is a significant positive relationship between the Promotion, Service quality,

Customer expectations, Brand, Physical Environment, Price, and Taste of the product to

customer satisfaction.

On the other hand, the research of Belon et al. (2017) entitled “Perceived

community environmental influences on eating behaviors” reveals that physical

environmental features are only one of the driving forces of food environment. A myriad

of interrelated environmental factors seem to shape people’s abilities to purchase and

consume healthy food and may eclipse the influences of what and where the (un)healthy

food is available in the community environment. Three themes were classified in the

physical environment in influecing eating behavior of consumers: availability of food

outlets; availability of (un)healthy options in food outlets; and accessibility to food outlet.

Availability of food outlets and the availability of healthy options within them were

considered equally influential. However, many participants were skeptical about whether

people actually purchase healthy food when it is available. Food outlet accessibility was

in terms of distance from home to the food outlets and availability of public transit, and

also relative to the existence/lack of signs to make people aware of community amenities

like farmers’ markets and greenhouses.

According to the study of Webber et al. (2007), the findings indicates that one

additional factor influencing food choice is the availability of personal, nonpublic

transportation. Households without a personal vehicle or access to public transportation

must rely on alternative means—walking or biking to a store close at hand or social

networks (family, friends, neighbors) that provide reliable transport. People with

disabilities are particularly at risk, often completely dependent on social networks for

access to food. For example, an in-depth qualitative study of food access among 28 low-

income rural, village, and inner-city families with disabled primary grocery shoppers

found that they relied on social networks for assistance with food shopping.

According to the study of Mette Olsen et al. (2008), the growing street food sector in

low-income countries offers easy access to inexpensive food as well as new job

opportunities for urban residents. While this development is positive in many ways, it

also presents new public health challenges for the urban population. Safe food hygiene is

difficult to practice at street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to

street food. This study investigates local perceptions of food safety among street food

vendors and their consumers in Kumasi, Ghana in order to identify the most important

aspects to be included in future public health interventions concerning street food safety.

According to the study of S Stender et al. (2007) entitled “Fast Food: Unfriendly and

unhealthy” states that nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food

restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently ‘healthy’

meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is

unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery

disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion

sizes, induces over consumption of calories.

According to the study of Ahmad Al-It (2015) entitled “ The Effect of Service and

Food Quality on Customers Satisfaction and Hence Customer Retention” states that

service quality and food quality have a positive influence on customer satisfaction. In

addition, service quality dimensions besides customer satisfaction have a positive

influence on customer retention. Finally, the results confirmed that customer satisfaction

mediates the relationship between service quality and customer retention

Local Studies

According to J.P.Aquino, C. Pedalgo, A.R. Zafra and Troy Truzon (2015), in their

research study entitled “The Perception of local street foods vendors of Tanuan city,

Batangas on food safety”, indicates that the perceptions of street food vendors were found

out that the highest rated indicator (towards food safety practices) is timeliness of

delivery. Meanwhile, the lowest rated indicator is the extensive processing of raw

materials. In terms of food cooking processes, respect to time is important while

additional process in cooking affects Tanauan street food vendors' products. In terms of

indicators towards vendors' hygiene, the highest rated indicator is washing of hands. In

food processing, hands are the ones which are mostly exposed to food. However, the

presence in the workplace even during restroom breaks is the lowest rated indicator.

Regarding food preparation, the highest rated indicator is cleanliness of utensils while the

combination of raw and cooked foods is the lowest rated indicator. Clean utensils will

positively affect the products. On the other hand, the combination of raw and cooked

foods might undergo food contamination. Lastly, the environment exposure of foods

towards food safety exhibited that maintenance of water reservoir is highly needed by the

respondents, that is why it is the highest rated indicator.

In the study by Raquel (2017) it reveals that the extent to which people are

tempted into unhealthy food choices depends on factors such as the physical environment

(food that is available in the environment) and “internal” factors (how people make food

choices). You can get people to make more healthy food choices by helping them to resist

temptations. That can be very difficult, as many decisions are made unconsciously.

Another strategy is to change the environment. This is because the environment can be

designed in a way that actually encourages healthy behaviour.

In an article of Romwee, Kimberly, Batiancila, Gillamac (2012), of Philster

global newspaper, entitled “The Vendors of Street food”, street food is defined as any

minimally processed food sold on the street for immediate consumption. Different types

of street food are sold by vendors using wooden carts or portable makeshift stalls. They

are found mostly outside school, plaza’s or in any place heavily populated by people.

Larson et al., (2009) research study indicates that there are growing interest in the

role of the environment in promoting or hindering healthy eating. It has been suggested

that individual change is more likely to be facilitated and sustained if the environment

within which choices are made supports healthful food options. While there has been a

shift in attention to environmental and policy determinants of eating behavior, the

evidence to date is limited. This article reviews research that examines factors having an

influence on food choices in: 1) social environments, such as family, peers, and social

networks; 2) physical environments, including schools, child care, work sites, retail food

stores, and restaurants; and 3) macro-environments, such as socioeconomic status,

cultural norms and values, food marketing, and food and agricultural policy. Future

research directions are also discussed.

Chapter 3


This chapter presents the research design use in the study, the subjects, and

locale of the study, the data gathering procedure and instruments, and the data analysis


Research Design

The study used quantitative research method, which is significant especially

when it comes to collecting numerical data through giving out survey questionnaires to

the respondents that helps the research study in analyzing the problem. This study made

used of the descriptive design to describe the buying preference of the students between

fast food chains and street foods in terms of their physical environment. According to

Helen L. Dulock, RN, DNS descriptive method provide an accurate portrayal or account

of characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group; this studies are a means of

discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which

something occurs and/or categorizing information. This method will allow the

researchers to describe the focused matter of this study

Research environment

The research identified the comparison between fast food chain and street food

in buying preference of Grade 12 ABM 01B, 02B, 03B, and 04B students. The study was

conducted at PHINMA Hall campus 4th Floor of PHINMA - Cagayan de Oro College.

This particular school is located at Max Sunniel Street, Carmen, 9000 Cagayan de Oro

City, Misamis Oriental Philippines.

Figure 1. PHINAMA - COC Map from Google Map

This school started the operations as Parent-Teacher College on 1948 and later

on transfer at Barangay Carmen in the year 1955. On 1967, the given name was changed

into Cagayan de Oro College. From 1981 to 1998, Cagayan de Oro College began to

offer different programs and received awards from Philippine association of College and

Universities Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA) and Commission of higher

Education (CHED). In the year 2005, PHINMA Education Network acquired Cagayan de

Oro College and changed its name again as PHINMA - Cagayan de Oro College. In

addition, PHINMA-COC's mission is to make the lives better of every student through


Sample or Respondents

In identifying the respondents, the researcher used random sampling procedure

where there was only number of respondents chosen to represent their class. There are

approximately 8 sections of Accountancy Business and Management (ABM) strand

morning and afternoon class in Grade 12 Senior High level, only 4 sections were selected

which is afternoon classes only. In every section, the researchers only chose

approximately 50% of the students in each class.

There will be 8 sections of Grade 12 ABM in PHINMA COC. In ABM 01B

which has 50 students in class and 25 (50%) will be taken to be the respondents. In ABM

02B which has 50 students in class and 25 (50%) will be taken to be the respondents. In

ABM 03B which has 50 students in a class and 25 (50%) will be taken to be the

respondents. In ABM 04B which has 50 students in a class and 25 (50%) will be taken to

be the respondents. In each section, 25 of them will take the survey questionnaires which

will give the researchers to 100 respondents for this study.

Research Instruments

The research instruments used in the study were survey questionnaires. Survey

questioners help the researchers identify the comparison between fast food chain and

street food in the buying preference of Senior High School students. The questions were

based on the survey qustionnaire of Hilramani (2006) “Street food vs. Restaurant Survey”

and Monkey Survey Questionnaire. The statements were converted into the students food

preference in able to achieve the goal of the study.

Data Collection Procedure

The researcher selected the Grade 12 students from Accountancy Business and

Management (ABM) strand and chose section ABM 01B, 02B, 03B and 04B to be the

respondents of the study. In data collection procedure strict observations in regards of the

behavior of the students while answering the survey questionnaires was distributed

personally by the researcher inside the classroom when class discussion is not happening

at the moment to avoid disturbance because the data collection is not during class time.

The researcher asked for a maximum of 15 minutes consumption for the respondents to

take the survey and the researchers asked for the teacher’s permission as well as the

students and assistant facilitator before conducting the survey.

Data Analysis Procedure

To verify the truth or falsity of the hypothesis of this study, the researcher took a

random sample from the population of interest the study utilized correlational data which

comes from the chosen respondents who will answer the survey questionnaire given to

them. Correlational data are those who study the relationship between two variables.

Researchers used close ended questions for the profile of the respondents. The

respondents then answers the survey questionnares by checklist type multiple choice


In analyzing the survey results, quantitative process was used. Using the

percentage formula, the frequency is divided by the total number of the respondents and

then multiply by 100 to get the final percentage. The dominating response of respondents

on each part of the questionnaires were determined through calculating the percentage

value of data. From each calculated percentage, quantitative interpretation was done

using guidelines that was made. The numerical data that are obtain were present in tables,

showing its frequencies and percentage.

In analyzing the data gathered from the survey, the researchers group the survey

questions according to Hilramani (2006) “Street Foods vs. Restaurant Survey” and

Monkey Survey Questionnaires as explained in the theoretical framework of the study

where the researchers will be able to identify the comparison between fast food chain and

street food in the buying preference among the students.

The method used in analyzing the data is the Weighted Arithmetic Mean and its

formula is:

∑ 𝑓𝑥
𝑋̅ =

𝑋̅ = Weighted Arithmetic Mean f = Frequency

N = Total number of respondents x = No. of ST, FF, Q, T, B, V, AO,

NS, EA, O, C, D, A, and Qi

Chapter 4

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter present and interpret the gathered data, and the discussion from the

visual presentation of the collected responses.

Table Number 1

This shows the following table as the basis to answer the research question which

is “What are the differences between buying in street foods and in fast food chain to the

food preference of the students referring to its environmental factors (Service, Sanitation,

Accessibility, and Availability)?.”

Table 1.1 A food enterprise who provide a better service.

Frequency Percentage

Street Food 24 24%

Fast Food 76 76%

Total 100 100%

The table above shows that there are only 24 (24%) of the respondents whom

believed that Street Food provides better service than Fast Foods, while 76 (76%) of the

respondents are more reliable to the service in which a Fast Food could provide than

Street Foods could offer.

The results found in Table 1.1 A shows apparent difference between Street Food

and Fast Food in providing better service. It clearly shows that majority of the respondent

prefers Fast Food over Street Food in the aspect of service. This only proves that people

are satisfied when they receive the assistance or service they need.

According to the study of Ahmad Al-Tit (2015) entitled “The Effects of Service

and Food Quality on Customer Satisfaction and Hence Customer Retention” state that

service quality and food quality have a positive influence on customer satisfaction. In

addition, service quality dimensions beside customer satisfaction have a positive

influence on customer’s retention.

Table 1.2 A food enterprise who provide better hygiene

Frequency Percentage

Street Food 19 19%

Fast Food 81 81%

Total 100 100%

The table above shows that there are only 19 (19%) of the respondents who have

thought that Street Food is more sterile and provides better hygiene than Fast Foods could

give. However, 81 (81%) of the respondents are certain that Fast Food performs better

sanitation and is more hygienic than Street Food.

A larger sort of people favored Fast Food over Street Food in the aspect of

sterility. This shows even greater contrast between Fast Food and Street Food in whom

the respondents manifested which would really affect their buying preference.

Having a clean area attracts more customers than the ones who are less hygienic.

Apparently, Majority of the respondents believe that Fast Food has a cleaner area than

Street Food have. Maintaining cleanliness in an area is a must to maintain the retention of

the customers, and to keep the food fresh and clean.

According to Mette Olsen et al. (2008) Safe food hygiene is difficult to practice at

street level, and outbreaks of diarrheal diseases have been linked to street foods.

Table 1.3 A food enterprise that is more accessible

Frequency Percentage

Street Food 49 49%

Fast Food 51 51%

Total 100 100%

The table above shows that 49 (49%) of the respondents and almost half of the

surveyed population chose Street Food as the most accessible food enterprise to them.

While 51 (51%) of the respondents prefer Fast Food as the most accessible and

convenient food enterprise in their place.

Accessibility is one of the greatest factor that could affect buyers’ preference.

Most people seek good quality and standard yet losses when time contradicts them.

That’s why they are oblige to go to the most get-at-able or accessible food enterprise. The

results have shown that Fast Food is slightly more accessible to most people than Street


The physical environment where people live and how easy it is for them to reach

food stores determine their food choice and consumption of certain food (Jago et al.,


Table 1.4 A food enterprise that is more available.

Frequency Percentage

Street Food 63 63%

Fast Food 37 37%

Total 100 100%

The table above shows that 63 (63%) of the respondents claimed that Street Food

is more available in their place than Fast Food. While the other 37 (37%) of the

respondents says there are more available Fast Food in their place than Street Food.

The availability of the food enterprise affects the buying preference of the people

especially when their place has nothing else to offer. People will be having no choice but

to access what is available to them. The results have shown that there are more Street

Food in most places than Fast Foods.

Food choices are influenced by different domains such as personal factors,

social environment and physical environment (WHO & Consultation, 2003).

Chapter 5

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents the summary of findings and the discussion of the

formulated conclusion and recommendation.

Summary of Findings

The data gathered about the difference between Street Food and Fast Food

according to its environmental factors (Service, Sanitation, Accessibility, and

Availability). The respondent’s perspective upon choosing which food enterprise

provides better service, performs better sanitation, more accessible, falls to Fast Food.

While, Street Food is favored upon its availability in most places.

Overall, the findings of this study revealed that a good service and proper

sanitation is one of the qualities that retains customers’ loyalty and support. While

availability and accessibility are one of the greatest factors that could affect peoples

buying preference especially to those people who are always in a rush and their place has

nothing else to offer. They will be having no choice but to access what is available to



Based on the results, the researchers conclude that eating in Fast Food is more

reliable and much safer than eating on Street Food. Referring to the tables in Chapter IV,

the results have shown that although Street Food are more available to most places, Fast

Food provides people better service, hygienic food preparation and even a cleaner area

which is very important in earning and keeping a customer’s loyalty and support because

it is one of the best ways to succeed in business.


The researchers recommend to the students to buy in Fast Food than Street Food

because Fast Food is more hygienic and has a clean area. And also for the better

recommendation, we recommend to buy healthy foods than buying Street Foods and Fast

foods. To the teachers, we recommend to give insight to the students the positive and

negative effect of consumption of Street Foods and Fast food. And lastly, to the future

researchers to use this study for the future references and to also focus on the health

effects of eating Street Food and Fast Food.