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Introduction:

The color characteristic physical property of various petroleum products and is


measured by comparing standard colors or color using a scale known Saybolt
chromometer. Determination of the color of petroleum products is used mainly for
manufacturing control purposes and is an important quality characteristic since color
is readily observed by the user of the product. In some cases the color may serve as
an indication of the degree of refinement of the material. When the color range of a
particular product is known, a variation outside the established range may indicate
possible contamination with another product. However, color is not always a reliable
guide to product quality and should not be used indiscriminately in product
specifications. The ASTM D 1500 color scale is applicable to a wide range of
petroleum products, such as lubricating oils, heating oils, diesel fuel oils and
petroleum waxes. The ASTM D 1500 color scale is the principal quality measurement
used for the purchase and sale of partially refined oils. As an oil is refined, there
exists a correlation between the color of the distillate and the degree of refinement.
During the refining process, crude oil is transformed into a range of products with
distinct colors ranging from the dark red-black of crude through to the pale yellow
hue of the lighter fractions. The distinct petroleum colors can be accurately
measured and the refinement process controlled using the ASTM D 1500 color scale.
The ASTM D 1500 color scale is also used for product and interface detection, and for
product contamination monitoring. This test method covers the visual determination
of the color of a wide variety of petroleum products such as lubricating oils, heating
oils, diesel fuel oils, and petroleum waxes. Summary of Test Method Using a
standard light source, a liquid sample is placed in the test container and compared
with colored glass disks ranging in value from 0.5 to 8.0. When an exact match is not
found and the sample color falls between two standard colors, the higher of the two
colors is reported.
Result:

color degree
7

degree of color
4

3
color degree
2

0
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
% lubeoil

𝑦 = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥

𝑛 ∗ ∑𝑥 − ∑𝑥 ∗ ∑𝑦
𝑏= 2
𝑛 ∗ ∑ 𝑥 2 − (∑ 𝑥)

𝑏 = 3.5714

∑𝑦 ∑𝑥
𝑎= −𝑏∗
𝑛 𝑛
𝑎 = 2.3809

𝑦 = 3 = 2.3809 + 3.5714 ∗ 𝑥

3 − 2 ∙ 3809
𝑥= = 0 ∙ 17
3 ∙ 5714
Aim of experiment :
The determination of the color of petroleum products is an important quality
characteristic and is used mainly for manufacturing control purposes.

Tools of a device:
1. Light Source
2. contains two container glass, one of the sample and the other to the
standard material
3. circular lever listed containing colored glass panels with a vision slot cover

Experimental procedure:
1. Prepare models in different proportions composed of gas oil, lubricating
2. the model put in a glass jar to a special screening color
3. Put the standard material that is compared to the color in the bowl with the
other glass
4. Source photosynthesis Open, and then through glass panels are the lever
control for a similar color or asymptotic standard material
5. Use of unknown parentage model and measure the degree of color
6. record reading the color tone for each model any class corresponding to the
waving glass, which represents the test result
Theory:

It is a function of fat components, which are included components of the light color
to dark color to paraffin and then Alnfetan to Allarromat and finally asphalt
therefore be inferred from knowledge of the most efficient production processes,
we find each product in each of its own color phase is measured color in many ways
is the way the American Society for testing and materials (ASTM) range from zero to
eight and improved color whenever Say figure. Is used for all raw materials and
Alravit oils free of wax and hydrogenated either heavy spinners oil) (40 spindle Vegas
way Saybolt addition to the method) (ASTM) lies the importance of screening to find
out how efficient extraction operations to the fact that the constituent materials for
Ravit open than its counterpart in the recovery as evidenced by him on the efficiency
of unit distillation and hydrogenation unit. Add to this when it becomes dark color of
the final product due to the presence of traces of nitrogen and Alaoxigenih vehicles,
which accelerate the process of oxidation at high temperatures . Determination of
the color of petroleum products is used mainly for manufacturing control purposes
and is an important quality characteristic since color is readily observed by the user
of the product. In some cases the color may serve as an indication of the degree of
refinement of the material. When the color range of a particular product is known, a
variation outside the established range may indicate possible contamination with
another product. However, color is not always a reliable guide to product quality and
should not be used indiscriminately in product specifications
Chemical Engineering Department

Engineering Collage

University of Basrah

Iraq

petroleum lab

Name of student : Ali sadi mahdi

Name of experiment : color degree

Stage : four

Number of student : 46
Discussion:

The color of a product is one of the first indicators that reflects the quality of the
product. The petroleum industry uses the D156 Saybolt Color for measuring and
defining the color of hydrocarbon solvents. For products lighter in color, D1209
Platinum-cobalt system is used. For products that are darker, D1500 ASTM Color
should be used. Various sources have reported that a Saybolt color of +25 is
equivalent to 25 in the platinum-cobalt system. However, because of the subjective
manner in which the measurements are made and the differences in the spectral
characteristics of the various color systems, exact equivalencies are difficult to
obtain. The property of color of a solvent varies in importance with the application
for which it is intended. The presence or absence of color in a material may be an
indication of the degree of refinement to which the solvent has been subjected or of
the cleanliness of the shipping or storage container in which it is handled. When the
color range of a particular product is known, a result outside the established range
can indicate possible contamination with another product or a long term stability
issue. However, color is not always a reliable guide to product quality and should not
be used indiscriminately in product specifications.