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North Madura Platform Charging & Entrapment Modeling Study: An Effort to

Understand Hydrocarbon Filling History in Bukit Tua Field

Conference Paper · May 2018


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4 authors:

Fithra Harris Darmawan Trisakti Kurniawan



Jamaal Hoesni Suhaileen Shahar



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Forty-Second Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2018



Fithra Harris Darmawan* Suhaileen Shahar*

Trisakti Kurniawan* M Jamaal B Hoesni*
Azli B Abu Bakar* Miftah Mazied*
M Anuar B Ismail* Geovani Kaeng**
Aiman Hakimi Wong Abdullah*

ABSTRACT gentle traps to migrate further up to Kujung I where

it was permanently trapped and sealed by the thick
The presence of oil and gas fields in the North Rancak Formation. Kujung I carbonate platform
Madura Platform is attributed the existence of long- reservoirs are all filled by gas.
distance near lateral migration from two kitchen
areas, the Central Deep and the Madura Basin. Charging and entrapment modeling in the North
However, the complex hydrocarbon distributions on Madura Platform helps to understand the
multiple reservoir levels within the known traps are hydrocarbon filling history in Bukit Tua field.
not well understood. This paper presents a model of Maturity modeling of the Central Deep kitchen area
hydrocarbon charging history to the platform. indicated effective expulsion and charging to Bukit
Tua field. 3D high resolution, facies-based, charge
The key to this model is the recognition of the modeling was further conducted to observe the
mechanics of hydrocarbon migration and hydrocarbon entrapment behaviours.
hydrocarbon fluid behaviours. The model was
simulated using an invasion percolation algorithm INTRODUCTION
for secondary migration which says that migration
occurs in a state of capillary equilibrium in a flow The North Madura Platform is one of the prolific HC
regime dominated by buoyancy (driving) and producing province in the East Java Basin, located in
capillary (restrictive) forces. The model was then between two possible generative kitchen areas,
calibrated to known reservoir accumulations on the Central Deep in the west and Madura sub-basin in the
platform. south (Figure 1). Despite the fact that numerous
fields have been discovered, the links between HC
In the Bukit Tua and Jenggolo Field complex, the oil accumulations and possible source kitchens have not
is mostly trapped at the lowest part of the North been established and the complex behavior of HC
Madura Platform in Ngimbang Formation and CD distribution has yet to be well understood.
Carbonate. As the charging of oil continued and the
reservoir became saturated, the top seal was breached Based on 1D basin modelling and tectonic
and the oil filled the overlying Kujung II clastics and reconstruction, Mudjiono and Pireno (2001)
carbonates which are sealed by intra-formational suggested that the both kitchens contributed to the
shales. HC accumulation in the platform. However, no
previous studies have attempted to trace and
Due to the gentle nature of the Kujung II structure, describe in detail the vertical and lateral migration
the trapped oil column could not generate enough routes from respective kitchens to the
buoyancy pressure to breach the seal’s capillary corresponding traps and explain the complexity on
entry pressure, preventing the oil from migrating any the behavior of hydrocarbon distribution in the
further. Later generation of lighter hydrocarbons area.
(gas) reached the platform in the Ngimbang
Formation and CD carbonate that were saturated This paper is the first attempt to present a model of
with oil, bypassed, continued up to Kujung II HC generation, charge, migration, and entrapment
formation to be trapped and mixed with oil. Being histories in the North Madura Platform with the
lighter, the gas was able to breach the Kujung II goal of explaining the observed distribution of the

* PETRONAS Carigali
discovered oil and gas. The understanding of the basin developed from an oceanic basin in front of
HC distribution will further de-risk future the Late Cretaceous subduction zone to presently a
hydrocarbon exploration efforts in the area. back arc basin behind the volcanic arc.

DATA AND METHODOLOGY The region is dominated by several NE-SW trending

basement highs and intervening half-grabens, that
Rock units derived from seismic and well log, ages formed during Paleogene along the SE margin of the
of units, present and past rock unit thickness, Sunda Plate (Manur and Barraclough, 1994). One of
lithologies with its physical properties, temperature the basement high in East Java Basin is called North
and heat flow data were incorporated with source Madura Platform, a stable basement high located
rock geochemical data to reconstruct the burial between the Central Deep to the West and the
history and the HC generation. Oil-oil source Madura sub-basin to the South. Compressional
correlation were conducted to groups oils genetically tectonics regime dominated during Neogene, at
which will be used as an insight for migration which the basin was inverted and new E-W trending
pathways modelling. structural framework was formed.

The charging and entrapment model was software- Nugraha et al. (2016) divided the
simulated using the basic principle of secondary tectonostratigraphic evolution into three (3) mega
hydrocarbon migration which states that migration sequences which represented main events occurred
occurs at extremely flow rates and almost in the basin, namely Paleogene Syn-rift, Late
exclusively controlled by a flow regime dominated Paleogene-Early Neogene Post-rift, and Late
by buoyancy (as driving force) and capillary pressure Neogene Inversion.
(as restrictive force) (England at.al., 1987;
Carruthers & Ringrose, 1998; Meakin at.al.,2000; The Syn-rift Mega Sequence was deposited from
Allen & Allen, 2013). Late Eocene to Oligocene and associated with a re-
activation of the weak zones in the pre-existing
The assumption of capillary equilibrium operating thrust-fold belts due to extensional tectonic regime
under drainage conditions allows the simulator to (Matthews and Bransden, 1995). The tectonics
avoid most of the numerical complexities thus formed several NE-SW trending half grabens and
permitting high resolution 3D seismic data used as infilled by fluvio-deltaic Ngimbang clastic and
the native model (Figure 2) to account for subtle shallow marine Ngimbang carbonate. The shales and
geometric, facies, and petrophysical effects, as the coaly shale of Ngimbang clastic acted as the
trajectories and emplacement patterns of principal source rocks in the area.
hydrocarbon can be greatly affected by those
effects. These are ignored if the model resolution The post-rift mega sequence comprises of CD,
is too low, potentially resulting in models that Kujung I, II, III and Tuban Formation and is marked
simply put the hydrocarbon in wrong place. by the onlaps of CD formation onto the previous syn-
rift sequence. The CD, Kujung Ito III formations are
In the simulator, the rock properties were assigned characterized by thick carbonates and some shale
using statistical distributions, rather than using single intercalations with increasing carbonate proportion
deterministic values. Multiple stochastic realizations as it get younger (Nugraha, et al. 2016). The
of different scenarios then produced a risked carbonates are the main producing reservoirs in the
understanding of the hydrocarbon distribution. North Madura Platform. In the shelf edge area, the
carbonate developed very massively started from CD
Further, a calibration, validation and correction of Formation and continued up to top of Kujung
the model was conducted to known hydrocarbon Formation with minor shale intercalations.
accumulations as well as reality check from existing Overlying the Kujung formation is a very thick and
wells. wide spread shale of Tuban Formation which acts as
the regional seal in the basin. The tectonic regime
GEOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK was relatively stable in the study area during the
deposition of the sequence.
East Java Basin is located at the southeastern end
of the Sundaland, which covers an area of RESULT AND DISCUSSION
approximately 50,000 km2 from Central Java
eastwards across East Java, the East Java Sea, In this paper the authors focus on understanding the
Madura and the Madura Straits (Figure 1). The history and mechanical behavior of hydrocarbon

charging into the western part of the North Madura The history and mechanical process of hydrocarbon
Platform and how it was trapped within the charging and entrapment in the North Madura
reservoir formations. Main structures of the Platform is described below (Figure. 3-8).
platform are Bukit Tua Complex (Bukit Tua North,
Bukit Tua East, and Bukit Tua South), Jenggolo, During the initial oil charging from the Central Deep
and Bukit Panjang (Figure 9) kitchen in the north, heavier density oil entered the
Bukit Tua Complex structures and trapped in the CD
Basin and petroleum system modeling suggested Carbonate layer in Bukit Tua North. It then spilled
that hydrocarbon entered the platform from the over to Bukit Tua East, then continued to spill over
north (Central Deep kitchen) and South (Madura to Bukit Tua South. It is inconclusive whether from
Basin kitchen). Mudjiono & Pireno (2002) Bukit Tua South the oil continued further to the south
suggested that Ngimbang Formation is a carrier toward Bukit Panjang.
bed. They also suggested that bounding faults can
possibly act as migration paths connecting deeper Bukit Tua Complex Structures are gentle dipping
source to upper reservoirs, and continued closures with short column height, the closure type
migration laterally through Kujung Carbonates. like this would likely to hold heavier hydrocarbon
Though the later scenario sounds possible, no without breaching the top seal. As lighter oil entered
comprehensive migration modeling has been the platform, it breached the top seal and invaded
published to date. Kujung II thinly laminated reservoir-seal sequence.

Jenggolo is an independent compartment structure

In this study, the authors assumed lateral migration
with its own charging unit. The oil entered the
through Ngimbang Formation into the platform,
structure and then leaked to Kujung II layers.
followed by vertical migration through CD
Carbonate formation, Kujung II formations, and
Gas charged the platform at a later stage. As a lighter
finally terminated on Kujung I formation. The
hydrocarbon it has higher buoyancy pressure, thus it
model is able to closely conform to hydrocarbon
could easily breach the top seal of the oil-saturated
distributions in the platform as calibrated with
CD Carbonate as soon as it reached the traps. The
known accumulations and well tests.
invading Gas filled Kujung II to be intercalating with
existing oil.
The 1D modeling result of Central Deep kitchen
indicates that the peak oil generation window of It is likely that there were new trajectories / paths
Lower Ngimbang source rock was reached in the developed during gas generation as a result of
early Miocene, which believed to be the time of the overpressuring in saturated oil traps which disrupts
entrance to the platform. By this time structures of the fill-spill procedure in Bukit Tua structures, as
Bukit Tua Complex and Jenggolo on the lower supported by Carruthers’ (2003) theory. It helps
formation (CD Carbonate) was already or about to answer the presence of gas in CD Carbonate structure
form as observed from the flattening on Tuban in Bukit Tua South. If in the case of oil charging this
time. So there were not much structural changes structure was filled by spilled-over oil from Bukit
from early Miocene time to present day. Peak Tua East, in the case of gas it by-passed Bukit Tua
generation of gas was reached in late Miocene, East to directly fill Bukit Tua South.
enough time for Rancak and Tuban formations to
consolidate to provide a good seal for gas traps in By this time, Kujung II reservoirs were already
Kujung I. In the south Madura Basin kitchen peak saturated by oil and gas. Kujung II consists of
oil generation occurred quite recently in Pliocene intercalation of thinly laminated clastic carbonate
time and has been charging the platform through reservoir and shale, thus provide weak intra-
Bukit Panjang up to the present day. formational entrapments, which resulted in limited
distribution of accumulations.
Figure 2 shows fluids distribution in 3D
perspectives. In Figure 2 migration results from Lastly, late drier gas invaded the saturated CD
the 3-D model are shown as hydrocarbon charge Carbonates and Kujung II, causing it to directly leak
sequences, with blue representing earliest invasion through these formations to eventually terminate at
to red representing latest invasion. It shows the Kujung I where it is sealed by the thick Rancak shale.
multi-phase fluid distribution model, with green as As it filled to spill point, gas migrated southward to
oil, orange as critical phase, and red as gas. Bukit Panjang where the model predicted that it

should have terminated permanently there as the from the both kitchen areas. This effort can predict
kitchen had reached the expulsion limit. more HC is left to be found.

As described above, gas presence in Bukit Panjang ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

structure is dependent on gas spilling from Kujung I
reservoir in Bukit Tua field, not being charged from The authors wish to thank Indonesia Host Authority
Madura Basin. Madura Basin kitchen reached (SKK MIGAS & MIGAS) for their approval to
maturation in late Miocene. Its burial history (Figure publish this paper. We would also like to thank
12) suggests that it had only reached early gas HALLIBURTON for providing the license and
window before it was uplifted in 7ma, thus limit the technical support to us. We also thank all of those
possibility of the basin to have charged as much as who have helped us by giving us the guidance and
the current accumulation in Bukit Panjang. ideas, as well as assistance in preparing this
Meanwhile, oil presence in Bukit Panjang structure presentation material.
was directly charged from Madura Basin as
supported by oil-source rock correlation study REFERENCES
(Mazied et. al., 2016). Oil entered the platform
through Ngimbang carrier bed into Bukit Panjang Allen, P., J.R. Allen. 2013. Basin Analysis:
structure. Geological and geophysical data indicate Principles and Application to Petroleum Play
that Bukit Panjang is a feature of an aggradation shelf Assessment.
margin reef stretching from CD level to Kujung I
level (Wijaya et al., 2016) as clearly seen in the Carruthers, D. J. and Ringrose, P. 1998. Secondary
seismic cross section (Figure 13). The lack of oil migration: oil-rock contact volumes, flow and
sufficient top seal within the reef resulted in the rates. In: Parnell, J. (Ed.) Dating and duration of fluid
absence of accumulations in CD Carbonate level and flow and fluid-rock interaction, Geological Society,
Kujung II level. - Hydrocarbon entered the reef London, Special Publications, 144, 205-220.
would have had trapped in Kujung I and sealed by
Rancak Shale. Oil charged the structure from Madura Carruthers, D. J., 2003, Modeling of secondary
Basin kitchen through the reef. In summary, this petroleum migration using invasion percolation
study suggests that the gas in Bukit Panjang was techniques, in S. Duppenbecker and R. Marzi, eds.,
originated from Central Deep kitchen while the oil Multidimensional basin modeling, AAPG/Datapages
from Madura Deep kitchen. Discovery Series No. 7, p. 21–37.

CONCLUSION England, W. A., Mackenzie, A. S., Mann, D. M.,

Quigley, T. M., 1987. The movement and entrapment
The main objective of this study was to understand of petroleum fluids in the subsurface. Journal of the
the distribution of hydrocarbons in the North Madura Geological Society London, 144, 327-347.
Platform. This was achieved by reconstructing the
history of hydrocarbon expulsion, migration and Longley, I. M., 1997, The tectonostratigraphic
entrapment using basin modelling with the support evolution of SE Asia, in A. J. Fraser, S. J. Matthews,
from geochemistry analysis. This study has provided and R. W. Murphy, eds., Petroleum Geology of
an explanation to the complexity of HC distribution Southeast Asia, v. 126, Geological Society Special
in the Platform. The Central Deep is the kitchen area Publication, p. 311-399.
for HC found in the Bukit Tua structures with the
onset of expulsion in the Early Miocene and Lunt, P., 2013, The sedimentary geology of Java:
continued until present day. On the other hand, the Jakarta, Indonesian Petroleum Association.
Madura sub-basin is the kitchen area for HC found in
the structures located in southern flank of the Matthews, S. J., and Bransden, P. J. E., 1995, Marine
platform with the possibility for charging to the Bukit and Petroleum Geology, 12, 499-510.
Tua structure in the central part of the platform. The
HC expulsion for the Madura sub-basin started in the Manur, H. and R. Barraclough, 1994, Structural
Early Miocene and completely stopped in the 7 mya control on hydrocarbon habitat in the Bawean Area,
due to tectonic inversion. East Java Sea. IPA, 23, v. 1, p. 129-144.

The future of exploration work in the area should Meakin, P., Wagner, G. Vedvik, A., Amundsen, H.,
start with the quantification of HC charge volume Feder, J., Jossang, T., 2000. Invasion percolation and

secondary migration: experiments and simulations. Basin: New Insight and Concepts for North
Marine and Petroleum Geology, 17, 777-795. Madura Platform, 40th IPA Annual Convention
Mudjiono, R., and Pireno, G.E., 2002, Exploration of
the North Madura Platform, Offshore East Java, Wijaya, A. K., Yogapurana, E., Monalia, P.,
Indonesia, 28th IPA Annual Convention Proceedings, Haryanto, H., 2016. The Evolution of CD
p. 726. Carbonate In North Madura Platform, An Effort To
Understand Reservoir Complexity Distribution.
Nugraha, H.D., Darma, I.W.D., Darmawan, F.H.,
40th IPA Annual Convention Proceedings.
2016, Ngimbang Clastics Play in The East Java

Figure 1 - Regional tectonic setting of East Java Basin. Study area is located in the north of Madura Island, Offshore East Java (modified after Budiyani, 2003).

Figure 2 - Fluid distribution in 3D perspectives. Migration result from the 3-D model is shown as hydrocarbon charge sequences (left), with blue representing
earliest invasion to red representing latest invasion. Right figure shows the multi-phase fluid distribution model with green as oil phase, orange as
critical phase, and red as gas phase.

5 km

Figure 3 - Oil filled Bukit Tua North and East to spill point. (Cross section location of figure 3-8 are
indicated on maps of figure 9-11)

5 km

Figure 4 - Oil spilled over from Bukit Tua East to Bukit Tua South. Whether the oil was terminated or
continue to migrate southward to Bukit Panjang is uncertain.

5 km

Figure 5 - Upon filling to spill point, the oil filled in Bukit Tua South

5 km

Figure 6 - Lighter oil charged the platform and breached the top seal due to higher buoyancy pressure. The
lighter oil was able to breach the seal because seal’s capillary pressure was overcome by incoming
oil’s buoyancy pressure. The capillary pressure at its critical point is called threshold pressure (Pth).
Oil then invaded thinly laminated reservoir-seal sequence of Kujung II

5 km

Figure 7 - Gas then charged the platform. Oil Saturated structures were already at their critical threshold
pressure. This resulted in gas, with higher buoyancy pressure than the seal’s threshold pressure,
leaked the CD Carbonate seal to invade Kujung II without replacing Oil in CD Carbonate.

5 km

Figure 8 – Charging procedure as described in figure 7 continued until Kujung II was saturated and intra-
formational seals were all at their threshold pressures to allow invading gas leaked to Kujung I
where it sealed by thick Rancak shale.

25 km

Figure 9 - Map view of CD Carbonate structures showing hydrocarbon distribution in the main structural closures. Oil and Gas was being charged to the platform
from Central Deep Kitchen. Colors of hydrocarbon represent the phase (green: oil, red: gas, orange: intermediate/critical phase).
Identical red line cross section in figure 9-11 is the location of cross section of figure 3-8. Note the regional index map (contour is the top of source
rock) showing the location of the two kitchens, colors represent kitchen maturity level (light green: early oil, dark green: peak oil, pink: early gas, red:
peak gas, dark red: late gas).

Figure 10 - Map view on level Kujung II showing stacked hydrocarbon distribution. Kujung II level was charged by vertical leaking from CD Carbonate structure.
Kujung II by volume is the smallest due to its limited distribution.

25 km

Figure 11 - Map view on level Kujung I showing hydrocarbon distribution. Kujung I was charged by vertical leaking from Kujung II, and contains only gas. Bukit
Panjang oil and gas were interpreted to be charged differently by two different charging sources. The gas was mainly charged by spilled gas on level
Kujung I through Bukit Tua East and Jenggolo, and the oil (with minimal gas) was directly charged by Madura Kitchen in the south.


Figure 12 – Burial History charts of Central Deep (X) and Madura (Y) kitchens. Locations of the charts are indicated on the index map. Note that the part of
Madura kitchen contributed to the charging of Bukit Panjang might still likely in early gas window thus might not likely to contribute to the huge gas
column accumulation in Bukit Panjang structure.

Figure 13 – North-South cross section across Bukit Tua – Bukit Panjang structures of seismic amplitude and
AI (Acoustic Impedance) from figure 6 in Wijaya et. al (2016). Patch Reef Complex forms Bukit
Tua and Jenggolo complex and Shelf Margin Reef forms Bukit Panjang. Note from the AI that
the Shelf Margin Reef lacks high impedance values which correlates to the lack of intra-
formational seals within CD and Kujung Carbonates.

V i e w p u b l i c a t i o n s t a t s