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International Journal of Science and Engineering Research (IJ0SER),

Vol 3 Issue 2 February -2015

3221 5687, (P) 3221 568X

Experimental Study On Mechanical Properties Of

Steel And Pva Fibres And Behaviour Of Empty Steel
Tubular Beam
Suganyaa.C.P¹, Venkatachalam.S², Jagadeesh.S.D3
¹M.E., (Structural Engg), Department of civil Engineering,
² 3Asst. Professor, Department of civil Engineering,
Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Tamilnadu, India.
Abstract: The project aims with the study of conventional concrete with Concrete filled steel tubular sections (CFST). CFST
columns combine steel and concrete in one member, which results in a member that has the beneficial qualities of both materials.
Although CFST columns are suitable for tall buildings in high seismic regions, their use has been limited due to lack of information
about the true strength and the inelastic behavior of a CFST member. The objective of this research was to determine the strength of
CFST member. CFST beams combine the advantages of ductility, generally associated with steel structures, with the stiffness of a
concrete structural system. This CFST sections are used to increase the load carrying capacity and reduce the self weight of the
composite concrete. These CFST members have high strength when compared to conventional reinforced members. In addition, steel
fibres of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres of 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75% have been added to improve the strength of
member. Concrete containing fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. It contains short discrete fibers that are
uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. The empty square hollow steel tubular section has been tested for its behaviour by
obtaining load-deflection curve. The size of the specimen considered is 84mm x 84mm x 4mm. The length of section is 1.5m.

Keywords: CFST, Mechanical Properties, Steel fibre , PVA Fibre , Steel tubular beam.

I INTRODUCTION randomly oriented. Fibers include steel fibers, glass fibers,

Concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) sections have synthetic fibers and natural fibers each of which lend varying
become increasingly popular in structural applications. The properties to the concrete. In addition, the character of fiber-
composite tubular columns have better structural performance reinforced concrete changes with varying concretes, fiber
than that of bare steel or bar reinforced for the concrete. Steel materials, geometries, distribution, orientation, and densities.
hollow section acts as casing as well as reinforcement for the
concrete. Concrete eliminates or delays the local buckling of steel Fibers are usually used in concrete to control cracking
hollow sections and increases significantly the ductility of due to plastic shrinkage and to drying shrinkage. They also reduce
sections. In this both steel and concrete would resist the external the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.
loading by interacting together by bond and friction. Some types of fibers produce greater impact, abrasion, and shatter
Composite construction may be considered as a reliable resistance in concrete. Generally fibers do not increase the
choice of attaining proper balance between the advantages it flexural strength of concrete, and so cannot replace moment–
offers and the cost. An extensive variety of composite columns resisting or structural steel reinforcement. Indeed, some fibers
and beams are available nowadays, but the concrete filled steel actually reduce the strength of concrete.
tubular (CFST) sections are most commonly used one. CFST
member is an innovative idea; a hollow tubular member is filled
with concrete, used as beams or columns that are appropriate II EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
replacement for hot-rolled steel (or) reinforced concrete (RC) The experimental work was carried out by casting cubes of
members in structural systems of tall buildings and bridges. This size 150 x 150 x 150mm to determine the compressive strength,
composite system utilizes the compressive strength of the cylinders of size 150mmx 300mm to determine split tensile
concrete and the steel tube lies in the outer limits contributes a strength and prism of size 100mm x 100mm x 500mm to
large portion of the stiffness and tensile strength, in addition, it determine the flexural strength. The specimens were casted with
provides required confinement to the concrete core, which addition of fibers in different proportion (say S1,S2,S3,P1,P2,P3)
increases the compressive strength of the column member. In and compared with the conventional concrete (say C) of grade
compression, CFST short column reaches their ultimate capacity M40 to study the compressive strength , split tensile strength and
when both the steel and the concrete reach their strength limit flexural strength. Twenty four hours after casting, the specimens
point, i.e., yielding of the steel and crushing of the concrete and were demoulded and cured in water for 7 and 28 days.
the CFST slender columns are governed by stability and failed by A. Materials Used
either elastic or inelastic column buckling. The flexural behavior The materials used for Conventional Concrete was, cement,
of CFST member is behaving much like hollow steel tubes. The fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. The materials used for
contribution of the concrete to moment of resistance occurs due to preparing Fibre Concrete was cement, fine aggregate, coarse
the movement of the neutral axis of the cross section towards the aggregate, steel fibre, polyvinyl alcohol fibre, plasticizer and
compression face of the beam with the addition of concrete. water.
Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) is concrete 1) Cement
containing fibrous material which increases its structural integrity. Ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade conforming to IS: 12269
It contains short discrete fibers that are uniformly distributed and were used. The specific gravity of cement was found to be 3. 15.

Suganyaa. . (IJ0SER) February - 2015

International Journal of Science and Engineering Research (IJ0SER),
Vol 3 Issue 2 February -2015
3221 5687, (P) 3221 568X

2) Fine aggregate Fig.1 Comparison of compressive strength of the specimens at 7

Locally available river sand passing through 4.75 mm sieve days
was used. The specific gravity was found as 2. 36.
3) Coarse aggregate
61.78 60.87
Coarse aggregate of 20 mm maximum size and typical particle 58.29

Compressive Strength At 28 Days (N/mm²)

shapes “average and cubic” was used as the coarse aggregate 60 55.37
sample. The specific gravity was found as 2. 42. 52.03
4) Water 50
Fresh water available from local sources was used for mixing
and curing of specimens. 40
5) Super plasticizer
To improve the workability of Fibre Concrete, Conplast 30
SP430, a high –range water reducing agent has been used.
6) Fibre
I.Steel Fibre
• Fibre type : crimped steel fibre
• Section type : Round 10
• Length : 35mm
• Diameter : 0.70mm 0
• Aspect ratio : 50 C S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 P3
• Tensile strength : 1100 Mpa
• Density : 7.91g/cc
II.Polyvinyl Alcohol Fibre SPECIMENS
• Fibre elongation : 6 % to 10% Specimens
• Filament Diameter : 0.015mm
Fig.2 Comparison of compressive strength of the specimens at 28
• Fibre Length : 6 mm days
• Aspect Ratio : 400
• Tensile strength : 880-1600 MPa
D. Flexural strength
• Density : 1.30 g/cc The flexural strength of the specimens was found at 28 days. The
• Young’s modulus : 25 – 40 GPa following graph shows the comparison of the average flexural
strength of concrete with steel & polyvinyl alcohol fibres and
B. Mix proportions conventional concrete.
The concrete mix proportion M40 adopted is 1:1.59:2.84
(cement: sand: coarse aggregate) with water cement ratio of 0.40
and Conplast SP430 is added at a ratio of 1.2% respectively. 7
Here, 1%, 1.5%, 2% of steel fibers and 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75% of 6
Flexural Strength At 28 Days (N/mm²)

polyvinyl alcohol fibers are added to concrete mix. 6 5.67 SPECIMENS

5.53 5.46
C. Compressive Strength 5 4.53
The compressive strength of the specimens was tested with the
universal testing machine of capacity 1000kN. The following 4
graph shows the comparison of average compressive strength of
concrete with steel & polyvinyl alcohol fibres and conventional
concrete at 7 and 28 days respectively.

Compressive Strength At 7 Days (N/mm²)

36 35.68
34 C S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 P3
33.1 Specimens
33 32.65 32.63
Fig.3 Comparison of flexural strength of the specimens at 28
32 days.
31 E. Split Tensile strength
The split tensile strength of the specimens was found at 28 days.
30 The following graph shows the comparison of the average split
tensile strength of concrete with steel & polyvinyl alcohol fibres
29 and conventional concrete.
C S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 P3


Suganyaa. . (IJ0SER) February - 2015

International Journal of Science and Engineering Research (IJ0SER),
Vol 3 Issue 2 February -2015
3221 5687, (P) 3221 568X

5.48 1. Amin Noushini, Bijan Samali and Kirk Vessalas,
5.02 Flexural toughness and ductility characteristics of
Split Tensile Strength At 28 Days

5 4.63 polyvinyl-alcohol fibre reinforced concrete (PVA-FRC),
4.21 4.23 VIII International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of
4 Concrete and Concrete Structures.

2. Anshul Jain and A.Sanjay Jain, Effects of Polyvinyl

Alcohol Fiber on the Toughness of Concrete,
International Journal of Emerging Trends in
2 Engineering and Development, Issue 3, Vol-4, 2013.

3. Artiomas Kuranovas, Audronis Kazimieras Kvedaras,
Behaviour of hollow concrete-filled steel tubular
composite elements, Journal of Civil Engineering and
0 Management, Vol XIII, No 2, pp.131–141, 2007.
C S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 P3
Specimens 4. Gajalakshmi P., Jane Helena H. and Srinivasa
Fig.4 Comparison of split tensile strength of the specimens at 28 Raghavan R., Experimental investigation on the
days. behaviour of concrete-filled steel columns, Asian
F. Load-deflection test Journal Of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing),
Load-deflection test was carried out for Hollow Square Steel Vol-12, No. 6, pp. 691-701, 2011.
Tubular Member. The size of the specimens is 84mm x 84mm x
4mm. The length of the steel tube is 1.5m.A deflectometer was 5. Jianming Liu, Neural networks method applied to the
used to note the deflection. The following graph shows the curve property study of steel-concrete composite columns
of load deflection. under axial compression, International Journal on Smart
Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol-6, No. 2, April
9 2013.

8 DEFLE 6. Katsuyuki SHIMIZU, Toshiyuki KANAKUBO,

CTION Tetsushi KANDA, Satoru NAGAI, Shear behavior of
steel reinforced PVA-ECC beams, 13th World
6 Conference on Earthquake Engineering, No. 704,
August 1-6, 2004.

4 7. Milind V. Mohod, Performance of Steel Fiber

Reinforced Concrete, International Journal of
3 Engineering and Science ISSN: 2278-4721, Vol-1,
Issue 12, pp. 01-04, (December 2012).

1 8. Mohanraj E.K., Kandasamy S., Rajaraman A, Seismic

behaviour of concrete filled steel tubular beams, 35th
0 Conference on Our World in Concrete & Structures, pp.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.95 8.95 25 – 27, 2010.
Load (kN)
Fig.5 Load-Deflection Curve of square steel tubular beam 9. Nakamura S., Momiyama Y., Hosaka T. and Homma
K., New technologies of steel/concrete composite
CONCLUSION bridges, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol-
From the above observations, the use of fibres has increased the 58, pp. 99-130, 2002.
strength of concrete.
10. Salani H. R. and Sims J. R., Behavior of Mortar Filled
• From this it is observed that 2% is the optimum volume Steel Tubes in Compression, Journal of American
fraction for steel fibre and 0.5% is the optimum volume Concrete Institute, Vol-61, No.10, pp. 1271–1283,
fraction for polyvinyl alcohol fibre. 1964.
• The percentage of increase in compressive strength is
about 28.04% for steel fibre, 26.15% for polyvinyl 11. Shosuke Morino and Keigo Tsuda, Design and
alcohol fibre. Construction of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Column
• The percentage of increase in split tensile strength is System in Japan, Earthquake Engineering and
about 37.68% for steel fibre, 26.13% for polyvinyl Engineering Seismology, Vol-4, No. 1, pp.51-73, 2009.
alcohol fibre.
• The percentage of increase in flexural strength is about 12. Indian standard recommended guidelines for concrete
32.45% for steel fibre, 20.52% for polyvinyl alcohol mix design, IS 10262:2009 Ist revision, Bureau of
fibre. Since the toughness of the structure depends on Indian Standards.
the orientation and distribution of the fibers within the
• The load deflection curve is drawn for the hollow
square steel tubular beam.

Suganyaa. . (IJ0SER) February - 2015