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Table of Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………...…...03
Introduction……………………………………………………………….……...04
01 Introduction to behavioral and physical research……………………...…...05
1.1 Behavioral Research
1.2 Physical Research
02 Data gathering exercise………………………………………………….…..07
03 Questionnaires………………..……………………………………….……..10
04 Interviews…………………………………………………………….….…...12
05 Un obstructive and obstructive measures ………………………….…….....15
5.1 Un obstructive Measures
5.2 Obstructive Measures
06 Semantic differentials……………………..…………………………….…...17
07 Physical research…...……………………..…………………………….…...19
08 Laboratory research..……………………..……………….………….….…..21
09 Resources available..……………………..……………………..…………...23
10 Equipment for laboratory and site measurement..………….……..………..25
10.1 Laboratory Equipment
10.2 Site Measurement
11Feild Survey and its relevance……………………..……..…..……………...27

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Abstract
Selecting the correct type from the different research methods can be a little daunting, at first. There are
so many factors to take into account and evaluate.The data collection ,research question,time are all major
considerations in any design. This section deals with these methodologies and measures for research and
different research fields.

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Introduction
Research could be described as a systematic, organised attempt to find answers to worthwhile questions,
using predefined methods or procedures which are clearly documented. It should be possible for other
people to understand exactly what the researchers did to arrive at their conclusions. In this way, the results
and conclusions can be assessed and analysed in terms of relevance and accuracy, bearing in mind any
limitations or factors which the researchers may have highlighted.

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01 Introduction to Behavioral and Physical Research

1.1 Behavioral Research

Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or
reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli . Habitual patterns of decision
making have a huge impact because they affect so many areas of one's daily life.
Behavioral research falls under 4 different categories:
1) Describing Behavior which focuses primarily on describing patterns of behavior, thought, or emotion.
Survey researchers conduct large studies of randomly selected respondents to determine what
people think, feel, and do.
2) Explaining Behavior to understand behavior regardless of whether the knowledge is immediately
applicable.
3) Predicting Behavior, as the name suggests predicts one’s behavior.
4) Solving Behavioral Problems to find solutions for certain problems rather than to understand basic
psychological processes per se.
Basic research is immediately applicable, and much applied research provides information that enhances
our basic understanding of behavior. Furthermore, because prediction and application often require an
understanding of how people act and why, descriptive and basic research provides the foundation on
which predictive and applied research rests. In return, in the process of doing behavioral research to
predict behavior and of doing applied research to solve problems, new questions and puzzles often arise
for basic researchers. Importantly, researchers rely largely on the same general research strategies
whether their goal is to describe, explain, predict, or solve problems.

1.2 Physical Research

Physical science can simply be defined as the study of physical and chemical properties of nature (Space,
Time and Energy). In the recent times, physical science researches are carry out are on basic and applied
science with the view to lay the foundation for understanding details of the physical and the chemical
processes involved in the nature, it is hope to develop capacity to solve problems facing human being and
to give insight to the cause and effect of the problems and which way out to solve such problems.

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References
1. (PDF) PHYSICAL RESEARCH METHODS Available from: https://www.meatscience.org/docs/default-
source/publications-resources/rmc/1952/physical-research-
methods.pdf?sfvrsn=68c9bbb3_2[accessed aug 28, 2018].
2. Bell, C. R. (1962). Personality characteristics of volunteers for psychological studies. British Journal
of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1,81-95.
3. Adair, J. G., Dushenko, T. W., & Lindsay, R. C. L.(1985). Ethical regulations and their impact on
research. American Psychologist, 40, 59-72.

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02 Data Gathering Exercise
Fig 1: The process of data collection

Data Gathering is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an
established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and
evaluate outcomes. The data collection component of research is common to all fields of study including
physical and social sciences, humanities, business, etc. While methods vary by discipline, the emphasis on
ensuring accurate and honest collection remains the same. Regardless of the field of study or preference
for defining data (quantitative, qualitative), accurate data collection is essential to maintaining the integrity
of research. Both the selection of appropriate data collection instruments (existing, modified, or newly
developed) and clearly delineated instructions for their correct use reduce the likelihood of errors
occurring.
1) Data collection
 Many data sources, both qualitative and quantitative, are pertinent to action research,
including tallies, demographic information, test results, students work sample, observation
notes, interview transcripts, surveys, questionnaires, and many more
 Observations and interview are two of the most common data sources
 When possible, use readily available data to increase a study’s efficiency and overall
validity
 Research ethics must be fully implemented throughout any study. Researchers generally must
still obtain permission and informed consent from al research participants .Consult the
building principal or district office to be sure.
2) Analyze the data
 Analyzing action research is similar to that for other forms of qualitative research. its is a
cyclical process, ultimately narrowing the findings to a few key categories or features.
 Most analysis involves creating categories. Use quantitative data analysis procedures when
quantitative date is collected.
Consequences from improperly collected data include:
 inability to answer research questions accurately
 inability to repeat and validate the study
 distorted findings resulting in wasted resources
 misleading other researchers to pursue fruitless avenues of investigation
 compromising decisions for public policy
 causing harm to human participants and animal subjects
Different approaches include:

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1) Quality assurance - activities that take place before data collection begins
2) Quality control - activities that take place during and after data collection
Types of data collection:
1) Quantitative data list
 Observation
 Interviews
 Questionnaires
 Surveys
 Field notes
2) Quantitative data for Preschool Play
 Play is a natural phenomenal activities that human engage in for learning, pleasure, and
survival skills. Observation and Field Notes are essential for capturing children’s play for this
study.

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References
1. Austin ZA, Sutton J. Qualitative research: getting started. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2014;67(6):436–
40.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
2. Brewer J. Naturalism. In: Miller RL, Brewer JD, editors. The A–Z of social research. London (UK):
Sage Publications; 2003. pp. 147–59.
3. Strauss AL, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research: grounded theory procedures and
techniques.Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 1998.
4. Smith JA, Jarman M, Osborn M. Doing interpretative phenomenological analysis. In: Murray
M, Chamberlain K, editors. Qualitative health psychology: theories and methods. London
(UK): Sage Publications; 1999. pp. 218–40.

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03 Questionnaires
The questionnaire is the main instrument for collecting data in survey research. Basically, it is a set of
standardized questions, often called items, which follow a fixed scheme in order to collect individual data
about one or more specific topics. Sometimes questionnaires are confused with interviews. In fact,
the questionnaire involves a particular kind of interview - a formal contact, in which the conversation is
governed by the wording and order of questions in the instrument.
Depending on the nature of the questions, questionnaires can be classified as:
1) Quantitative – analyses answers obtained through closed-ended questions with multiple choice
answer options and they may involve pie-charts, bar-charts and percentages.
2) Qualitative – analyses answers obtained to open-ended questionnaires and they involve discussions
and critical analyses without use of numbers and calculations.
Types of questionnaires include:
1) Computer questionnaire - Respondents are asked to answer the questionnaire which is sent by mail.
The advantages of the computer questionnaires include their inexpensive price, time-efficiency, and
respondents do not feel pressured, therefore can answer when they have time, giving more
accurate answers. However, the main shortcoming of the mail questionnaires is that sometimes
respondents do not bother answering them and they can just ignore the questionnaire.
2) Telephone questionnaire - Researcher may choose to call potential respondents with the aim of
getting them to answer the questionnaire. The advantage of the telephone questionnaire is that, it
can be completed during the short amount of time. The main disadvantage of the phone
questionnaire is that it is expensive most of the time. Moreover, most people do not feel
comfortable to answer many questions asked through the phone and it is difficult to get sample
group to answer questionnaire over the phone.
3) In-house survey- This type of questionnaire involves the researcher visiting respondents in their
houses or workplaces. The advantage of in-house survey is that more focus towards the questions
can be gained from respondents. However, in-house surveys also have a range of disadvantages
which include being time consuming, more expensive and respondents may not wish to have the
researcher in their houses or workplaces for various reasons.
4) Mail Questionnaire - This sort of questionnaires involve the researcher to send the questionnaire list
to respondents through post, often attaching pre-paid envelope. Mail questionnaires have an
advantage of providing more accurate answer, because respondents can answer the questionnaire
in their spare time. The disadvantages associated with mail questionnaires include them being
expensive, time consuming and sometimes they end up in the bin put by respondents.
Questionnaires can include the following types of questions:
1) Open question questionnaires - Open questions differ from other types of questions used in
questionnaires in a way that open questions may produce unexpected results, which can make the
research more original and valuable. However, it is difficult to analyze the results of the findings
when the data is obtained through the questionnaire with open questions.
2) Multiple choice questions - Respondents are offered a set of answers they have to choose from. The
downsize of questionnaire with multiple choice questions is that, if there are too many answers to
choose from, it makes the questionnaire, confusing and boring, and discourages the respondent to
answer the questionnaire.
3) Dichotomous Questions - This type of questions gives two options to respondents – yes or no, to
choose from. It is the easiest form of questionnaire for the respondent in terms of responding it.
4) Scaling Questions - Also referred to as ranking questions, they present an option for respondents to
rank the available answers to the questions on the scale of given range of values.
Advantages of questionnaires include increased speed of data collection, low or no cost requirements, and
higher levels of objectivity compared to many alternative methods of primary data collection. However,
questionnaires have certain disadvantages such as selection of random answer choices by respondents
without properly reading the question. Moreover, there is usually no possibility for respondents to express
their additional thoughts about the matter due to the absence of a relevant question.

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References
1. Gault, RH (1907). "A history of the questionnaire method of research in psychology". Research in
Psychology. 14 (3): 366–383. doi:10.1080/08919402.1907.10532551
2. Saris, W. E. and Gallhofer, I. N. (2014). Design, evaluation and analysis of questionnaires for
survey research. Second Edition. Hoboken, Wiley.

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04 Interviews
An interview is a conversation for gathering information. A research interview involves an interviewer, who
coordinates the process of the conversation and asks questions, and an interviewee, who responds to those
questions. Interviews can be conducted face-to-face or over the telephone. The internet is also emerging as
a tool for interviewing.
1) Telephone interviews : Telephone interviews are as they sound. A trained interviewer telephones a
respondent and uses an interviewer-led questionnaire to conduct an interview over the phone.
Telephone interviews tend to be conducted from a central location (i.e. the survey centre, or the
interviewers own home). The telephone interviewer can use a computer to generate the questions
and to record and code responses. This is known as Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing
(CATI) and it allows the interviewer to conduct some validation checks at the time of the interview
(i.e. checking suspect responses with respondent). CATI can also be used to schedule telephone calls
so that respondents are called at convenient times, and it can also generate random telephone
numbers for random digit dialing.
2) Personal (face-to-face) interviews: Personal interviews can be conducted in the respondent’s home
or workplace, or in locations such as shopping malls, or even simply on the street. Computer Assisted
Personal Interviewing (CAPI) involves the interviewer using a laptop to record the respondent’s
answers. The questionnaire is programmed onto the laptop using specialist software (e.g. Blaize).
This software enables the interviewer to record the responses and then routes the interviewer
automatically to the next appropriate question.
Types of interviews include:
1) Structured interviews: In a structured interview, the interviewer asks a set of standard,
predetermined questions about particular topics, in a specific order. The respondents need to select
their answers from a list of options. The interviewer may provide clarification on some questions.
Structured Interviews are typically used in surveys.
2) Semi-structured interviews: In a semi-structured interview, the interviewer uses a set of
predetermined questions and the respondents answer in their own words. Some interviewers use a
topic guide that serves as a checklist to ensure that all respondents provide information on the same
topics. The interviewer can probe areas based on the respondent’s answers or ask supplementary
questions for clarification. Semi-structured interviews are useful when there is a need to collect in-
depth information in a systematic manner from a number of respondents or interviewees (e.g.,
teachers, community leaders).
3) Unstructured interviews: In an unstructured interview, the interviewer has no specific guidelines,
restrictions, predetermined questions, or list of options. The interviewer asks a few broad questions
to engage the respondent in an open, informal, and spontaneous discussion. The interviewer also
probes with further questions and/or explores inconsistencies to gather more in-depth information
on the topic. Unstructured interviews are particularly useful for getting the stories behind
respondents’ experiences or when there is little information about a topic.
The advantages of interviews are:
 they are useful to obtain detailed information about personal feelings, perceptions and opinions
 they allow more detailed questions to be asked
 they usually achieve a high response rate
 respondents' own words are recorded
 ambiguities can be clarified and incomplete answers followed up
 precise wording can be tailored to respondent and precise meaning of questions clarified (eg for
students with English as a Second Language)
 interviewees are not influenced by others in the group
 some interviewees may be less self-conscious in a one-to-one situation.
The disadvantages of interviews are:
 they can be very time-consuming: setting up, interviewing, transcribing, analysing, feedback,
reporting
 they can be costly
 different interviewers may understand and transcribe interviews in different ways.

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Process of interview
 Determine what information is required. What do you want to find out?
 Decide on the method of data collection and the audience for the interviews eg students, library
staff and academics.
 Draft the interview schedule, considering content, wording, format, structure and layout
Issues to consider
o Can the question be easily understood?
o Is the question biased?
o Is the question necessary to the evaluation?
o Will interviewees be willing to provide the information?
o Is the question applicable to all interviewees?
o Does the question allow interviewees to offer their opinions/expand on basic answers?
o Are follow up questions likely to be required?
o Will it be straightforward to analyse?
 Pilot/test the interview schedule with colleagues or a sample of potential interviewees and revise as
necessary
 Conduct the interviews
 Transcribe interviews
 Analyse the transcripts
 Write up, present and use the findings

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References
1. Boyce, C. & Neale, P. (2006) “Conducting in-depth Interviews: A Guide for Designing and
Conducting In-Depth Interviews”, Pathfinder International Tool Series
2. Gubrium, J.F & Holstein, J.A. (2001). Handbook of interview research: context and method.
Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
3. Crawford, I.M. (1997). Marketing Research and Information Systems, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/
w3241e06.htm#types%20of%20personal%20interview
4. McNamara, C. (1999). General Guidelines for Conducting Interviews, Authenticity Consulting, LLC,
www.managementhelp.org/evaluatn/intrview.html

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05 Un obstructive and obstructive measures

5.1 Unobtrusive data collection


In unobtrusive data collection, subjects are not aware of the fact that they are being studied and therefore
your research does not affect their response or behaviour. The three main types of unobtrusive data are
indirect measures, content analysis and secondary analysis of data.
1) Indirect measures are unobtrusive data collected in an indirect way. These measures are often
drawn from information recorded for other purposes than scientific research. Examples of indirect
measures are car accidents, house prices, employment rates, social media posts or even garbage.
2) Content analysis is used to collect data from documentary sources, for example by extracting major
themes, key words or features from (textual) documents. Content analysis is often used to convert
textual sources into quantitative information.
3) Secondary analysis of data focuses on the re-use of quantitative data instead of textual data. For
secondary analysis, information from electronic databases or open access research data depository
can be used, like standardized testing data, economic data or consumer data. It is also possible to
combine datasets from multiple sources.
5.2 Obtrusive data collection
In obtrusive data collection, the subjects are aware of the fact that they are being studied, which can
influence their response or behaviour. Examples of obtrusive data collection methods are questionnaires or
interviews.
1) Questionnaires are survey instruments that are completed by the subjects. Questionnaires, like
interviews, can contain short closed-ended questions (multiple choice) or broad open-ended
questions. Questionnaires are used to collect data from a large group of subjects on a specific
topic. Currently, many questionnaires are developed and administered online.
2) Interviews are used to collect data from a small group of subjects on a broad range of topics. You
can use structured or unstructured interviews. Structured interviews are comparable to a
questionnaire, with the same questions in the same order for each subject and with multiple choice
answers. For unstructured interviews questions can differ per subject and can depend on answers
given on previous questions, there is no fixed set of possible answers.

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References
1. http://www.slideshare.net/sladner/week08-unobtrusive-presentation
2. Webb, E.J, Campbell, D.T., Schwartz, R.D., & Sechrest, L. (1972). Unobtrusive measures:
Nonreactive research in the social sciences. Chicago: Rand McNally.
3.

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06 Semantic differentials
The semantic differential measurement technique is a form of rating scale that is designed to identify the
connotative meaning of objects, words, and concepts. The technique was created in the 1950s by
psychologist Charles E. Osgood. The semantic differential technique measures an individual's unique,
perceived meaning of an object, a word, or an individual.
Usually, the position marked 0 is labeled "neutral," the 1 positions are labeled "slightly," the 2 positions
"quite," and the 3 positions "extremely." A scale like this one measures directionality of a reaction (e.g.,
good versus bad) and also intensity (slight through extreme).Ratings are combined in various ways to
describe and analyze the person's feelings.

Fig 2: Example of the semantic differential


technique

A number of basic considerations are involved in SD methodology:


 Bipolar adjective scales are a simple, economical means for obtaining data on people's reactions.
With adaptations, such scales can be used with adults or children, persons from all walks of life,
and persons from any culture.
 Ratings on bipolar adjective scales tend to be correlated, and three basic dimensions of response
account for most of the co-variation in ratings. The three dimensions, which have been labeled
Evaluation, Potency, and Activity (EPA), have been verified and replicated in an impressive variety
of studies.
 Some adjective scales are almost pure measures of the EPA dimensions; for example, good-bad for
Evaluation, powerful-powerless for Potency, and fast-slow for Activity. Using a few pure scales of
this sort, one can obtain, with considerable economy, reliable measures of a person's overall
response to something. Typically, a concept is rated on several pure scales associated with a single
dimension, and the results are averaged to provide a single factor score for each dimension.
Measurements of a concept on the EPA dimensions are referred to as the concept's profile.
 EPA measurements are appropriate when one is interested in affective responses. The EPA system is
notable for being a multi- variate approach to affect measurement. It is also a generalized
approach, applicable to any concept or stimulus, and thus it permits comparisons of affective
reactions on widely disparate things. EPA ratings have been obtained for hundreds of word
concepts, for stories and poems, for social roles and stereotypes, for colors, sounds, shapes, and for
individual persons.
 The SD has been used as a measure of attitude in a wide variety of projects.

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References
1. Arthur, A. Z. 1965 "Clinical use of the semantic differential." Journal of Clinical Psychology 21 :337-
338.
2. Barclay, A., and F.J. Thumin. 1963 "A modified semantic differential approach to attitudinal
assessment." Journal of Clinical Psychology 19:376-378.

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07 Physical Research
Fig 3: approaches to
physical science
research

Physical science can be described as all of the following:


 A branch of science (a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of
testable explanations and predictions about the universe
 A branch of natural science – natural science is a major branch of science that tries to explain and
predict nature's phenomena, based on empirical evidence. In natural science, hypotheses must be
verified scientifically to be regarded as scientific theory. Validity, accuracy, and social mechanisms
ensuring quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the criteria
and methods used for this purpose. Natural science can be broken into two main branches: life
science (for example biology) and physical science. Each of these branches, and all of their sub-
branches, are referred to as natural sciences.
The strength of research in the department of Physical Sciences is its focus on the interdisciplinary aspects of
natural processes: physical, geological and chemical.
1) The physical science aspects include studies on water motion in estuaries and on the continental shelf
along with the associated transport of buoyancy, suspended particles, nutrients and pollutants.
2) The geological research sites span the full range of marine/nearshore environments from the
coastal plain and river floodplains, through the estuaries and across the margin to the base of the
continental rise.
3) In the chemical sciences, work is currently being conducted across groundwater, riverine, estuarine,
continental margin and open ocean environments on a variety of projects intended to help us better
understand the cycling of organic materials (both natural and anthropogenic) and both major and
trace elements.

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Reference
1. Is Modern Science Evolving in the Wrong Direction?Jaffe K Research Article: Archives of Science,
2017.
2. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other
words, to the regular succession of events." (Maxwell 1878, p. 9)

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08 Laboratory research
Lab research is referring to the research which is done inside the lab, generally involves experiments
conducted in a laboratory where researchers look to explore and understand the interaction and
relationship between various materials or biological matter and/or involve computational analyses. In this
way, researchers will be able to test their theories precisely and their finding’s reliability is ensured
because the experiments and tests will not be affected by the other variables.
fig 4: 5 ways for safe and effective
laboratory research

Though lab research enables the researchers to control all the variables, as the experiment is carried out
inside an “artificial” environment, it lacks validity as it is more unlikely to reflect the real situation.

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References
1. https://kcmoonwalker.wordpress.com/2011/10/14/lab-research-v -s-field-research/

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09 Resources available
A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced. Research resources are usually thought
of as primary sources and secondary sources.
1) Primary sources can be firsthand accounts of actual events written by an eyewitness or original
literary or artistic works. They may be letters, official records, interviews, survey results, or
unanalyzed statistical data. These sources contain raw data and information, such as the original
work of art or immediate impressions.
2) Secondary sources, on the other hand, are usually discussions, evaluations, syntheses, and analyses
of primary- and secondary-source information.
Resource material may be found in libraries, online, in broadcast media, and in many other places.
1) Human Resources -They are familiar with the kinds of sources that need to consult and, as subject-
matter experts, they guide the research by recommending readings, outside sources, and even
topics and subjects related to the research inquiry and help to address issues of importance in the
area of study and avoid researching nonproductive areas. Useful tools for conducting research with
human resources are interviews, questionnaires, and surveys.
2) Print resources - Includes books, journals, newspapers, and other documents containing relevant
information.
3) Electronic resources- Includes online databases and aggregators.
To manage your resources, you must understand why and how you will use them in your paper. You will
have to keep accurate records of what you use from your resources and how you think these resources will
contribute to your developing paper.

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References
1. Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., & Muth, M. F. (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers with
reader, research manual, and handbook(9th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press.
2. Das, M., Ester, P., & Kaczmirek, L. (Eds.). (2011). Social and behavioral research and the Internet:
Advances in applied methods and research strategies.New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis
Group.

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10 Equipment for laboratory and Site measurement

10.1 Laboratory Equipments

A scientist’s lab equipment is his set of tools – without them, we could do nothing but hypothesize. Though
different labs will have different sets of tools, there are some pieces of lab equipment that are so useful,
one rarely finds a lab without them. Examples of such general lab tools include computers, freezers,
incubators, shakers, hot plates, glassware, plasticware, analytical balances, pipettors and tips, pH meters,
fume hoods, and several types of microscopes. More specialized pieces of lab equipment might include an
autoclave, a cell culture or tissue culture hood/workstation, a spectrophotometer with cuvettes, and a
thermocycler (PCR machine). Even further specialized lab equipment could include DNA sequencing
equipment, a mass spectrometer, a flow cytometer, imaging systems, microtomes, surgical instruments,
histology equipment, or electrophysiological equipment such as patch-clamp amplifiers, pipette pullers, and
analysis software.

10.2 Site Measurement

Taking proper site measurements is all about knowing which ones are the critical dimensions you need, and
how to take them.
Tools - Must-have tools for the trade include a small retractable tape measure, a large 100’ (30m) open
reel tape and a flat screwdriver. The screwdriver is to hold the end of the large tape by shoving it through
the end loop and into the ground (eliminating the need for a second person). You can also use a measuring
wheel, but it’s not going to give you the most accurate measurements.
Methods - For almost all other objects , two measurements should be taken to properly document their
location.

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References
1. Lowe, Derek (27 May 2015). "Laboratory history: The chemistry chronicles". Nature. 521(7553):
422–422. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..422L. doi:10.1038/521422a
2. Carlson, Adam (September 5, 2013). "Top 8 Tools for Building a Personal Prototyping Laboratory".
EE Times.

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11Feild Survey and its relevance
The term field is used in survey research to refer to the geographical setting where data collection takes
place. Typically this refers to in-person interviewing and thus the name, field survey.
One of the key decisions when designing a survey is the choice of the mode of data collection. Field
interviewing is one of three traditional modes of survey data collection (along with telephone and mail).
In field survey, which are also referred to as face-to-face or personal-visit surveys, an interviewer visits the
respondent's home or office (or another location) and conducts the interview.
Field survey is classified into:
1) Quantitative research provides statistical information - for example, how many potential customers
there are and what their average incomes are.
2) Qualitative research examines people's feelings and attitudes towards your product or service, and
what motivates them.
Three types of qualitative field research methods are described here that focus on capturing lived
experiences: direct observation; participant observation; and qualitative interviews.
1) Direct Observation - Data is gathered primarily through close visual inspection of a natural setting
Rather than actively engaging members of a setting in conversations or interviews, the direct
observer strives to be unobtrusive and detached from the setting. Direct observation is not
necessarily an alternative to other types of field methods, such as participant observation or
qualitative interviews. Rather, it may be an initial approach to understanding a setting, a group of
individuals, or forms of behavior prior to interacting with members or developing interview
protocols.
2) Participant Observation - A field research method whereby the researcher develops an
understanding of the composition of a particular setting or society by taking part in the everyday
routines and rituals alongside its members.Originally developed in the early 20th century by
anthropologists researching native societies in developing countries; now employed by researchers
studying a range of issues.The principal research method used by ethnographers -- specialists within
the fields of anthropology and sociology who focus on recording the details of social life occurring
in a setting, community, or society.
3) Qualitative Interviews-Qualitative interviews are a type of field research method that elicits
information and data by directly asking questions of members. There are three primary types of
qualitative interviews: informal, conversational; semi-structured; standardized, and open-ended.

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References
1. Courage, C. & Baxter, K. (2005). Understanding your users: A practical guide to user requirements
- Methods, tools, & techniques. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/product/cws_home/703450
2. de Vaus, D. (2002): Surveys in Social Research, 5th edition, Taylor & Francis Books, London.Google
Scholar

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