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Teoria e Solfejo Básico

Nome;_____________________________________________
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Música
Definição – é a arte dos sons, combinados de acordo com as variações da altura,
proporcionados segundo a sua duração e ordenados sob as leis da estética.

Elementos que compõe a música:

Melodia – consiste na sucessão dos sons formando um sentido musical.


Ritmo – é o movimento dos sons regulados pela sua maior ou menor duração.
Harmonia – consiste na execução de vários sons ouvidos ao mesmo tempo.

Notação musical:
Definição – é a escrita da música.

Subdivisão:
1 – Notas.
2 – Escala.
3 – Pauta.
4 – Claves.
5 – Valores.

1 – Notas:
Sete notas musicais: dó – ré – mi – fá – sol – lá – si.

2 – Escala:
Definição – são sete notas musicais ouvidas sucessivamente formando uma série de sons.

OBS:
Quando essa série de sons segue sua ordem natural (dó – ré – mi – fá – sol – lá – si )
temos uma escala ascendente.
Quando essa série de sons segue sua ordem inversa ( si – lá – sol – fá – mi – ré – dó)
temos uma escala descendente.
Essas escalas só estarão completas se for terminada a série ascendente ou iniciada a
descendente com a nota dó.

escala ascendente Dó escala descendente


si si
lá lá
sol sol
fá fá
mi mi
ré ré
Dó Dó

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3 – Pauta:

Definição – é a reunião de 5 linhas horizontais, paralelas equidistantes, formando entre si


4 espaços.

A pauta é também chamada de pentagrama.


_5_________________________________________________________________________________
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linhas espaços

Obs:

As linhas, bem como os espaços da pauta, são contadas de baixo para cima.

Linhas e espaços:

Linhas e espaços suplementares superiores – são linhas e espaços escritos acima da


pauta.
Linhas e espaços suplementares inferiores – são linhas e espaços escritos abaixo da
pauta.

Linhas e espaços Suplementares Superiores

__ __ __ __ __
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__ __ __ __ __
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Linhas e espaços suplementares inferiores

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5 – Claves:

Definição: é um sinal colocado no início da pauta que serve para dar nome às notas.

Tipos:

1.o - Clave de Sol. ( Escrita na 2.ª linha.)


2.º - Clave de Fá. ( Escrita na 3.ª e 4.ª linha.)
3.º - Clave de Do. ( Escrita na 1.ª, 2.ª, 3.ª e 4.ª linha.)

&
==== ======
? ?

=========
B{ B{
B{ B{
& ? B{
Clave de Sol. Clave de Fá. Clave de Dó.

OBS:

Os pontos colocados nas claves de Fá e de Dó servem para indicar em que linha elas
se encontram.
As claves mais usadas são as de Sol e a de Fá na 4.ª linha.

5.a – Linhas e espaços da clave de Sol:

Linhas: Espaços:
Mi – Sol – Si – Ré – Fá Fá – Lá – Dó - Mi

5.b – Linhas e espaços da clave de Fá da 4.ª linha:

Linhas: Espaços:
Sol – Si – Ré – Fá – Lá Lá – Dó – Mi – Sol

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DO MI SOL SI RE FA LA SI SOL DO
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Compassos:

Compassos são os tempos agrupados em porções iguais, de 2 em 2, de 3 em 3 ou


de 4 em 4, formando métrica.

Os compassos de 2 tempos são chamados binários.


Os compassos de 3 tempos são chamados ternários.
Os compassos de 4 tempos são chamados quaternários.

Cada grupo de tempos, isto é, cada compasso, é separado por uma linha vertical
chamado de travessão.

==l==l==l==l
Na terminação de um trecho musical usa-se colocar dois travessões denominados:
travessão duplo ou ( travessão dobrado ).
Pausa final ( se a terminação for absoluta, isto é na finalização do trecho ).
travesão duplo Pausa final

==l==l==l==ll [l

Em qualquer compasso a figura que preenche um tempo chama-se unidade de


tempo; e a figura que preenche um compasso chama-se unidade de compasso.

Os compassos se dividem em três categorias: simples, compostos e irregulares.


São representados por números colocados no princípio da pauta, depois da clave.

Ritornelo; duas barras, sendo uma mais larga e outra mais simples com dois pontos, caso
os pontos estejam no seu lado direito, significa que é o compasso que receberá a volta,
caso do lado esquerdo é o compasso que irá voltar.

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Compassos simples

Compassos simples são aqueles cuja unidade de tempo é representada por uma figura
divisível por 2.

Tais figuras são chamadas simples, isto é, são figuras não pontuadas.

O numerador determina o número de tempos do compasso. Os números que


servem para numerador dos compassos simples são: 2 (para binário), 3 (para ternário) e
4 (para quaternário).

O denominador indica a figura que representa a unidade de tempo.

Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.C.


4 l l 4 l l
2 l l 4 l l
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Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.C.
4 l l 3 l l
8 l l 2 l l
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Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.C.
3 l l 3 l l
4 l l 8 l l
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Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.C.
2 l l 2 l l
2 l l 4 l l
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SOL DO MI FA LA MI SOL SI DO RE MI SI RE SOL FA RE DO
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RE DO MI SOL SI RE FA LA DO MI SI RE LA DO MI FA DO
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ALTERAÇÕES
Dá-se o nome de alteração ao sinal que se coloca antes de uma nota e serve
para modificar-lhe a entonação.
A entonação das notas, conforme o sinal de alteração, poderá ser elevada ou
abaixada um ou dois semitons.
São estes os sinais de alteração e sua função nas notas naturais.
- Eleva dois semitons ( dobrado sustenido)
# - Eleva um semitom ( sustenido )
b - Abaixa um semitom ( bemol )
bb - Abaixa dois semitons ( dobrado bemol )

-Anula o efeito de qualquer um dos sinais precedentes fazendo a nota voltar a


entonação natural. O bequadro pode elevar ou abaixar a entonação das notas.
Obs:
O dobrado Sustenido só vem precedido por notas sustenizadas.
O dobrado bemol só vem precedido por notas bemolizadas.
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Sinais de aumento

Ponto de aumento:
Definição – É um ponto colocado à direita de uma figura. Serve para aumentar a metade
do valor de duração dessa figura.
Ligadura:
Definição – É uma linha curva, que se estiver colocada sobre ou sob dois ou mais sons da
mesma entoação, indica que os sons ligados não devem ser repetidos, isto é, somente o
primeiro som é emitido, os demais serão apenas uma prolongação do primeiro.
Legato:
Definição – É um sinal que determina a articulação dos sons.
( articulação é o modo de atacar os sons )
O legato ( palavra italiana cujo significado é ligado ), determina que se passe de uma nota
a outra ( tocando ou cantando ) sem interrupção de som.
Staccato:
Definição – É um sinal que determina a articulação dos sons.
( articulação é o modo de atacar os sons )
O Staccato ( palavra italiana significando destacado ) indica que os sons devem ser
articulados de modo seco, destacado.
Há três formas de representar o staccato, tendo cada uma delas, uma execução diferente.
a) Um ponto colocado acima das notas. É chamado staccato simples.
b) Combinando o ponto e a linha curva. É chamado meio-staccato ou staccato brando
ou portato.
c) Um ponto alongado colocado acima das notas. Este staccato é chamado
grande staccato ou staccato seco ou martelado.
Fermata:
Definição – É um sinal que, colocado acima ou abaixo de uma nota, indica que se
deve prolongar a duração do som mais tempo do que o seu valor estabelecido.
OBS:
A fermata não tem duração determinada, isto é, varia de acordo com a interpretação do
executante.
A fermata também se pode colocar sobre uma pausa. Neste caso a fermata passa a
chamar-se suspensão.

U ou u

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Linha de 8.ª.................
Definição – É um sinal colocado acima ou abaixo de uma nota ou de um grupo de notas,
indica que as mesmas devem ser executadas respectivamente uma 8.ª acima ou abaixo.

DO MI SOL SI RE FA LA DO MI SI FA LA DO RE MI
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FA LA DO MI RE SI SOL SI RE MI DO MI SI SOL DO MI SI
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Compassos Compostos

Chamam-se compassos compostos aqueles cujos tempos têm divisão ternária,


isto é, a unidade de tempo é preenchida por uma figura pontuada.

“As frações” que representam os compassos compostos têm como numerador: 6, 9 e


12.
O numerador indica neste caso a quantidade de terços de tempo que entram em
cada compasso, logo, para achar-se o número de seus tempos divide-se o numerador por
3.

Assim, o compasso binário composto é aquele que tem para numerador o n.º 6; o
ternário composto, o n.º 9 e o quaternário o n.º12.

Os denominadores são os mesmos que servem para os compassos simples, e


indicam, nos compassos compostos, a figura que vale um terço de tempo.

Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.C.


6 l l 6 l l
2 l l 4 l l
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Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.S.
6 l l 9 l l
8 l l 2 l l
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Comp. U.T. U.S. Comp. U.T. U.S.
9 l l 9 l l
4 l l 8 l l
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Comp. U.T. U.C. Comp. U.T. U.C.
12 l l 12 l l
8 l l 4 l l
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