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Analysis of impact of initial stress on bearing
capacity of dumbbell-shaped CFST arch

WANG Xinzhong WANG Xinzhong ,LI chuanxi


Hunan City University Changsha University of Science & Technology
Yiyang ,Hunan 413000 China Hunan Changsha 410076 China
Wangxinzhong811@126.com LI chuanxi2@163.com

Abstract—Initial stress is produced in the construction of


concrete filled steel tube (CFST) arch bridge. According to the B. Initial stress of each dumbbell-shaped CFST arch rib
construction sequence of CFST arch bridge, using the method of ķPerfusion of the concrete in the No.1 tube capacity
the body-space beam element with initial stress in the calculation
N si M zis M yi ½
s
of the bearing capacity of dumbbell-shaped CFST arch bridge, σ
2 3
= + + °
i s 0max
this paper calculates the bearing capacity of three dumbbell type Asi Wyis Wzis ° (i=1,2) ˄2˅
ribs, analyzes the law of the impacts of the factors of various s ¾
initial stress coefficients, steel ratios and spans on the bearing N si M zis M yi °
i σ s 0min =
2 3
− −
capacity of dumbbell-shaped CFST arch bridge. The results Asi Wyis Wzis °¿
show that the initial stress reduces the ultimate bearing capacity
N si s s

of arch rib by nearly 18%. ǃ M ǃ M zi - The section axial force caused by the
yi

weight of the concrete in the No. 2 tube on the No.i tube.


Keywords-CFST arch bridge; initial stress of steel tube;
dumbbell-shaped; initial stress coefficient; influence coefficient of At the end of this stage, the cumulative average initial
bearing Introduction stress in steel tubes are calculated as follows:

I. INTRODUCTION σ
2
i s0max = 2iσs10max + 2iσs20max + 2iσs30max ½
Dumbbell-shaped CFST arch bridge is an ideal cross- ¾ ˄3˅
section form since the pressure face needs less bridge deck
σ2
i s0min = 2iσ1s0min + 2iσ1s0min + 2iσs30min ¿
space due to the long distance to the central axis and the
III. BODY-SPACE BEAM ELEMENT WITH INITIAL STRESS
resulting lower longitudinal bending rigidity. Its disadvantage
is relatively small lateral stiffness, so wind bracing must be The so-called body-space beam element method is to
established above bridge deck to ensure the lateral stability. It first make several spatial beam elements along the arch axis,
is suitable for the arch bridges with the spans of 80 ~ 120m. and then the spatial beam elements are longitudinally divided
Before the formation of CFST arch bridge, the deadweight into some isoparametric sub-elements with 8-20 nodes along
and the weight of wet concrete inevitably cause the steel tube section, which form the body-space beam element through
initial stress, which accelerates the steel tube yield, thereby matrix conversion. For matrix conversion and the
impacts the bearing capacity of CFST arch bridge, and should consideration of back nonlinear stiffness matrix refer to
be taken into account in the ultimate load capacity analysis. document [1].

II. CALCULATION OF INITIAL STRESS IV. CFST CONSTITUTIVE RELATION WITH THE CONSI-
DERATION OF INITIAL STRESS
A. Stress of each steel tube in dumbbell -shaped steel arch
ribs A. Steel tube constitutive relation
N i M zi M yi ½ We simulate steel tubes by the ideal elastic-plastic stress-
2
σ 1s 0 max = + + ° strain relationship and bilinear kinematic hardening criterion.
= 1, 2 )
i
Ai Wyi Wzi ° ( i ˄1˅
¾
N M M 1) Ideal elastic-plastic model
2
σ 1s 0 min = i − zi − yi ° The hardening phase can be ignored and simplified
Ai Wyi Wzi °¿
i

the ideal elastic-plastic material when the material


flow phase is long and structural strain is modest, and
the stress-strain relationship is formulated as follows:

978-1-4577-0290-7/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE


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­° σ = Eε ( ε ≤εy )
A. Modeling
According to the existing statistics of the dumbbell-
® (4)
°̄σ = σ y (ε y < ε ≤ εu ) shaped CFST arch bridges, their spans are mainly about 100m
and steel ratios are within 4% to 10%. The selected cases of
net spans of 80m, 100m and 120m and of steel ratios of 4%,
σy
- Steel yield stress; 6%, 8% and 10% in the calculation can basically cover the
range of the established battened steel concrete arch bridges.
εy
ǃ ε u are respectively steel yield strain and ultimate Initial stress coefficient ȕ is valued as 0% to 80% of the yield
strain, in this paper, ε u is valued as 0.0085. strength of steel tubes and calculated with the differential of
10%.
2) Linear hardening elastic-plastic model
The values of the materials used in the calculation accord
For the simple calculation, when the material is of to the current specification [3]:Q345 steel, Es=2.06×105MPa,
significant hardening effect, the elastic phase and hardening C50 concrete, Ec=3.45×104MPa, ƒck=32.4MPa; the values of
phase are charted by two straight lines: outside diameter of pipes from lower to higher are 800mm,
850mm and 900mm;wall thicknesses are conversed according
­ Eε
°°
( ε ≤εy ) to the used steel ratios in the calculation; the ratio of rise to
span in the whole calculations is 1/5.The whole bridge is
σ = ® σy + E'(ε −εy ) ( εy < ε ≤ εu ) (5) divided into 150 elements, each up and down pipes
° accounting for 50 and batten plate accounting for 50.
°̄−σy − E'(ε +ε y ) ( - εu ≤ ε <−ε y )

E is modulu of elasticity at hardening phase, valued as


E ' = 0.01E by Y. Higashibata. y
i
i +1

B. Concrete constitutive relation x

The yield strength of the concrete material within steel z


tube increases with the increase of lateral pressure, and the
plastic behavior is assumed to be ideal elasto; In addition, the
expansion caused by the concrete yield should be taken into Figure 1. Arch rib unit division
account in the constitutive relation of this material. Therefore
the core concrete stress-strain relationship model indicated by
the concrete cylinder axial compressive strength(ƒc) as
proposed in document [2] is applied.

V. NONLINEAR SOLUTION STRATEGY


The essence of ultimate bearing capacity analysis is the
material and geometric nonlinear analysis. The strategy
adopted by this paper is to apply the geometric nonlinear
analysis to overall structure and material nonlinearity analysis
to the body-space beam element for the following reasons: (1)
When the space beam elements are at the elastic stage, no
confined effect between the steel tube and core concrete will
emerge, so there is only no material nonlinear problem but the Figure 2. Arch section drawing
geometric nonlinear problem; (2) the material nonlinearity
problem should be taken into account when the body-space B. Influence coefficient of ultimate bearing capacity of
beam element is at the elastic stage, and meanwhile the CFST
element itself is involved in the geometric nonlinearity of the Nowadays, there are many definitions of bearing
overall analysis. capacity in bridge engineering [4]. Given the considerable
proportion of bridge’s deadweight in loading capacity, this
VI. ANALYSIS OF ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY OF paper adopts the following formula in the calculation of
DUMBBELL-SHAPED CFST WITH CONSIDERATION OF INITIAL bearing capacity:
STRESS
Pj = λ P0 ˄6˅

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In the formula, Pj is the ultimate bearing capacity;P0 is 
the deadweight of the one- step-arching CFST bridge;Ȝ is the ¢ 
 ¢ 
stability coefficient. For the further analysis of the impact of
¢ 
initial stress on the bearing capacity of CFST arch, the bearing  ¢ 
capacity impact coefficient is defined as k p . 
¬

k p = λ P λ0 ˄7˅

λPand λ0 are the stability coefficient of the bearing 
capacity of CFST arch with and without the consideration of 
the impact of initial stress of steel tube.          

Figure 3ǃ4ǃ5 respectively indicates the curve of the Figure 5. under same span Ȝ̚ȕ change curve(L=120m)
stability coefficient Ȝ of dumbbell-shaped CFST arches with
the spans of 80m, 100m and120m and the steel ratios from 
4% to 10% with the variation of the initial stress coefficient ȕ.
The figure shows that the greater the steel ratio Į, the higher 
the stability coefficient of arch under the constant ȕ, and the
total trend is that the bearing capacity of arch bridge linearly 
decrease with the increase of initial stress coefficient β with NS

the constant span and steel ratio, and initial stress causes ¢ 
stability bearing capacity decrease by maximum of 
¢ 
approximately 16.7%. ¢ 
¢ 

         

 Figure 6. under same span kp~ȕ change curve㧔L=80m㧕



 

 
¬
 ¢ 

 ¢  NS
¢  
 ¢ 
¢ 
 ¢ 
 ¢ 
         
£ ¢ 

Figure 3. under same span Ȝ㨪ȕ change curve(L=80m)          
£

 Figure 7. under same span kp~ȕ change curve ( L=100m)


¢ 
 ¢ 
 ¢  
¢ 
 
¬



NS
 
¢ 
 ¢ 
 ¢ 
         
£ ¢ 

Figure 4. under same span Ȝ㨪ȕ change curve(L=100m)     £    

Figure 8. under same span kp~ȕ change curve(L=120m)

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Figure 6 ǃ7 ǃ8 shows the curve of bearing capacity less than 0.25% when the steel ratios are within 8%~10%. To
impact coefficient k p of the arches of three spans with the simplify the calculation, the initial stresses of concrete and
variation of initial stress under various steel ratios. The batten plate are negligible in calculation.
bearing capacity impact coefficient steadily increases with the
increase of initial stress coefficient under the constant span VII. CONCLUSION
and steel ratio, of which the arch ribs with the span of 80m
decrease relatively rapidly, while the ones with 100m and With the consideration of the impact of initial stress on
120m are decrease slowly and regularly, and minimal impact the ultimate bearing capacity of dumbbell-shaped CFST arch
of initial stress exert on the arch rid with the steel ratio of 4% bridges, this paper introduces the calculation method of the
when other factors are constant, which also shows that when initial stress in the construction of dumbbell-shaped CFST
the steel ratio is 4%, the steel causes the minimal impact on arch bridges. Based on the application of the three-
the bearing capacity of the arch rib. When the steel ratio is dimensional body- beam element method to the calculation of
constant, the overall trend is that the impact of initial stress on CFST arch bridges, this paper respectively calculates the
the ultimate bearing capacity of arch bridge decreases with the impact of the initial stress on the ultimate bearing capacity of
increase of span. Taking the decrease of 10% bearing capacity the dumbbell-shaped CFST arch bridges with the spans of
as the limit, the initial stress coefficient of 80m-span 80m, 100m and 120m and various steel ratios. The results
dumbbell-shaped arch should be less than 0.6, and that of show that the initial stress of steel tube causes the decreased
100m- and 120m-span ones less than 0.7. bearing capacity of dumbbell-shaped arch bridges. If we aim
to control the decrease of the bearing capacity within 10%, the
initial stress coefficient should be controlled within 0.7.
C. Impact of initial stress of batten plate and concrete on the
ultimate bearing capacity of dumbbell-shaped CFST arch. [1] ZHOU Hailong. Ā Analytical Study on Bearing Capacity of Single
CFST Arch Bridge Considering Initial Stressāˈ. Chongqing Jiaotong
The concrete in steel tube and batten plate will also University㧘2006
produce a certain initial stress in the construction. This initial [2] HANG Linhai. Ā Steel Tube Concrete Structures ā ˈ Beijing:
stress will impact on the ultimate bearing capacity of arch scientific Publish- ing House,2004.4
bridge, and therefore this paper analyzes it as well and [3] ĀGB50010-2002.Code for design of concrete structuresāˈ Beijing:
compares the ultimate bearing capacity coefficients. The Buiding industry publishing house of china㧘2002
computing values of bearing capacity stability coefficient [4] TONG Qiang, XIONG Feng. Ā Analysis for CFST Arch bridge
considering material and Geometrical nonlinearityāˈCHINACIVIL
without the consideration of the initial stress of batten plate ENGINEERING JOURNAL,2003,(6)ˈSS66-70
and concrete are greater the values otherwise, and the [5] ZHOU Shuixing, CHEN Shan-Lin. “Rapid development of CFST arch
differences between them are very little, and the differences bridges in china. Advances in Structures”,Hancoketalc.
of k p are much less. At the case of four steel ratios, the Swets&Zeitlinger, 2003,pp.915-920.
[6] HAJJAR J F, SCHILLER P H. MOLODAN A. A distributed plasticity
maximum difference of the value of k p is 0.49%, and we can model for concrete filled steel tube beam- column with interlayerslip[J].
see that values of k p are quite approximate with a difference of Engineering Structures,1998,20(2):p p.663-676

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