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BOLLARD PULL JIP

Development of an Industry Standard for Bollard Pull Trials

Joint Industry Project Proposal


February 2015

M AR IN 6700 AA Wageningen T +31 317 49 39 11 E info@marin.nl


P.O. Box 28 The Netherlands F +31 317 49 32 45 I www.marin.nl
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 1

BOLLARD PULL JIP

Development of an Industry Standard for Bollard Pull Trials

Joint Industry Project Proposal


Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 2

CONTENTS Page

1 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 3

2 OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................... 6

3 SCOPE OF WORK ................................................................................................... 7


3.1 Review of current bollard pull practice ................................................................. 7
3.2 CFD-Analysis ....................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Model tests ........................................................................................................... 8
3.4 Correction methods .............................................................................................. 9
3.5 Validation by Bollard Pulls ................................................................................... 9
3.6 Guidelines for conduct & measurements ........................................................... 10
3.7 Guidelines for Analysis and Reporting ............................................................... 10
3.8 Software for trial analysis and pull-speed performance ..................................... 11
3.9 JIP Management ................................................................................................ 11

4 DELIVERABLES..................................................................................................... 12

5 FINANCE ................................................................................................................ 13
5.1 Costs .................................................................................................................. 13
5.2 Contributions ...................................................................................................... 13

6 TIME SCHEDULE .................................................................................................. 14

7 ORGANISATION .................................................................................................... 14

8 CONTACT .............................................................................................................. 14
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 3

1 BACKGROUND

Tugs, anchor handlers, suppliers but also other offshore vessels are designed to deliver
a large pulling force at low speed. This key performance is tested by means of a Bollard
Pull where the tow line is connected to a fixed bollard or pile. At maximum developed
power the pulling force is then measured by means of a load cell. This value is
documented on the Bollard Pull Certificate which plays an important role in the sale and
delivery of the tug as well in commercial deployment and contracts.

Although tugs have been around for a long time, a proper standard for conduct,
measurement and analysis of a bollard pull is not available. Bollard Pulls are conducted
in various ways, measurements of developed shaft power and line load are not always
accurate and an analysis procedure of the measured data is lacking.
As a consequence the issued bollard pull certificate, which are the basis for contracting
the tug, is not always reliable. Although class societies issue such bollard pull
certificates, their classification process and notifications are mainly aiming at the safety
of the equipment and not on the tow performance of the tug. There are few bollard pull
procedures available in open literature; In 1961 the BSRA issued their “Code of
procedures for bollard trials of tugs”. In 2002 Steerprop proposed a bollard pull code at
the International Tug & Salvage convention aimed for further unification of procedures
for conduct and analysis of bollard pull trials. The code was published by ITS in
May/June 2002 and is often used as ‘de facto’ standard.

Figure 1: Bollard pull trial under real conditions (wikipedia.org)

The ITS2002 code proposes correction methods for water depth and line length. The
source of these corrections are however unknown and their validation is lacking. In
2013/2014 MARIN conducted scale 1:14 model tests with an ASD tug. Several bollard
situations were evaluated, such as quay side, open pile and systematic variations of the
tow line length, water depth and distance to the quay. The measured bollard pull
showed large discrepancies with the corrections proposed by ITS2002 code for the
effects of line length and water depth. The time traces of the bollard pull also
demonstrated the effect of restricted water in the harbour basin; after a few minutes the
pull decreased due to the water circulation built up in the basin (Figure 1).
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 4

t=6min40s

Fx Cardan

Thrust/NOZZ

Trim A

Trim F
t=0
s
t=40s
t=9min

Figure 2: time series of tugboat bollard pull performance during tests in restricted waters

The results of the systematic model tests have been discussed with tug operators and
relevant designers, yards and propulsion manufacturers. Based on the practical
experiences over the last decade and the results of the systematic model tests
compared with the ITS 2002 publication, it has been concluded that there is an industry
wide need for transparent and reliable Guidelines for Bollard Pull Trials which will serve
as an industry standard in future.

Another important aspect is the prediction of the bollard pull in the design stage of the
tug and the propellers as the designers/suppliers have to guarantee the bollard pull at
that moment. For this purpose nowadays the open water performance of the propeller
arrangement is predicted by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The interaction
with the hull, however is estimated by a thrust deduction factor which is based on model
tests or empirical data. Systematic information on this thrust deduction factor in the
bollard pull condition for various water depths is missing.

Comparisons of full scale bollard pull results with those obtained from open water CFD
and model tests indicate that there are significant scale effects in bollard pull model
tests. A systematic investigation of this scale effect and the development of a dedicated
extrapolation method for ducted propellers and azimuthing thrusters would contribute to
a more reliable prediction of the bollard pull in the design stage.

A further desire of the towing industry is to have an accurate prediction of the pulling
force over the complete speed range of the tug. For actual service the tug normally
operates in the speed range of 4 to 7 knots and it is important to know the performance
of the tug at those speeds.

To resolve the above issues the joint industry project “Bollard Pull JIP” is proposed. In
this way the input, knowledge and experience of all involved parties will be used and a
comprehensive investigation involving CFD, model test and full scale bollard pulls can
be conducted. With the support and co-operation of oil companies, terminal operators,
ports authorities, ship owners, tug operators, tug designers, propulsion manufacturers
and class societies results can be implemented and a worldwide level playing field for
the towing industry can be achieved .
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 5

Figure 3: Model of ASD tug prior to bollard pull tests in the basin

MARIN has a wide experience in the field CFD, model testing and trials. At the same
time the independent institute has a long track record in joint industry projects related to
tug performance such as Safe Tug, the TRUST-JIP and the Wageningen CD Propeller
Series JIP. In the STA-JIP MARIN has developed a worldwide industry standard for
speed-power trials which has later been adopted by ITTC, ISO and IMO/MEPC and is
now used for both contract delivery and EEDI trials (see www.staimo.org).
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 6

2 OBJECTIVES

The Bollard Pull Joint Industry Project is aiming at the following:

1. Understanding of the main parameters that affect the bollard pull performance;
2. Systematic data on thrust deduction for various configurations (tugs/propulsors,
push/pull and water depths)
3. Quantification of the scale effects on ducted propellers and the development of an
extrapolation method for this purpose.
4. Develop methods to correct for non-ideal bollard pull conditions such as restricted
waters, quay geometry, line length and angles, wind, current & waves;
5. Guidelines for conduct, measurements, analysis and reporting of bollard pull trials
which will serve as an worldwide industry standard.
6. Develop a software package to analyse the bollard pull performance and to predict
the pull performance over the complete speed range.

Figure 4: wireless load cell on tow line


Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 7

3 SCOPE OF WORK

3.1 Review of current bollard pull practice


A review of the current available codes and practices for the conduct, measurements
and analysis of bollard pull trials. Including an inventory of available worldwide locations
for bollard pull (above 50 tonf) and the local waterway or port geometry. Collection of
operational experience from the stakeholders. Review of available literature and test
results both at model scale and full scale.

3.2 CFD-Analysis
Nowadays open water performance thrusters and ducted propellers can be computed
with viscous flow numerical models (CFD) ; the so-called RANS codes. In this JIP
extensive Refresco analysis will be conducted to investigate the following:
 Bollard pull performance in open water;
 Effect of water depth;
 Effect of horizontal restrictions of the port basin;
 Scale effects.

Bollard pull trials are ‘de facto’ conducted in water ways, ports or near the coast as a
steady state bollard is required for the test. Restrictions of the water in horizontal and
vertical direction affect the achieved bollard pull. The flow into the propulsor can be
blocked in case of a small under keel clearance, and circulation of the water in the port
basin will affect propeller performance.
Based on model tests executed in 2013/2014 and viscous CFD analysis the effects of
various geometrical basins will be evaluated. This information will result in a set of
minimum requirements for the trial location and will be used for the development of
correction methods.

The RANS analysis can be conducted on model scale and full scale and can thus assist
in the investigation of the scale effects experienced in model tests and in the
development of a dedicated extrapolation procedure for bollard pulls.

More over unsteady RANS can be used to model the complete tug including the rotating
propellers. For this purpose use is made of the sliding grid solutions which are available
in the MARIN Refresco code. Results can be used to compare with the model tests to
evaluate the accuracy of RANS and to collect systematic thrust deduction coefficients.
Participants in the JIP will also be offered to use Refresco themselves.
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 8

Figure 5: Bollard pull at model scale

3.3 Model tests


Systematic model tests for different tug and propulsor configurations both for the push
and pull modes will be conducted in this JIP to evaluate:
1. Thrust deduction related to water depth
2. Effect of towline length and angles
3. Effect of trim and heading
4. Effect of wind, waves
5. Scale effects

The model tests will be conducted for systematic variations of water depth and towline
length. Also variations in towline angles, tug heading and trim will be investigated.
Several port basin (straight and corner quay side, open water) will be tested for a
selected set up.

The data collected from these systematic tests will provide insight in the importance of
the various parameters and will thus assist in drawing up the guidelines for the conduct
of the bollard pull trials. At the same time this extensive data set will be used to develop
methods for the correction of non-ideal situations encountered during the actual bollard
pulls to arrive at the bollard pull in ideal conditions (calm deep water). These correction
methods will be described in the Guidelines. The correction methods will not be valid
over the complete range of values and therefore this R&D work will also result in limiting
requirements for the above parameters in which bollard pulls can be conducted reliably.

The model test results will also be used to quantify the thrust deduction for the various
tug designs/propulsors as function of water depth. This is important input data for
designers and propulsion suppliers to improve their bollard pull prediction in the design
stage.

Dedicated tests will be conducted to investigate the scale effects in model testing;
results will be compared against the results of the CFD analysis for the same vessel and
conditions. A dedicated extrapolation method for model tests will be developed and
delivered.
As the parameters under investigation are large in number, an adequate model test
program will be drawn up in close co-operation with the participants in this JIP. At this
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 9

moment the budget estimate for model tests ensures a realistic program for 2 tug
designs.

Figure 6: test setup for bollard pull tank tests

3.4 Correction methods


Based on the results of the previous tasks with CFD an model tests, practical methods
for the correction of non-ideal situations encountered during the actual bollard pulls to
arrive at the bollard pull in ideal conditions (unrestricted water, no wind, no waves no
current) will be developed. The methods are for implementation in the Guidelines (3.6)
and in the analysis software (3.8) such that they can be applied during the trials with a
minimum input (e.g. main dimensions of tug and propulsors, water depth, line length,
wind speed/ direction and significant wave height and period). The correction methods
will be validated by means of model tests and full scale (3.5) results.

3.5 Validation by Bollard Pulls


As model tests can suffer from scale effects and CFD-modelling for the present
application is rather new, with the assistance of the participating companies several full
scale bollard pulls with existing or new tugs featuring different propulsion arrangements
will be conducted as part of this JIP. The results will be compared with the results of
model tests, CFD and the developed correction methods. The present budget is based
on extensive bollard pulls for some 4 tugs which will be subjected to variations in trim
heading, weather, line length and possible water depth and quay sides.
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 10

Figure 7: Full scale bollard pull trials

3.6 Guidelines for conduct & measurements


Based on the results of the previous tasks as well as on the experience with trials, a
document will be developed to provide practical, clear and reliable “Best Practice” for the
preparation, conduct and measurements of bollard pulls.

This document will clearly state which information should be supplied prior to the trials,
the requirements with respect to the location and the limiting weather conditions.
Furthermore minimum water depth, tow line connection length and other essential
parameters will be specified.

The instrumentation, sensors, calibration and data acquisition will be defined.

Finally guidelines for the executing of the bollard pull, power settings, boat control and
duration will be drawn up.

3.7 Guidelines for Analysis and Reporting


Following the results of the forgoing tasks, a document on the guidelines for analysis of
the measured data including the correction methods for non-ideal conditions during the
trials, will be developed.

It is proposed that the Guidelines will be made public; in order to set this as an
worldwide standard.

If supported by the participants, MARIN will initiate and follow-up the procedure to
implement the new Guidelines in an ISO standard.
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 11

3.8 Software for trial analysis and pull-speed performance


Similar to the STAIMO software for speed/power trials (see www.staimo.org), the new
guidelines, analysis procedures and correction methods will be implemented in a
practical software package that can be used on board during bollard pull trials and that
result in a concise bollard pull trial report which forms the basis for a bollard pull
certificate to be issued by Class.

Once the bollard pull and the maximum free sailing speed are determined on the basis
of trials, the software will be able to produce the pull force-speed relation over the
complete speed range. This information is practical for the selection and operation of
tugs in the normal speed range of 4 to 7 knots.

The software will be developed and delivered to the participating companies only.
MARIN will maintain and support the software and updates will be delivered free of
charge during the confidentiality period of the JIP (3 years after completion).

3.9 JIP Management


The above scope will be conducted as Joint Industry Project which is open to all
stakeholders. Participants are expected to share their experience and insight in JIP
meetings which will be held every 6 months. Participants may also be selected to
conduct one or more tasks paid by the JIP.
MARIN will act as main contractor and JIP manager and will be responsible for
organising and administrating the project.
JIP Participant Meetings will be held every 6 months in conjunction with the Vessel
Operator Forum (www.vesseloperatorforum.com).
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 12

4 DELIVERABLES

1. Report Task 1: Review current practice;


2. Report Task 2: CFD results for open water conditions, effects boundary conditions
and scale effects;
3. Report Task 3: Systematic model test results on effect main parameters, thrust
deduction and scale effects for different vessels/propulsor arrangements and
push/pull;
4. Report Task 4: Correction methods for non-ideal conditions;
5. Report Task 5: Results of Bollard Pulls, Correlation & Scale effects;
6. Report Task 6: Guidelines on Conduct of Bollard Pulls;
7. Report Task 7: Guidelines on Analysis of Bollard Pulls;
8. Task 8: Software for Bollard Pull Analysis & Pull-Speed Performance;
9. Summary Report / Publication.
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 13

5 FINANCE

5.1 Costs
The budget estimate for the scope of work described, is as follows:

Task Bollard Pull JIP Euro


1 Review of current practice 25,000.-
2 CFD analysis 93,000.-
3 Model testing 190,000.-
4 Development of correction methods for non-ideal conditions 65,000.-
5 Validation by Full Scale Bollard Pulls & scale effects 152,000.-
6 Guidelines for preparation, conduct & measurements 20,000.-
7 Guidelines for analysis and reporting 35,000.-
8 Software for Bollard Pull & Pull-Speed prediction 60,000.-
9 JIP Management 45,000.-
Total in Euro’s 685,000.-

5.2 Contributions
The costs of the JIP will be shared between the participating companies.

Based on the costs and the expected number of participants, the following fees have
been set:
 Tug operators, Shipping companies, Yards, Class, Suppliers: 9,000.-/year
 SME’s & institutes & authorities: 4,500.-/year

The contributions of the industry will be matched by 23% subsidy provided by the TKI
Water program of the Government of The Netherlands. In addition MARIN will support
this development with a 25% contribution from its research budget.

The expected contributions are thus as follows:

Bollard Pull JIP Contributions Euro


14 Participants @ 9 k x 3 yr 378,000.-
6 SME’s @ 4.5 k x 3yr 81,000.-
TKI subsidy 23 % over above contributions 105,000.-
MARIN contribution 121,000.-
Total in Euro’s 685,000.-
Proposal No. 26756 Bollard Pull JIP Proposal 14

6 TIME SCHEDULE

The following time schedule is proposed:

2015 February: Circulation of draft JIP proposal


April: Open Meeting with interested parties
May: Final JIP Proposal & Participation Agreement
June/July: Sign in of participants
September: Kick-off
2017 December; Delivery of final results; Completion of JIP

2015 2016 2017


Task Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

7 ORGANISATION
This JIP is aiming a the participation of all stakeholders i.e. oil companies, terminal
operators, port authorities, ship owners, tug operators, tug designers, propulsion
manufacturers and class societies. These organisations confirm their participation by
signing the Bollard Pull JIP Participation Agreement with MARIN. This agreement
ensures that all results are kept confidential during the confidentiality period that ends 3
years after completion of the project. It is envisaged that the Guidelines will be published
earlier with the consent of the participants. In case the Guidelines will be published as
an ISO standard this will also be a requirement.

The work will be conducted by MARIN in close co-operation with participating


companies. Tasks in the project may be assigned to participating companies or sub
contractors with the agreed payment by the JIP.

8 CONTACT

For further information on the Bollard Pull JIP please contact MARIN Trials & Monitoring:

Thijs Hasselaar; email t.hasselaar@marin.nl; tel +31 317 493224


Henk van den Boom; email h.v.d.boom@marin.nl; tel +31 317 493353