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# Electrical

Characteristics of
1
MOSFETs
Lecture# 14
VLSI Design
2 nMOS IV Equations

##  We are familiar with the fact that there is a difference between

 Drawn and effective channel lengths and widths
 The electrical equations uses effective values of lengths and
widths
 Electrical channel length 𝐿 𝐿 Δ𝐿
 Electrical channel width 𝑊 𝑊 ΔL
𝐿 and 𝑊 are drawn values
Δ𝐿 and Δ𝑊 are the reduction
factors

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

3 nMOS IV Equations
 Source is Grounded for Simplicity
 We will consider only relative voltages
VGS and VDS
 To determine dependence of current (ID) on these voltages
 MOS structure is to allows control of charge layer under gate
oxide using VGS

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

4 nMOS IV Equations
 Cut-Off Mode
 If 𝑉 𝑉 then 𝑄 0, No channel exists
 Two n+ regions are physically separated
 This state is called cut-off
 Having 𝐼 0
 No matter the value of 𝑉

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

5 nMOS IV Equations
 Active Mode
 If 𝑉 𝑉
 𝑄 is created underneath gate oxide
 Which depends on VGS
 Channel is formed
 Active mode of operation
 𝐼 depends on both
𝑉 and 𝑉

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

6 nMOS IV Equations
 Non-Idealistic MOSFET

##  Electrical characteristics of a MOSFET deviate from that

 assert-high / assert low switch ?
 However, it does not effect the use of MOSFET in logical formation
 On the other hand, the electrical characteristics does effect
transient response
 Thus effecting switching characteristics in IC design
 In order to understand MOSFET at device level
 We will observe dependency of 𝐼 on 𝑉 and 𝑉 separately

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

7 nMOS IV Equations
 Gate Voltage (1/2)
 When 𝐼 and 𝑉 are plotted
 While keeping 𝑉 constant

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

8 nMOS IV Equations
 Gate Voltage (2/2)

##  Mathematically, this behavior can be approximately modeled

as

𝐼 𝑉 𝑉

 𝛽 is device transconductance, 𝛽 𝑘
 𝑘 is process transconductance, 𝑘 𝜇 𝐶
 𝑘 as 𝐶

##  Smaller 𝑡 gives larger 𝑘 and hence larger 𝐼

 Sensitivity of device is increased (Allows device to switch faster)
 Also, decreasing 𝑡 increases 𝐶 which enhances field-effect

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

9 nMOS IV Equations

Class Exercise 1

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

10 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Source Voltage (non- Saturation Region)
 When 𝐼 and 𝑉 are plotted
 While keeping 𝑉 constant

 𝐼 2 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

##  2 𝑉 𝑉 2𝑉 0 gives saturation voltage

 𝑉 𝑉 | 𝑉 𝑉
Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad
11 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Source Voltage (Saturation Region)
 After peak (saturation point)
 The current 𝐼 is independent of 𝑉 , only depends upon 𝑉

 𝐼 𝑉 𝑉 saturation current
 when 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

##  Incorporating channel length modulation

 occurs after saturation

 𝐼 𝑉 𝑉 1 𝜆 𝑉 𝑉

##  The figure shows 𝐼 vs 𝑉 curves

 For various values of 𝑉
 Ignoring channel-length modulation

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

12 nMOS IV Equations

Class Exercise 2

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

13 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (1/5)

##  Channel is describe by electron charge density 𝑄 C/cm

 Application of 𝑉 creates an electric field in the channel (drain to source)
 Electrons in the channel (and source) experience a force opposite to the
field
 The Electrons moves from source to drain (hence the names of regions)
 Representing as conventional current, the direction is drain -> source
 Source is at 0 𝑉 and drain is at 𝑉
+ VGSn > VTn
 Across distance y 0 to y 𝐿
+ VDSn
 Distance is represented by 𝑦 VS = 0 V
IDn
 Channel voltage varies from
 𝑉 0 0V to 𝑉 𝐿 𝑉
n+ n+
 Channel voltage represented by V(y) E
V(0) V(L)
Channel
 𝑉 𝑦
p-substrate
𝑦
0 L

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

14 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (2/5)

##  Due to a small change in position in channel 𝑑𝑦

 Results in a small change in voltage 𝑑𝑉
 Electric field intensity over that small distance 𝐸 𝑦

##  Electric charge density in the channel Charge density is non-uniform

 𝑄 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 IV characteristics will be non-linear
 where 𝑉 𝑉 is effective voltage across gate oxide
 Actually, the applied 𝑉
0V ‐ dV + +VDSn
 Effects the 𝑄 across channel IDn
𝑄
 So, 𝑄 is a function of 𝑦
n+ n+
(V(y) opposes VGS, as it is +ve value) dy
V(0) V(L)
 𝑄 𝑦 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑦

 𝑄 0 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 0 L

 𝑄 𝐿 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

15 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (3/5)

##  The current 𝐼 flows through a small region 𝑑𝑦 with resistance 𝑑𝑅

 𝑑𝑉 𝐼 𝑑𝑅
 Where 𝑑𝑅 is differential resistance of a segment
 𝑑𝑅 𝜎 is conductivity and 𝐴 is cross section area

##  Let us represent the thickness of the channel at the segment by 𝑥

 𝜎 𝐴 𝑞𝜇 𝑛 𝑊 𝑥
0V ‐ dV + +VDSn
 Where 𝑛 is electron density [cm ] IDn
𝑄
 The charge density in the segment n+ n+
 𝑄 𝑞𝑛 𝑥 [C/cm ] dy
V(0) V(L)
 Putting the values in 𝑑𝑅 and 𝑑𝑉 equations
0 L
 𝑑𝑅
---> Put this in 𝑑𝑉 equation

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

16 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (4/5)

 𝑑𝑉

 𝑑𝑉

##  Re-arranging the above equation

 𝐼 𝑑𝑦 𝜇 𝑊𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑦 𝑑𝑉
 To find the expression for current flow, integrate over entire length
 𝐼 𝑑𝑦 𝜇 𝑊𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝑉

 𝐼 𝐿 𝜇 𝑊𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

 𝐼 𝜇 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

17 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (5/5)

 At transition point 𝑄 𝐿 𝑄 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 0
 Channel vanishes near the drain
 Known as channel-pinch off
 Results in saturation mode and channel-length modulation

## Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad

18 Assignment 2, Q. 4

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