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Electrical

Characteristics of
1
MOSFETs
Lecture# 14
VLSI Design
2 nMOS IV Equations

 We are familiar with the fact that there is a difference between


 Drawn and effective channel lengths and widths
 The electrical equations uses effective values of lengths and
widths
 Electrical channel length 𝐿 𝐿 Δ𝐿
 Electrical channel width 𝑊 𝑊 ΔL
𝐿 and 𝑊 are drawn values
Δ𝐿 and Δ𝑊 are the reduction
factors

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


3 nMOS IV Equations
 Source is Grounded for Simplicity
 We will consider only relative voltages
VGS and VDS
 To determine dependence of current (ID) on these voltages
 MOS structure is to allows control of charge layer under gate
oxide using VGS

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


4 nMOS IV Equations
 Cut-Off Mode
 If 𝑉 𝑉 then 𝑄 0, No channel exists
 Two n+ regions are physically separated
 This state is called cut-off
 Having 𝐼 0
 No matter the value of 𝑉

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


5 nMOS IV Equations
 Active Mode
 If 𝑉 𝑉
 𝑄 is created underneath gate oxide
 Which depends on VGS
 Channel is formed
 Active mode of operation
 𝐼 depends on both
𝑉 and 𝑉

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


6 nMOS IV Equations
 Non-Idealistic MOSFET

 Electrical characteristics of a MOSFET deviate from that


 assert-high / assert low switch ?
 However, it does not effect the use of MOSFET in logical formation
 On the other hand, the electrical characteristics does effect
transient response
 Thus effecting switching characteristics in IC design
 In order to understand MOSFET at device level
 We will observe dependency of 𝐼 on 𝑉 and 𝑉 separately

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


7 nMOS IV Equations
 Gate Voltage (1/2)
 When 𝐼 and 𝑉 are plotted
 While keeping 𝑉 constant

 What forces transistor to remain in Cut-Off Region ?

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


8 nMOS IV Equations
 Gate Voltage (2/2)

 Mathematically, this behavior can be approximately modeled


as

𝐼 𝑉 𝑉

 𝛽 is device transconductance, 𝛽 𝑘
 𝑘 is process transconductance, 𝑘 𝜇 𝐶
 𝑘 as 𝐶

 Smaller 𝑡 gives larger 𝑘 and hence larger 𝐼


 Sensitivity of device is increased (Allows device to switch faster)
 Also, decreasing 𝑡 increases 𝐶 which enhances field-effect

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


9 nMOS IV Equations

Class Exercise 1

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


10 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Source Voltage (non- Saturation Region)
 When 𝐼 and 𝑉 are plotted
 While keeping 𝑉 constant

 Can be estimated by equation


 𝐼 2 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

 The peak point occurs when , taking partial derivative gives

 2 𝑉 𝑉 2𝑉 0 gives saturation voltage


 𝑉 𝑉 | 𝑉 𝑉
Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad
11 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Source Voltage (Saturation Region)
 After peak (saturation point)
 The current 𝐼 is independent of 𝑉 , only depends upon 𝑉

 𝐼 𝑉 𝑉 saturation current
 when 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

 Incorporating channel length modulation


 occurs after saturation

 𝐼 𝑉 𝑉 1 𝜆 𝑉 𝑉

 The figure shows 𝐼 vs 𝑉 curves


 For various values of 𝑉
 Ignoring channel-length modulation

Observe Vsat and IDn ?

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


12 nMOS IV Equations

Class Exercise 2

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


13 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (1/5)

 Channel is describe by electron charge density 𝑄 C/cm


 Application of 𝑉 creates an electric field in the channel (drain to source)
 Electrons in the channel (and source) experience a force opposite to the
field
 The Electrons moves from source to drain (hence the names of regions)
 Representing as conventional current, the direction is drain -> source
 Source is at 0 𝑉 and drain is at 𝑉
+ VGSn > VTn
 Across distance y 0 to y 𝐿
+ VDSn
 Distance is represented by 𝑦 VS = 0 V
IDn
 Channel voltage varies from
 𝑉 0 0V to 𝑉 𝐿 𝑉
n+ n+
 Channel voltage represented by V(y) E
V(0) V(L)
Channel
 𝑉 𝑦
p-substrate
𝑦
0 L

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


14 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (2/5)

 Due to a small change in position in channel 𝑑𝑦


 Results in a small change in voltage 𝑑𝑉
 Electric field intensity over that small distance 𝐸 𝑦

 Electric charge density in the channel Charge density is non-uniform


 𝑄 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 IV characteristics will be non-linear
 where 𝑉 𝑉 is effective voltage across gate oxide
 Actually, the applied 𝑉
0V ‐ dV + +VDSn
 Effects the 𝑄 across channel IDn
𝑄
 So, 𝑄 is a function of 𝑦
n+ n+
(V(y) opposes VGS, as it is +ve value) dy
V(0) V(L)
 𝑄 𝑦 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑦

 𝑄 0 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 0 L

 𝑄 𝐿 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


15 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (3/5)

 The current 𝐼 flows through a small region 𝑑𝑦 with resistance 𝑑𝑅


 𝑑𝑉 𝐼 𝑑𝑅
 Where 𝑑𝑅 is differential resistance of a segment
 𝑑𝑅 𝜎 is conductivity and 𝐴 is cross section area

 Let us represent the thickness of the channel at the segment by 𝑥


 𝜎 𝐴 𝑞𝜇 𝑛 𝑊 𝑥
0V ‐ dV + +VDSn
 Where 𝑛 is electron density [cm ] IDn
𝑄
 The charge density in the segment n+ n+
 𝑄 𝑞𝑛 𝑥 [C/cm ] dy
V(0) V(L)
 Putting the values in 𝑑𝑅 and 𝑑𝑉 equations
0 L
 𝑑𝑅
---> Put this in 𝑑𝑉 equation

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


16 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (4/5)

 The 𝑑𝑉 equation becomes


 𝑑𝑉

 Putting 𝑄 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 in above equation


 𝑑𝑉

 Re-arranging the above equation


 𝐼 𝑑𝑦 𝜇 𝑊𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑦 𝑑𝑉
 To find the expression for current flow, integrate over entire length
 𝐼 𝑑𝑦 𝜇 𝑊𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 𝑑𝑉

 𝐼 𝐿 𝜇 𝑊𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

 𝐼 𝜇 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


17 nMOS IV Equations
 Drain Current Equation (5/5)

 At transition point 𝑄 𝐿 𝑄 𝐶 𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 0
 Channel vanishes near the drain
 Known as channel-pinch off
 Results in saturation mode and channel-length modulation

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad


18 Assignment 2, Q. 4

What will be the expression for IDn at VDSn =


Vsat

Dr. Sohaib Ayyaz Qazi | COMSATS University Islamabad