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Computational

Mechanics

@ Springer-Verlag 1992

Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements

B. Nayroles l, G. Touzot 2 and P. Villon 3

1 Institut de M6canique de Grenoble, CNRS (UMR 101)-Universit6 Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France

2 Universit6 de Technologie de Compi6gne-CNRS (D 6063)-P61e de Mod~lisation Picardie. Compi~gne, France

3 Universit6 de Technologie de Compi~gne-CNRS (URA 817)-P61e de Mod61isation Picardie. Compi6gne, France

Abstract. This paper describes the new "diffuse approximation" method, which may be presented as a generalization of the

widely used "finite element approximation" method. It removes some of the limitations of the finite element approximation

related to the regularity of approximated functions, and to mesh generation requirements. The diffuse approximation method

may be used for generating smooth approximations of functions known at given sets of points and for accurately estimating

their derivatives. It is useful as well for solving partial differential equations, leading to the so called "diffuse dement method"

(DEM), which presents several advantages compared to the "finite element method" (FEM), specially for evaluating the

derivatives of the unknown functions.

1 Introduction

The reasons of the success of the FEM are well known: local character of approximations, ability

to deal with complex geometrical domains, existence of a large set of approximation schemes

adapted to various problems but embedded in a unified formulation. However the FEM presents

two' main drawbacks. First, the approximate solutions provided by the FEM present a limited

regularity. Generally the solution itself is continuous but some of its derivatives are discontinuous

at elements boundaries, leading to difficulties of interpretation and the use of unsatisfactory

smoothing techniques. Second, generating adequate discretization meshes is a difficult task, in

particular for complex tridimensional domains. For instance, the development of auto-adaptive

methods is limited by the lack of efficient mesh generators able to dynamically adjust the size of

each individual element.

The objective of the present paper is to present a new approximation method, closely related

to the FEM, retaining most of its attractive features, but providing smoother approximations and

only requiring sets of discretization points (or nodes) and no explicit elements.

The FEM uses piecewise approximations of unknown functions which are written, on a given

element "e", as

m

ue(x) = (p(X)) (a e} = Z pj(x)a~, (1)

j=l

wherep is a vector of"m" independent fuflctions, most often polynomial terms, and a e is a vector

of "m" approximation parameters, constant on element "e".

Expressing that u e ( x ) takes the values ui at the n e nodes x~ of element "e" provides a set of

linear relations between a J~.and ui

308 Computational Mechanics 10 (1992)

If n e is equal to m, the matrix [ P . ] may in general be inverted, leading to the standard shape

functions Ni(x)

u(x) = (pj(x) ) [ P , ] - l{ui} = (Ni(x) ) {ui}. (3)

This interpolation procedure m a y also be seen as minimizing the following expression with respect

to - a e,, , for a given element "e"

ri e ne

i=1 i=1

= ({u,} -- [Pn]{ae})r({Ul} -- [Pn]{ae}) i = 1,n e. (4)

The stationarity of j e leads to relation (2), if ne equals m, and moreover in such a case the m i n i m u m

value of d e is zero.

Another expression of .I e, equivalent to (4), is the following

n

i=1

where n is the total n u m b e r of nodes, w e = 1 if node i belongs to element "e" and w e = 0 otherwise.

3 Diffuse approximation

The basic idea of the diffuse approximation is to replace the F E M interpolation, valid on an

element, by a local weighted least squares fitting, valid in a small neighbourhood of a point "$",

and based on n e nodes close to the point "$". This can be interpreted as a standard finite element

approximation, but only valid on a small area surrounding the point ":~", and based on a variable

n u m b e r of nodes.

Disconnecting the n u m b e r n e of nodes from the n u m b e r m of approximation parameters is

made possible due to the least squares fitting which replaces the standard F E M interpolation. The

approximate function is made s m o o t h by replacing the discontinuolas w e coefficients in (5) by

continuous weighting functions we'(x) evaluated at xv The vanishing of these weighting functions

we(x) at a certain distance from the point "~" preserves the local character of the approximation.

A r o u n d a point "$", the function u~(x) is locally approximated by an expression equivalent

to (1)

u~(x) = (p(x)){a e} = ~ pj(x)a~, (6)

j=l

so that the approximated value at point ":~" is u~(.~), simply noted as u(.~).

The coefficients aXe,corresponding to the point "~", are obtained by minimizing the following

9 . . J

expression, slmdar to (5)

n

i=1

where w~(x) is a positive weighting function, which quickly decreases as II x - :~ [I increases. Using

(6), the latter relation becomes

i=1

The matrix [ P . ] is not any more square, it has n rows and m columns. [W] is the following diagonal

matrix

w 1) "'" 0

[W] . . . . --- . (9)

''' W n

B. Nayroles et al.: Generalizing the finite element method: Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements 309

In practice, the weighting function vanishes outside a certain neighbourhood VS of the point "Y",

thus the only nodes involved in the summation in (8) are located in V~, preserving the local

character of the approximation.

The stationarity of J~'(a~) with respect to a ~ leads to the following linear relation between a ~

and u~, corresponding to (2) in the FEM

[Ae]{a e} = I-B~] {u,). (lo)

The matrix [A S] is a weighted sum of matrices [As] which correspond to the nodes "i" belonging

to the neighborhood V~ of the point "if"

[A S] = ~ we'(x~)[Ai]. (lla)

i=1

A matrix [All is the product of the polynomial basis, evaluated at node "i", by itself

[A,] = {v(x,) } (v(x,) 5.

The matrix [B ~] is a weighted sum of matrices IBm] which correspond to the nodes belonging to

the neighbourhood VS of the point "~"

[B e] = ~ w~:(xi)[B(I. (1 lb)

i=1

The coefficients of a matrix [B~] are zero except for the ith column which contains the polynomial

basis {p(xl)} evaluated at node "i"

EB,] = E.0.

Inverting relation (10) and using (6) leads to the following expression of the approximate function,

quite similar to the corresponding FEM relation

ue(x) = (p (x) ) { ae } = (p (x) ) [A e ~ - ~[B e ] {u, } (12)

ue(x) = (N~(x)) {u,}, (N~(x)) = (p(x)) [A~]- 1[Be]. (13, 14)

The rank and conditioning of matrix [A e] depend on the relative locations of the nodes belonging

to V~. For instance, in two dimensions, [A ~] is singular if the nodes are located on a straight line.

A necessary condition to get a non singular [A ~] matrix is the existence of at least "m" nodes in V~.

Theestimate(6~xU ) o f t h e d e r i v a t i v e ( t 3 ~ ) o f a f u n c t i o n u a t p o i n t ~ i s o b t a i n e d b y d i f f e r e n -

s

tiating p(x) with respect to x in (6), considering a S as a constant.

For instance

@

(15)

or from (13)-(14)

6u) / 6N ~ \

(16, 17)

If the weighting function is continuous with respect to if, the shape functions (14) and the

approximating function (t3) are continuous with respect to :~, as well as the shape functions of the

derivatives and the estimates of the derivatives up to order "m".

310 Computational Mechanics10 (1992)

4 Convergence of approximation

Let us consider a function u(x) having a Taylor expansion up to order k around a point ~, expressed

here in one dimension for simplicity

y( dU~ + yk ( dku ~ yk+l

u(~2+ y)=u(~)+ \-d~x] +... ~\~Xk] +(k + l)!r(~,y)

k!kdxk]~

yk+ 1

u(~ + y) = ( p ( y ) ) { ~} + (k + 1)! r(2, y)" (18)

u (x) : (v(x) )

It may be transformed by the change of coordinates origin x ~ y = x - ~ into

uX(i + y) = (p(x - s [Q(ff)] {a ~} = (p(y) ) {a~}.

As a two dimensional example, if the polynomial basis is linear

(p(x))=(1 x y).

Thus

I-Q(2) = 1 .

0

Hence the diffuse approximation may be considered as an estimate of the Taylor expansion of u

up to order k expressed by (18). It justifies the estimates of the derivatives proposed in (15),

expressed here as

~xj/~ =

Moreover, one can demonstrate (Nayroles et al. 1991a) that

{ ~ } - {~te} . . . . (k + 1)~

, , ,

where e is a constant related to the size of the neighbourhood V~ of the point 2 used in the diffuse

approximation.

Thus there is a constant ~:0~) such that

- _ _ j = 0 . . . . , k. (20)

\dxJ/~ \~xJ/~l < ~c(X)(k+ 1)!

B. Nayroleset al.: Generalizingthe finiteelementmethod:Diffuseapproximationand diffuseelements 311

Similar results are obtained in more than one dimension. Additional mathematical details are

provided in Nayroles et al. (1991c).

One can easily show that, like the finite element approximation, the diffuse approximation is exact

for any function built as a linear combination of the basis functions pj(x). Thus the shape functions

satisfy the well known relations

m

pj(xi)Ni(x) = pj(x) j = 1,...,m. (21)

i=l

5.2 Interpolation

Without additional hypothesis, the diffuse approximation does not exactly verify the interpolation

property

Ni(xj)=6ij i,j= 1,...,m. (22)

In practice, this property is verified with a good accuracy except in the vicinity of points where

the function u is discontinuous or the gradients of u are very large. Moreover the diffuse approxi-

mation can locally be an exact interpolation at a node "i" (taking exactly the value ui at this node),

if the choice of the weighting function is such that locally the number of nodes used for evaluating

the approximation at node "i" is equal to the number of approximation parameters.

5.3 Continuity

As mentioned before, if the weighting function is continuous and the matrix [A ~] is regular for

every ~, then the approximate function u and the estimates of its derivatives ~ x~up to order l = k

are continuous.

Using the diffuse approximation requires the choice, at every~point ~ where the approximation is

required,

- - o f the functional basis of the approximation (p(x)>,

- - o f the weighting function w~(x), leading to its support' V~ where the weighting function is

numerically different from zero, and to the list of nodes included in Ve referred to as the

nodes connected to the point ft.

The discretization points (or nodes) may be generated by a number of techniques, such as using

a part of a FEM mesh generator program, random shooting methods, quadtree or octree based

methods. In any case it is much easier to add and remove nodes, or to locally modify the

distribution of nodes than to rebuild complete FEM meshes.

312 Computational Mechanics 10 (1992)

As a consequence of (19) and (20), the accuracy of the diffuse approximation method is directly

related to the choice of the WFs. They may vary from point to point, in order to match the local

characteristics of the function to be approximated, based on user knowledge or on auto-adaptive

methods. At any point one has to select both the formal expression of the WF, and the values of

the parameters involved in its expression, such as the size of its support.

If the WF is constant over the domain, the diffuse approximation is a simple least squares

fitting of a polynomial function.

If the WFs are constant over selected sub-domains, the diffuse approximation may be made

identical to the finite element approximation.

The WFs may also be chosen in such a way to have a constant number of nodes in the

neighbourhood V~ of every point 2.

The three following examples of weighting functions have been successfully tested. They take

the value 8 for II x - ~ II = dma x

a) rational fraction:

1

w~(x) = v(ll x - ~ II) with: v(d) = (23)

+

F / d

@(x) = v( IIx - ~ II) with: v(d)= e x p | L o g ( e ) [ (24)

L ~dmax/ A

c) triangle function:

w~(x ) = v( ll x - ~ ii)

with: v(d)= 1 -

Id1(1-8) if Id15 dmax

dmax (1 - 8)

dmax

v(d) = 0 if [dl > (1 - 8----)" (25)

These functions present a symmetry around 2. But it may be helpful to use anisotropic WFs, for

instance to fit a steep front.

The diffuse approximation method may be used for a number of purposes, such as:

a) the smoothing of data and the representation of functions in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions, when

the regularity of the approximate function is important. Adding constraints to the minimization

procedure (7) allows to build approximate functions which verify additional algebraic or differ-

ential relations such as differential equilibrium equations or plasticity yielding criterium. This may

be helpful for instance in transfering information from an old mesh to a new one, after remeshings

required by large strains plasticity analysis. It may also be used to impose zero divergence

constraints to displacement fields.

b) the numerical derivation of functions: the diffuse approximation can generate new "finite

difference like" formula based on any irregular set of discretization points.

c) the solving of ordinary or partial differential equations by different methods including:

--collocation methods, taking advantage of the ability of the diffuse approximation method

to provide continuous derivative estimates:

B. Nayroles et al.: Generalizing the finite element method: Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements 313

--Galerkin methods, leading to the diffuse element method (DEM) which appears to be very

close to the FEM.

Using the diffuse approximation in a Galerkin formulation may be implemented in different ways:

a) The simplest way consists in replacing the FEM shape functions (3) by the diffuse approxi-

mation shape functions (14) at the integration points of standard elements, in an existing FEM

programme. The elements are not any more useful for the approximations, but they may still be

used for numerical integration purposes. The only modification required is the management of

possibly different lists of nodes (connectivity) at different integration points of the same element.

This may be used for instance to create new plates and shells elements due to the regularity

of the approximation.

b) One can also directly define two separate sets of points:

- - a set of "nodes" at which discrete values of the unknown functions are defined (displace-

ments, velocities,...)

- - a set of "evaluation points" at which the useful derivatives of the unknown functions are

evaluated as well as related quantities: strains, stresses, virtual work density ....

The computations to be executed at an evaluation point are very similar to those at a FEM

integration point. But in the DEM, the virtual work corresponding to an evaluation point is

obtained by multiplying the density of virtual work evaluated at this point by the "measure" (area

for 2D, volume for 3D) of some surrounding "virtual domain of influence". This measure cor-

responds to the product of a numerical integration weighting coefficient by the area of an element,

in the standard FEM. The actual geometry of the domain has not to be explicitly defined. But the

sum of the measures attributed to all the evaluation points has to be equal to the measure of the

global domain.

Each evaluation point of the DEM may be considered as a particular kind of finite element with:

- - o n l y one integration point,

- - a number of nodes varying from point to point,

- - a diffuse (or fuzzy) domain of influence, the measure of this domain being the only meaningful

information.

In practice one defines the number of nodes to be connected to each "evaluation point", for instance

equal to the number of terms in the polynomial basis plus one or two. Then the parameters of the

weighting functions are selected in such a way that the WF takes a small residual value at the last

selected node.

As a consequence, the implementation of the diffuse element method is quite similar to that of

the FEM, the only change being the replacement of the two loops over elements and integration

points in the FEM, by only one loop over evaluation points in the DEM.

~' 9 I I I

s ,~ s 9 %

.... ---- % 9 9

-.. , . . . . ,

9 Nodes

+ Integration points 9 Nodes

Connections between dCf'~ Integration points

Figs. 1 and 2. 1 Use of diffuse ap-

9 integration points and nodes Connections between

proximation at integration points of

finite element ~ integration points and nodes

finite elements. 2 Direct use of diffuse

approximation at integration points

1 2 without finite elements

314 Computational Mechanics 10 (1992)

FlgM DEM

A = area of an element

a = measure of influence domain

Initialize element stiffness element stiffness = a BT D B

into global stiffness

w = integration weighting

coefficient

A d d : A w B T D B to

element stlI]hess

into global stiffness

Fig. 3. Computation steps in FEM

and DEM

8 One-dimensional example

Example 1: Approximation of the step function. This example presents a diffuse approximation

of the step function centered at the origin. The distance between the sampling points is 1.0. As the

sampling points are symmetrically distributed with respect to the origin, the estimates graphs are

symmetrical with respect to the point (0, 0.5).

For comparison purposes, the results corresponding to the following three weighting functions

are displayed (Fig. 4).

1.00

10

~, weightingfunction aperture 32 I , ,,';e"

|=" ' ",'""

I

.N~., Triangular

06

0.75

0t.

02 y degree 1

~

4 5

1.00

imate "

agree 2

0.75

0.50

0 0.5 1.5 Figs. 4-6. 4 Different weighting functions. 5 Approximation of a step function

(linear polynomial basis). 6 Approximation of a step function (quadratic

polynomial basis)

B. Nayroles et al.: Generalizing the finite element method: Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements 315

if Irl=<2

Sine function: with 2 = 1.6

0 if Irl > 2

0 if Irl > 2

With the chosen values of 4, the aperture of the three functions are approximately or exactly equal

to 3.2. Thus an interval of length 3.2 contains at least 3 points, but contains exactly 3 points if it

is centered at a sampling point. Hence the approximation is an interpolation for the degree 2

polynomial basis, but is not exactly an interpolation for degree 1. It can be seen on Figs. 5 and 6

that the approximation is not better if it is an interpolation, due to a Gibbs like effect.

Degree 1 and degree 2 diffuse approximations provide first derivative estimates shown on

Figs. 7 and 8. Of course the true derivative reduces to the Dirac distribution at the origin. It can

be proved that the half areas under the derivative estimates are equal to 0.5. Moreover these

derivative estimates converge to the Dirac distribution (Nayroles et al. 1991c) when e converges

to zero while the coordinates of the sampling points are:

. . . . 1.5e -0.5~ +0.5e + 1.5e...

An equivalent result may be obtained for the second derivative presented in Fig. 9.

A basic property of the diffuse approximation can also be observed on the figures: all the

derivative estimates are continuous whereas the derivative of the estimates obtained from the non

smooth triangular weighting function are obviously discontinuous.

9 Two-dimensionalexamples

Example 2: Laplace equation with mixed boundary conditions. Let us consider the simple example

of mixed boundary value problem

Au = -8zr 2 cos 2rcxl sin 2ztx 2 for: 0 < x l < 1 and 0 < x 2 < 1 (26.1)

1.0 1.0

='# === 9

degree 2

0.5 0.5

o , "" ........... o

0 0.5 1.5 0.5 115

7 8

0 0.5 1.0 1.5

= /"

Second'derivative '/l"" """".... J

polynomial basis). 8 Approximation of the first derivative of a step function

(quadratic polynomial basis). 9 Approximation of the second derivative of a

step function (quadratic polynomial basis)

316 Computational Mechanics 10 (1992)

c~u

=0 for: 0 < x2 < 1 and xl = 0 or 1. (26.3)

ax~

The obvious solution is

u = cos 2nxl sin 2rCXz. (27)

We are now to give comparisons between FEM and DEM solutions using regular meshes with

"m" x "m" nodes, with m equal to 9 and 17.

The FEM analysis uses four nodes quadrilateral elements with 2 by 2 integration points. The

DEM analysis uses evaluation points for the gradient of u located at the center of the FEM

elements. Thus the number of evaluation points of the DEM is four times smaller than the number

of integration points of the FEM. The approximation is based on a linear polynomial basis and

on the Gauss weighting function of example 1. Each evaluation point is connected to its four closest

nodes, the coefficient 2 being such that the weighting function is equal to ~ = 10-3 at the most

distant connected node.

Relative errors on u and its derivatives are displayed in the following table, the error on "f"

being defined as

error = I ~ 1x ~-T

1 oi~n lapp fexact [

If p ti-,i -- i

N is the total number of points. (28)

Ou Ou

Method (nodes) u

~xt Ox2

FEM (9 • 9) 2.3 e-2 13.9 e-2 13.9 e-2

DEM (9 • 9) 2.4 e-2 2.2 e-2 2.2 e-2

FEM (17 x 17) 5.6e-3 3.3e-2 13.9e-2

DEM (17 • 17) 5.6e-3 5.3e-3 5.3e-3

As far as this academic example is concerned, the DEM is much better than the FEM for the

computation of gradients.

gu

Figure 10 shows the approximte fields obtained by FEM and DEM with 17 x 17 nodes.

Ox2

Example3: Two-dimensional elasticity. The Saint-Venant beam in Fig. 11 is studied by both

FEM and DEM. The plane stress assumption is made and numerical results are compared to the

well known Saint-Venant theoretical solution. The mechanical constants are:

- - Y o u n g modulus: 1000

--Poisson ratio: 0.3.

Geometrical dimensions are indicated in Fig. 11.

Q:'I

F='I

2Pi 2P ~ .

A ess=l

Figs. l0 and l l . 10a, b x-derivative of the solution provided by a FEM and b DEM. ~NN.~"x~

11 Saint-Venant beam 11 ~\\\\\\\'~

B. Nayroles et al.: Generalizing the finite element method: Diffuse approximation and diffuse elements 317

Pattern P1 Pattern P2

+.,/ ( § \ / '\*/'

9 I- .1- § / ,,,, § § §

f § \./ § \ / § \

~\§ /\ § / ~.N+/,"

=~ll == %,(§ """ §

,,i-/ N §247

+ Evaluation point 9 Node Pattern P2

Mesh df Number of elements

MI 126 2 x 20

M2 410 2 x 40

The finite elements model uses square four nodes elements, with four Gauss points and a bi-linear

polynomial interpolation (a 0 + alx + a2y + a3xy).

The diffuse element method uses a linear polynomial basis (ao + alx + a2y) and either the

Gauss (24) or the triangle (25) weighting function with at least four nodes connected to each

evaluation point. The examples make use of two different patterns of evaluation points defined in

Fig. 12.

Tables 1 and 2 present the x-displacement uB of point B, whose theoretical value (strength of

materials) 'is 4.03, as well as the stress tensor components at point A: tra = (trxx cryr tL,r), whose

theoretical values (0 30 0). In the FEM, point A belonging to two finite elements, the stress tensor

is different in the lower element (o'~) and in the upper one (o-~). A widely used smoothing technique

consists of averaging the values (tr,~) and (o'~) at node A.

~rA=(-1.20 26.89 -0.70) O A = ( - - 1 . 2 4 26.47 --0.70)

M1 (2 x 20) P2 uB = 4.003 UA= 4.009

crA = (2.19 30.59 - 0 . 7 2 ) ~ra = ( 2 . 1 9 30.64 - - 0 . 7 1 )

M2 (4 x 40) P1 uB = 3.94 Ua = 3.92

o"A = ( - 0 . 6 5 29.17 -0.28) O A = ( - - 0 . 6 7 29.04 --0.28)

M2 (4 x 40) P2 u, = 4.018 UB= 4.01

a,4 = (1.09 30.32 - 0 . 5 3 ) O"a = (1.09 30.32 - - 0 . 5 3 )

uB = 3.58

M 1 (2 x 20) a_,~=(4.85 29.56 4.48)

oA=(3.97 26.61 - - 5 . 8 1 )

UB = 3.90

M2 (4 x 40) a~ = ( 2 . 6 4 30.64 2.29)

O,i = (2.16 29.04 - - 3 . 3 0 )

318 Computational Mechanics 10(1992)

10 Conclusions

A new approximation method, called diffuse approximation, has been presented. It is based on a

local weighted least squares polynomial fitting. It provides local but continuous approximations

of 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional functions and of their successive derivatives. The new method has been

used for solving partial differential equations using virtual work formulations leading to the new

diffuse elements method (DEM), which may be viewed as a generalization of the finite element

method. The DEM provides better gradients of the unknown functions than the FEM. Moreover

it is very easy to introduce it into existing FEM programmes.

A number of further applications of the diffuse approximation and of the diffuse element

method are possible, including error estimations for auto-adaptive methods, transfer of informa-

tion after remeshings, building of approximate functions subjected to constraints, creation of new

plate elements. Moreover the flexibility of the DEM concerning the connectivity and the weighting

coefficients makes it very attractive for crack or damage propagation simulations. But additional

numerical studies are required in order to optimize the choices of weighting functions, polynomial

basis and connectivity, in various situations.

References

Nayroles, B.; Touzot, G.; Villon, P. (1991a): La m6thode des 616mentsdiffus. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 313, S6rie II, pp 293-296

Nayroles, B.; Touzot, G.; Villon, P. (1991b): L'approximation diffuse. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 313, S6rie II, pp 133-138

Nayroles, B.; Touzot, G.; Villon, P. (1991c): Nuages de Points et Approximation diffuse. S6minaire d'analyse convexe, Expos6

n ~ 16, Universit6 de Montpellier II

Nayroles, B.; Touzot, G.: Using diffuse approximation for optimizing antisound sources location. (submitted to J.S.V.)

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