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• NA is applicable for diameter as small as 8 µm

• For smaller diameter, geometric optics(ray theory) is


invalid since ray theory is only partial description of a
character of light.
• It describes the direction of the wave components
propagating in the fiber but does not takes into
account interface between the such components.
• So when interface is considered it is found that only
rays with certain discrete characteristic propagate in
the fiber supporting only a discrete no of guided
modes. This becomes critical in small core diameter
fiber which support one or few modes.
• Hence electromagnetic mode theory must be applied
in this case.
Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
Mahat
ii) NA for Skew rays
• Very few skew rays occur as compared to
meridional ray.
• Follow a helical path through the fiber.
• Helical path traced through the fiber gives a change
in direction of 2ϒ at each reflections

Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj


Mahat
Fig: ray path within fiber core for a skew ray incident at an angle θs to the normal at the air-core interface
Where,ϒ = angle between the core radius and the projection of the
ray onto the plane normal to the core axis.
Өs = incident angle of a skew ray

Numerical Aperture for skew ray is given by,


NA= Sin Өas. Cos ϒ

Where Өas represents max input


Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
angleMahator acceptance angle for skew rays.
Comparisons between meridional ray and skew ray
• Skew rays are accepted at larger axial angles in a given
fiber than meridional rays depending upon the value of
cos ϒ .
• When cos ϒ =1 (i.e ϒ =0⁰) then Өas = Өa which
represents meridional ray.
Thus, Өa is the maximum acceptance angle
for meridional ray and min input angle for
skew ray.
• It is observed that skew ray propagate only in annular
region near outer surface of core and donot fully utlize
core for transmission.
• Skew rays increases the light gathering capacity of the
fiber however meridional ray is considered sufficient.
Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
Mahat
Numerical:

# An optical fiber in air has an NA of 0.4. Compare the


acceptnace angle of meridional ray with that of skew rays
which change direction of 100⁰ at each reflection.

Solution:
acceptance angle for meridional ray is given by
Өa= sin-1(NA)= sin-1(0.4) = 23.6 ⁰

Change in direction, 2 ϒ=100 ⁰ so, ϒ=50 ⁰

Also, acceptance angle for skew ray is given by


Өas= sin-1(NA/cos ϒ) = sin-1(0.4/cos 50) = 38.5 ⁰

Therefore acceptance angle for the skew rays is


about 15 ⁰ greater than that for meridional ray!
Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
Mahat
Numerical:

# An optical fiber in air has an NA of 0.4. Compare the


acceptnace angle of meridional ray with that of skew rays
which change direction of 100⁰ at each reflection.

Solution:
acceptance angle for meridional ray is given by
Өa= sin-1(NA)= sin-1(0.4) = 23.6 ⁰

Change in direction, 2 ϒ=100 ⁰ so, ϒ=50 ⁰

Also, acceptance angle for skew ray is given by


Өas= sin-1(NA/cos ϒ) = sin-1(0.4/cos 50) = 38.5 ⁰

Therefore acceptance angle for the skew rays is


about 15 ⁰ greater than that for meridional ray!
Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
Mahat
Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
Mahat
Numerical:

# An optical fiber in air has an NA of 0.4. Compare the


acceptnace angle of meridional ray with that of skew rays
which change direction of 100⁰ at each reflection.

Solution:
acceptance angle for meridional ray is given by
Өa= sin-1(NA)= sin-1(0.4) = 23.6 ⁰

Change in direction, 2 ϒ=100 ⁰ so, ϒ=50 ⁰

Also, acceptance angle for skew ray is given by


Өas= sin-1(NA/cos ϒ) = sin-1(0.4/cos 50) = 38.5 ⁰

Therefore acceptance angle for the skew rays is


about 15 ⁰ greater than that for meridional ray!
Optical Fiber communucation by Upaj
Mahat