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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES

410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City


Metro Manila, Philippines

Chapter I

Introduction

As the world develops, people were getting more carried away in term

technology. In the past, people used technology as a tool for making survival

and easier endeavor. Nowadays, people witnessed a shift in the role

technology playing in society and may continue to play for generations to

come. Due to rapid technological changes new things have been produced for

better way of doing things through its help, people depend on technology and

use various technologies to accomplish specific task in lives. As the world

keeps on developing, technology changed, what was working today might not

work and not be efficient tomorrow. So better to stay up-to-date with new

emerging technologies and learn how to embrace and use in people’s daily

life. Technology helps people to lessen work in different fields of Industry.

When social development raised to its peak, the importance of technology

was fully recognized and brought to open. With the rapid development of

technology, many automatic devices had been introduced in watering of

plants, but unfortunately such technological tools were inadequate to bring out

the best in plant production. The proponents developed a project that benefit

the students, teachers as well as the school maintenance of Bonifacio

Memorial Elementary School in monitoring the soil humidity and minimized

the work in watering plants.

El Nino was a huge problem in some parts of the world. El Nino was

often associated with important subsequent changes and may affect

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agriculture and water resources. When people keep on wasting water

especially in watering of plants, these practices has a negative impact when

the phenomenon occurs.

The proponents proposed the Automated Watering Plants with SMS

Alert to the Bonifacio Memorial Elementary School. This project would be a

good investment for Bonifacio Memorial Elementary School. Automatic

watering of plants frees up precious time while keeping the garden healthy.

The Automated Sprinkling device uses soil moisture sensor to measure the

volumetric water content indirectly by using some other property of the soil

such as electrical resistance, the electric constant or interaction with neutrons,

as a proxy for the moisture content. The soil moisture sensor takes constant

readings of the soil moisture and transfer to Arduino which controls and able

to read input-light on a sensor and opens and closes the water value if the soil

was below to the specified level of moisture. Arduino can convert the favorite

pot into automatic watering of plants, keeping the plants from drying out and

reducing the time spends in watering. When the moisture sensor senses the

low moisture content of the soil it checks all the field conditions and

automatically waters the plants and gives feedback to the user via SMS on

GSM network which connects and inserted into mobile phone.

The project may offer users the flexibility to regulate and control the

operations of watering systems with little intervention to reduce run off from

over watering and drying of plants for the improvement of school garden. It

would be possible to users to use SMS to monitor directly the conditions of

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the plants and automatically control watering and set control operational

conditions in accordance with the water needs of plants.

The project aimed to help the school maintenance to monitor the

watering system and helps make daily life just a little bit easier. The time and

schedule for watering plants was maintained. Automation of watering of plants

was one of the most convenient, efficient and effective method under watering

system. This device does not only develop every place it has implanted but

also give additional knowledge and provide a better technology.

Project Context

The proposed study, Automated Watering Plants with SMS Alert, was

an automated watering device for Bonifacio Memorial Elementary School

helps students, teachers and school maintenance to water the plants using

automated sprinkling device. The proponents used Arduino to automate the

watering method of plants. The device was made to sense the soil moisture

using soil moisture sensor and automatically waters the plant in case the soil

lost the moisture. The proponents made a concept of SMS to notify the user

that the plant was already watered. Manual watering system was a time

consuming and must be done on timely bases.

The proponents developed Automated Plant Watering Device by

sensing the soil moisture and automatically turn on or off the watering device.

The project requires very less human power involvement once installed. An

automatic watering device lessens the work and time of the users. When the

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project was used, the water distribution to plants was much easier and did not

require any human support to perform the operations permanently.

Purpose and Description

A primary purpose of the development of automated watering device

was to help the gardeners and farmers to control the operations of watering

system with the use of Arduino and soil moisture sensor. Awareness in water

conservation and time management was substantial for gardeners. The

device can be used without any direct manual effort in watering plants. It

made the watering process more efficient and gardeners can concentrate on

other important tasks.

An automated watering device was an improvement project worth

considering. Not only help to maintain watering process for plants but it was

the most convenient and efficient way to ensure the plants gets the water it

needs without over watering or under watering. An automated watering

system can sidestep many of the problems associated with high water

demand, controlling and maintaining the watering system. These systems

provide the economic benefits, increased property value and more efficient

use of water while promoting environmentalism.

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Objectives of the Study

General Objective

The proponents aimed to develop an Automated Watering Plants with

SMS Alert using an advance technology with the help of soil moisture sensor.

Arduino and GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) can measure

the volumetric water content in soil with the help of soil moisture sensor.

Specific Objectives

1. To develop an automated watering of plants with SMS alert to

water the plants without supervision.

2. To integrate the concept of control system for automatic

watering of plants using Arduino Uno and SMS alert through

GSM Module.

3. To test and evaluate the efficiency of the developed device with

the following criteria:

 Cost-Effectiveness

 Design

 Functionality

 Maintainability

 Reliability

 Safety

 Usability

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Scope and Delimitations

Scope

Automated watering of plants with SMS alert for Bonifacio Memorial

Elementary School was designed to sense the condition of the soil with the

help of soil moisture sensor. It was controlled by the Arduino Uno connected

to the Arduino GSM module capable of sending SMS.

The device automatically waters the plant if the soil lost its moisture. It

sends a notification to the user via SMS. The device has a Sim card that used

for notifying the user.

Limitation

Automated watering plants with SMS alert only focused on sensing the

soil condition and notifying the user. It cannot detect other factors affecting

plant growth such as light and humidity.

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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

This chapter indicates the ideas relevant to the present subject relating

to the other studies and briefly discussed to provide the foundation of the

proposed project. References were taken from published and unpublished

reading materials such as books, journals, magazines, case studies and other

which back up and justify the operational feasibility of the proposed study. In

order to develop new method and procedures, careful review of literature and

studies must be done for the development of the system.

Conceptual Literature

A Conceptual literature defines as an analytical tool with several

variations and contexts. It was used to make conceptual distinctions and

organize ideas. A strong conceptual literature captures something real and

does this in a way that easy to remember and apply.

Foreign Literature

Foreign literature, a thesis topic other than own native literature. It may

be the literature of another literature, comparative literature or any theme,

topic, genre of a foreign literature. It can be written in one own native

language.

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Methods of Soil, Plant and Water Analysis

Soil was a non-renewable resource upon which mankind depends for

survival. Historically, the rise of great civilizations has been linked to the

quality of soil and the availability of water. Equally, the demise of such

civilizations was often attributed to mismanagement of soil and land in its

broadest sense. In today overcrowded world, the challenge to feed and clothe

the burgeoning populations of developing countries was a daunting task.

Yields have to be increased from existing land areas; adding fertility to the soil

to satisfy the demands of higher-yielding crops was essential. Soils vary

greatly in capacity to grow crops without fertilizer; even the richest soils

experience declining yields without man intervention. In essence, soil was not

always a perfect medium for growing plants; it was, however, the only one that

was available.

This manual was a cornerstone in ICARDA soil and water-related

research program as well as its training program and was a vital link with

agricultural scientists of the ICARDA mandate region. [1]

The idea that one could test or analyze a soil and obtain some

information about properties especially its acidity or alkalinity and its nutrient

status was long established, and can be traced back to the beginning of

scientific inquiry about the nature of soil. Analyses of plants to reflect the

fertility status of the soil in which grew was more recent, although visual crop

observations as old as the ancient Greeks, if not older. In the last few

decades, spurred on by commercialization of agriculture and the demands for

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increased output from limited and even diminishing land resources, both soil

and plant analysis procedures have been developed, and still evolving. With

the advent of chemical fertilizers, the need to know nutrient status of a soil in

order to use such expensive and limited inputs more effectively became all

the more crucial. However, if soil testing was to be an effective means of

evaluating fertility status of soils, correct methodology was absolutely

essential. A soil or a field may be assessed for its capability of providing a

crop with essential nutrients in several ways.

Developing Alternative Methods / Techniques for Plant Establishment

under Reduced Watering

The purpose of the study was to evaluate soil treatments for effect on

establishment of wild-land shrubs without supplemental watering. The

treatments that significantly improved growth over watering alone at a central

California fill slope site (Contra Costa County, route 4) involved deep soil

decompaction and/or compost addition. General information regarding use of

water by plants and retention of water by soil or soil amendments was

evaluated from literature reviews, by lab analysis and with plant water-use

modeling. A method was developed to predict the plant water use and soil

water availability characteristics that would allow field establishment of shrubs

through dry summer conditions without supplemental watering. In all cases,

shrubs on soil treatments including deep soil decompaction and compost

incorporation grew larger than those on untreated substrates. No

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supplemental watering was used except to wet the profile once at time of

planting, and even then only if ambient soil moisture was insufficient.

This treatment would store adequate soil moisture for survival and

growth in the dry summer season, assuming that the whole soil profile was
[2]
wetted by winter rains by late spring.

Evapotranspiration for all four species was considerably less than

when based on projected area covered by the plant canopy. Water stress was

indicated by increasing distance between the well-watered and water stressed

(open; white) symbols. Symbols close together in the first days after start of

the experiment (starting at the left axis), but soon become farther apart as

water stressed plants reduce usage. Evapotranspiration of water-stressed

plants became less than that of well-watered plants after about one week of

the start of the low-watering treatments.

Water Fluoridation and the Environment

Evidence of water fluoridation effects on plants, animals, and humans

was considered based on reviews by scientific groups and individual

communities, including Fort Collins, CO, Port Angeles, WA, and Tacoma-

Pierce County, WA. The potential for corrosion of pipes and the use of

fluoridation chemicals, particularly flourlike acid, considered, as was the

debate about whether fluoridation increases lead in water, with the conclusion

that there was no such increase. The arguments of anti-fluoridations and

fluoridation proponents examined with respect to the politics of the issue.

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To test the efficacy of soil aquifer treatment systems indicated that


[3]
fluoride concentrations decline as water travels underground.

Water fluoridation, then, was the controlled adjustment of fluoride

concentrations of community water systems to optimal levels to minimize the

incidence of dental caries (tooth decay) and dental fluoros was (enamel

mottling). From initial efforts begun as community trials in 1945, water was

now fluoridated in thousands of public water systems and reaches two thirds

of the U.S. population served by such systems. Community water fluoridation

and other uses of fluorides, such as in toothpaste, have significantly reduced

the prevalence of dental caries in the United States.

Water and Energy Nexus

Water in the West was a partnership of the faculty, staff and students of

the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and the Bill Lane Center for

the American West. The mission of Water in the West was to design, articulate

and advance sustainable water management for the people and environment

of the American West. It links ideas to action by engaging in cutting-edge

research, creative problem solving, active collaboration with decision makers

and opinion leaders, effective public communications and hands-on education

of students. As contemplated establishing a Stanford University

interdisciplinary water-energy research program to bring the university

substantial faculty and research expertise to this still-nascent field,

determining that a significant place to begin was to employ Gleick’s full water-

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energy life cycle approach to evaluate the current state of the highly

interdisciplinary water-energy studies field.

This Water-Energy Literature Review utilizes the full water and energy

life cycle approach to survey the literature from the academic, government

and nonprofit sectors, and particularly underscores opportunities for future


[4]
research to forward this critically important research arena.

This Water-Energy Literature Review was offered as a snapshot of

current understanding about the water energy nexus. It was meant to invite

engagement and investments in future interdisciplinary research to target

water use efficiency in the energy sector and energy efficiency, or reductions

in energy intensities, in the water and wastewater sectors. While it constitutes

a broad overview of national water energy research, this Review has been

informed by the robust public-policy and utility-sector efforts to address the

energy intensity of California’s water supplies across the water life cycle.

Readers interested in more information about the water energy nexus

encouraged to delve deeper into the considerable literature reviewed in this

document.

Biometry and Water Consumption of Sunflower as Affected by NPK

Fertilizer and Available Soil Water Content under Semiarid Brazilian

Conditions

Biometry and Water Consumption of Sunflower as Affected by NPK

Fertilizer land Available Soil Water Content under Semiarid Brazilian

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Conditions Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) occupies a prominent place

among oilseed crops as it contributes about 12% of the world edible oil

production. Water and fertilizers application plays an important role in

improving seed yield and oil quality of sunflower. Nitrogen was an essential

element and important determinant of plant growth and development. It was

the second most required nutrient for the culture of sunflower. Metabolic

processes leading to increases in vegetative and reproductive growth and

yield totally dependent upon the adequate supply of nitrogen Potassium was a

nutrient that positively affects achenes production within sunflower crop and

its proper management was indispensable for better economical employment

of this element and for a less environmental impact. The low soil available

phosphorus content was one of the main limitations to the development of

sunflower considering that influences the photosynthesis, respiration, storage

and energy transfer, cell division, cell growth and several other processes in

the plant. When there was no limitation of phosphorus, its uptake occurs until

grain filling. The contribution of phosphorus remobilized from leaves and

stems to the seeds in maturation varies from approximately 30% to

60%.Application of NPK fertilizers increases sunflower growth and yield

substantially However, application of nitrogenous, phosphoric and potassic

fertilizer above or below the optimum level can adversely affect it. In sunflower

crop, its deficiency causes nutritional disorder, being the nitrogen that most

limits the yield, providing up to 60% of reduction in productivity as a result of

disability.

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The present research aimed to investigate the biometry and water use

of sunflower as affected by NPK fertilization treatments and watering regimes

under semiarid Brazilian conditions. [5]

The study evaluated the effect of NPK fertilization and available soil

water levels on the biometric response and water use of sunflower cv.

Embrapa 122-V2000. The experiment was conducted at the Agricultural

Engineering Department of the Federal University of Campina Grande,

Paraiba State, Brazil, during 2009 and 2010, in a semi-controlled greenhouse

using the EutroficRegosol. The treatments were defined according to a

Baconian matrix, with eleven doses of the nitrogen, phosphorus and

potassium and four available soil water levels. The experiment was arranged

in a complete randomized design, with three replicates, in a total of 132

sample units. No effect of N and K was observed on plant height. However, it

increased significantly with levels. The stem diameter and the leaf area were

affected by the N and K and not by the P. The number of leaves increased

significantly with the amount of N, P and K fertilizer. Available soil water

content increased significantly in all the variables studied.

Wastewater Production, Treatment and Use in India

Wastewater production, treatment and use in India Water, food and

energy securities emerging as increasingly important and vital issues for India

and the world. Most of the river basins in India and elsewhere closing or

closed and experiencing moderate to severe water shortages, brought on by

the simultaneous effects of agricultural growth, industrialization and

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urbanization. Current and future fresh water demand could be met by

enhancing water use efficiency and demand management. Thus,

wastewater/low quality water was emerging as potential source for demand

management after essential treatment. An estimated 38354 million liters per

day (MLD) sewage was generated in major cities of India, but the sewage

treatment capacity was only of 11786 MLD. Similarly, only 60% of industrial

waste water, mostly large scale industries, was treated. Performance of state

owned sewage treatment plants, for treating municipal waste water, and

common effluent treatment plants, for treating effluent from small scale

industries, was also not complying with prescribed standards.

This co-creation process would boost the business development in the

field of bio-treatment, wastewater re-use, and agricultural innovations to

reduce the water footprint. [6]

In developing countries like India, the problems associated with

wastewater reuse arise from its lack of treatment. The challenge thus was to

find such low-cost, low-tech, user friendly methods, which on one hand avoid

threatening the substantial wastewater dependent livelihoods and on the other

hand protect degradation of the valuable natural resources. The use of

constructed wetlands was now being recognized as an efficient technology for

wastewater treatment. Compared to the conventional treatment systems,

constructed wetlands need lesser material and energy, easily operated, have

no sludge disposal problems and can be maintained by untrained personnel.

Further these systems have lower construction, maintenance and operation

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costs as these driven by natural energies of sun, wind, soil, microorganisms,

plants and animals.

Water Saving-Watering Automatic Agricultural Controller

The Water Saving-Watering Automatic Agricultural Controller that

monitor system and watering controller need to measure different parameters.

atmospheric temperature, Humidity, Wind speed, Wind direction, Radiation,

Soil temperature, Sunshine and Rain fall etc. The key objective of this project

to report on a developed indigenous low cost time based microcontroller

based watering scheduler who performs user defined functions and outputs

commands to derive appropriate actuators. A soil moisture sensor was

modeled, simulated and tested for achieving, with low-cost, accurate and

reliable measurements. A low-cost high-performance and small temperature

sensor use, with the same PCB circuit it can measure humidity also. This

system presents the design and development of Watering controller System

built around PIC16F877A microcontroller.

All Sensors would determine the moisture level and Radiation,

Humidity, Temperature, Wind speed and Rain fall at the root zone. Micro

controller should get sensor data per minute. Micro controller should analyze
[7]
the data, take correct action and record the data.

This Sensor determine the moisture level and Radiation, Humidity,

Temperature, Wind speed and Rain fall at the root zone. Micro controller

should get sensor data per minute. Micro controller should analyze the data,

take correct action and record the data. Soil moisture sensor was a sensor

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connected to awatering system controller that measure soil moisture content

in the active root zone before each scheduled watering event and bypasses

the cycle if soil moisture above user defined set point. Soil moisture sensors,

like rain sensors, considered rain shut off devices, but while rain sensors

measure evapotranspiration rates, soil moisture sensor measures real time

moisture.

Wireless Automatic Plant Watering System

Watering for plants, fruits and vegetable gardens and farms has been

the need of mankind from early days of history. Wireless Automatic Watering

System a modern and effective method of irrigating the fruits and vegetable,

landscape and garden areas as against the conventional method, which uses

large number of manpower and time with uncontrolled water quantity. Various

methods of watering being used in various parts of the world. These methods

mainly on irrigating the fields and other and other area with river or well water.

Dames barrages constructed across the river to store the river water

upstream and distributing it to various areas through a network of canals. In

case of well, the water was lifted by pumps and other mechanical means. This

field still in the process of development and more and more products entering

in the market. The pressure and flow figures etc. ascribed to various watering

equipment in the following paragraphs only for guidance purpose and may

vary with time and from manufacturer to manufacturer. Automatic watering

system a widely used in USA, Europe and Middle East countries. However, it

not so common in Asia and African countries.

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This discusses that user can use mobile phones or wireless PDA to

control farm watering. But, in India many farmers illiterate and have no access

to advance technology. [8]

This presents automated system for irrigating plants which benefits in

several ways such as saving water, time, and manpower. The results were

within the expected range and quite accurate. There was some delay in

receiving data from transmitter but it can be overcome by using high quality

transceiver.

Intelligent Watering System

Agriculture plays the important role in the economy and development of

the country like India. In country, the farmers have been using manual control

techniques for watering. Landwater only at the regular intervals/seasons. In

this process, few plants in the zone receive more water and for few other zone

plants water reaches late due to which the crops get dried. Watering in India

to maximum extent dependent on the monsoons, which not a reliable source

of water. Depending on the soil type, plants to be provided with water, which

was called as intelligent watering system. This paper discusses the prototype

design of microcontroller based Intelligent watering system which allow

watering to take place in zones where watering required, while bypassing

zones where adequate soil moisture indicated. Other feature of this prototype,

pesticide sprinkling system where the mixture prepared in required proportion

deserved by the plants automatically, there-by preventing the human mistakes

to maximum extent.

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As Yang et al. suggested a multi-functional remote sensing system that

embedded RFID technology with that of spectral imaging and environmental

sensing in a greenhouse system. [9]

The Watering using soil moisture sensors and Microcontroller an

exclusive instrument that can automatically feed plants with water according

to the need without farmer’s interference. Design of an intelligent watering

system manage flow of water into the field and sprinkle the pesticide mixture

uniformly in the desired ratio deserved by the plants automatically, hence

maintain turf. The system comprises of Soil moisture sensors to know the

status of the water level in the farm; Solenoid valves for controlling water flow

to the farm; Sprinklers for spraying of the pesticide mixture; and a controller

for the data processing and to control all the operations.

Automatic Sprinkler Watering System

Automatic Sprinkler System was a new concept of using intelligence

power of embedded technology in the sprinkler watering work. Designed

system replaces the conventional manual work involved in sprinkler watering

to automatic process. Using this system a farmer protected against adverse

inhuman weather conditions, tedious work of changing over of sprinkler water

pipe lines & risk of accident due to high pressure in the water pipe line.

Overall sprinkler watering work transformed in to a comfortable automatic

work. This system provides flexibility & accuracy in respect of time set for the

operation of a sprinkler water pipe lines.

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Automatic Sprinkler System was a foundation work toward introduction

of embedded technology in the agriculture sector. It has a vast scope in the

watering work. [10]

Automatic Sprinkler System successfully achieved the desired

objectives. The system automatically controls sprinkler water line change over

process by switching On/OFF solenoid valves installed in auxiliary water pipe

line. The integration of software and hardware performed good task in

producing the output exactly according to the requirement of the farmer in the

sprinkler watering work. Interfacing of run time switches with microcontroller

makes it flexible in respect of time settings for running a sprinkler water pipe

line. A farmer using this system while doing watering work gets protection

against extreme odd weather conditions.The system eliminates the

requirements of physical presence of a farmer during watering in the fields,

the system itself continuously monitor & control the sprinkler auxiliary water

pipe line automatically.

An Intelligent and Automated Drip Watering System Using Sensors

Network Control System

The modernization the conventional agricultural practices for the better

productivity must. Day by day water was getting depleted due to unplanned

use of water and hence, the ground water level decreasing. Lack of rains and

scarcity of land water also results in decrement in quantity of water on earth.

In drip watering system the drips placed near the surface of the ground where

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the water reaches to the root zone of the crop. The objective of the system to,

Water resources, Handles the system automatically, Detects the level of

water, Based on the data available, analysis and prediction be done and

builds such system which enhances crop productivity.

An automated drip watering system making efficient use of

microcontroller and available resources was proposed. In future, other

important soil features namely soil pH, soil electrical conductivity; temperature
[11]
would also be incorporated in the system.

An automated drip watering system making efficient use of

microcontroller and available resources proposed. In future, other important

soil features namely soil pH, soil electrical conductivity; temperature also be

incorporated in the system. India a agricultural country, and hence a lot of

water required for farming. Water should be used in a proper way. The

purpose of a microcontroller based system for automatic drip watering make

use of the various sensors like soil moisture sensor, water flow meter to keep

a check on the amount of water used. By this project it can control the

moisture content of the soil in the cultivating field. The water flow that be

monitored and based on the data available, analysis and prediction be done.

This helps the user to use water wisely in future.

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Automated Watering System using Wireless Sensor Network and

Raspberry Pi

An automated watering system was developed to optimize water use

for agricultural crops. The system has a distributed wireless network of soil-

moisture, humidity and temperature sensors. As the technology growing and

changing rapidly, Wireless sensing Network helps to upgrade the technology

where automation playing important role in human life. Automation allows to

control appliances automatically. It not only provides comfort but also reduce

energy, increases efficiency and it saves time. The objectives of this paper

were to control the water motor automatically, monitor the plant growth using

various parameters, spray fertilizers if needed and also develop an android

app. To understand how data travels through a wireless medium transmission

using wireless sensor network and monitoring system.

Automatic watering scheduling consistently has shown to be valuable

in optimizing cotton yields and water use efficiency with respect to manual

watering based on direct soil water measurements. [12]

The automated watering system that be implemented would be feasible

and cost effective for optimizing water resources for agricultural production.

The system would provide feedback control system which monitor and control

all the activities of drip watering system efficiently. This watering system allow

cultivation in places with water scarcity thereby improving sustainability. Using

this system, one can save manpower, water to improve production and

ultimately increase profit.

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Micro Controller Based Automatic Plant Watering System

Now days, water shortage becoming one of the biggest problem in the

world. Many different methods developed for conservation of water, the

needed water in each and every field. In the day to day life also water

essential. Water considered being basic need of human. Water needed for

everyone human beings, animals, plants, etc. Agriculture was one of the fields

where water was required in tremendous quantity. Wastage of water was

major problem in agriculture. There many techniques to save or to control

wastage of water from agriculture. The system provides with several benefits

and can operate with less manpower. The system supplies water only when

the humidity in the soil goes below the reference. Due to the direct transfer of

water to the roots water conservation takes place and also helps to maintain

the moisture to soil ratio at the root zone constant to some extent.

The system provides with several benefits and can operate with less

manpower. The system supplies water only when the humidity in the soil goes

below the reference. [13]

The micro controller based automatic plant watering system provides

automatic watering to the plants which helps in saving money and water. The

entire system controlled using 8051 micro controller which programmed as

giving the interrupt signal to the sprinkler. Temperature sensor and humidity

sensor connected to internal ports of micro controller via comparator,

whenever there a change in temperature and humidity of the surroundings

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these sensors senses the change in temperature and humidity and gives an

interrupt signal to the micro-controller and thus the sprinkler activated.

Automatic Plant Watering System

In the field of agriculture farmers was facing major problems in

watering the crops. It do not have proper idea about the availability of the

power. Even its available, it need to pump water and wait until the field was

properly watered, which compels to stop doing other activities, which also

important, and thus loss the precious time and efforts. But, there was a

solution, An Automatic Plant Watering System not only helps farmers but also

others for watering the gardens as well this automatic watering system senses

the moisture content of the soil and automatically switches the pump when the

power was on. A proper usage of watering system was very important

because the main reason the shortage of land reserved water due to lack of

rain, unplanned use of water as a result large amounts of water goes waste.

The system automation was designed to be assistive to the user.

Hoping that through this project people would enjoy having plants without the

challenges related to absent or forgetfulness. [14]

The automatic plant watering system programmed in such a way that it

sense the moisture level of the plants and supplies the water if required. This

type of system often used for general plant care, as part of caring for small

and large gardens. Normally, the plants need to be watered twice daily,

morning and evening. People enjoy plants, the benefits and the feeling related

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to nurturing. However for most people it becomes challenging to keep healthy

and alive. To solve this problem the proponents made a project for those who

cannot water the plant due to the busy schedule or when going outside for

long time. The system automation designed to be assistive to the user.

Automatic Plant Watering System

In the fast paced world human beings require everything to be

automated. The life style demands everything to be remote controlled. Apart

from few things man has made his life automated. During summers, most

people too lazy to water the potted plants on the rooftop gardens every day. In

the world of advance electronics life of human beings should be simpler

hence to make life simpler and convenient, The Automatic Plant Watering

System. Watering control technology that improves water application was

efficiency now available. In particular, soil moisture sensors can reduce the

number of unnecessary watering events.

The technique based on relationship between speed of sound and the

degree of saturation with water in soils. This experiment found that the speed

of sound decreases with the moisture content following, depending on the

kind of soil. [15]

An automatic plant watering system was important for plant growth.

When rainfall was not sufficient, the plants need additional water. The people

do not pour the water on to the plants in the gardens and forget to water

plants. As a result, there a chance to get the plants damaged. The Automatic

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Plant Watering System was taken up as India was agriculture oriented country

and the rate at which water resources depleting a dangerous threat hence

there a need of smart and efficient way of watering. This project had

implemented sensors which detect the humidity in the soil and supply water to

the field which has water requirement. The microcontroller based design

which controls the water supply and the field to be water. There sensors

present in each field which not activated till water was present on the field.

Watering System & Monitoring Of Soil by Wireless

The Watering was artificial application of water to the soil for assisting

in growing crops. Drip watering also known as micro watering& a watering

method which minimizes the use of water & fertilizer by allowing water to drip

slowly to the roots of plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the

root zone due to which a large quantity of water saved & also the fertilizer

which comes to the plant with the water. For a big farm land with horticulture

activity the solution be an automated system. Water contained in the soil was

called soil moisture. it was very important for plant growth. Water soluble

fertilizer can be also applied without any wastage by this drip watering

system. The advantage of using wireless sensors to control all related

parameters for better watering management.

Automation system having a low cost equipment and feedback type

controller for site-specific management of watering system and also to have a

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alternative power source like solar or wind power. The data available from the

various sensors would be received at the wireless base station for proper

control, based on data. [16]

Automatic control of drip watering system & monitoring of soil by

wireless has to maintain watch on watering schedule in the conventional drip

watering system, which was different for different types of crops. In remotely

monitored embedded system for watering purposes have become a new

essential for farmer to accumulate his energy, time and money and take place

only when there be requirement of water.

Automatic Watering System Based on RF Module

The automatic watering system based on RF module was important to

rapid improvement in production of food technology. Agriculture was only the

source to provide this. The important factor in human societies was growing

and dynamic demand in food production. Agriculture plays an important role in

economy and development. Agriculture plays the important role in the

economy and development, like India. Due to lack of water and scarcity of

land water result the decreasing volume of water on earth, the Farmer use

watering. Watering may be defined as the science of artificial application of

water to the land or soil that means depending on the soil type, plant to be

provided with water.

The technique was development for measure soil moisture in real time

method. The technique based on relationship of two quantities. To

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modernizing agriculture technology by programming components and built the


[17]
necessary component for the system.

Agriculture plays an important role for development in food production.

In the country, agriculture depends on the monsoons which not sufficient

source of water. So the watering used in agriculture field. In Watering system,

depending upon the soil type, water provided to plant. In this paper, automatic

watering system based on ARMs and RF module, all the system setup using

ARM and RF module. The most important factor of this system was RF

module which used to send and receiving the message to the controller.

Arduino Based Smart Drip Watering System Using Internet of Things

Generally most of the watering systems manually operated one. These

traditional techniques being replaced with semi-automated and automated

techniques suggested an automated concept of watering to use the water

efficiently and effectively Automated Drip Watering system implemented either

based on the soil humidity or based on the user input via SMS commanding

systems. Former method was an isolated watering system where the farmer

does not updated with the watering status and later lags in smart utilization of

water due to user command without considering the condition of soil. From

that ever growing requirement of the population, modern techniques

introduced to control the system.

This analysis done without manpower by automatically buzzer would


[18]
on and it would improve the efficient use of energy saving.

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This project helps the farmers to water the farmland in an efficient

manner with automated watering system based on soil humidity. Humidity

sensor used to find the soil humidity and based on this microcontroller drives

the solenoid valve. Watering status updated to the server or local host using

Personal Computer. Java platform used here for getting information via serial

communication from microcontroller and to update in the server. In addition for

better cropping system, fertilizers required for the crops, best crops to

cultivate for the particular climatic and soil conditions updated to server at

regular basis by monitoring soil PH level, Temperature level of the field area

etc., By using PC host, crop continuously monitored. This improves the

cultivation method and leads to better productivity.

WSN-based Automated Watering Control System

Watering water requirement depends on soil properties like moisture

and temperature and the type of crop which grown in the soil. Technologies

have been developed for efficient use of water for watering purpose. In India,

agricultural area receives power supply usually in nonpeak hours; also

frequent power cuts and low voltage supply creates a big problem to farmers.

The off-peak hours usually night hours, It risky for a farmer to go to the field

for watering as there a threat to his life from wild animals and snake-bites. If

farmer fails to attend the watering, there chance of wastage of water and

electricity. Also, excess watering leads to soil damage. In order to control and

monitor the watering process, smart and automated watering system

developed, implemented and tested.

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Y. Kim et al proposes a System for production of barley over a large

area along with WSN and decision making software for effective watering. The
[19]
system consists of five sensing sites and a weather site.

The main aim of this work was to provide an automated watering

system for the farmer on the basis of wireless sensor network. The challenge

to develop such watering control system t made an efficient usage of water

and also must be cost effective. To calculate plants water requirement, it was

important to measure different parameters. This system continuously monitors

the parameters- temperature, humidity, and moisture of soil to which crops

susceptive A algorithm was developed with threshold values of soil moisture

to be maintained continuously. System starts or stops watering based on

moisture content of the soil. The tests were conducted on three crops- green

chili, marigold and tomato. With the help of this system, water supply was

reduced while crop yield was found to be slightly increased.

Arduino-Based Automatic Plant Watering System

Watering, the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It used to

assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and re

vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate

rainfall. When a zone comes on, the water flows through the lateral lines and

ultimately ends up at the watering emitter or sprinkler heads. Many sprinklers

have pipe thread inlets on the bottom which allows a fitting and the pipe to be

attached. The sprinklers usually installed with the top of the head flush with

the ground surface. This type of system used for general plant care, as part of

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caring for small and large gardens. Normally, the plants need to be watered

twice daily, morning and evening. So, the microcontroller has to be coded to

water the plants in the greenhouse about two times per day. People enjoy

plants, the benefits and the feeling related to nurturing. However for most

people it becomes challenging to keep healthy and alive.

This design to be assistive to the user. hoping that through this

prototype people would enjoy having plants without the challenges related to

absent or forgetfulness.[20]

Watering plants, the most important cultural practice and most labor

intensive task in daily greenhouse operation. Watering systems ease the

burden of getting water to plants when need it. Knowing when and how much

to water, two important aspects of watering process. To make the gardener

works easily, the automatic plant watering system created. There have a

various type using automatic watering system by using sprinkler system, tube,

nozzles and other. This project uses watering sprinkler system because it can

water the plants located in the pots.

Foreign Studies

A Foreign studies an analytical tool with several variations and

contexts. It used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. A strong

conceptual study captures something real and does in a way that easy to

remember and apply.

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Moisture Sensing and Watering Plants Method

Soil moisture data has traditionally been collected using remote

sensing techniques like radars and radiometers onboard satellites. Remote

sensing covers large areas, but produces very coarse grained measurements,

on the order of square kilometers. It was not until recently, with the advances

in integrated wireless communication, sensing and processing technology,

has in-situ sensing become a feasible option. In-situ moisture sensors can be

densely deployed over a region of interest, at a resolution of one in every few

square-feet, and thus can produce much finer grained measurements. To

collect desired data at a single location, soil moisture sensor probes were

typically placed vertically under the ground at different depths, up to 2 meters

deep, with wires connecting to a ground actuation and wireless transceiver

module. This wireless node actuates the moisture probes to take

measurements and transfers the collected data wirelessly to a remote central

location or base station for processing.

The selection of a sampling method, a representation basis and a

recovery algorithm, as well as verifying the scarcity and incoherence, was

applicable to a broad range of similar studies that may wish to employ

compressive sensing and watering techniques. [21]

This paper studies the efficient watering of plants and sensing of soil

moisture using a smart watering device. Soil moisture was a critical data type

and measurement need in many scientific applications. It also a key

measurement need in precision of plants watering and monitoring. To gather

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sufficient information and characteristics of soil moisture, it was highly

desirable to deploy moisture probes at sufficiently high density, and to take

measurements at sufficiently high frequency. To give a more concrete sense

of how much this level of reduction in sampling rate can ultimately contribute

to the overall energy saving in the operation of entire soil moisture and

watering of plants system.

Microcontroller Based Automatic Plant Watering System

Watering of plants was the most important cultural practice and one of

the labor intensive tasks in daily greenhouse operation. Watering systems

ease the burden of getting water to plants when needed. To make the garden

works easily, the automatic plant watering system was created. The system

uses watering sprinkler system because it can water the plants located in the

pots. This project uses Arduino board, which consists of A Tmega 328

Microcontroller and GSM Modem.GSM modem was a specialized type of

modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over a subscription to a

mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. Short Message Service a GSM

techniques to transfer data from distant places such as from one area to the

area of the same city or from another city. SMS technique was an instant or

quick transfer of data or notice to the required destination. This type of system

was often used for general plant care, as part of caring for small and large

gardens. The system automation was designed to be assistive to the user.

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Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed

carefully, thus contributing to the best working of the unit. The automatic

watering system has been designed and tested with integrated features of all

the hardware components used. [22]

Automatic watering system was convenient, especially for those who

travel. If installed and programmed properly, automatic watering systems can

even save money and help in water conservation. The Arduino based

automatic plant watering system has been designed and tested successfully.

It has been developed by integrated features of all the hardware components

used.

Embedded Based Remote Control Application using Mobile Phone in

Watering Plants

This paper provides the development of mobile phones as remote

control application in watering of plants. This system was developed with

PIC16F877 a microcontroller which in connected to the GSM, sensors and the

motor. The temperature sensor was used to detect the temperature of the

environment and capacitive sensor to sense the soil humidity. It was expected

that this application provides easy access in watering of plants as well as to

the user.

Uniform distribution of water at regular intervals, reduction in labor cost,

prevention of unwanted water spillage, minimization of occurrences of motor

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faults and intimation to user about the completion of task were the major

advantage of this system.[23]

The aim of this paper was to develop a cost effective solution that

would provide remote control of watering of plants through mobile phones

using missed calls and messages. The mobile user in the world has a

tremendous rise during the past few years. Remote monitoring watering

processes was popular due to advances in technology and reduction in

hardware cost. The future enhancement of this work was to develop a system

in watering of plants and to help people engaged in new technologies and

lessen the work.

GSM Based Automatic Watering Control System for Efficient use of

Resources and Plant Planning using Android Mobile

In this technology the humidity and temperature of plants was precisely

controlled. It was observed that for the first time an android phone control the

watering system, which could give the facilities of maintaining uniform

environmental conditions was proposed. The Android Software Development

Kit provides the tools and Application Programmable Interface necessary to

begin developing applications on the Android platform using the Java

Programming Language. Mobile phones have almost become an integral part

of human life serving multiple needs of humans. This application makes use

of the GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and GSM (Global System for

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Mobile Communication) used to inform the user about the exact plant

condition. The information was passed onto the user request in the form of

SMS.

The GSM based watering system may offer users the flexibility to

regulate and control the operations of watering systems with little intervention

to reduce runoff from over watering for improvement in crop yield. This

enables users to take advantage of the globally deployed GSM networks with

its low SMS service cost to use mobile phones and simple SMS commands to

manage watering system. [24]

Watering of Plants has been the backbone of human civilization since

man has started planting. As the generation evolved, man developed many

methods of watering of plants through the use of automatic plant watering

devices. Present work was attempt to save the natural resources available for

human kind. By continuously monitoring the status of the soil, people can

control the flow of water and thereby reduce the wastage. Through GSM with

the use of moisture and temperature sensors, water flow can be controlled by

sending from mobile. Since the systems were automatic, it does not require

continuous monitoring by labor.

Automatic Watering Based on Soil Moisture for Vegetable Crops

Improving watering efficiency can help to reduced production cost of

vegetables, making the industry more competitive and sustainable. Through

proper watering, average vegetable yields can be maintained while minimizing

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environmental impacts caused by excess applied water and subsequent

agrichemical leaching. Recent technology advances have made soil water

sensors available for efficient and automatic operation of watering systems.

Improving watering efficiency can contribute greatly to reducing

production costs making south Florida’s horticultural industry more

competitive and sustainable.[25]

Automatic Watering Based on Soil Moisture seeks to maintain a

desired soil water range in the root zone that was optimal for plant growth.

Automatic Watering of plants techniques was convenient. This system adapts

the amount of water applied according to plant needs and actual weather

conditions throughout the season.

Microcontroller Based Automated Watering System

Watering system uses valves to turn watering ON and OFF. These

valves may be easily automated by using controllers and solenoids. In this

project an attempt has been made to automate farm or nursery watering that

allows farmers to apply the right amount of water at the right time, regardless

of the availability of labor to turn valves on and off. The Microcontroller based

automated watering system consists of moisture sensors, analog to digital

converter, microcontroller, relay driver, solenoid valve, solar panel and a

battery. This system can be used in the areas where electrical power was

difficult to obtain. This system was eco-friendly and uses a renewable source

of energy.

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The continuous extraction of water from earth was reducing the water

level due to which lot of land was coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated

land. Another very important reason of this was due to unplanned use of water

due to which a significant amount of water goes to waste. This problem can

be rectified by using microcontroller based automated watering system in

which the watering would take place only when there would be acute

requirement of water.[26]

Watering plant was the artificial application of water to the land or soil.

It was used to assist in the growing of plants, maintenance of landscape, and

revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate

rainfall. In this project an attempt has been made to automate watering of

plants that allows planters to apply the right amount of water at the right time.

The Microcontroller Based Automated Watering System monitors and controls

all the activities of watering system efficiently. It was valuable tool for accurate

soil moisture control in highly specialized greenhouse vegetable production

and it was a simple, precise method of watering plant

Soil Moisture Sensors for Plants: Effectiveness and Reliability

Granular Matrix Soil Moisture Sensors was used to control the watering

of plants. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and

reliability of the technology for water conservation. The sensors observed in

this study performed well significantly reduced water consumption, and were

easy to monitor and maintain. Soil moisture sensors appear to be a useful and

economical tool for water conservation.

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The effective watering requirement equal to net potential

evapotranspiration, was determined by the Blaney and Criddle method (Soil

Conservation Service, 1970), with corrections for effective precipitation. The

theoretical watering requirement was obtained by dividing ETN by the


[27]
assumed watering efficiency of 90 percent.

This study reported on the performance and time required to maintain

soil moisture sensors and electronic switching modules user to control

watering method. GMS System would be more than compensated for by the

time saved manually reprogramming and shutting down the system in

response to rainfall. The time saved from having to monitor an “Automatic”

sprinkler system in response to precipitation events and seasonal in weather

was a tremendous convenience.

Smart Watering System

Inadequacy of rain water during dry season for plants, and the lack of

technology such as watering system to support the gardeners affected the

production of plants. This problem inspired to be idea of having an auto

watering system which consists of a microcontroller, a self-made moisture

sensor a relay board an electronic pump and a LCD to display the level of

moisture of the soil. This system was to design to save the water used for

watering plants as compared to system that used timer. The watering system

developed was suitable for any plant, since the system able to customize with

different sand, and with different plant that need different kind amount of

water.

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Nowadays, utilizing smart watering system was not only supports the

environmental sustainability of the regional area, but also significantly lowers


[28]
the expense of water usage for the farmers.

The study aims to develop an automatic watering system with the use

of soil moisture sensor. Auto watering would be the mode where it would

water the plant with the time set by user and it would only water the plant until

it moist enough. The purpose of smart watering system was to provide water

delivering schedule to the crops to ensure all the crops have enough water for

healthy growth, to reduce the amount of water wasted in watering, and to

minimize the economic cost for the users.

Raspberry Pi and Arduino based Automated Watering System

Automation was increasing day-by-day in home and office. It makes an

efficient use of the electricity and water and reduces much of the wastage. In

areas like office premises, buildings, house gardens where watering plants at

regular interval matter, the proposed watering system would be very efficient.

The paper presents a home automation which based on Raspberry Pi,

Arduino microcontrollers, Zigbee and relay boards to water plants. The

commands from the Arduino were processed at raspberry pi. Zigbee module

was used for communication between the raspberry pi and arduino. This

paper presents an efficient and fairly cheap automation watering system.

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A modular design that gives the opportunity to users of using energy

sources, connectivity and sensors as modules could be a very useful and

easy-to-use .The system may be further extended for outdoor utilization. [29]

The study helps to develop an automated watering system by

analyzing the moisture level of the ground. The smart watering system proves

to be a useful system as it automates and regulates the watering without any

manual intervention.

Autonomous Low Power Sensor for Soil Moisture Measurement

The designed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consisting of a sensor

unit, a master unit and a sensor power management unit (PMU). The sensor

unit measures the moisture of the soil and transmits the measured data

through Zigbee module to the master unit. A Real Time Check (RTC) was

used which records the information of second, minute, hour, day, month of

day and year about when or what time the measurement taken. The master

unit was consisting of a SD card and Bluetooth module. To manage the power

in the sensor unit and to make sensor alive for several years, the power the

(PMU) manages the power level between two energy storage buffers for a

sensor node.

The system was fault tolerant, and immediately extensible to a higher

number of nodes in a wider region, or to the measurement of additional

environmental variables. [30]

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This study has covered the hardware set-up and operation of a sensor

node and its power management system. The basic method of sensing the

soil moisture and its results obtained from the tests has provided in this

chapter. This chapter has discussed the functionality tests and results

obtained from testing and complete power management system.

Android based Automated Watering System using Raspberry Pi

Nowadays, adopting an optimized watering system has become a

necessity due to the lack of the world water resource. The system has a

distributed wireless network of soil-moisture and temperature sensors. This

project focuses on a smart watering system which was cost effective. As the

technology growing and changing rapidly, Wireless sensing Network (WSN)

helps to upgrade the technology where automation was playing important role

in human life. Automation allows us to control various appliances

automatically. DC motor based vehicle was designed for watering purpose.

The objectives of this paper were to control the water supply to each plant

automatically depending on values of temperature and soil moisture sensors.

Mechanism was done such that soil moisture sensor electrodes were inserted

in front of each soil. It also monitors the plant growth using various

parameters like height and width. Automatic watering consistently has shown

to be valuable in water use efficiency with respect to manual watering based

on direct soil water measurements.

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One important way to improve the utilization rate of watering system

was to implement precise controlled information on the basis of water crops

demand data. Use of technology in the field of agriculture plays important role

in increasing the production as well as in reducing the extra man power


[31]
efforts, water requirement and fertilizer requirement.

The aim of the project was to demonstrate that the automatic watering

can be used to reduce water use. To design watering system that would be

economical and efficient as water management has a crucial importance. The

project presents a fully automated watering system which controlled and

monitored by using Raspberry Pi.

Sensor based Automatic Watering Management System

Most of the sensors needed for the system could be have been

cheaply produced using discrete components in conjunction with an analogue

to digital converter, but in this case, sensors in the watering system

incorporated in soil moisture and humidity sensors, its serial port output was

able to send data directly to the controller for processing.PIC controller would

be used in this work. A 16×4 LCD were connected to the microcontroller,

which displays the soil moistures level and switches were provided to set the

limits of humidity for switching the individual solenoid valves controlling the

water flow to the field. The humidity and temperature levels were transmitted

at regular time interval to the LCD through a serial port for data display and

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analysis. The humidity sensors were constructed using aluminum sheets and

housed in easily available materials.

One of the main drawbacks with the old fashioned farming system that

were experienced by the farmers themselves was to do not accommodate for

changing environmental conditions. [32]

The aim of the study was to use the readily available material to

construct low cost sensors. Automation in the area of watering system can

lead to water regularly and automatically to the plants, crops, gardens with

much water requires. Productivity was improved due to regular and need

based watering schedule.

Microcontroller Automatic Plant Watering System

The main aim of this paper was to provide automatic watering to the

plants which helps in saving money and water. The entire system was

controlled using 8051 microcontroller which programmed as giving the

interrupt signal to the sprinkler. Temperature sensor and humidity sensor were

connected to internal ports of micro controller via comparator. Whenever there

was a change in temperature and humidity of the surroundings these sensors

senses the change in temperature and humidity and gives an interrupt signal

to the micro-controller and thus the sprinkler was activated.

Neither method targets plant roots with any significant degree of

precision. Automatic watering systems can be programmed to discharge more

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precise amounts of water in a targeted area, which promotes water

conservation. [33]

The system provides with several benefits and can operate with less

manpower. The system supplies water only when the humidity in the soil goes

below the reference. Due to the direct transfer of water to the roots water

conservation takes place and also helps to maintain the moisture to soil ratio

at the root zone constant to some extent. Thus the system was efficient and

compatible to changing environment.

Automatic Watering System on Sensing Soil Moisture Content

This project on "Automatic Watering System on Sensing Soil Moisture

Content" was intended to create an automated watering mechanism which

turns the pumping motor ON and OFF on detecting the dampness content of

the earth. In the domain of gardening, utilization of appropriate means of

watering was significant. The benefit of employing these techniques was to

decrease human interference and still make certain appropriate watering. This

automated watering project brings into play an Arduino board ATmega328

micro-controller, was programmed to collect the input signal of changeable

dampness circumstances of the earth via dampness detecting system.

Water deficiency can be detrimental to plants before visible wilting

occurs. Slowed growth rate, lighter weight fruit follows slight water deficiency.

This problem can be perfectly rectified by using automatic micro controller

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based watering system in which the watering would take place only when
[34]
there would be acute requirement of water.

The primary applications of the project were for gardeners and planters

who do not have enough time to water the plants. It also covers those

gardeners who were wasteful of water during watering. The project can be

extended to greenhouses where manual supervision was far and few in

between. The principle can be extended to create fully automated gardens.

Smart Greenhouse Watering System with Remote Monitoring

The main characteristics of modern greenhouse were to introduce

sensor technology, embedded technology, wired and wireless communication

technology in the design of greenhouse environment monitoring and control

system. Another aim of this project was to allow remote monitoring. Data of

watering time of plants would be kept in a MySQL/SQLite and Excel database

in the computer and sent to an online blog. The user does not need to be in

the greenhouse to monitor the watering of the plant. The user only needs to

monitor the database that stored in the blog to see if the plant was watered or

not. As the conclusion, the smart watering system would try to automate the

plant watering using moisture sensor, reduce water wastage, and increase

monitoring ability of the user to the greenhouse system.

The design improves the real-time performance of the user to the

greenhouse environment change, and was conducive to the realization of the

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unattended goal, and promotes the development of the intelligent

greenhouse. [35]

One of the main aims of this project was to reduce water waste

produced from the greenhouse overhead sprinkler system. Furthermore,

water that seeps through the soil were also captured and sent to the source

(filtered if necessary) to be reused to water the plants. The paper gives the

system's overall design, describes the design of each module, writes

greenhouse environment remote monitoring software running on Android

phone, and adds intelligent monitoring expert system in the design. The

practical results show that the system was stable and reliable, and it has the

characteristics of monitoring convenient and good scalability.

Design, Inspection and Implementation of Automated Watering System

This paper was presented photovoltaic watering systems that were

powered by solar PV cell. The application of solar photovoltaic was largely

implemented in watering processes for cultivating crops. This was a green

way to generate electricity which provides electricity free of cost on an initial

investment. On the other hand the volume of impaired water resources has

risen up day after day in this modern world in order to watering plants,

industrial outflows and sewage effluent. Watering System was a well-

established procedure on many gardens on various levels all over the world.

In Bangladesh gardeners and agricultural sector was mostly dependent on

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seasonal rain because of unavailability of grid power connection into pumping

mechanism and that has been a big challenge in Bangladeshi industry.

Nowadays the application of solar photovoltaic was largely

implemented in watering processes for cultivating crops. This was a green

way to generate electricity which provides electricity free of cost on an initial

investment. [36]

This research has aimed to design and implementation of a smart &

automated watering system which was powered by solar photovoltaic method.

According to the limitation of resources of fossil fuel and due to environmental

pollution a large number of countries and researchers were searched for

source of green energy. As a result different kinds of renewable energy

resources has found such as Solar, Wind, Geothermal and others. Solar PV

was the most cost effective of the mentioned renewable resources in this

modern world.

A Flexible Plant based Watering Control for Greenhouse Crops

The project sought to minimize water use, improve water use efficiency

and improve crop productivity for greenhouse crops. A flexible plant based

automated watering system was designed and implemented for a tomato crop

in a greenhouse at the Biological Science Department, University of

Zimbabwe. The system used stem heat balance sap flow gauges to measure

the transpiration rate and the information was sent to a computer program via

a K8000 Velleman interface card. The computer program used this

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information to calculate the daily crop water requirements and time to replace

the lost water for the greenhouse crops. The performance of the automated

system was evaluated by comparison of the leaf temperatures and amount of

water used against an existing scheduling technique in which the crop water

requirements were calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation.

Agriculture was one of the mainstays of the Zimbabwean economy and

accounts for 20% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Horticultural Promotion

Council of Zimbabwe, 2000). The country has experienced phenomenal

growth in horticultural exports over the past two decades and in 1999 alone, it

trebled by volume and increased five-fold by value (Horticultural Promotion

Council of Zimbabwe, 2000). [37]

This project seeks to design and implement a flexible plant based

watering control with a more precise schedule using plant based responses

as the indicator for determining the timing and amount of water for plants. To

implement and compare this watering system with traditionally existing

methods that was based on meteorological variables.

Arduino Based Smart Watering System using Internet of Things

Nowadays water scarcity was a big concern for planting. Humidity

sensor was used to find the soil humidity and based on this microcontroller

drives the solenoid valve. Watering status was updated to the server or local

host using Personal Computer. Java platform was used here for getting

information via serial communication from microcontroller and to update in the

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server. In addition for better cropping system, fertilizers required for the crops,

best crops to cultivate for the particular climatic and soil conditions were

updated to server at regular basis by monitoring soil PH level, Temperature

level of the field area etc., By using PC host, crop was continuously

monitored. Also LCD was used to display the PH, temperature and moisture

level. This would improve the cultivation method and leads to better

productivity.

Former method was an isolated watering system where the farmer

does not updated with the watering status and later lags in smart utilization of

water due to user command without considering the condition of soil. From

that ever growing requirement of the population, modern techniques were

introduced to control the system. [38]

This project conclude that watering process was done better than

before to yield the proper production done before and usage of water level

was limited how much that system needed only. Due to the regular updates

to the server planters can get proper knowledge to the system can work

perfectly for indefinite time period, even in certain abnormal circumstances

and increase the production rate also. It would also reduce the human factor,

energy, and power. Due to server updates gardeners can know about plant

field nature and everything at anywhere. It can use android device as a scope

to access data instead of computer (PC) and very clearly.

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Small Scale Watering using Comparative Performance Indicators on

some Selected Plants

As part of the development community’s fascination with the field of

appropriate technologies, and range of technologies, techniques and

practices have been developed over the years on behalf of smallholders.

However, many, if not most, technologies have not been successful in

performance, application, dissemination or adoption. Development agencies

have tried to encourage planters to adopt bush pumps, rope and washer

pumps, rower pumps, treadle pumps, pitcher pot systems, drag-hose

sprinklers, hydraulic ram pumps, micro-watering systems, windmills, water

harvesting techniques and a host of other technologies with mixed success.

State run plants, which include automatic watering systems, were reiterated

as major components of efforts to develop the countries at planters sector.

One particularly pressing resource management challenge was to improve the

performance of small-scale watering systems with the use of IWMI’s indicator.

The indicators used were output per cropped area, output per command area,

output per watering diverted, output per water consumed, relative water

supply, water delivery capacity, financial self-sufficiency and gross return on

investment. These systems would play an important role in providing food for

the countries growing population.

According to Jorge watering system fall in two broad categories: those

in which the principal management responsibility was exercised by

government agencies with the planters playing a subsidiary role, and those in

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which most management activities were carried out and decision made by the

planters themselves with the government providing periodic technical or

logistical support. [39]

The study attempted to introduce the concept of comparative

performance indicators with some process indicators such as application,

storage and distribution efficiencies as a tool to evaluate the performance of

small-scale watering system. These can be considered as a starting point to

evaluate the performance of small-scale watering systems in plants and tried

to demonstrate the application of the method developed.

Water Conservation in Watering Plants: Trends and Challenges in the

face of Emerging Demands

This report relies on findings from several national surveys and

current literature to assess water resource use and conservation measures

within the U.S watering plants sector. U.S planter’s accounts for 80-90 percent

of Nations consumptive water use (water lost to the environment by

evaporation, crop transpiration, or incorporation into products) sustainability of

watering plants would depend partly on whether producers adopt more

efficient watering production systems that integrate improved on plants water

management practices with efficient plants watering applications systems.

A recent study, based on a review of 37,099 projects in the National

River Restoration Science Synthesis database, reported that the number of


[40]
restoration projects has increased exponentially since 1990.

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The population and economic growth, changing social values about

the importance of water quality and the environment. These trends were

playing greater pressure on existing water allocations, heightening the

importance of water management and conservation for the sustainability of

watering plant production.

Related Local Studies

The related local studies chapter indicates the ideas relevant to the

present to the present subject relating to the other studies and briefly

discussed to provide the foundation of the proposed subject project.

References were taken from published and unpublished reading materials

such as books, journals, magazines, case studies and other which back up

and justify the operational feasibility of the proposed study. In order to develop

new method and procedures, careful review of literature and studies must be

done for the development of the project, Automated Watering of Plants with

SMS Alert.

Local Studies

A local studies an analytical tool with several variations and contexts. It

used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas. A strong conceptual

study captures something real and does in a way that easy to remember and

apply.

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Automatic Soil Moisture Sensor Watering System with Water Level

Indicator

This study focused solely in constructing a watering system with a

device that would determine the moisture condition of the soil and would

trigger the watering system to operate. The drip hose would automatically

release adequate amount of water if the moisture sensor detects that the soil

was already dry and lacks water. The project can automatically determine if

the soil-moisture was below the minimum allowable limit, ensures plants were

not affected by moisture stress at critical growing times, decreases human

intervention, would be using a microcontroller to control the right amount of

water to release based on the moisture content of the soil, uses a solar panel

as the power source of the system, can simply determine the water level

condition of the water tank by water level indicator.

Using an Automatic soil watering system with water indicator can be an

important instrument in conservation of water consumption which can reduce

the excessive use of water in gardening purposes. [41]

The study explained the capability of the device. The Automatic Soil

moisture Sensor Watering System with water level indicator was the device

that would provide the needed water when the soil moisture sensor detects if

the soil. The study was obtained to operate the automatic watering system,

given the scheduling process that was provided by the RTC, the amount of

suitable water(based on range of its soil moisture) needed to deliver for the

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plants was being controlled so there was no excess water , which mainly

contributes to conservation of water.

Watering Development in the Philippines

This study presents the current status of watering development and

analyzes the technical performance of existing system. The Department of

Agriculture not has been able to fully exercise its role as the lead agency in

agricultural development.

This study focused on the problems and issues on the development of

watering. The study discussed the problem and issues of the government in

watering development. [42]

The watering was very essential in the agency especially to the

farmers who really need it. The watering development was necessary to the

growth of harvesting in one particular place.

Portable Water Level Monitoring System via SMS

Nowadays, technology was evidently booming in the face of the earth.

One of the well known applications of technology was the mobile technology

or the so-called gadgets. Through text messaging, information could easily

send and retrieve. The Portable Water Level Monitoring System via SMS

monitors the level of water and gives an advisory to the people.

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The main purpose of the project was to warn people of the water level

of the river. There were three levels of warning. These were the minor level,

moderate level, and the major level. [43]

When the water level reaches the minor level sensor, the device would

send SMS which has this message. “The water level starts to become higher”.

When the water level reaches the moderate level sensor, the device would

send SMS which has this message “Warning! The water level reached the

moderate level.” When the water level reaches the major level sensor, “Alert!

The water level reaches the critical level”.

Scale Effects on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity: A Case Study

from UPRIIS, Philippines

UPRIIS was owned and operated by the National Watering

Administration (NIA) of the Philippines with the main purpose of providing

watering water to rice fields. The food security of Asia depends largely on the

irrigated rice production system, which was a major user of fresh water. This

study present result on water use in a rice-based surface watering system in

the Philippines from farmer’s field to watering system level.

This study focuses on watering rice systems in the Philippines, where

watering rice accounts for 61% of the 3.4 million ha of rice production area .”[44]

The study explained the water productivity on rice field. The results of

the study were influenced by the sizes and locations of the spatial units which

were established based on the existing road network and accessibility.

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Development of SMS Controlled Microcontroller Based Automated

Watering System

In the Philippines, Agriculture plays an important role to its economy.

Starting in 2007, SM Foundation launched what it calls “Kabalikat sa

Kabuhayan Farmers Training Program. This research study developed the

use of SMS technology in improving the watering system that was controlled

by a microcontroller. This research method got positive results from the

farmers regarding the use of Automation and SMS in the watering system.

This study made use of Gizduino as the microcontroller, a homemade soil

moisture sensor and solenoid valves for automation and a GSM Module for

the SMS.

The researcher explained the thesis entitled “Development of SMS

Controlled Microcontroller Based Automated Watering System was a system

that can be controlled manually, automatically and wirelessly via SMS and at

the same time can generate feedbacks via LCD Display and Text Message.[45]

The proposed system lessened the manual labor, increased the crops

productivity, saved time and water consumption, the said system was

beneficial to farmers and garden hobbyists.

Automated Watering System Using Thermoelectric Generator as Soil

Moisture Detector

This study shows the design and fabrication of a Thermo-electric

generator (TEG) and the implementation of an automated watering system

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using this TEG as a soil moisture detector. Being able to obtain the soil

moisture level from the TEG’s output, a microcontroller was used to automate

the watering system. The watering system adapts to the soil area’s condition it

waters based from the moisture it detects via the TEG. The water

consumption of the soil was controlled by the automated watering system

based on the soil’s condition and promotes water conservation compared to

that of the water consumption of manual watering system. It also optimizes

plant growth in that it waters it to the correct moisture level at the right time.

Manual watering systems do not promote water conservation that result to too

much water or too small amount of water in the soil thus poor plant growth.

Automated watering systems were capable of determining and maintaining

the right amount water for the soil

The researcher was able to implement a design on an automated

watering system that uses a thermoelectric generator as a soil moisture

sensor that uses the temperature difference between the air and the soil as a

basis for watering. The researcher was able to successfully prove that soil

temperature has a direct relationship with soil moisture or water content. [46]

The researcher has studied and formulated when to and when not to

water given certain conditions: the air temperature high and the soil dry, the

air temperature high but the soil wet, the air temperature low and the soil wet,

and the air temperature low but the soil dry. The researcher has analyzed the

gathered data and has deduced also that watering generally depends on

available soil moisture and water content. The group has connected watering

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to available soil moisture, and the group has related watering with the

buffered voltages of each thermocouple for both wet-dry and dry-dry soil

conditions. For the wet-dry soil condition, an increase in the sum of the

buffered voltages indicates an increase in the deviation of the dry soil from the

optimal water level need for watering; while a decrease in the sum indicates

the soil need not be watered. In a dry-dry soil condition, an increase in the

individual buffered voltages of each TEG indicates the soil was becoming

more wet and approaching the optimal moisture level, neglecting the need for

watering. The individual buffered voltage was dependent on the direct voltage

from the thermo couple, and the direct voltage was dependent on the

temperature difference between the air and the soil. The researcher has been

concluded that any change in the temperature of the soil implies a direct

change in the voltage from the thermocouple; thus, proving an objective of the

study which was to detect soil moisture content using the voltage generated

by the thermoelectric generator as basis for distinction.

Remote Automatic Water Meter Reading System using Global System for

Mobile Communications

Water meter was a device used to measure the volume of water

consumed by either a residential or a commercial establishment. An analog

meter was usually installed within the area of the consumer and readings from

the odometer were read on a monthly basis by hired personnel from the water

company. Manual reading of the water meter was a tedious job and

throughout the years this method tends to show noticeable disadvantages.

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This study aims to develop an automatic water meter reading system

that would enhance the Analog water meter data collection by utilizing

wireless technology using GSM module system for data transmission to

increase the range of data transmission. It consists of the hardware and the

software design. The hardware involves the analog meter, the GSM module,

the differential pressure sensor, and a desktop or a laptop. While the software

was developed in order to receive and to store data transmitted from the GSM

module into the database and output graphically .[57]

T-test would be used to conduct and to verify if the readings from the

design were comparable to the actual volume measured from the analog

meter. This study focuses on implementing a GSM based system for the

automatic water meter reading in the Philippines. This would determine if

there was a significant difference between analog water meter and the

proposed system in data collection. Weather conditions and security issues

regarding the GSM module would not be taken into account. Also, the network

problem due to its provider was not included on the study. On the first

experiment the sensor reading was gathered and the data on the table

showed that the sensor reading was accepted using t test. Then, the sensor

reading was equivalent to the actual measured volume of water. On the

second experiment, the data transmission of the GSM devices automatic

water meter was successful. On the third experiment, the data gathered

achieve that the relationship of analog water meter and its corresponding DP

sensor reading was directly proportional. The development of automatic water

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meter reading system utilized wireless technology using GSM module system

for data transmission was proven.

PhilRice Develops cheaper Watering for small-scale farms

Watering System was a method that involves water delivery through a

pipe distribution network consisting of a main pipe, sub main, manifold and

lateral pipes. The water was emitted through small outlets of drippers or

emitters into the soil to be irrigated. However, the system was costly for

ordinary farmers and also encounters problems when it was used in sub-

surface watering.

Dr. Ricardo Orge lead researcher, said the technology was a farmer-

friendly system that has a simple do- it-yourself design which would

significantly reduce farmer expenses on watering.

As a cheaper, cost – efficient alternative to watering system, the study

uses a water distribution system similar to watering system. However, it was

equipped with emitters that make use of the capillary principle to deliver water

through a wick.[48]

Initial results of the study showed that despite changes on ambient air

temperature the water discharge rate (WDR) of the system was not affected.

Under 36-75 C, the WDR was consistent at 32 ml/hr. Orge also added that the

distance between water level and the tip of the wick also did not affect the

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WDR.Orge said that further testing would be conducted on the harness its full

potential.

Philippine Watering Development: Overview, Determinants, and Policy

Issues

Watering has historically been a major factor for increasing rice

productivity in the Philippines. Watering raises the productivity of land directly

by providing sufficient water supply to raise yield per hectare per crop and by

allowing a second crop to be grown during the dry season when yields were

potentially higher. It also increases yields indirectly by raising the profitability

of modem rice varieties and fertilizer use because watering in the Philippines

has been predominantly the gravity watering type which typically require

collective investment, operation, and maintenance watering has been a key

policy instrument for achieving government's goals with respect to the rice

sector.

Recover at least partial construction costs from farmers subject to

ability to pay. This statement was vague with respect to farmers' obligation

with respect to capital cost, and the policy does not link cost recovery to

distribution of benefit. [49]

The purpose of this paper was top critical policy issues in watering

development confronting the Philippine government. Watering has been a

relatively well-studied topic in the country by the universities, (both local and

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foreign), international research agencies (IRRI, •IFPRI, IIMI) and the World

Bank and Asian Development Bank.

These studies have typically focused either narrowly on a specific

policy issue or treated separately, this paper adopts an integrated framework

as suggested by Roumasset, for analyzing policy decision with respect to

project selection, design and construction, operation and maintenance, cost

recovery and administration. Moreover, watering policy was viewed from the

context of alternative public investments in general, and considers sector and

macroeconomic policies affecting agriculture.

An Automated Watering System Based on Soil Electrical Conductivity

A watering system automatically governed watering in accordance with

water consumption of the substrate-plant system. Data acquisition was

performed by an electronic circuit, which processed data and then sent the

data to the microcontroller.

The pic16f84 functioned as a controller, which decided when and how

much water to apply, hence the pumps ran and stopped according to the
[50]
watering strategy defined by the Microcontroller.

Once defined, the microcontroller utilized the data and controlled the

relays connected to the pumps. Soil moisture content was monitored by only

one sensor installed in a representative pot throughout the experiment. The

automated system maintained the soil moisture level at the desired for the full

treatment and took over watering events. The performance of the automated

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system can be increased as the time in the software was adjusted according

to full watering application.

Local Literature

Local literature was a thesis topic from the native literature. References

were taken from published and unpublished reading materials such as books,

journals, magazines that can help the development of the device. It was

written in one’s own native language.

The “Gulayan sa Paaralan” (School Vegetable Garden) in Response to

Sustainable Development

Administrative Order NO.11, Section 1 of the Department of

Agriculture(DA) deputizes DepEd as one of the agencies to implement the

“Gulayan ng Masa” as a potential family farm program that empowers the

poor living in the rural areas with high hunger and malnutrition incidence by

enhancing the capability to produce the own food through adoption of

integrated backyard gardening.

The demands of the growing population have done much damage to

the environment in the quest for food; volumes of waste contribute to

environmental risk.[51]

The “Gulayan sa Paaralan” was a modest replication of the gulayan ng

masa” served as one of the best practices of TES created a vital contribution

for its feeding program. Pre- reflective awareness in responding to

government mandates like sustainable development, hunger and malnutrition

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and other environmental challenges was valuable piece for proximal

impression led the TES-GP’s creation.

‘Bahay Kubo’ veggies thrive in school gardens

The Research was about the plan of IIRR (International Institute of

Rural Reconstruction) of creating crop museums across 27 Cavite public

elementary schools to reintroduce new generations to the ‘Bahay Kubo’

vegetables.

According to the IIRR project coordinator Maria Cristhy Jesua Tacugue

the Filipinos were forgetting was that the local plants were better suited,

Those plants were hardly, tough, disease-resistant and sustainable.

Gonsalves has said that the food and nutrition research institute came up with

a list of the Top 25 vegetables many years afgo. Except for carrot, all were

indigenous, with higher nutritional and fiber contribution.

The IIRR decided it would help ensure that at least seven out of 10

plants in school gardens participating in Gulayan sa Paaralan would, at any

given time, be indigenous. I’ve been working with gardens for 25 years in the

Philippines and sustainability has been the big issue. One time, it there and

then another time, its not, [52]

The IIRR introduced bio-intensive gardening to help ensure the

sustainability of Gulayan. Only small parcel was planted and the school

produces its own fertilizer.

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10 Features of a Philippine Farm of the Future

The article was all about the futuristic view on the Philippine farm.

Technology nowadays had a very high contribution on economy. These ten

features surely would contribute a lot on development of Philippine

Agriculture. These ten features were (1) multiple crops (2) water harvesting

(3) renewable energy (4) high-tech sensing equipment (5) own weather

station (6) connected to apps (7) Farming Machines (8) Right Rice Varieties

(9) Makes the most of extreme conditions. (10) Natural Pesticide and

Fertilizers.

The demo farms aim to prepare farmers for two possible future

scenarios: high-tech, mechanized farming to make Philippine rice competitive

in the world market, and natural farming for a world where fuel has become

scarce and expensive. [53]

The proponents found out that renewable energy and high tech

sensing equipments have a large part in the development of the economy and

agriculture and it was helpful on developing this research. Renewable energy

was very helpful for the conservation of energy and it became the basis of the

researcher in doing this project.

New Watering Technique can Ease Drought Effects for Rice Farmers

The closing down of the Angat Damn Central Luzon brought a huge

effect on the lives of the rice farmers in the province. This event emphasize

the value of the water saving watering techniques even in an environment that

typically receives ample rainfall over the entire year to cut water demand in

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irrigated rice without affecting yield. Rice farmers for about 27, 000 was cut off

due to the decreasing level at Angat Dam which brought attention again to the

conservation of water even for growing of rice.

El Nino conditions were predicted to evolve over the coming months,

which would mean shorter periods of rain and less rainfall even in the coming

rainy seasons” said. “Water shortage in Angat-Maasim River Watering System

(AMRIS), of which Angat Dam was the main water source, was anticipated as

water available for watering has gradually decreased over recent years and
[54]
the Philippines has been Experiencing a really dry season this year.

Based on the article IRRI (International Rice Research Institute)

developed a technique which water use in producing rice can be cut down by

as much as 25%. This technique was called AWD or Alternate wetting and

drying. The AWD technology makes use of the cycle of draining and

reflooding of rice paddies, keeping an optimum water level at any particular

time. The AWD was applicable to larger watering schemes like the ARMIS, but

it was also just as lower water consumption translates right away into savings

on fuel cost higher net income. AWD also helps reduce greenhouse gas

emissions.

A Model Case of Intelligent Data Management and Decision Supporting

System of Monitoring Green Leafy Vegetables

SMART farming was an important undertaking as increasing demand in

agricultural industries in the Philippines was notable. Smart farming in the

country could empower local farmers with the decision tools and technologies

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needed for the livelihood. However, this technology was not yet available in

the country. For sustainable agriculture in midst of climate change, monitoring

of plant health and detecting its diseases was critical. The need to effectively

grow a plant and increase its productivity should be given emphasis. In

addressing these concerns, monitoring and grading the plant at its growth and

at the time of its harvest was necessary. The purpose of this paper was to

provide a model of monitoring the plants and suggest solutions to the farmers

for healthy yield and productivity. In this work, the proponent proposed a

model to be used in monitoring the identified vegetables during farming. The

model for grading vegetables was divided into three complex phases: a)

design and development of a plant disease detection system using machine

vision, b) design and development of an artificial intelligent system in

vegetable grading, and c) notification to the farmer of plant grade and status.

Two vegetables have been selected. The images were to be interpreted

numerically and it would be classified in linguistics. This paper would

demonstrate effective algorithms for vegetable monitoring and grading.

Practical implementation of fuzzy logic would be done using MATLAB. For this

purpose, Sugeno-style of fuzzy inference system would be used.

Crops were being affected by uneven climatic conditions leading to

decrease agricultural yield, which affects local and global agricultural

economy. [55]

This research was purely a modeling a framework for intelligent data

management and decision supporting system of monitoring green leafy

vegetables using digital image analysis. The established framework and

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methodologies must be expedited to a real working system. It was assessed

that smart/intelligent system was possible in Philippine setting and it was

believed that the proponent’s framework would address issues on farming

system in the country. Thus, it was highly recommended to conduct more

comprehensive and rigid studies on this course and discipline. The proponent

of this study would be working on a larger system that comprises the complex

phases discussed on the previous sections. The tool would be assessed and

evaluated as well in terms of its accuracy, reliability and effectiveness. Once

the testing and evaluation phase was accomplished, then it would be

implemented.

Agricultural Water Management Systems in the Philippines: Current

Status and Policy Direction

This article tells that the Philippines focus on Agricultural management

dwells on improving flood control, dam operations, planning database,

steward’s capability, watering performance. The government efforts to adapt

to climate change and to achieve rice self-sufficiency, in fact, make policies

and programs on agricultural management evolve more responsive to

necessity. To achieve higher irrigated area, cropping intensity and crop yield,

The National Watering Administration adopts measures that improve water

adequacy, distribution, conservation, monitoring and stewardship.

In this article, the following were elaborated: Watering development

status, Watering development status, Operation modality reversal, Rice self-

sufficiency thrust and vital performance indicators.

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It was stated that the Water Management Systems needs an

Adaptation of Climate Change, Agency rationalization initiative and Water

allocation competition and must conduct an Alleviation techniques like

Parcellary map upgrading, Hydrometeorological data monitoring, Diversified

cropping promotion, Disaster Impact assessment, Water Resource

Governance, Flood forecasting-warning systems, flood retarding facilities and


.[56]
Reservoir hydrology re-analysis

Enhancement of Agricultural water management and utilization was

happening in two fronts, National Development Level and Watering

development sector. This comes about the integrated goals of achieving rice-

self sufficiency, averting force majeure devastation, and confronting

diminishing plain water supply for watering.

New Watering Technique can ease drought effects for rice farmers

The closing down of the Angat Damn Central Luzon brought a huge

effect on the lives of the rice farmers in the province. This event emphasize

the value of the water saving watering techniques even in an environment that

typically receives ample rainfall over the entire year to cut water demand in

irrigated rice without affecting yield. Rice farmers for about 27, 000 was cut off

due to the decreasing level at Angat Dam which brought attention again to the

conservation of water even for growing of rice.

El Nino conditions were predicted to evolve over the coming months,

which would mean shorter periods of rain and less rainfall even in the coming

rainy seasons” said Reinner Wassman, head of IRRI’s climate change

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research. “Water shortage in Angat-Maasim River Watering System (AMRIS),

of which Angat Dam was the main water source, was anticipated as water

available for watering has gradually decreased over recent years and the

Philippines has been Experiencing a really dry season this year .[57]

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute) developed a technique

which water use in producing rice can be cut down by as much as 25%. This

technique was called AWD or Alternate wetting and drying. The AWD

technology makes use of the cycle of draining and reflooding of rice paddies,

keeping an optimum water level at any particular time. The AWD was

applicable to larger watering schemes like the ARMIS, but it was also just as

lower water consumption translates right away into savings on fuel cost higher

net income. AWD also helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

A Farmer-guided Soil Classification System for the Philippine

The Centre for Research and Information Exchange in Ecologically

Sound Agriculture (ILEIA) and the International Soil Reference and

Information Centre (ISRIC) have enunciated a project on farmer-based soil

classification (ethnopedology) in the Philippines, in close collaboration with

the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM), Manila. Two pilot areas,

comprising the administrative units barangays of Rajal Centro 1600 ha and

Triala 450 ha, in the broad alluvial plain of Nueva Ecija in Central Luzon were

used to initiate the process for developing a farmer-based soil and land use

classification, and to compare and integrate the results of this work with the

results of a classical soil survey by BSWM staff. The project provided the soil

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and natural resource scientists with a unique experience in working directly

with the local communities with particular focus on comparing and integrating

classical methodologies of soil survey with local knowledge of soils and the

agricultural potential. Farmers clearly related micro-topographic variations

within the plots, as related to differences in drainage, soil texture and flooding,

to the agricultural potential of the soils. The entire exercise brought forth a

methodology which integrates elements of indigenous knowledge with those

of the formal scientific survey, the results of which may later be up-scaled to

soils of similar agro-ecological zones at the national level .[58]

On the whole, this participatory project lay the foundation for the

exchange of indigenous knowledge and practices of safe farming through

mapping of soil and farm resources. In view of the uniformity of the study

areas, in terms of the biophysical, cultural and socio-economic conditions, it

was recommended to expand and test the system for farmer-based soil

classification to other, more heterogeneous and agro-ecologically

representative regions in the Philippines. From a land use perspective, the

study showed the need for in-depth agro-ecological and economic studies at

farm level as well as at a higher level of aggregation, such as the district.

Water availability for watering during the dry season at Barangay Triala forms

an important constraint. During the dry season, the growing of less-water

demanding crops than irrigated rice should be stimulated. More efficient water

distribution techniques need to be developed. Human-induced changes in soil

properties should be monitored at (farmer's) experimental plots to address the

observed decline in production capacity of these intensively cultivated soils,

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induced by excessive use of acidifying fertilizers. Farmers appeared

particularly interested in collaborative, on-farm experiments aimed at

assessing the agronomic and economic viability of substituting part of the

currently used inorganic fertilizers with organic fertilizer.

Philippine Agriculture Saddled by Poor Watering System

Agriculture plays a big role in the Philippine economy and attainment of

inclusive growth. Watering was an important component of the agricultural

system. It raises land productivity by providing sufficient water to crops to

increase yield and ensure the stability of production, even under extreme

weather conditions.

Despite receiving the bulk of major public investments year after year,

the country’s national watering systems have always performed below

expectations. This poor performance has been attributed by Philippine

Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) consultants Dr. Cristina David and

Dr. Arlene Inocencio to overly optimistic technical and economic assumptions,

inadequate water supply, inappropriate designs, and difficulties in operation

and maintenance. These problems have been documented since the 1980’s
[59]
and were still present over 20 years later.

Several component studies under an evaluation project commissioned

by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the

Department of Budget and Management (DBM) to the PIDS exposed the

large gap between design assumptions and the operational realities, which

resulted in the chronic underperformance of national watering systems. A very

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disturbing pattern in performance were the generally declining trends in all

indicators, such as the ratio of service area, firmed up service area, and

irrigated area to design area, the cropping intensity, and the watering service

fee collection rate.

Technology Transfer Strategies and Experiences on Urban and Peri-

Urban Agriculture

The article was all about the transfer of strategies from rural to urban

and peri urban agriculture. In the Philippines, as early as 1983, UA has been

charted as one of the major undertakings of Don Severino Agricultural College

now Cavite State University. However, it was only in 1995 when the College of

Agriculture (CA), University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) gave

attention to the concept. As a consequence, UPLB – CA in cooperation with

the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources

Research and Development (PCARRD), sponsored a symposium – workshop

on UA on June 1, 1995.

Urban Agriculture has been simply defined as farming in the cities and

other highly urbanized areas (Duldulao, 2001) Considering various

dimensions, UA was located within (intra-urban) or on the fringe (peri-urban)

of a town, a city or a metropolis, and grows or raises, processes and

distributes a diversity of food and non-food products, (re-) uses largely human

and material resources, products and services found in and around that urban

area, and in turn, supplies human and material resources, products and

services largely to hat urban area [60]

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Based on the foregoing discussions, the technology transfer strategies

and experiences of the various stakeholders of urban and peri-urban

agriculture prevailed with the staunch support of the agencies and

government units involved in the venture. The political would of those who

promote the program dictates the level of success in the implementation of

the urban and peri-urban agriculture projects/programs. While dissemination

through the tri-media reaches a huge number of clientele, the strategies that

involve groups and individuals were the best option for eventual adoption of

the technologies being promoted.

Synthesis of the Study

The proponents made some research regarding to what field of studies

might be needed to give guidance to have an appropriate idea to the problem.

It provides some information that may support the study that focuses on the

idea for how a device can be done accordingly to the needs of the

organization. One of the similarities of the study from the studies and literature

gathered was the main purpose which was the automation of the watering

process.

The importance of studying related study was to get better the present

study and use it as a reference to current study to make a proposal much

better than before. The study differs from many aspects such as the use of

Arduino rather than Raspberry Pi. The latter was more expensive than the

hardware components used in developing this project.

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The proposed device, Automated Watering plants with SMS Alert was

used in watering the gardens instantly. Which each farmer who were currently

used the system would be notify or receive text advisory.

Chapter III

Technical Background

In this chapter, Technical background of hardware and software

requirements researched by the proponents relevant to the proposed study

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which development of automated watering plants with SMS alert. The

proponents researched the hardware requirements used in the development

of automated plants sprinkling and the description, specification of each

component.

The proponents use this advantage to develop an automated watering

device that would help to easily water the plants using technology. It also uses

Arduino and soil moisture sensor that able to make this device interactive and

easy to use.

Hardware Requirements

The Hardware requirements were often used as a guideline of the

components that need to make own device or technologies. The design

project required Arduino Uno and the design project needed also a GSM

module, Soil Moisture Sensor, 9v battery and a relay.

Table 3.1

The Hardware Requirements

Quantity Component Description Specification


(pcs.)

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Arduino a open-source -ATmega328P


project that -5V Operating
created microcontroller- Voltage
1 based kits for building -14 Digital I/O
digital devices and Pins
interactive objects that -6 PWM Digital
can sense and control I/O Pins and
physical devices. etc.

GSM (Global System -PBC size


for Mobile 71.4mm X
Communications, a 66.0mm X
standard developed by 1.6mm
the European
1
Telecommunication -Indicator PWR,
Standards Institute to Status LED, Net
describe the protocols LED
for second-generation
digital cellular networks -Power Supply
used by mobile phones. 5v

Soil moisture Extreme low


sensors measure the cost with
volumetric water volume pricing.
content in soil. Since the Consumes less
direct gravimetric than 7mA for
measurement of free very low power
soil moisture requires operation.
1
removing, drying, and Measures
weighting of a sample, volumetric
soil moisture sensors water content or
measure the volumetric gravimetric
water content indirectly water content
by using some other Output Voltage
property of the soil. was
proportional to
moisture level.
Quantity Components Description Specification
(pcs.)

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AC/DC power
adapter was
1 AC adapter, AC/DC designed to
adapter a type of accept a certain
external power supply, AC input and
often enclosed in a case convert it to a
similar to an AC plug. particular DC
output.

-Powers a stack
The Step down power of Bricks with
supply module The 5V
chief issue with the -Can power
design was that cannot motors of driver
use electrolytic caps Bricks (e.g. DC
1
and thus must source Brick)
uF-range film caps rated -Input voltage
at the AC RMS voltage 6V to 27V DC
which were not -Additional
especially compact. output voltage
5V

-Valve type 2
way normally
closed
Water Solenoid w/ -Action Direct
sensor rod it Control lift Diagram
the flow of a liquid using -Coil power
1 the computer or 20W
microcontroller. -Electrical
Connection DIN
-Service Air,
Gas, Liquid,
Vacuum

Quantity Components Description Specification


(pcs.)

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Jump Wire Single, twisted


an electrical wire or pair and Triple
group of cable with a jumper wire for
connector or pin at use with Krone
each end which style IDC
normally used to blocks. This
1 interconnect the version was
components of manufactured
a breadboard or other to BT
prototype or test Specification
circuit, internally or CW1109, with
with other equipment 0.5mm solid
or components, conductors
without soldering. and PVC
insulation.

Relay module work This allows


on electromagnetism, combining the
When the Relay coil processing
energized it acts like a power of the
magnet and changes Arduino to
the position of a devices that
1 switch. use higher
current and
voltage.

Breadboard
Breadboard a consists of a
construction base perforated
for prototyping block of plastic
of electronics. with
Originally it was numerous tin
1 literally a bread board, plated phosph
a polished piece of or
wood used for slicing bronze or nick
bread. el silver alloy
spring clips
under the
perforations.

Software Requirements

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The software requirements was often used as a guideline of the system

that need to make the device or program execute.

Table 3.2

The Software Requirements

Quantity Components Description Specification


(pcs.)

Arduino IDE Arduino IDE


contains a text Version
editor for writing 1.6.2. The
code, a message Library
area, a text Manager
console, a toolbar allows users
with buttons for to
1 common functions automatically
and a series of download
menus. It and install
connects to the libraries
Arduino and needed in
Genuino hardware the projects,
to upload with an easy
programs and to use
communicate. graphic
interface.

Chapter IV

Design and Methodology

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In this chapter, Design and Methodology the proponents research the

project design and how this system works. How to compute the respondents

of the study and the requirements needs to follow and would be used in

developing automated watering plants.

Project Design

The proponents applied in this study, the descriptive method of

research. Descriptive method of research was a fact-finding study with

adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. It simply describe w/

emphasis what actually exists such as current condition, practices, situations,

it describes the status of the system. In this method, the proponents were able

to gather at the necessary findings and present it through narrative.

The hardware design includes Arduino, GSM Module, Power-up

Button, Soil Moisture Sensor and Water Solenoid Valve in gathering and

analysis, software design specification.

Respondents of the Study

The proposed study was to develop the Irrigation system with

Microcontroller and Arduino GSM Module. Interviews and survey

questionnaires were conducted and presented to the people who were

engaged in agricultural activities.

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As means to determine the advantageous impact of the proposed

system to the people who used this Irrigation System with Microcontroller and

Arduino GSM Module.

Sampling Technique

To evaluate the acceptability and reliability of the system, the

proponents used questionnaires that served as the main source of data. The

questionnaires used because it was an appropriate method in getting

response from other people.

Data Gathering Procedure

The acceptability of the project was evaluated in terms of its

functionality reliability, usability, and efficiency. The proponents also used

Ardiuno and GSM module sense the moisture of the soil to irrigate

automatically. The instrument that the researcher used was the questionnaire.

The researcher also thinks some possibility regarding the SMS notification, as

far as the capacity of the proponents, must meet the expectation of the

Agriculture.

Interview

The interview supports the collection of data through consulting the

agriculture personnel, the one who irrigates the farm, plant and etc. and the

people who were related to the irrigation of farm. The proponents asked the

community about the subject matter in connection with the study.

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Observation

Observation refers to the analysis of the collected information gathered

by the respondents with regards to the development of the study. The result of

the gathered information was dependent on the respondents and other

resources materials. Survey served as an important role in building from this.

The proponents gained ideas about the user’s behavior and the activities

done in the community.

Research

Research refers to the posses of searching and finding some important

information of data on which the proponents took place. The proponents

research the information to the agricultural and compared it to information that

gathered through internet. It summarize that the existing process irrigation

needs to improve and make some changes.

Questionnaire

A questionnaire was a research consisting of a series of question and

other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. The

proponents hand out the questionnaire to the community personnel about

existing process. After retrieving the questionnaire, the data were tabulated

and treated statistically.

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Analysis

Analysis was the process on which the data gathered would be

observed and experiment to produce a result. The proponents come up with

an analysis of data based on the questionnaires and answers gathered that

the community needs more efficient and accurate news update and other

activities involve the community.

Validation and Distribution of the Instruments Used

The data gathered on the result of survey were validated by the

respondent’s signature. This was an order to verify the cogency and

qualification of the proposed system in end-user’s needs. As for the

distribution of the data, a survey questionnaire was presented in a column

from so as to provide the respondents with an ease in understanding and

answering each question specifically inquired.

Data Encoding and formulation of the Solution

The proponents came up with a formulation of the data with the used of

the instruments and technique used such as likert scale implementation,

mean, frequency, percentage and chi-square test of goodness fit.

The proponents also programmed the Ardiuno to make the irrigation

effective annd used GSM module to receive a notification using Cell phone.

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Evaluation of the Data and Result

The proponents utilize an interview for this research study. The

interview would help a lot to learn from the respondents and the researcher’s

perception of the system requirements.

Tools and Instruments

Tools and Instruments was determined by the nature of the tools and

the instruments. The proponents list all the tools and instruments method

used in the study to gather more information and the data with the following

were the tools used.

Statistical tools

Statistical tools refers to the tools that has been used throughout the

observation and interpretation of data gathered.

The proponents used statistical tools such as frequency, mean,

percentage, likert Scale Interpretation and Chi-Square Test of Goodness-of-

Fit.

Frequency

Frequency was a record on how often a value of a variable in a certain

question occurs. It was the number of times that the event occurs in a study.

The formula of getting the frequency was shown below:

F = ΣF/N

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where,

F= the relative frequency of each class interval

ΣF = sum of the frequency of class interval

N = the sample size

Mean

The average of a population set. It was found by multiplying the

population means to its appropriate frequency and add the entire product then

divide the sum of all the frequency by the number of all frequencies. The

formula was:

X= Σfx/ N

where,

X = mean

F = number of frequency

X= rate given by the respondents

N = No. of all frequencies

Percentage

The statistical method used to determine the percentage of the

respondents that was conducted given by this percentage formula,

P = f/ N x 100

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where,

P = percentage

F = frequency of each rating scale

N = number of respondents

Chi-Square Test for Goodness-of-Fit

The Test of Goodness-of-fit (Error: Reference source not found) was

used in determining the number of objects or responses, which fell in different

categories for a single qualitative variable and in knowing if the sample under

observation and analysis was drawn from a population with some specified

distribution of the observed and expected frequencies, divided by the

expected frequency.

The formula employed in the said test statistic was,

Error: Reference source not found= Error:

Reference source not found

width = c-1 and an Error: Reference source not found

where,

Error: Reference source not found = Computed Chi-

square value

O = Observed Frequency

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E = Expected Frequency

Error: Reference source not found = Degrees of freedom

c = total number of columns

α
= level of significance

Likert Scale

A scale commonly used in a survey to measure the respondent’s

responses through questionnaire with a set of statements or questions about

the main topic, and also to measure the positive and negative response of the

respondents to the topic. The respondents would provide the responses

through checking the circular shape before the numerical representation of

numbers, where in the 5 as strongly agree, 4 as agree, 3 as neither agree nor

disagree, 2 as disagree and 1 as strongly disagree.

Design Studies of the Development Process

The Design study of the development process was done as a

sequence of activities that were conducted to be able to develop something

and to be able to produce specific output. Development was about the

establishment of the proposed project together with the basic and the logical

structures of the proposed projects. This were of the research illustrates and

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discuss about how the developers have done and accomplished the proposed

design.

A. Building the Layout

Step 1

A box was made from any kind of woods. The picture below was the

frame of the box. The plywood served as the surface of the box.

Figure 4.1Building Layout Step 1

Step 2

A piece wood was fastened on the side of the box that served as the base

of the device. A hole was made below the piece of wood that served as the

outlet of the soil moisture sensor.

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Figure 4.2 Building Layout Step 2

Step 3

The sprinkler was placed on the middle of the box. The sprinkler was

connected to a PVC pipe that was connected to the water solenoid valve.

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Figure 4.3 Building Layout Step 3

Step 4

The soil was set on the prototype. Plug the device and the water pump.

Figure 4.4 Building Layout Step 4

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Conceptual Framework

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Automated
People use Watering Plants
Induction of with SMS Alert
Pumps to Water Manual Watering
for Bonifacio
the Plants. of Plants
Memorial
School

Figure 4.5 Manual Process

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I. System Analysis
A.Prototype

I.User Requirements II. System Design


A. Functional A. system
Requirements Development life cycle
B. Non-Functional 1.Phase 1
requirements (System information
C. Design Requirements
Objectives 2. Phase 2
(Analysis and Design )
II. Preliminary Logical design
Interview and study Physical design
3. Phase 3
III. Review of related (Implementation and
literature Unit testing Development of Automated
4. Phase 4 Watering Plants with SMS
IV. Knowledge (Integration and testing) alert for Bonifacio Memorial
Requirements 5. Phase 5 (Device Elementary School
A.Fundamental operation)
computer operation B. Process Models Acceptable Rating
B. Programming 1. Flowchart “Very Good”
skills 2. VTOC, HIPO
C. Arduino and IPO Criteria for System
D. System C. Data models Evaluation
Development technique 1. DFD Cost-Effectiveness
2. ERD Design
V. Software Functionality
requirements III. System Maintainability
A. Arduino Development Reliability
Schedule of Activities Safety
VI. Hardware (Gantt Chart) Usability
requirements A. Interface Design
Arduino B. Program Coding
Soil moisture sensor D. Billing of Materials
GSM Module E. Cost benefit
Step down power Analysis
supply moisture

Testing and
Evaluating

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Figure 4.6 Proposed System

START

Check the moisture level.

Does the
The soil does not need soil need
water.
water?

Send SMS that notify the user if the


soil was too much dry or wet.

Start the watering of plants.

Send SMS If Finished

END

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Figure 4.7 Flow Chart

The moisture Sensor would


sense if the soil was dry or
wet. If the soil was wet,
nothing would happen.

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If the soil was dry, it will send


message to the user.

“The Valve was On’

and Automatically waters the


plant.

Figure 4.9 Story Board

Chapter V

Results and Discussion

In this chapter, the proponents conducted a survey about the

demographic profile of the respondents such as School Maintenance, BMES

Teachers, Administration Staff and IT Personnel’s in BMS such as the Age

Bracket, Gender, Performance of the device, and Software Evaluation; Cost -

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Effectiveness, Design, Functionality, Maintainability, Reliability, Safety, and

Usability.

1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents

1.1 Age Brackets

Table 5.1

The Demographic Profile of the Respondents in terms of Age Bracket

Age Bracket Frequency Percentage Rank


(f) (%)
18 – 28 14 47% 1st

29 – 38 10 33% 2nd

39 – Above 6 20% 3rd

Total No. of Respondents (N) 30 100%

Table 5.1 shows the demographic profile of respondents in terms of

age bracket. Out of 30 respondents, age bracket 18-28 got the highest

frequency of 14 or 47% in rank 1, while the 38-above got the lowest frequency

of 6 or 20% in rank 3.

1.2 Gender

Table 5.2

The Demographic Profile of the Respondents in terms of Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage Rank

Male 16 53% 2nd

Female 14 47% 1st

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Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Table 5.2 present the demographic profile of the respondents in terms

of gender, there were of 30 respondents, the frequency of male got the

highest frequency of 16 or 53% in rank 1 while the female got the lowest

frequency of 14 or 47% in rank 2.

2. Problem Encountered

2.1 Performance of the Device

Table 5.3

Problem Encountered in the Performance of the Device

Response Frequency Percentage Rank

Excellent 1 3% 4th

Very Good 10 33% 2nd

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Good 14 47% 1st

Satisfactory 5 17% 3rd

Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents (N)

As demonstrated from the Table 5.3, out of 30 respondents, the

frequency of response “Good” in 14 or 47% in rank 1, the frequency of

response “Very Good” was 10 or 33% and in rank 2, the frequency of

response “Satisfactory” in 3 or 17% and in rank 3 and the frequency of

response “Excellent” in 1 or 3% and in rank 4.

3. Testing and Evaluation of the Project Development

3.1 In Terms of Cost-effectiveness

Table 5.4

Proposed Project Development in terms of Cost-effectiveness

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi- Square

Interpretation

Excellent 1 3% 3rd 3.53 65.50

Very Good 15 50% 1st

Good 14 47% 2nd

Satisfactory 0 0%

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Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Very Good

As reflected in the Table 5.8, out of 30 respondents, 15 or 50% of the

respondents rated “Very Good” in rank 1, 14 or 47% of the respondents rated

“Good” in rank 2 and 1 or 3% of respondents rated “Excellent” in rank 3. The

computed mean was 30 and the verbal interpretation in the project’s cost-

effectiveness classified as “Very Good”.

The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Very Good" covered half of the total

percentage (50%) preceded by (47%) rating for "Good", (3%) rating for

"Excellent", with a total consolidation of 100%. The overall average response

or the computed mean for the ungrouped data hit 3.53, rounded off to rating

scale which means that the majority of the respondents evaluate the system's

Cost – Effectiveness as "Very Good" cover the three sub queries: The ability

of the device to lessen the water, The ability of the device to conserve water,

The device have a great benefit for water consumption.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 65.50 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.53

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provided 4 degrees of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. In case, the

rejection region was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there

was a significant difference in the evaluations of the system. The average

number of respondents who said "Very Good" was significantly higher than

the rest of the sample.

3.2 In Terms of Design

Table 5.5

Proposed Project Development in terms of Design

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi-

Interpretation Square

Excellent 1 3% 4th

Very Good 8 27% 2nd

Good 16 53% 1st

Satisfactory 5 17% 3rd


3.16 46.50
Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Good

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As shown in the Table 5.8, out of 30 respondents, 16 or 53% of the

respondents rated “Good” in rank 1, 8 or 27% of the respondents rated “Very

Good” in rank 2, 5 or 17% of respondents rated “Satisfactory” in rank 3 and 1

or 3% of respondents rated “Excellent” in rank 4. The computed mean was 30

and the verbal interpretation in the system’s reliability classified as “Good”.

The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Good" covered half of the total

percentage (53%) preceded by (27%) rating for "Very Good", (17%) rating for

"Satisfactory", and (3%), "Excellent", with a total consolidation of 100%. The

overall average response or the computed mean for the ungrouped data hit

3.16, rounded off to rating scale which means that the majority of the

respondents evaluate the project's design as "Good" cover the three sub

queries: The ability of the design to understand the function, The ability of the

design to understand its function, the easiness of the design to know how it

operates and the ability of the design to show how it works.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 46.50 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.16

provided 4 degrees of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. In case, the

rejection region was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there

was a significant difference in the evaluations of the project. The average

number of respondents who said "Good" was significantly higher than the rest

of the sample.

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3.3 In Terms of Functionality

Table 5.6

Proposed Project Development in terms of Functionality

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi-

Interpretation Square

Excellent 2 7% 3rd

Very Good 8 27% 2nd

Good 10 33% 1st

Satisfactory 10 33% 1st


3.1 38.50
Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Good

As observed in the Table 5.4, from the 30 respondents, 10 or 33% of

the respondents rated “Good” and “Satisfactory were tied which in rank 1,

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while 8 or 27% of the respondents rated “Very Good” which in rank 2. The

computed mean was 30 and the verbal interpretation in the project’s

functionality classified as “Good” and “Satisfactory”

The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Good" covered one third of the total

percentage (33%) tied with "Satisfactory" with a rating (33%), (27%) rating for

"Very Good" and (7%) rating for "Excellent". with a total consolidation of

100%. The overall average response or the computed mean for the

ungrouped data hit 3.1, rounded off to rating scale which means that the

majority of the respondents evaluate the project's functionality as "Good" and

“Satisfactory” it cover the three sub queries: The ability of the device to have

an accurate output, the ability of the device to send SMS to the user and the

ability of the device to sense the moisture of the soil.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 27 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.1 provided 4

degrees of freedom and 38.50 level of significance. In case, the rejection

region was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there was a

significant difference in the evaluations of the project. The average number of

respondents who said "satisfactory" and “Good” was significantly higher than

the rest of the sample.

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3.4 In Terms of Maintainability

Table 5.7

Proposed Project in terms of Maintainability

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi- Square

Interpretation

Excellent 2 7% 4th

Very Good 7 23% 2nd

Good 15 50% 1st

Satisfactory 6 20% 3rd


3.20 23.50
Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Good

As stated in the Table 5.5, in the 30 respondents, 15 or 50% of the

respondents rated “Good” in rank 1, 7 or 23% of the respondents rated “Very

Good” in rank 2, and 6 or 20% of the respondents rated “Satisfactory” in rank

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3 tied with the satisfactory. The computed mean was 30 and the verbal

interpretation in the project’s maintainability classified as “Good”.

The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Good" covered half of the total

percentage (50%) preceded by (23%) rating for "Very Good", (20%) rating for

"Satisfactory", and (7%) "Excellent" with a total consolidation of 100%. The

overall average response or the computed mean for the ungrouped data hit

3.20, rounded off to rating scale which means that the majority of the

respondents evaluate the project's maintainability as "Good" cover the three

sub queries: The ability of the device to show how it works, the ability of the

device to maintain the process of the devices, the easiness manipulating the

device maintenance.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 27 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.20 provided 4

degrees of freedom and 23.50 level of significance. In case, the rejection

region was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there was a

significant difference in the evaluations of the project. The average number of

respondents who said "Good" was significantly higher than the rest of the

sample.

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3.5 In Terms of Reliability

Table 5.8

Proposed Project Development in terms of Reliability

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi- Square

Interpretation

Excellent 2 7% 4th

Very Good 9 30% 2nd

Good 12 40% 1st

Satisfactory 7 23% 3rd


3.00 33.75
Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Good

As described in the Table 5.6, in the 30 respondents, 12 or 40% of the

respondents rated “Good” in rank 1, 9 or 30% of the respondents rated “Very

Good” in rank 2, and 7 or 23% of respondents rated “Satisfactory” in rank 3.

The computed mean was 30 and the verbal interpretation in the project’s

reliability classified as “Good”.

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The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Good" covered half of the total

percentage (40%) preceded by (30%) rating for "Very Good", (23%) rating for

"Satisfactory", and a none (0%), "Fair", with a total consolidation of 100%. The

overall average response or the computed mean for the ungrouped data hit

3.00, rounded off to rating scale which means that the majority of the

respondents evaluate the project's reliability as "Good" cover the three sub

queries: The correctness of the device regarding how it works, the reliability

on the notification sent by the device towards user, The correctness of the

device in the user.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 27 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.00 provided 4

degrees of freedom and 33.75 level of significance. In case, the rejection

region was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there was a

significant difference in the evaluations of the project. The average number of

respondents who said "Good" was significantly higher than the rest of the

sample.

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3.6 In Terms of Safety

Table 5.9

Proposed Project Development in terms of Safety

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi- Square

Interpretation

Excellent 2 7% 4th

Very Good 7 23% 2nd

Good 17 57% 1st

Satisfactory 4 13% 3rd


3.2 53.50
Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Good

As reflected in the Table 5.8, out of 30 respondents, 17 or 57% of the

respondents rated “Good” in rank 1, 7 or 23% of the respondents rated “Very

Good” in rank 2, 4 or 13% of respondents rated “Satisfactory” in rank 3 and 2

or 7% of respondents rated “Excellent” in rank 4. The computed mean was 30

and the verbal interpretation in the project’s reliability classified as “Good”.

The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Good" covered half of the total

percentage (57%) preceded by (23%) rating for "Very Good", (13%) rating for

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"Satisfactory", and (7%), "Excellent", with a total consolidation of 100%. The

overall average response or the computed mean for the ungrouped data hit

3.25, rounded off to rating scale which means that the majority of the

respondents evaluate the project’s safety as "Good" cover the three sub

queries: The safety of the device to the maintenance, The safety of the device

to the plants, The safety of the device to the environment.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 53.50 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.2 provided

4 degrees of freedom and 0.05 level of significance. In case, the rejection

region was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there was a

significant difference in the evaluations of the project. The average number of

respondents who said "satisfactory" was significantly higher than the rest of

the sample.

3.7 In Terms of Usability

Table 5.10

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Software Evaluation for the Proposed System in terms of Usability

Verbal Frequency Percentage Rank Mean Chi-

Interpretation Square

Excellent 1 4% 3rd

Very Good 7 23% 2nd

Good 15 50% 1st

Satisfactory 7 23% 2nd


3.30 41
Fair 0 0%

Total No. of 30 100%

Respondents

(N)

Verbal Interpretation Good

As depicted in the Table 5.7, out of 30 respondents, 15 or 50% of the

respondents rated “Good” in rank 1, 7 or 23% of the respondents rated “Very

Good” and “Satisfactory were tied in rank 2, and 1 or 40% of respondents

rated “Excellent” in rank 3. The computed mean was 30 and the verbal

interpretation in the project’s Usability classified as “Good”.

The above table further illustrates that the most observations, which

were under the rating scale of 1 for "Good" covered half of the total

percentage (50%) preceded by (23%) rating for "Very Good" tied with (23%)

rating for "Satisfactory", and (4%), "Excellent", with a total consolidation of

100%. The overall average response or the computed mean for the

ungrouped data hit 3.30, rounded off to rating scale which means that the

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majority of the respondents evaluate the project 's usability as "Good" cover

the three sub queries: The usability of the SMS features in sending

notifications, The usability of the soil moisture sensor to sense when the soil

need to water, The usability of the device to the user.

Through the test statistic used, the obtained computed value chi-

square was 27 this value was greater than the critical value of 3.30 provided 4

degrees of freedom and 41 level of significance. In case, the rejection region

was the H0 therefore, the proponents concluded that there was a significant

difference in the evaluations of the project. The average number of

respondents who said "Good" was significantly higher than the rest of the

sample.

3. Summary of the Respondents Evaluation Criteria

Table 5.11

Summary Rate of Proposed Project Development in terms of Criteria

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Criteria Mean Chi-Square Verbal

Interpretation

Cost 3.53 65.50 Very Good

-effectiveness

Design 3.16 46.50 Good

Functionality 3.1 38.50 Good

Maintainability 3.20 23.50 Good

Reliability 3.00 33.75 Good

Safety 3.2 53.50 Good

Usability 3.30 41 Good

Average Mean 3.21 43.32 Good

As shown in the table. The evaluation criteria in terms of Cost-

effectiveness has a mean of 3.53 and the chi-square has 65.50 with a verbal

interpretation of “Very Good”, Design has a mean of 3.16 and the chi-square

has 46.50 with a verbal interpretation of “Good”, Functionality has a mean of

3.10 and the chi-square has 38.50 with a verbal interpretation of “Good”,

Maintainability has a mean of 3.20 and the chi-square has 23.50 with a verbal

interpretation of “Good”, Reliability has a mean of 3.00 and the chi-square has

33.75 with a verbal interpretation of “Good”, Safety has a mean of 3.20 and

the chi-square has 53.50 with a verbal interpretation of “Good”. Usability has a

mean of 3.30 and the chi-square has 41 with a verbal interpretation of “Good”.

The overall average of the respondent’s evaluation in terms of criteria was

3.21 for the mean and 43.32 for the chi-square with an overall verbal

interpretation of “Good”.

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Chapter VI

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter includes the summary, conclusion and recommendation of

the study through the surveys conducted by the proponents in the research

locale and computed through the Mean, Frequency, Likert’s scale and Chi-

Square Test. Alongside of the result procured, thereby, the profound

evaluations of the proposed project were held according to the criteria of the

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systems Cost - Effectiveness, Design, Functionality, Maintainability, Reliability,

Safety, and Usability.

Summary of Findings

The development of Automated Watering of Plants with SMS alert was

developed for the gardeners or the authorize person in the field of planting.

The study aims to easily water the plants that would notify the user.

The proponents used the description method of research in gathering

the needed data for effectiveness of the study.

The proponents used Cost - Effectiveness, Design, Functionality,

Maintainability, Reliability, Safety, and Usability. as criteria in evaluating the

proposed system Likert’s scale method was used for mean and verbal

interpretation.

The proponents considered this study an innovation way of notifying

and monitoring the users

Based on the survey conducted to the respondents of the research

locale, the following results were gathered, summarized, analyzed and

interpreted by the proponents towards the profound and based evaluation of

the proposed automated watering plants with SMS alert.

A. Profile of the Respondents

1. Age Bracket

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It was shown in the summarization of survey data that 14 or

47% of the respondents fall under the age bracket of 18-28 years

old; 10 or 33% was from 29-38 years old; 6 or 20% from 29-Above

years old notice that the biggest percentage, 47% which ranged

from 18-28 years old signifies that the majority of the randomly

chosen respondents were came from IT Personnel where in 14 out

of 30 respondents were from the said entity. Thus, the proposed

project was tested and evaluated by the most important entity,

which considered the cornerstone of the entire study.

2. Gender

Based on the survey data collection from 30 respondents, 16

or equivalent to 53% was male and the rest 14 or equivalent to 47%

was female. It interprets that male were the dominant respondents

of the study. However, it does not accurately assume that the said

gender occupies the bigger number in the entire population.

B. Feasibility Assessment of the Proposed Study – Developing

Automated Watering Plants with SMS Alert, based on the following

Criteria:

1. Cost - effectiveness

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Cost - effectiveness was interested to the following: The ability of

the device to lessen the water, the ability of the device to conserve

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water, the device has a great benefit for water consumption.

According to the finding the Cost - effectiveness showed that the

most observations which were under the rating scale of 50% or

“Very Good” covered half of the total percentage 100%. It was

preceded by 47% rating for “Good”, 3% rating for “Satisfactory”,

with a total of consolidation of 100%. The mean of cost-

effectiveness was 3.53 and 66.50 for chi-square.

2. Design

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Design was interested to the following: The ability of the design to

understand the function, the easiness of the design to know how it

operates, the ability of the design to show how it. According to the

finding the Design showed that the most observations which were

under the rating scale of 53% or “Good” covered half of the total

percentage 100%. It was preceded by 27% rating for “Very Good”,

17% rating for “Satisfactory”, 3% for “Excellent” with a total of

consolidation of 100%. The mean of cost- effectiveness was 3.16

and 46.50 for chi-square.

3. Functionality

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Functionality was interested to the following: The ability of the

device to have an accurate output, the ability of the device to send

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SMS to the user and the ability of the device to sense the moisture

of the soil. According to the finding the functionality showed that the

most observations which were under the rating scale of 33% or

“Good” covered half of the total percentage 100%. It was preceded

by 33% rating for “Good” and “Satisfactory”, 8% rating for “Very

Good” and 7% for “Excellent” with a total of consolidation of 100%.

The mean of cost- effectiveness was 3.1 and 38.50 for chi-square.

4. Maintainability

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Maintainability was interested to the following: The ability of the

device to show how it works, the ability of the device to maintain the

process of the devices, the easiness manipulating the device

maintenance. According to the finding the Maintainability showed

that the most observations which were under the rating scale of 50

or “Good” covered half of the total percentage 100%. It was

preceded by 23% rating for “Very Good”, 20% rating for

“Satisfactory”, 7% for “Excellent” with a total of consolidation of

100%. The mean of cost- effectiveness was 3.20 and 23.50 for chi-

square.

5. Reliability

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Reliability was interested to the following: The correctness of the

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device regarding how it works, the reliability on the notification sent

by the device towards user, the correctness of the device in the

user. According to the finding the reliability showed that the most

observations which were under the rating scale of 40% or “Good”

covered half of the total percentage 100%. It was preceded by 30%

rating for “Very Good”, 7% rating for “Satisfactory”, 2% for

“Excellent” with a total of consolidation of 100%. The mean of cost-

effectiveness was 3.00 and 33.75 for chi-square.

6. Safety

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Portability was interested to the following: The safety of the device

to the maintenance, the safety of the device to the plants, the safety

of the device to the environment. According to the finding the

functionality showed that the most observations which were under

the rating scale of 57% or “Good” covered half of the total

percentage 100%. It was preceded by 23% rating for “Very Good”,

13% rating for “Satisfactory”, 7%% for “Excellent” with a total of

consolidation of 100%. The mean of cost- effectiveness was 3.2

and 53.50 for chi-square.

7. Usability

The assessment of the proposed project in relation to the

Usability was interested to the following: The usability of the SMS

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features in sending notifications, The usability of the soil moisture

sensor to sense when the soil need to water, The usability of the

device to the user. According to the finding the Usability showed

that the most observations which were under the rating scale of

50% or “Good” covered half of the total percentage 100%. It was

preceded by 23% rating for “Excellent”, 23% rating for

“Satisfactory”, 40% for “Excellent” with a total of consolidation of

100%. The mean of cost- effectiveness was 3.30 and 41 for chi-

square.

Conclusion

The design project of automated plants sprinkling water with SMS alert

would help the farmers to water the plants without any supervision. In using

the manual process it takes time to water the plants and cannot determine

whether the soil needs water or not. Now with the use of proposed design

project, the user can be informed using SMS and can save effort to check the

plants every time. In accordance with these accomplishments, the design

project has met the set of objectives.

The study includes automated watering plants with SMS alert to water

plants with the use of soil moisture sensor detects if the soil was dry. The

Arduino Uno was program to water the plants automatically and the GSM

module was used to send SMS to the user. The Automatic plant watering

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device using arduino and soil moisture sensor automatically provides water on

plants and keeps updated by sending message to cell phones through SMS

via GSM module.

Soil moisture sensor checks the soil moisture level and if moisture level

was low the arduino switches on the device would automatically off when

project finds enough moisture in the soil. Whenever the device switched on or

off a message would send to the user via GSM module. The project was

completely automated and very useful in school gardens, farms and home.

The development of the study was obtained to operate the automatic watering

process needed by the plants so there no excess water which mainly

contributes to conservation of water.

Recommendations

The following were the recommendation to improve the project:

1. The proposed project should be implemented to develop the current

process in watering of plants and notifying the users through mobile

phone.

2. The proposed project should be used as an automated plant watering

system with the use of arduino and soil moisture sensor.

3. The study recommends the device as reference by other users who

were planning to conduct a study related in the working automation and

other agricultural activities.

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4. The study be recommending the users to use the proposed project to

automatically watered the plants with the use of arduino and automatic

soil moisture sensor.

Bibliography

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[17] Rane, D., Indurkar, P.R., Khatri, D.M. (2015) Review Paper Based On
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[29] Angal, s. (2016) Raspberry pi and Arduino Based Automated Watering


System, International Journal of Science and Research 5(7), Retrieved
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power-sensor-for-soil-moisture-measurement.html.
[31] Jadhav, S., Hambarde, S., (2014) Automated Watering System using
Wireless Sensor Network and Raspberry Pi, International Journal of
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[32 ]Aburrahman, M.A. (2015) Sensor Based Automatic Watering
Management System, 0(3), Retrieved March 20, 2017.
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moisture-content.
[35] Al-Rashid, Abdul Halim B.. (2016) Smart Greenhouse Watering System
with Remote Monitoring. Retrieved March 20, 2017 from
portal.fice.utm.mylfkelibrary/.../1680abdulhalimal-rashidbin.pdf.
[36] Rahman, Anisur, Momotaz, Khan Tanjil, Sarker ,Mahmood, Zahid H, an.
(2016) Smart Greenhouse Watering System with Remote Monitoring
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crops (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Zimbabwe.
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20 2017.
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Performance Indicators on some Selected Plants,
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Level Indicator (Master's thesis, Lyceum of the Philippines, 2015).


Laguna: LPU-Laguna Journal of Engineering and Computer Studies.
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V. R. (n.d.). Portable Water Level Monitoring System via SMS (Master's
thesis, College of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Batangas
State University ). Nasugbu, Batangas: ARASOF.
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Based Automated Watering System, Retrieved March 22, 2017, from
http://prezi.com.
[45] De La Salle University. Jazelle Paula M. Bathan, Ma. Carla Angelica R.
Belen, Paula Jianelli M. Lao,Jasper C. Tiu, Enrique M. Manzano.
retrieved March 20, 2017 from SEE-V-E44.pdf.
46] Rainer N. Dita, Paolo Pedro C. Martinez, Chrish Adrian S Miranda.
Retrieved March 20, 2017 from Mapúa Institute of Technology.
[47] Hafeez, M. M., Khan, S., & Mushtaq, S. (2011). Scale effects on water
use efficiency and productivity: a case study from UPRIIS, Philippines.
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[48] CSIRO Land and Water Division, Locked Bag 588, WaggaWagga, NSW
2678, Australia 2 International Centre of Water for Food Security,
Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, WaggaWagga, NSW 2678,
Australia 3.
[49] David, C. D., Philippine Watering Development: Overview, Determinants,
and Policy Issues, Philippines Institute for Development Studies,
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[50] Murat Yildirim, Mehmet Demirel. Retrieved March 20, 2017 from The
Philippine Agriculture Scientist.
[51] Inocian,R. (n.d.). The gulayan sa Paaralan, School Vegetable Garden In
Response To Sustainable Development, Retrieved March 20, 2017,
fromhttp://www.academia.edu/11804322/the_gulayan_sa_paaralan_sc
hool_vegetable_garden_in_response_to_sustainable_development.
[52] Alviar, V. (2014). ‘Bahay Kubo’ veggies thrive in school gardens.
Inquirer.net. Retrieved March 20, 2017.

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[53] 10 features of a Philippine farm of the future. (n.d.). Retrieved March 20,
2017, from http://www.rappler.com/nation/91746-philippine-future-farm-
philrice.
[54] New watering technique can ease drought effects for rice farmers. (2014,
November 24). Retrieved March 20, 2017, from
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effects-rice-farmers#.WNAG7dLyu1s.
[55] Caldo, R.B., (2016) A Model Case of Intelligent Data Management and
Decision Supporting System of Monitoring Green Leafy Vegetables, De
Lasalle University Research Congress.
[56] Lasbiano, B.S., (n.d.) Agricultural Water Management Systems in the
Philippines: Current Status and Policy Direction, Food and Fertilizer
Technology Center, Retrieved March 22, 2017.
[57] New Watering Technique can ease drought effects for rice farmers,
Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Retrieved March 22,
2017.
[58] Bureau of Soils and Water Management(n.d), A Farmer-guided Soil
Classification System for the Philippines, International Soil Reference
and Information Centre.
[59] Murat Yildirim, Mehmet Demirel. Retrieved March 20, 2017 from The
Philippine Agriculture Scientist.
[60] Rainer N. Dita, Paolo Pedro C. Martinez, Chrish Adrian S Miranda.,
Technology Transfer Strategies and Experiences on Urban and Peri-
Urban Agriculture Retrieved March 20, 2017 from Mapúa Institute of
Technology.

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Appendix A
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Approval Letter

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Appendix B
Cover Letter

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Appendix C
Certificate of Acceptance

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Appendix D
Certificate of Evaluation

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Appendix E
Grammarian’s Certificate

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Cecilia P. Abaricia, DT
Thesis Adviser
College of Computer Science Department
Asian Institute of Computer Studies

Dear Prof. Abaricia:

This was to certify the edited manuscript entitled “Developing Automated


Watering Plants with SMS Alert”. My Degree in Computer Science and my
job experience qualifies me in editing the paper. Attached was my curriculum
vitae which indicates my qualification and contact details. It was my pleasure
reading the manuscript of the advises.

Thank you very much

Sincerely yours.

Louie M. Visaya
Languange Editor

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Louie M. Visaya
2563-B M. Natividad St.

Sta. Cruz, Manila

Tel. No.: 09273714872

Email: eldritch555@yahoo.com

WORK EXPERIENCES

Customer Service Representative Oct 2006 – present Sykes Asia Inc

- receives inbound calls and provide answers to clients by identifying problems; researching
answers; guiding customers through corrective steps;

- deliver service and support to end-users using and operating automated call distribution
phone software, via remote connection;

- interacts with customers to provide and process information in response to inquiries,


concerns, and requests about products and services;

- gathers customer’s information and determine the issue by evaluating and analyzing the
symptoms;

- follow standard processes and procedures;

- identify and escalate priority issues per customer specifications;

- follow up and make scheduled call backs to customers where necessary.

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Manager/Owner Jun 2002 – Jun 2006 eYoL@pEg.PcServices


Lagro, Quezon City

- installing and configuring computer systems;

- monitoring and maintaining computer systems and networks;

- troubleshooting system and network problems and diagnosing and solving


hardware/software faults;

- finding solutions to problems, be it through creating a desktop short cut or fixing a major
fault on the operating system;

- replacing parts as required;

- running network applications to support system and users;

- conducting electrical safety checks on computer equipment;

- being involved in computer sales and support and, where appropriate, maintaining contact
with clients.

Programmer/Encoder Nov 2001 – Dec 2002 Asia-Insider


Banker’s Village II,Caloocan City

- analyzing problems and making recommendations;

- defining software, hardware and network requirements;

- troubleshooting system and network problems and diagnosing and solving


hardware/software faults;

- replacing parts as required;

- installing and configuring computer systems;

- monitoring and maintaining computer systems and networks.

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Type Reader/Encoder Feb 1997 – Feb 1998 Innodata Processing Corporation


Makati, Metro Manila

Full-Time Missionary Oct 1994 – Oct 1996 Philippines Cebu Mission


The Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints

Formatter/Proofreader Nov 1992 – Sep 1994 Innodata Processing Corporation

Makati, Metro Manila

Caretaker 1991 – 1992 The Church of Jesus Christ

of Latter-day Saints

Sta. Mesa Chapel

CIVIL SERVICE GRADE

Civil Service Sub-Professional 85.63 18 June 2000

EDUCATION

B.S. Computer Science 1997 – 2001 STI College Recto

Recto, Manila

B.S. Electrical Engineering 1989 – 1991 University of Santo Tomas

– 2nd Year

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Secondary 1985 – 1989 Holy Trinity Academy

Sampaloc, Manila

Primary 1979 – 1985 P. Burgos Elem. School

Sta. Mesa, Manila

TRAININGS / SEMINARS

Hacking: How to Prevent It Feb 2000 University of Santo Tomas

Network and Internet Security Oct 1999 Philippine International Convention Center

Why Surf The Net? Aug 1998 STI College Recto

The Future of IT Professionals Jan 1998 STI College Recto

SKILLS/KNOWLEDGE:

Computer literate (MS Office, Visual Basic 6.0, Windows 7, Networking, Internet Security,
Hardware Troubleshooting, Software Development), guitar playing

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PERSONAL DATA

Date of Birth : June 14, 1972

Citizenship : Filipino

Religion : Latter-day Saint

Gender : Male

Civil Status : Married

Language/Dialect : English, Filipino and Ilocano

CHARACTER REFERENCES

1. Mr. JR Rolan Llamas Supervisor Cell. No. 09209649773


fMCI-TNT
Sykes Asia

2. Ms. Charito Chua Corporate Treasurer/ Cell. No. 09328706275/


Member of the Board 2095154
Professional Microfinance
Alliance, Inc.

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Appendix F
Preliminary Interview

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1. What was the watering process?

Answer: Just simply using manual watering or using hose connected to

the faucet.

2. What was the schedule of the watering process?

Answer: The schedule of watering process was done every morning.

3. Who was the responsible person in the watering process

Answer: The responsible person in watering was the school

maintenance.

4. How can monitor the watering process?

Answer: We can monitor the watering by simply asking the school

maintenance if the plants were already watered.

5. What was the assurance if the plants acquired enough water?

Answer: We cannot assure if the plants acquired enough water as long

as we know that the plants was being watered every day.

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Appendix G
Relevant Source Codes

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#include "SIM900.h"

#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

#include "sms.h"

#include <TimerOne.h>

SMSGSM sms;

int numdata;

boolean started=false;

char smsbuffer[160];

char n[20];

int SolValve = 12;

int Setvalue = 500;

int ValveOn = 0;

int ValveOff = 0;

void setup()

Timer1.initialize(500000);

Timer1.attachInterrupt( timerIsr );

pinMode(SolValve,OUTPUT);

pinMode(13,OUTPUT);

//Serial connection.

Serial.begin(9600);

Serial.println("GSM Shield testing.");

if (gsm.begin(2400)) {

Serial.println("\nstatus=READY");

started=true;

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} else Serial.println("\nstatus=IDLE");

if(started) {

//Enable this two lines if you want to send an SMS.

// if (sms.SendSMS("09771512537", "Arduino SMS"))

// Serial.println("\nSMS sent OK");

};

void timerIsr()

digitalWrite( 13, digitalRead( 13 ) ^ 1 );

void smssending(){

if (digitalRead(SolValve)){

Serial.print("ValveOn = ");

Serial.println(ValveOn);

delay(200);

ValveOff = 1;

if(ValveOn == 1){

if (sms.SendSMS("09354170568", "Valve was on"))

Serial.println("\nSMS sent OK");

ValveOn = 0;

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else{ Serial.print("ValveOff = ");

Serial.println(ValveOff);

delay(200);

ValveOn = 1;

if(ValveOff == 1){

if (sms.SendSMS("09354170568", "Valve was off"))

Serial.println("\nSMS sent OK");

ValveOff = 0;

void loop()

int SoilVal = analogRead(A0);

if(SoilVal < Setvalue )

{digitalWrite(SolValve,LOW);}

else

{digitalWrite(SolValve,HIGH);}

smssending();

};

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Appendix H
Evaluation Tools

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Appendix I
User’s Guide

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1. Place the soil moisture sensor on the desired place in soil.

Figure I.1 Soil Moisture Sensor

2. Set the sprinkler to the desired place. Make sure that the connection of the
sprinkler to the solenoid valve was okay.

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Figure I.2 Sprinkler

3. Put the water pump in water supply

Figure I.3 Water pump

4. Make sure that the connection of the water pump to the solenoid valve was
okay.

Figure I.4 Solenoid Valve

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5. Connect the Ac adaptor to the outlet to start the device.

Figure I.5 Ac adaptor

6. Plug the water pump to begin the watering of plants.

Figure I.6 Watering Plants

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7. Make sure that the sim card have enough load to send SMS to the user.

Figure I.7 Sending SMS

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Appendix J
Market Analysis

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Table J.1 Market Analysis

Specification Description Amount

Arduino Uno The Arduino Uno was a 1000.00 Php


microcontroller board
based on the ATmega328
(datasheet).

Soil Moisture Sensor Soil moisture sensors 350.00 Php


measure the volumetric
water content in soil.

Breadboad A board for making an 150.00 Php


experimental model of an
electric circuit.

Jumper Wire Short wire used to 150.00 Php


complete an electric circuit
or bypass a break in a
circuit

Relay A relay was an electrically 500.00 Php


operated switch.

Adaptor (AC/DC Power A device for connecting 250.00 Php


pieces of equipment that
Supply ) cannot be connected
directly.

GSM Module Used to establish 2,225.00 Php


communication between a
computer and a GSM-
GPRS system.

Sim Card A subscriber identity 40.00 Php


module was a smart card
that stores data for GSM
cellular telephone
subscribers.

Sprinkler A device for irrigation of 400.00 Php


lawns or crops.

PVC Pipe A tubular section, or 100.00 Php


hollow cylinder, made

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of plastic.
Hose A hose was a flexible 40.00 Php
hollow tube designed to
carry fluids from one
location to another.
Total Amount 5,205.00

Maintainance Cost:

Maintainance Cost = Total Cost * .20

=(5,205.00)(.20)

Maintenance Cost = Php 1,041.00

Development Cost:

Profit = Total Cost * .50 – Maintenance Cost

= 5,205.00 * .50 – 1,041.00

= 1,561.5 – 1,041.00

=Php 520.50

Development Cost = Total Cost + (Total Cost * .30)

= 5,205.00 + 1,561.50

Development Cost = Php 6,766.50

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Appendix K
Environmental Analysis

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Components Toxic Non-toxic

Arduino Uno X

GSM Module X

Soil Moisture Sensor X

AC Adaptor X

Jumper Wire X

Relay Module X
Step down power supply X
module

Solenoid Valve X

Environmental Analysis

Environmental analysis was a strategic tool. It was a process to identify

all the external and internal elements, which can affect the organization’s

performance. The analysis entails assessing the level of threat or opportunity

the factors might present. These evaluations were later translated into the

decision-making process. The analysis helps align strategies with the firm’s

environment.

Table K.1 Environmental Analysis

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Appendix L
Legal Implications

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A decree instituting a water code, thereby revising and consolidating the

laws governing the ownership, appropriation, utilization, exploitation,

development, conservation and protection of water resources

WHEREAS, Article XIV, Section 8 of the New Constitution of the Philippines

provides, inter alia, that all waters of the Philippines belong to the State;

WHEREAS, existing water legislations are piece-meal and inadequate to

cope with increasing scarcity of water and changing patterns of water use;

WHEREAS, there was a need for a Water Code based on rational concepts or

integrated and multipurpose management of water resources and sufficiently

flexible to adequately meet future developments;

WHEREAS, water was vital to national development and it has become

increasingly necessary for government to intervene actively in improving the

management of water resources;

CONTROL OF WATERS

Article 53. To promote the best interest and the coordinated protection of

flood plain lands, the Secretary of Public Works, Transportation and

Communications may declare flood control areas and promulgate guidelines

for governing flood plain management plans in these areas.

Article 54. In declared flood control areas, rules and regulations may be

promulgated to prohibit or control activities that may damage or cause

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deterioration or lakes and dikes, obstruct the flow of water, change the natural

flow of the river, increase flood losses or aggravate flood problems.

Article 55. The government may construct necessary flood control structures

in declared flood control areas, and for this purpose it shall have a legal

easement as wide as may be needed along and adjacent to the river bank

and outside of the bed or channel of the river.

Article 56. River beds, sand bars and tidal flats may not be cultivated except

upon prior permission from the Secretary of the Department of Public Works,

Transportation and Communication and such permission shall not be granted

where such cultivation obstructs the flow of water or increase flood levels so

as to cause damage to other areas.

Article 57. Any person may erect levees or revetments to protect his property

from flood, encroachment by the river or change in the course of the river,

provided that such constructions does not cause damage to the property of

another.

Article 59. Rivers, lakes and lagoons may, upon the recommendation of the

Philippines Coast Guard, be declared navigable either in whole or in part.

Article 60. The rafting of logs and other objects on rivers and lakes which are

flotable may be controlled or prohibited during designated season of the year

with due regard to the needs of irrigation and domestic water supply and other

uses of water.

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Article 61. The impounding of water in ponds or reservoirs may be prohibited

by the Council upon consultation with the Department of Health if it was

dangerous to public health, or it may order that such pond or reservoir be

drained if such was necessary for the protection of public health.

CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WATERS AND WATERSHEDS

AND RELATED LAND RESOURCES

Article 66. After due notice and hearing when warranted by circumstances,

minimum stream flows for rivers and streams, and minimum water levels for

lakes may be established by the Council under such conditions as may be

necessary for the protection of the environment, control of pollution,

navigation, prevention of salt damage, and general public use.

Article 67. Any watershed or any area of land adjacent to any surface water

or overlying any ground water may declared by the Department of Natural

Resources as protected area Rules and regulations may be promulgated by

such Department to prohibit or control such activities by the owners or

occupants thereof within the protected area which may damage or cause the

deterioration of the surface water or ground water or interfere with the

investigation, use, control, protection, management or administration of such

waters.

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Article 68. It shall be the duty of any person in control of a well to prevent the

water from flowing on the surface of the land, or into any surface water, or any

porous stratum under neath the surface without being beneficially used.

Article 69. It shall be the duty of any person in control of a well containing

water with minerals or other substances injurious to man, animals, agriculture,

and vegetation to prevent such waters from flowing on the surface of the land

or into any surface water or into any other aquifer or porous stratum.

Article 70. No person shall utilize an existing well or pond or spread waters

for recharging substerranean or ground water supplies without prior

permission of the Council.

Article 71. To promote better water conservation and usage for irrigation

purposes, the merger of irrigation associations and the appropriation of waters

by associations instead of by individuals shall be encouraged.

No water permit shall be granted to an individual when his water requirement

can be supplied through an irrigation association.

Article 72. In the consideration of a proposed water resource project, due

regard shall be given to ecological changes resulting from the construction of

the project in order to balance the needs of development and the protection of

the environment.

Article 73. The conservation of fish and wildlife shall receive proper

consideration and shall be coordinated with other features of water resources

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development programs to insure that fish and wildlife values receive equal

attention with other project purposes.

Article 74. Swamps and marshes which are owned by the State and which

primary value for waterfowl propagation or other wildlife purposes may be

reserved and protected from drainage operation and development.

Article 75. No person shall, without prior permission from the National

Pollution Control Commission, build any works that may produce dangerous

or noxious substances or perform any act which may result in the introduction

of sewage, industrial waste, or any pollutant into any source of water supply.

Water pollution was the impairment of the quality of water beyond a certain

standard. This standard may vary according to the use of the water and shall

be set by the National Pollution Control Commission.

Article 76. The establishment of cemeteries and waste disposal areas that

may affect the source of a water supply or a reservoir for domestic or

municipal use shall be subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the

Department of Health.

Article 77. Tailings from mining operations and sediments from placer mining

shall not be dumped into rivers and waterways without prior permission from

the Council upon recommendation by the National Pollution Control

Commission.

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Article 78. The application of agricultural fertiliers and pesticides may be

prohibited or regulated by the National Pollution Control Commission in the

areas where such application may cause pollution of a source of water supply.

Promulgating the Plant Quarantine Law of 1978, thereby revising and

consolidating existing plant quarantine laws to further improve and

strengthen the plant quarantine service of the bureau of plant industry.

WHEREAS, economic losses due to injury on agricultural crops

brought about by plant pests have become increasingly significant;

WHEREAS, the prevention of introduction, incursion, establishment

and subsequent spread of plant pests by regulating the international and

domestic movements of plants and plant products, was considered more

practical and economical than any other method of plant pest control;

WHEREAS, modern means of transportation and handling of imports

and exports have favored the expeditious and extensive movements of plants

and plant products, thereby, increasing the risk of plant pest introduction

and/or incursion;

WHEREAS, plant quarantine was basically and essentially a

preventive measure, it being the actual frontline defense against the

introduction or incursion into the country of plant pests which are destructive.

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WHEREAS, some of the provisions of Act No. 3027 dated March 8,

1922, entitled, "an act to protect the agricultural industries of the Philippine

islands from injurious plant pests and diseases existing in foreign countries

and further to regulate the domestic movement of the plant materials in order

to minimize the injury from pests and diseases already introduced" and act no.

3767, dated november 26, 1930, entitled "an act regulating the importation,

bringing or introduction into the philippine islands of living animals, such as

insects, birds, crustaceans, bats, mollusks, reptiles, mammals, and other

animals, not falling within the scope of the term 'domestic animals' as

provided and defined in section four of act numbered thirty-six hundred and

thirty-nine, in order to protect the agricultural industries of this country and for

other purposes" are no longer relevant and applicable to the protection of

plant industries of this country, and therefore, require urgent and immediate

modification.

WHEREAS, the Plant Quarantine rules and regulations of the

Philippines must be compatible with those of other countries and with the

provisions of the Food and Agriculture Organization - International Plant

Protection Convention of the United Nations to which the Philippines was a

signatory;

WHEREAS, the attainment of the foregoing objectives require the

necessary improvement and strengthening of the Plant Quarantine Services

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of the Bureau of Plant Industry by providing adequate laws; regulations;

resources and facilities; and incentives to Plant Quarantine Officers.

SEC. 3. Importation of plants and plant products. — The importation and/or

introduction into the Philippines of plants, plant products, soil, packing

materials of plant origin capable of harboring and are a source of medium of

infection/infestation of plant pests, was hereby restricted subject to such

quarantine orders, rules and regulations as may be promulgated, from time to

time, by the Director with the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture.

SEC. 5. Commodities in transit. — Commodities mentioned under Section 3

and 4 of this Decree, as well as, food provisions of plant origin and plant

ornaments on board carriers, that are in transit shall be required of a

clearance from the Plant Quarantine Officers assigned at the port concerned.

SEC. 6. Exportation of plants and plant products. — The Director and/or

Plant Quarantine Officers shall cause the inspection and phytosanitary

certification of all plants, plant products and other related materials capable of

harboring plant pests, if the importing country so requires.

SEC. 7. Inspection of plants/plants products, potential animal pests, and

other materials.— The Director shall cause the appropriate inspection, of the

commodities mentioned in Sections 3, 4 5 and 6 and to apply the necessary

plant quarantine measures in order to attain the objectives of this Decree.

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WATER CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Implementing Rules and Regulations

Pursuant to the Water Code of the Philippines (the “Water Code”)

vesting upon the National Water Resources Board (the NWRB) the

administration and enforcement of the provisions thereof, the following rules

and regulations are hereby promulgated:

RULE I

APPROPRIATION AND UTILIZATION OF WATERS

1. Use of water for irrigation was the utilization of water for producing

agricultural crops.

2. Use of water for industrial purposes was the utilization of water in

factories, industrial plants and mines including the use of water as an

ingredient of a finished product.

Water Permit for Irrigation Use

1. Proof of land ownership of, legal title to, or right to use, the property

on which the water source was situated;

2. Certificate of Registration from relevant agencies i.e Department of

Trade and Industry (DTI), Cooperative and Development Authority

(CDA), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) with Articles of

Incorporation (for Corporation or Association) including Corporate

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Secretary’s Certification on present capital structure stating the

citizenship and the number of shares of each stockholder;

3. Vicinity Map/Location Plan with scale 1:50,000 showing the exact

location of the point of diversion;

4. General layout of the system, including delineation of area

indicating hectarage for which water would be used and adjoining

lands and the corresponding owners duly indicated relative to the

point of diversion;

5. Well Drilling Data (in case of existing groundwater source);

6. Environmental Compliance Certificate (for projects considered as

Environmentally Critical Projects or projects located in

Environmentally Critical Areas) or Certificate of Non-Coverage from

DENR -Regional Office; and Such other documents that may be

required by the Board.

General Information About 35 U.S.C. 161 Plant Patents

This publication provides a basic and understandable overview of plant

patents. It would help prospective plant patent applicants to:

 Identify what types of plants were patentable under the provisions of 35

U.S.C. 161.

 Present the legal requirements for attaining a plant patent in terms

which can be understood by attorneys, plant breeders, growers and

gardeners.

 Present the formal requirements of an application for plant patents.

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 Assist in gathering and organizing sufficient information for preparation

of a plant patent application.

 Summarize the typical steps which were performed by the Patent and

Trademark Office.

 Indicate where further information can be attained.

Patent for Electronic Household Plant Watering Device

A compact electronic device automatically waters household plants by

collecting ambient air moisture. The device utilizes the Peltier effect to

condense atmospheric moisture which was used in a controlled manner to

supply water to a plant. The device includes a thermoelectric module, a

microcontroller, a micro-fan, a moisture sensitive probe and an external power

supply.

Technological Field

The present invention relates generally to methods and apparatus for

watering plants and, more specifically, to automatic plant watering devices.

Background of the Invention

Cultivated plants have long been used in the home, office and other

buildings in order to beautify the surroundings. More recently, a number of

health benefits have been attributed to the presence of household plants.

Generally, all household plants must be periodically watered in order to

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maintain plant growth. The frequency of watering which was required varies

with the plant, the soil characteristics and the environment. It was known that

one of the principal causes of plant death was due to an improper watering

regime resulting from inadequate or excessive watering.

European patent number 87-074115/11 describes a plant cover roofing

which collects water and supplies it to underlying plants in a controlled

manner. U.S. Pat. No. 5,020,261, entitled, "MOISTURE SENSITIVE SELF-

WATERING PLANTER" discloses a moisture sensitive self-watering planter

having a control valve that controls the flow of water to the plant. The control

valve was actuated in response to a decrease in the weight of the soil as the

soil loses moisture. U.S. Pat. No. 5,351,437, entitled "MOISTURE SENSITIVE

IRRIGATION CONTROL SYSTEM," discloses a similar weight-based control

system for actuating a water valve. None of these prior art patents discloses

an automatic plant watering device as provided by the present invention.

Summary of the Invention

The present invention was based in part on the fact that a

thermoelectric module (Peltier principle) can be cooled beyond the dew point

and can collect moisture from ambient air. Therefore ambient air moisture can

be used as a direct water source for household plants.

In one aspect, the present invention provides a self-watering device for

household plants comprising at least one thermoelectric module to allow

condensation of moisture from the air.

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In another aspect a microcontroller was provided which permits overall

control of the system. In one embodiment, the microcontroller has a timer to

ensure that adequate soil moisture was attained within a reasonable time

period.

In another aspect of the present invention a probe was provided which

continuously measures soil water content and controls a main override switch

for the thermoelectric module, shutting off the power to the device and the

micro-fan once the desired level of soil moisture was attained.

In one aspect, the present invention allows the collected moisture to be

automatically regulated on a continuous basis by controlling the operation of

the thermoelectric module with a microcontroller in conjunction with a soil

moisture probe, thereby ensuring optimal plant growth with little or no

maintenance.

In another aspect, the microcontroller produces a warning signal which

indicates that additional (external) water should be added.

Thus, it was an object of the present invention to eliminate or

substantially reduce the need for periodic watering of a potted plant.

It was a further object of the present invention to ensure that the level

of soil moisture in a household plant was adequate and was continuously

monitored and regulated.

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Appendix M
Gantt Chart

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Table M.1 Gantt Chart

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Appendix N
Progress Report

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Progress Report

Introduction

Progress of the proposed project: Development of Automated Watering

Plants with SMS alert. Hereby, the assignment development and

accomplishment schedules of the tasks reflected on the Gantt chart were

promptly described towards the project developments progress evaluation.

TASK 1.

Searching for Subject Company

INCLUSIVE DATES: 6-7-16 to 7-5-16

DESCRIPTION:

For (9) days the proponents ventured searching for a prospective

company. The proponents decided to look for a company near Bagong Barrio,

Caloocan. It was quite a challenging task going around along Bagong Barrio

for finding such companies. Fortunately, the proponents were able to catch

one, a school, in Bagong Barrio, Caloocan making it the subject company for

this project. The name of the school was Bonifacio Memorial School. The

home study program offered by the school was the watering plants.

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TASK 2:

Conducting the Initial Interview

INCLUSIVE DATES: 7-7-16 to 7-12-16

DESCRIPTON:

In this period, the proponents have conducted an initial interview with

the key informant of the research project, Mr. Luisito Cleto. Principal at BMS.

Necessary inquiries were asked and tackled upon towards getting to know the

background of the school and the existing problem or problems being

encountered by the said entity which the development of the project can

address and alleviate.

TASK 3:

Analyzing the Existing Problem

INCLUSIE DATES: 7-12-16 to 8-11-16

DESCRIPTION:

Upon being cognizant that the school’s Watering Plants has been

encountering inconvenience in giving information about the watering of plants

used in the program, the proponents came up with the idea of developing an

automated watering plant that can help the school in watering of the plants.

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TASK 4:

Documenting the Study

INCLUSIVE DATES: 8-16-16 to 3-17-17

DESCRIPTION:

Aimed at more than (7) seven months, the proponents were on scheme

documenting this study. All the necessary documents were prepared

consequently from the preliminaries, through chapters and appendices with

relevant attachments. The documentation of this study was intended to

discuss all the necessary information as regards to the project development

and as such, to serve as reference for the future researchers that pursuit of

conducting same-natured studies.

TASK 5:

Developing the Project

INCLUSIVE DATES: 9-12-17 to 3-7-17

DESCRIPTION:

Intended for more than six (6) months, the proponents engineered the

proposed project. The ideas and concepts formed from the analysis of the

problem were applied to use in project development and thus the following

stages of project development were worked out with the requirements stage,

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design stage, implementing and unit testing stage, integration and project

testing stage and cooperation stage. All this stages derived were functional

student portal project.

TASK 6:

Testing and Evaluating the Project

INCLUSIVE DATES: 2-17-17 to 3-2-17

DESCRIPTION:

Subsequently the proposed project was developed rolled it down to the

subject company (BMS). On the last day of the above period, a survey was

permitted and fascinated to the teachers, students and alone IT personnel in

SJAB. Thirty (30) respondents were considered in the pursuit.

TASK 7:

Analyzing the Survey Results

INCLUSIVE DATES: 2-12-17 to 2-24-17

DESCRIPTION:

The data gathered from the conducted survey were analyzed by the

proponents for the study’s statistical treatment. Each respondents rating was

carefully tabulated in order to derive a credible and unbiased findings or

result. The Likert’s Scale method was towards the rating scheme of the

respondents.

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TASK 8:

Operating the Proposed Project

INCLUSIVE DATES: 3-3-17 to 3-7-17

DESCRIPTION:

The final task in the entire study of the proponents was to operate the

project. The fully-developed project was presented to the faculty of AICS’s

Computer Science Department for further recommendations and

disparagements. Necessary revisions were accomplished in this period.

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Appendix O
Computation for
Statistical Treatment

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Cost – Effectiveness of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

Excellent:

f = (1)/1

f=1

Very Good:

f= (15)/1

f= 15

Good:

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f = (14)/1

f= 14

Satisfactory:

f = (0)/1

f= 0

Fair:

f= (0)/1

f= 0

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

1 15 14 0 0 30

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

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Solution:

Excellent:

P = (1/30) * 100

P=3%

Very Good:

P = (15/30) * 100

P = 57%

Good:

P = (14/30) * 100

P = 47%

Satisfactory:

P = (0/30) * 100

P = 0%

Fair:

P = (0/20) * 100

P=0%

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

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3% 57% 47% 0% 0% 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

where:

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

N = total number of observation in the sample

Solution:

X  (1  15  14) / 5  6

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 5 4 4 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 3 4 4

Cost 2 4 5 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3
-Effectiveness
3 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

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21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 4 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3.83

Cost- 2 3 5 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 3 3.53
Effectiveness
3 3 5 3 4 2 4 3 4 3 3 3.43

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

where,

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

E = expected frequency

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

 = level of significance

H0 There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall Cost - Effectiveness feature of the proposed development

of automated watering plants with SMS alert.

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


189
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall Cost - Effectiveness feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance α = 0.05

Rejection Region : Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(1-4)2 /4]+ [(15-4)2/4]+[(14-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 2.25+ 30.25 + 25 +

4 .00 +4.00 = 65.50

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E

1 4 -3 9 2.25

15 4 11 121 30.25

14 4 10 100 25

0 4 4 16 4

0 4 4 16 4

X2 Computed 65.50

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(65.50) was greater than the critical or tabular value (23.50) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


190
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall Cost – Effectiveness feature of the proposed development

of automated watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the system to send

SMS to the users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep

existing user accounts and information have possessed significant rating

difference.

Design of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

Excellent:

f = (1)/1

f= 1

Very Good:

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


191
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

f= (8)/1

f= 8

Good:

f = (16)/1

f= 16

Satisfactory:

f = (5)/1

f= 5

Fair:

f= (0)/1

f= 0

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

1 8 16 5 0 30

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


192
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

Solution:

Excellent:

P = (1/30) * 100

P = 3%

Very Good:

P = (8/30) * 100

P = 27%

Good:

P = (16/30) * 100

P = 53%

Satisfactory:

P = (5/30) * 100

P = 17%

Fair:

P = (0/30) * 100

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


193
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

P=0%

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

3% 27% 53% 17% 0% 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

where:

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

N = total number of observation in the sample

Solution:

X  (1  8  16  5) / 5  6

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 4 5 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2

2 5 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 3 2

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


194
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Design 3 4 5 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 3

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 3 2 3.16

Design 2 3 5 3 3 2 4 3 4 3 3 3.23

3 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 2 3

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

where,

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

E = expected frequency

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

 = level of significance

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


195
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

H0 There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall design feature of the proposed development of automated

watering plants with SMS alert.

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall design feature of the proposed development of automated watering

plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance α = 0.05

Rejection Region: Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(1-4)2/4]+ [(8-4)2/4]+[(16-4)2/4]+[(5-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 2.25+ 4 + 36 + 0 .25

+ 4.00 = 46.50

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E

1 4 -3 9 2.25

8 4 4 16 4

16 4 12 144 36

5 4 1 1 0.25

0 4 4 16 4

X2 Computed 46.50

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


196
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(46.50) was greater than the critical or tabular value (23.50) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall design feature of the proposed development of automated

watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the system to send SMS to the

users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep existing user

accounts and information have possessed significant rating difference.

Functionality of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


197
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

Excellent:

f = (2)/1

f= 2

Very Good:

f= (8)/1

f= 8

Good:

f = (10)/1

f= 10

Satisfactory:

f = (10)/1

f= 10

Fair:

f= (0)/1

f= 0

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


198
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

2 8 10 10 0 30

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

Solution:

Excellent:

P = (2/30) * 100

P= 6.67%

Very Good:

P = (8/30) * 100

P= 26.67%

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


199
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Good:

P = (10/30) * 100

P= 33.33%

Satisfactory:

P = (10/30) * 100

P= 33.33%

Fair:

P = (0/20) * 100

P= 0 %

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

6.67% 26.67% 33.33% 33.33% 0% 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

where:

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


200
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

n= total number of observation in the sample

Solution:

X  ( 2  8  10  10) / 5  6

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 5 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 3 2

2 5 3 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 2 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3
Functionality
3 4 4 4 5 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 4 3 4 2 2 2

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 2 5 2 4 2 4 2 3 2 2 3.03

2 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 4 3 4.56
Functionality
3 3 5 2 5 2 5 2 4 4 2 3.16

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

where,

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


201
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

E = expected frequency

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

 = level of significance

Ho There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall functionality feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert.

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall functionality feature of the proposed development of automated

watering plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance  = 0.05

Rejection Region: Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(2-4)2/4]+ [(8-4)2/4]+[(10-4)2/4]+[(10-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 1.00 + 4.00 + 9.00

+ 9.00 + 4.00 = 27.00

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2E

2 4 -2 4 1

8 4 4 16 4

10 4 6 36 9

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


202
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

10 4 6 36 9

0 4 4 16 4

X2 Computed 27

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(27) was greater than the critical or tabular value (9.49) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall functionality feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the project to send

SMS to the users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep

existing user accounts and information have possessed significant rating

difference.

Maintainability of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


203
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

Excellent:

f = (2)/1

f= 2

Very Good:

f= (7)/1

f=7

Good:

f = (15)/1

f=15

Satisfactory:

f = (6)/1

f= 6

Fair:

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


204
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

f= (0)/1

f= 0

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

2 7 15 6 0 30

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

Solution:

Excellent:

P = (2/30) * 100

P= 6.67 %

Very Good:

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


205
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

P = (7/30) * 100

P= 23.33%

Good:

P = (15/30) * 100

P= 50%

Satisfactory:

P = (6/30) * 100

P= 20%

Fair:

P = (0/57) * 100

P= 0 %

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

6.67% 23.33 % 50% 20% 0% 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


206
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

where:

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

N = total number of observation in the sample

Solution:

X  ( 2  7  15  6) / 5  6

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 5 3 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3

Maintainability 2 5 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 4 3 2 3 2

3 5 3 4 5 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 4 2

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 2 5 3 4 2 2 3 4 3 3 3.3

Maintainability 2 3 4 3 4 2 3 3 3 2 2 3.1

3 3 5 2 3 2 3 2 4 2 2 3.06

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


207
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Where,

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

E = expected frequency

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

 = level of significance

H0 There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall maintainability feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert.

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall maintainability feature of the proposed development of automated

watering plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance α = 0.05

Rejection Region: Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(2-4)2/4]+ [(7-4)2/4]+[(15-4)2/4]+[(6-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 1.00+ 2.25 + 30.25 +

1.00 + 4.00 = 38.50

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


208
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2E

2 4 -2 4 1.00

7 4 3 9 2.25

15 4 11 121 30.25

6 4 2 4 1.00

0 4 -4 16 4.00

X2 Computed 38.50

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(38.50) was greater than the critical or tabular value (9.49) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall maintainability feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the project to send

SMS to the users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep

existing user accounts and information have possessed significant rating

difference.

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


209
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Reliability of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

Excellent:

f = (2)/1

f= 2

Very Good:

f= (9)/1

f= 9

Good:

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


210
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

f = (12)/1

f= 12

Satisfactory:

f = (7)/1

f= 7

Fair:

f= (0)/1

f= 0

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

2 9 12 7 0 30

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


211
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Solution:

Excellent:

P = (2/30) * 100

P= 6.67 %

Very Good:

P = (9/30) * 100

P= 30%

Good:

P = (12/30) * 100

P= 40%

Satisfactory:

P = (7/30) * 100

P= 23.33%

Fair:

P = (0/30) * 100

P= 0 %

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


212
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

6.67% 30% 40% 23.33% 0 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

where:

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

N = total number of observation in the sample

Solution:

X  ( 2  9  12  7) / 5  6

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 5 4 4 4 3 3 4 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 2 3 2

Reliability 2 4 4 4 4 3 2 4 4 3 3 2 2 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 2

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


213
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 3 5 2 4 2 2 2 4 3 2 3.13

Reliability 2 3 3 3 4 2 5 3 5 2 3 3.33

3 2 5 2 3 2 2 2 5 3 2 2.8

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

Where,

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

E = expected frequency

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

 = level of significance

H0 There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall reliability feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert.

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


214
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall reliability feature of the proposed development of automated watering

plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance α = 0.05

Rejection Region: Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(2-4)2/4]+ [(9-4)2/4]+[(12-4)2/4]+[(7-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 1 + 6.25 + 20.25+

2.25 + 4.00 = 33.75

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2E

2 4 -2 4 1

9 4 5 25 6.25

12 4 9 81 20.25

7 4 3 9 2.25

0 4 4 16 4

X2 Compute 33.75

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(33.75) was greater than the critical or tabular value (9.49) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


215
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall reliability feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the project to send

SMS to the users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep

existing user accounts and information have possessed significant rating

difference.

Safety of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

Excellent:

f = (2)/1

f= 2

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


216
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Very Good:

f= (7)/1

f= 7

Good:

f = (17)/1

f= 17

Satisfactory:

f = (4)/1

f= 4

Fair:

f= (0)/1

f= 0

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

2 7 17 4 0 30

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


217
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

Solution:

Excellent:

P = (2/30) * 100

P = 7%

Very Good:

P = (7/30) * 100

P =23%

Good:

P = (17/30) * 100

P = 57%

Satisfactory:

P = (4/30) * 100

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


218
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

P = 13%

Fair:

P = (0/20) * 100

P= 0 %

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

7% 23% 57% 13% 0% 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

where,

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

N = total number of observation in the sample

Solution:

X  ( 2  7  17  4) / 5  6

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


219
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 5 4 5 4 3 4 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 4 2 2

Safety 2 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 3

3 4 4 4 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 2

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 3 5 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3.03

Safety 2 4 5 3 4 3 4 3 4 4 3 3.6

3 3 4 3 3 2 4 2 4 2 3 3.06

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

where

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

E = expected frequency

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


220
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

 = level of significance

H0 There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall safety feature of the proposed development of automated

watering plants with SMS alert.

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall safety feature of the proposed development of automated watering

plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance α = 0.05

Rejection Region : Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(2-4)2/4]+ [(7-4)2/4]+[(17-4)2/4]+[(4-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 1+ 2.25 + 42.25 + 4 .

00 +4.00 = 53.50

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E

2 4 -2 4 1

7 4 3 9 2.25

17 4 13 169 42.25

4 4 4 16 4

0 4 4 16 4

X2 Computed 53.50

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


221
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(53.50) was greater than the critical or tabular value (23.50) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall safety feature of the proposed development of automated

watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the project to send SMS to the

users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep existing user

accounts and information have possessed significant rating difference.

Usability of the Proposed Project Development

I. Computation of Frequency

Formula:

ni ni
fi = N = n
i i

where,

fi = the average frequency of an event

ni = the number of observed event(s)

N = the total number of events

Solution:

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Excellent:

f = (1)/1

f= 1

Very Good:

f= (7)/1

f= 7

Good:

f = (15)/1

f= 15

Satisfactory:

f = (7)/1

f= 7

Fair:

f= (0)/1

f= 0

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

1 7 15 7 0 30

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

II. Computation of Percentage

Formula:

fi
P= x 100
N

where,

P = the percentage value

fi = the observed frequency of an event

N = the total number of events/sample

Solution:

Excellent:

P = (1/30) * 100

P= 3.33%

Very Good:

P = (7/30) * 100

P= 23.33%

Good:

P = (15/30) * 100

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

P= 50%

Satisfactory:

P = (7/30) * 100

P= 23.33%

Fair:

P = (0/20) * 100

P= 0 %

Excellent Very Good Good Satisfactory Fair Total

3.33% 23.33% 50% 23.33% 0% 100%

III. Computation of Mean

Formula:

X 
x
n

where:

X = mean of the ungrouped data

 x = sum of the observed frequencies

N = total number of observation in the sample

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Solution:

X  (1  7  15  7  / 5  6

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents


No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1 5 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3

Usability 2 4 4 4 5 3 3 4 5 4 2 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 3 2

3 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 2 2 2

Category Items Actual Observation Per Respondents Mean


No. per
row

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

1 3 5 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3.4

Usability 2 3 4 2 3 2 4 2 4 3 2 3.16

3 2 4 3 4 3 2 3 5 4 2 3.2

IV. Computation of Chi - Square

Formula:

(O  E ) 2

2
x E
, with df = c-1

where,

X 2 = computed Chi - Square value

O = observed frequency

E = expected frequency

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

df = degrees of freedom

C = total number of columns

 = level of significance

H0 There was no significant difference in the evaluations respondents in

terms of the overall usability feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert.

H1 There was a significant difference in the respondents in terms of the

overall usability feature of the proposed development of automated watering

plants with SMS alert.

Level of Significance α = 0.05

Rejection Region: Reject Ho if X2 Computed  X2 Table

Computation:

X2 = [(1-4)2/4]+ [(7-4)2/4]+[(15-4)2/4]+[(7-4)2/4]+[(0-4)2/4] = 2.25 + 2.25 + 30.25

+ 2.25 + 4.00 = 41

O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2E

1 4 -3 9 2.25

7 4 3 9 2.25

15 4 11 121 30.25

7 4 3 9 2.25

0 4 -4 16 4

X2 Computed 41

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Statistical Decision Reject Ho since the computed value of Chi- Square

(41) was greater than the critical or tabular value (9.49) at 0.05 level of

significance with 4 degrees of freedom.

X2 Computed > X2 Table

Interpretation /Conclusion: In this case, the proponents concluded that

there was a significant difference in the evaluations of the respondents in

terms of the overall usability feature of the proposed development of

automated watering plants with SMS alert. The ability of the device to send

SMS to the users to provide information and ability to manage and to keep

existing user counts and information have possessed significant rating

difference.

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Appendix P
Curriculum Vitae

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Christine Joy A. Almonte


Blk J-16 L-17 Brgy. Sta Cruz II, Dasmariñas city,Cavite
Philippines, 4114
Mobile No.: (+63)9351111300
Email Add: clumssiemee@gmail.com

OBJECTIVES

To secure a position where I can efficiently contribute my skills and abilities to the growth of
the organization and build my professional career.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Full Name: Christine Joy A. Almonte


Age: 20
Date of Birth: October 20, 1996
Civil Status: Single
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Baptist
Language Spoken: English and Filipino
Computer Skills: Computer Literate

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

June 2013-March 2015 Asian Institute of Computer Studies


Dasmariñas, Cavite
2 year Computer Science

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

June 2015-Present Asian Institute of Computer Studies


Caloocan City
Bachelor of Science in Computer Science
EMPLOYMENT HISTORY

On the Job Training November 2014 – April 2015

Land Bank of the Philippines- Dasmariñas,Cavite

Cavite Lending Center

On the Job Training November 2016 – January 2017

Municipal of Caloocan City Caloocan city

Office of the Vice Mayor

SEMINARS & TRAINING ATTENDED

 Java Programming Course


Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2014 – October 2014
 Unix Essentials featuring Solaris 10 Operating System
Asian Institute of Computer Studies November 2014 – March2015
 Oracle9i: Database Administration Fundamentals 1
Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2014 – October 2014
 Oracle Database 10g : Introduction to SQL
Asian Institute of Computer Studies October 2014 – March 2015
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Introduction to Networks
Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2013 – October 2013
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Routing and Switching Essentials
Asian Institute of Computer Studies October 2013 – March 2014
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Connecting Networks
Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2014 – October 2014
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Scaling Networks
Asian Institute of Computer StudiesOctober 2014 – March 2015

REFERENCES

Bia Payabyab 0905-7663684

Yamaha Customer service support

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Rina Jean Ombid 09397198900

OB. Montessori Center INC Science laboratory


assistant/ custodian

CHRISTILLE PAGALAN ARCEGA


#186 Sampaloc St. Libtong, Meycauayan City, Bulacan
Contact # 09303097053
E-mail add: christillearcega@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES

A position that will enable me to share my capabilities and skills for the success of the
business and to gain more knowledge and experience about the business world.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Date of Birth : December 24, 1994

Place of Birth : Valenzuela City

Age : 22

Sex : Female

Civil Status : Single

Nationality : Filipino

SKILLS : Knowledgeable in basic MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint,


Access, Java, Oracle, Cisco Networking, Accounting and Visual Basic

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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Tertiary

2015 - up to present College Degree in Computer Science

Asian Institute of Computer Studies

410 D N 1 bldg. Edsa corner, Caloocan City

Tertiary

2011 - 2013 College Degree in Computer Science

Asian Institute of Computer Studies

2 yrs Computer Science

Ibayo, Marilao, Bulacan

Secondary

2007 – 2011 Vicente P. Trinidad National High School


Punturin, Valenzuela, City

Primary

2001 – 2007 Cabotonan Elementary School

Cabotonan, Lagonoy, Camarines Sur

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY

November 3, 2012 – January 21, 2013 Accounting Staff/Encoder

On the Job Training(OJT) Known Industries

Malhacan Meycauayan City, Bulacan

November 17, 2016 – January 24, 2017 Vice Mayor’s Office

On the Job Training Municipal of Caloocan

REFERENCES

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Mrs. Edna Getuaban

Head admin. Of Asian Institute of Computer studies

044-815-3959

Mr. William Pablo

Accounting Staff of Greenwich Balagtas

(0933) 1271542

CLAUDINE A. LONOZA
628 B. Urutia St. Malanday Valenzuela City
Philippines, 1300
Mobile No.: (+63)935-4170568
Email Add: lonozaclaudine@gmail.com

OBJECTIVES

Seeking a fulfilling position that offers growth opportunities and allows me to utilize my
leadership skills and experience.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Full Name: Claudine Aguilar Lonoza


Age: 19
Date of Birth: January 22, 1998
Civil Status: Single
Nationality: Filipino
Religion: Roman Catholic
Language Spoken: English and Filipino
Computer Skills: Computer Literate

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

June 2013-March 2015 Asian Institute of Computer Studies Marilao,bulacan


nd
2 year Computer Science

June 2015-Present Asian Institute of Computer Studies Caloocan City


Bachelor of Science in Computer Science

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


234
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY

Marketing April 2016 – June 2016


F.S Dulalia Realty Incorporation Quezon city

HR-Personnel (On the Job Training) October 2014 – December 2015


Indo Phil Group of Companies Lambakin, Marilao, bulacan

City health office(Special Program for Employment of Students) April 2013 – May 2013
City Government of Valenzuela Malanday, Valenzuela city

Municipal of Caloocan City November 2016 – January 2017


Vice Mayor Office Caloocan City

SEMINARS & TRAINING ATTENDED

 Java Programming Course


Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2014 – October 2014
 Unix Essentials featuring Solaris 10 Operating System
Asian Institute of Computer Studies November 2014 – March2015
 Oracle9i: Database Administration Fundamentals 1
Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2014 – October 2014
 Oracle Database 10g : Introduction to SQL
Asian Institute of Computer Studies October 2014 – March 2015
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Introduction to Networks
Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2013 – October 2013
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Routing and Switching Essentials
Asian Institute of Computer Studies October 2013 – March 2014
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Connecting Networks
Asian Institute of Computer Studies June 2014 – October 2014
 CCNA Routing and Switching: Scaling Networks
Asian Institute of Computer StudiesOctober 2014 – March 2015
 Philippine National Red Cross
Basic Life Support Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for Lay Rescuers
Dalandanan National High School April 06, 2011
 Philippine National Red Cross
First Aid Training
Dalandanan National High School April 04-05, 2011

REFERENCES

Daniel C. Caneso 0935-596-8017

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Concentrix technical support

Victoria Libao 0917-743-2341


Baby Care Learning Center Teacher

MICHELLE JOY S. MAGNO


B4 L12 Augustine Grove Villas, Dasmariñas City, Cavite
Mobile Phone: (0926)9724471/ (0919)8334145
Email address: michellejoymagno28@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVES

Willing to be trained and be able to work, in which I have the


opportunity to assist in relization of its goal while at the same
time being exposed to an environment where my skills and
capabilities will be fully utilized. With that, my capabilities will
uplift and creating a more qualified person suited for my desire
job.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Age : 28 y/o
Date of Birth : Nov. 28, 1988
Height : 5’2”
Weight : 60 kgs.
Civil Status : Single
Nationality : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

Tertiary:
Bachelor of Science in Computer Science
2013 - 2017
Asian Institute of Computer Studies – Caloocan Branch
410 D AND 1 BLDG,. Edsa, Caloocan City

General Electronics (2005 – 2006)


Hotel and Restaurant Services (2007)
Computer Literacy (2007 – 2008)
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA)
Tayuman, Tondo Manila

Secondary:
Rafael B. Lacson Memorial High School
Talisay City, Negros Occidental
2001 – 2005

Primary:
Tayabas Elementary School
Talisay City, Negros Occidental
1995 – 2001

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY

Position: Production Operator


Company: JAE Philippines, Inc.
Gateway Business Park, Javalera Gen. Trias, Cavite, Phil.

Inclusive date: April 28, 2010 – May 24, 2013

Position: Cashier
Company: Mercantile Stores Group, Inc.
SM Dasmariñas, Cavite
Governor’s Drive, Brgy. Sampaloc 1, Dasmariñas, Cavite

Inclusive date: February 26, 2009 – July 20, 2009

SEMINARS & TRAINING ATTENDED

Cabin Stewarding Course”


CSM Training Center Inc.
Suite 5A G/F Midland Plaza Hotel, Ermita Manila
June 12 – 22, 2007

REFERENCES

Mr. Aerob C. Robles

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER STUDIES
410 D and I Bldg, Edsa Corner, Caloocan City
Metro Manila, Philippines

AICS Dasmariñas Instructor


Mobile Phone: (0910)7364242 / (0935)5108220

Mrs. Joyce Ann D. Samante


AICS Dasmariñas Instructor
Mobile Phone: (0949)3437077

Ms. Juliet Andrea B. Pascual


Hotel Frendy Manila Officer-in-Charge
Tel. No.: (632) 526-4211 to 44 (632) 526-4219 to 20

COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT


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