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# EXPERIMENT – 1

## Name: - Magnetization characteristic of separately excited D.C. Generator.

Aim: - To plot magnetization curve (E Vs If) for different values of speed.
Theory: -
For D.C. Generator running at constant speed, the expression for voltage generated (E) in the
armature winding can be written as
E a B - (1) , where B is the flux density in air gap.
The field intensity (H) is given by,
H a I f - ( II ) , where If is field current.
So, relation between E and I f must be similar to that between B and I f and also must be similar to that
between B and H for the magnetic circuit of the machine.

## Specification of the machines

Generator – 230V, 13A
Speed – 1450r.p.m.
Motor – 230V, 19.2A
Speed – 1450r.p.m.
Apparatus required: -
1. D.C. voltmeter (0-250V) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-3A) – 1No.
3. Double barrel rheostat (200Ω – 2.8A) – 1No.
4. Single barrel rheostat (290Ω -1.5A) – 2No.
5. Tachometer – 1No.
6. Connecting wires.
Circuit Diagram

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR OBTAINING MAGNETIZATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY

EXCITED D.C. GENERATOR

1
Procedure: -

## 1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum resistance position and switch on D.C.
supply.
3. Start the D.C shunt motor using the starter and bring it to rated speed.
4. Set the potential divider to zero output position so that the generator field current I f is
zero. Note the terminal voltage Vt of the generator.
5. Increase the field current If in steps upto 125% of the rated value and note
corresponding terminal voltage Vt.
6. Decrease the field current If in steps back to zero and note the corresponding terminal
voltage Vt.
7. Take another set of reading at a constant speed, say N, less than the rated speed.
8. Plot magnetization curve (Vt Vs If) for different values of speed.

Observation Table: -
1. At Speed N1
S.No. If (A) Vt (V) If (A) Vt (V)
(Increasing) (Decreasing)
1

2. At Speed N2
S.No. If (A) Vt (V) If (A) Vt (V)
(Increasing) (Decreasing)
1

Precautions:
1. Every time, before starting the motor, make sure that the motor field rheostat is set at
minimum resistance position.
2. Take care (i) not to let the field current I f fall back in value during the increasing process,
and (ii) not to let If rise in value during the decreasing process.
3. A D.C. motor should not be stopped by forcing the starter handle to the off position.

2
EXPERIMENT – 2

## Name: - Load Test of a D.C. shunt motor

Aim: - Plot the following characteristics
1. Speed Vs B.H.P and Torque Vs B.H.P
2. Current and efficiency Vs B.H.P
3. Speed Vs Torque

Theory: -
The load test is conducted to determine the efficiency of a D.C. shunt motor by actual loading. Here,
brake load arrangement is used which consists of brake drum coupled to shaft of motor and belt
connected to two tension spring. The load is applied by tightening the belt.

Machine specification

## Voltage rating – 230V

Current rating – 16.8A
Speed – 1450r.p.m
WN
B.H .P = ; W=Spring balance reading (lb), N=r.p.m
5000
Apparatus required

## 1. Rheostat – (200Ω, 2.8A) – 1No.

2. D.C. ammeter - (0-20A) – 1No.
3. D.C. ammeter – (0-1.5A) – 1No.
4. D.C. voltmeter – (0-250V) – 1No.
5. Tachometer – 1No.
6. Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram

3
Procedure: -
1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum resistance position and switch on D.C. supply.
3. Start the motor using the starter and bring it to the rated speed by adjusting the rheostat in the
field circuit.
4. At no load, note down the speed and the readings of all the meters.
5. Increase the load on the motor in steps upto rated load of the motor and at each step note
down speed and readings of all the meters.
6. Set the motor field rheostat to minimum resistance position, unload the motor and switch off
the D.C. supply.
7. Measure armature resistance by ammeter-voltmeter method.
8. Make the required calculations and plot the required characteristics.

Observation Table

Speed N
Sl. No. Field Current (A) Armature Current (A) VAB (V)
(RPM)
1

Precautions
1. Every time, before starting the motor, make sure that the motor field rheostat is set at
minimum resistance position.
2. While starting the motor the handle of the starter must be moved slowly.
3. To avoid too much heating of the drum, be fast in performing the experiment.
4. A D.C. motor should not be stopped by forcing the starter handle to the off position.

4
EXPERIMENT – 3

## Name: - Load Test on a D.C. shunt Generator

Aim: - Plot the following characteristics
1. Terminal voltage Vs load current
2. Field current Vs load current
3. Internal or total characteristic
Theory: -
The load test is performed on a D.C. shunt generator to know mainly how its terminal voltage
varies with load current at constant rated speed and constant field circuit resistance corresponding to
the rated terminal voltage at no load. If a D.C. shunt generator, after building up to its rated no load
voltage, be loaded, its terminal voltage drops. The relation between the terminal voltage and load
current is called external characteristic. During the test, the speed of the generator is maintained
constant.
The reasons of voltage drop in D.C. shunt generator with load are:
(i) due to armature resistance drop.
(ii) decrease of field current due to reduction in armature voltage.
(iii) due to armature reaction.
Further, by this test the efficiency and voltage regulation at different load can also be determined.

Machine specification
Motor Generator
230 V 19.2A 230V, 13A
5KW 3KVA
R.P.M – 1450 R.P.M – 1450

Apparatus required
1. D.C. voltmeter (0-230V) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter - (0-20A) – 1No.
3. Rheostat (290Ω, 1.5A) – 2 Nos.
4. Lamp load (250V, 200W) – 2Nos.
5. Tachometer – 1No.
6. Connecting wires

5
Circuit Diagram
3-point starter

Procedure: -
1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep motor field rheostat at minimum resistance position. Switch on D.C. supply.
3. Start D.C. Shunt motor with the help of starter and adjust the speed by adjusting motor field
rheostat to rated speed of the generator.
4. Adjust the field rheostat of the D.C. Shunt Generator to obtain rated terminal voltage with no
load. In case, the voltage does not build up, reverse the direction of field current.
6. Apply the load on generator in steps and note down readings of all meters. Go upto rated
7. Remove the load in steps and switch off the supply.
8. Measure armature resistance by ammeter-voltmeter method.
9. Plot the required characteristics.

Observation Table
Constant speed N =

Sl. No. Field current (A) Load Current (A) Terminal voltage (V)

Precautions: -
1. Every time, before starting the motor, see that the field rheostat is set at minimum
resistance position.
2. A D.C. motor should not be stopped by forcing the starter handle to the off position.

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EXPERIMENT – 4
Name: - Load test on a D.C. series Generator

Aim: - 1. To study how the terminal voltage of a D.C. series Generator varies with load
current at constant rated speed
2. To draw the external characteristics (terminal voltage vs load current)

Theory: -
In a d.c. series generator, the armature winding, series field winding and load resistance are
connected in series. Therefore the field current is equal to the armature and load current. When the
load current increases under constant speed, the terminal voltage increases.

Machine specification
Generator Motor
230 V 19.3A 230V, 23A
5H.P 6H.P
R.P.M – 1450 R.P.M – 1450

Apparatus required
1. D.C. voltmeter (0-230V) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter - (0-20A) – 1No.
3. Rheostat (290Ω, 1.5A) – 1 No.
4. Lamp load (250V, 200W) – 2Nos.
5. Tachometer – 1No.
6. Connecting wires

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON D.C. SERIES GENERATOR

7
Procedure: -
1. Measure the armature and field winding resistances of the d.c. series generator by the
ammeter and voltmeter method.
2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
3. Set the motor field rheostat at minimum resistance value and switch on d.c. supply.
4. Start the d.c. shunt motor using the three point starter and bring it to rated speed of the d.c.
series generator by varying motor field rheostat.
5. Apply load on the generator in steps and note down readings of all meters. Go upto rated
6. Set the motor field rheostat at minimum resistance value, remove the load in steps, and
switch off d.c. supply.
7. Plot the terminal voltage vs load current characteristics.

Observation Table:
Constant speed N rpm
Sl. No. Load current (A) Terminal Voltage (V)
1

Precautions: -
1. The d.c. shunt motor should always be started with minimum external resistance in the field
circuit.
2. The starter handle must be moved slowly while starting the motor.
3. D.C. motor should not be stopped by forcing the starter handle to the off position.

8
EXPERIMENT – 5

## Name: - Load test on a D.C. compound Generator.

Aim: - Draw the external characteristic (terminal voltage vs. load current) for the following
1. Shunt Generator
2. Differentially Compounded Generator
3. Cumulatively Compounded Generator

Theory: -
The load test is performed on d.c. compound generator to know mainly how its terminal voltage varies
with load current at constant rated speed and constant shunt field circuit resistance corresponding to
the rated terminal voltage at no load.
In a D.C. compound machine both the series and shunt field coils are present while shunt field is the
main field, series field either help it or opposes. The first type when the two fields help each other is
known as cumulative compounding while the other is differentially compounding.
D.C. shunt generator : If a d.c. shunt generator, after building up its voltage to the rated no load
voltage at the rated speed, is loaded, its terminal voltage drops. The reasons of voltage drop in d.c.
shunt generator with load are (i) due to armature resistance drop. (ii) due to armature reaction. (iii)
decrease of field current due to reduction in armature voltage.
The terminal voltage drop of the d.c. shunt generator with load makes this type of d.c. generator
unsuitable for constant voltage application. A fairly good constancy in terminal voltage can be
achieved by cumulative compounding.
Cumulatively compounded D.C. Generator :
The voltage drop in armature resistance and the drop due to armature reaction take place in this case
also, but they are compensated by the increase in flux due to the m.m.f established by series winding
carrying the load current depending on the degree of compensation.
Differentially compounded D.C. generator:
The reasons for the terminal voltage drop due to load in this case are (i) armature resistance drop (ii)
armature reaction effect (iii) reduction in flux per pole due to the series filed winding m.m.f. opposing
the shunt filed winding m.m.f.
The series field winding m.m.f opposing the shunt filed winding m.m.f is mainly responsible in this
case for rapid fall of the terminal voltage compared with the shunt generator or cumulative compound
generator characteristics.

Machine specification
Motor Generator
230 V 19.2A 230V, 13A
R.P.M – 1450 R.P.M – 1450

9
Apparatus required
1. D.C. voltmeter (0-230V) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter - (0-20A) – 1No.
3. Rheostat (200Ω, 2.8A) – 2 Nos.
4. Lamp load (250V, 200W) – 1Nos.

Circuit diagram

3- point starter

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR LOAD TEST ON D.C. COMPOUND GENERATOR

Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. The series field is shown connected to the
cumulative compound case as per usual markings.
2. Set the motor filed rheostat to minimum resistance value. Switch on d.c. supply. Start the
motor and adjust its speed with the help of its field rheostat to the rated speed of the
generator.
3. Adjust the shunt field rheostat of the d.c. generator to obtain a suitable voltage at no load.
4. Load the generator in steps. Note the load current and corresponding terminal voltage at each
load. Go upto rated laod. Maintain rated speed of the generator.
5. Stop the set and reverse the series field coil connections. The generator now will work as
differentially compounded generator.
6. Repeat step (2) - (4)
7. Plot the terminal voltage Vs load current curves for shunt, differentially compounded, and
cumulatively compounded d.c. generators on the same graph. No load terminal voltage
should be same in all three cases.

10
Observation tables:
Constant speed: N r.p.m.

Table
(a) For Shunt Generator
Sl. No. Terminal voltage (V) Load current (A)
1

## (b) For differentially compounded Generator

Sl. No. Terminal voltage (V) Load current (A)
1

## (c) For cumulatively compounded Generator

Sl. No. Terminal voltage (V) Load current (A)
1

Precautions: -
1. As given in Experiment – 4.

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EXPERIMENT – 6

## Name: - Speed Control of D.C. Shunt Motor

Aim: - Plot the following characteristics
1. Speed Vs armature voltage (Field current being constant)
2. Speed Vs field current (Armature voltage being constant )

Theory: -
The speed of the d.c shunt motor is given by the relation
V - Ia R a
N= (r.p.m)

Where, V= applied voltage
Ia= Armature current, Ra= Armature resistance, f = Field flux per pole in webers.

ZP
K= constant =
60 �A
Where, Z= No. of armature conductors
P= No. of poles
A= No. of parallel path in armature windings.

For the expression for speed it is seen that the speed of d.c. shunt motor can be varied by varying
1. The voltage applied to armature
2. The armature circuit resistance Ra
3. The field flux f

Machine specification
Generator Motor
230 V 13A 220 V, 20 A
R.P.M – 1500 Power – 3 KW, 1500 r.p.m

Apparatus required
1. Rheostat (200Ω, 2.8 A) – 1No.
2. Rheostat (100Ω, 5 A) – 1No.
3. D.C. voltmeter (0-250 V) – 1No.
4. D.C. ammeter (0-1.5A) – 1No.
5. Tachometer – 1No.
6. Connecting wires.

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Circuit diagram

3-point starter

Procedure: -
Armature voltage control
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the field rheostat to minimum and armature rheostat to maximum resistance value.
3. Switch on the d.c. supply and start the d.c. shunt motor with the help of 3-point starter.
4. Adjust the field current to rated value.
5. Note down the speed, the voltage across armature and the field current.
6. Change the speed by varying the rheostat in armature circuit. Note down the speed and
armature voltage, the field current remaining constant.
7. Repeat the procedure for different field current.
8. Plot speed Vs armature voltage characteristics for different values of field current.

## Flux control or Field control

1. Keep the rheostat in the armature circuit to zero value. Note down the voltage across
armature, the field current and speed.
2. Vary the field current and note down corresponding speed, keeping armature voltage same.
3. Change the voltage across the armature to some value by adjusting the rheostat in armature
circuit and repeat the procedure (2).
4. Plot speed Vs field current curves for different values of armature voltage.

13
Observation Table
a) Armature voltage control
Sl. No. Field current (A) Armature voltage (V) Speed N (r.p.m.)
1

b) Flux control
Sl. No. Field current (A) Armature voltage (V) Speed N (r.p.m.)
1

Precautions:
As given in Experiment – 4.

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EXPERIMENT – 7

## Name: - Ward Leonard method of speed control of D.C. shunt motor

Aim: - To control the speed of a D.C. shunt motor by Ward – Leonard method.
Theory: -
The speed can be controlled over a wide range in either direction by Ward Leonard method. The
Ward Leonard system consists of a motor - generator set and the main motor whose speed is to be
controlled. The excitation current for both motor and generator is obtained from the exciter mounted
on the same shaft as the generator. The Ward Leonard set is started by starting the driving motor.

Machine specification
Induction motor D.C. Generator D.C. motor Exciter
3-Phase 50Hz 230V, 19A 230 V, 19A 230V, 2A
7.1 KW, 400 V, 14A 4.4 KW 3KW 0.46 KW
R.P.M - 1420 R.P.M - 1420 R.P.M – 1000 R.P.M - 1420

Apparatus required
1. D.C. voltmeter (0-250V) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-1.5A) – 1No.
3. Rheostat double barrel (200 Ω, 2.8 A) – 1No.
4. Tachometer – 1No.

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Circuit diagram

V (0-250 V)

A (0-1.5 A)

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR WARD LEONARD METHOD OF SPEED CONTROL

16
Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on 3-phase A.C. supply. Start 3-phase Induction motor by using the Star-Delta starter.
3. In field control, keeping the armature voltage constant at 100% of rated value, vary the field
current. Note down field currents and corresponding speeds.
4. Repeat steps 3 for armature voltage constant at 75% of the rated value.
5. In armature voltage control, keeping the field current constant at the rated value, vary the
armature voltage. Note down armature voltages and corresponding speeds.
6. Repeat step 5 for the field current constant at 75% of its rated value.
7. Draw (i) speed Vs. armature voltage graphs with field current constant, and (ii) speed Vs. field
current graphs with armature voltage constant.

Observation Tables:
Armature voltage constant
Sl. No. Armature voltage (V) Field current (A) Speed ( rpm )
1

## Field current constant

Sl. No. Field current (A) Armature voltage (V) Speed ( rpm )
1

Precautions:
1. Motor speed should not go much above its rated value.

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EXPERIMENT – 8

## Name: - Swinburne’s test

Aim: - To conduct Swinburne’s test on D.C. Shunt machine and determine its efficiency while
operating as (i) Motor and (ii) Generator
Theory: -
It is a simple indirect method of determining the efficiency of D.C. Shunt machine. In this method, field
resistance and armature resistance are measured separately. So, losses can be easily calculated on
various loads since on no load mechanical output of the machine is zero, so the whole of the input on
the no-load is used to supply in turn all the losses in the machine i.e shunt field copper loss and
armature copper loss and rotational loss. The rotational loss includes iron, friction and windage loss;
iron loss consist of hysteresis and eddy current loss.

Machine Specification
D.C. shunt machine
4 KW, 230 V, 16.8 A
1450 rpm

Apparatus required
1. D.C. voltmeter (0-300V) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-10A) – 1No.
3. D.C. ammeter (0-2A) – 1No.
4. Rheostat (200 Ω, 2.8A) – 1No.
5. Rheostat (100 Ω, 5A) – 1No.
6. Tachometer – 1No.

## Circuit Diagram 4-Point Starter

V (0-300 V)

18
Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the field rheostat in minimum resistance position and rheostat in armature circuit at zero
value. Switch on the d.c. supply and start the motor with the help of starter.
3. Adjust speed of motor to rated value with the help of field rheostat and armature rheostat.
5. Calculate rotational losses and constant losses.
6. Determine efficiency for different loads
7. Plot efficiency Vs output characteristics

Observation Tables:
A)
Sl. No. Supply voltage (V) No load armature current (A) Field current (A) Speed ( rpm )
1

## B) Armature resistance measurement

Sl. No. Armature voltage Va (V) Armature Current Ia (A) Ra = Va / Ia (ohm)
1

## C) Field resistance measurement

Sl. No. Voltage across shunt Field current If (A) Rf = Vf / If (ohm)
field winding Vf (V)
1

Precautions:
As given in Experiment – 4.

19
EXPERIMENT – 9

## Name: - Field’s test on two similar d.c. series machines.

Aim: - To determine the efficiency of D.C. series Generator and motor for 50% and 100% of full load
Theory: -
In this test two similar mechanically coupled d.c. series machines are required. One of the machines
acts as a motor and the other as a Generator. The fields of the two machines are connected in series
with the armature of the machine made to run as a motor. The armature of the other machine acting
as a Generator is connected to the load resistance. The excitation of the two machines is always
equal during test.
This test known as Field’s test was named after its inventor Mr. M.B. Field. The advantages of
this test is keeping the flux same in both identical machines as current through both fields are same.
Maintenance of same flux results in the same iron losses consisting of hysteresis and eddy current
losses along with frictional and windage losses give rotational losses. As machine is identical so
friction and windages losses will be same. Therefore, each machine will have half-half rotational loss.
In order that load is not thrown off accidentally the Generator armature is connected to load
directly without any switch. The voltage across the motor terminals is kept constant at its normal value
through out experiment. Resistance of various windings are measured

Machine Specification
D.C. series motor D.C. series generator
230 V, 14 A, 2.3 KW 230 V, 7 A, 1.6 KW
1700 rpm 1700 rpm

Apparatus required
1. Rheostat (25 Ω, 10 A) – 1 No.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-15 A) – 1 No.
3. D.C. ammeter (0-10 A) – 1 No.
4. Lamp load (250 V, 200 W) – 2 Nos.
5. D.C. voltmeter (0-250 V) – 3 Nos.
6. D.C. voltmeter (0-50 V) – 2 Nos.

20
Circuit diagram

25 , 10 A

Procedure: -
1. Two identically d.c. series machines are coupled as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Before switching on the supply, ensure that (a) there is a sufficient load on the generator
(approximately 40% of the full load) and (b) the starting rheostat R in the motor circuit is set at
maximum resistance position.
3. Switch on the d.c. supply and run the set by gradually cutting off fully the resistance of
rheostat R.
4. Adjust the supply voltage such that the load on the Generator is minimum for which the speed
of the set is within permissible limits and voltage across the motor terminals is near to its
rated value.
5. Increase the load on generator in steps up to 50 and 100% of the rated value and note down
6. Measure armature and field resistances of motor and generator by ammeter-voltmeter
method.
7. Plot the graph of efficiency Vs power output for motor and generator

Observation Tables:
A) Measurement of armature resistance
Sl. Motor Armature Resistance (ohm) Generator Armature Resistance (ohm)
V I Ram Ram (Ave) V1 I1 Rag Rag (Ave)
No.
1.

21
B) Measurement of field resistance
Sl.
Motor series field resistance (ohm) Generator series field resistance
No
V I Rsem Rsem(Ave) V I Rseg Rseg(Ave)
1.

C) Field’s test
Sl. Supply voltage (V) Motor Generator
No.
1

Precautions: -
1. Never start or run a series motor on no-load or very light load.
2. Ensure that the starting rheostat in the motor circuit is in “all cut in” position before switching
on the d.c. supply.

22
EXPERIMENT – 10

## Name: - Hopkinson’s test

Aim: - To determine the efficiency of Shunt Generator and motor for 50% and 100% of full load
Generator current
Theory: -
By this method full load test can be carried out on two D.C. shunt machines preferably identical ones
without wasting their outputs. This is a regenerative test. The two machines are mechanically coupled
and tested simultaneously. One of the machines is made to run upto rated speed in the normal
manner as a shunt motor driving the other as a generator. The generator is first put in parallel
(through a switch S in open position) with the supply system by adjusting its excitation until the
voltmeter (connected across the switch S) reads zero, and the switch S then closed. The generator
will then ‘float‘ neither taking nor giving current to the supply. Any desired load can then be put on the
generator by increasing the generator exciting current while maintaining the rated speed. The current
generated can thus be utilized to help drive the machine operating as motor, and the total current
taken from the supply system is therefore, simply that necessary to supply all the losses, i.e. the
difference between the motor input and the generator output.
Thus in this test, the set draws only loss – power from the mains while the individual machines can be

Machine specifications
Motor Generator
230/13A 230V/13A
3 KW, 1450 r.p.m 3 KW, 1450 r.p.m

Apparatus required
1. D.C. ammeter (0-1 A) – 2Nos.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-10 A) – 1No.
3. D.C. ammeter (0-25 A) – 1No.
4. D.C. voltmeter (0-250 V) – 1No.
5. D.C. voltmeter (0-500 V) – 1Nos.
6. Rheostat (490 Ω, 2 A) – 1No.
7. Rheostat (200 Ω, 2.8 A) – 1No.
8. Key – 1No.
9. Tachometer – 1No.

Circuit Diagram

23
Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the switch S open. Set the motor field rheostat to its minimum resistance value.
3. Switch on the D.C. supply and start the motor using 3-point starter.
4. Increase the motor field regulating resistance and bring up the speed to the rated speed.
5. Adjust the voltage across switch S to zero by adjusting generator field current.
6. By increasing the generator field current, increase the generator armature current up to
desired value, maintaining the rated sped.
7. Note down all the meter readings.
8. Measure the motor and generator armature resistances by the ammeter-voltmeter method.

Observation Table
At constant speed N rpm
Generator
Sl. Supply voltage Total Supply Motor Field Generator armature
Field current
No. (V) current (A) current (A) current (A)
(A)
1

Precautions: -
1. As given in Experiment - 4

24
EXPERIMENT – 11

Name: - Open circuit and short circuit test on a single phase transformer.
Aim: -
a.) To find out the equivalent circuit parameters.
b.) To find the different types of losses.
c.) To draw the open circuit characteristic and short circuit characteristic.
d.) To draw percent efficiency Vs. percent load curve, and percent regulation Vs. percent load
curve for 0.8 pf lagging, 0.8 pf leading and unity pf.

Theory: -
For Open Circuit
The purpose of this test is to determine no-load loss or core-loss W i and no-load current I0 which is
helpful in finding the shunt branch parameters of the equivalent circuit Y 0 = G0 – jB0. Usually high
voltage winding is left open and the other is connected to its supply of normal voltage and frequency.
As the primary no-load current I0 (measured by ammeter) is small (2-10% of rated current), copper
loss is negligibly small in primary and nil in secondary (it being open). Hence wattmeter reading
represents the core-loss. If Wi is wattmeter reading then

## Wi = V1 I 0 cos f0 , cos f0 = Wi / V1 I 0 , Y0 = I 0 / V1 , G0 = Wi / V12 , B0 = Y0 2 - G 20 ;

I 0 = Exciting current , V1 = rated applied volatge
For Short Circuit
It is used for determining (i) Equivalent impedance (Z 01), leakage reactance (X01) and total resistance
(R01) of transformer, as referred to winding in which measuring instrument is placed,
(i) Copper loss at full load (Wc), and
(ii) Total voltage drop (Vsc)

In this test one winding (LV) is short circuited. Since the applied voltage V sc is a small percentage of
the normal voltage, the mutual flux produced is a small percentage of its normal value. Hence core
losses are very small with the result that wattmeter represents full load copper loss Wc.

## Z 01 = VSc / I1 , Wc = I12 R01 , X 01 = Z 012 - R012

VSc = Voltage required to circulate rated load current I 1.

Specification of Transformer
KVA = 3
Primary voltage = 220V
Secondary voltage = 110V
Primary current = 13.62A
Secondary current = 27.25A
Frequency = 50Hz
Phase = Single

25
Apparatus required

## 1. Single phase Autotransformer (230 V, 15 A, 50Hz) – 01 No.

2. AC Ammeters
a. Ammeter (0-3A) – 1 No.
b. Ammeter (0-30A) – 1 No.
c. Ammeter (0-15A) – 1No.

3. AC Voltmeters
a. Voltmeter (0-150V) – 1No.
b. Voltmeter (0-250V) – 1No.
c. Voltmeter (0-25V) – 1No.

4. Wattmeters
a. Wattmeter (5A, 250V) – 1No.
b. Wattmeter (30A, 150V) – 1No.

Circuit Diagram

(0 – 30 A)

26
Procedure:
a) O.C. test
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the autotransformer at zero output voltage position. Switch on the 1-phase A.C. supply.
3. Apply voltage to the primary winding from zero to the rated value in steps by adjusting the
auto-transformer and, at each step, note down the reading of all the meters.
4. Bring back the autotransformer in zero output voltage position and then switch off the A.C.
supply.
b) S.C. test
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the autotransformer to zero output voltage position. Switch on 1-phase A.C. supply.
3. Apply voltage to the primary winding from zero to a value V sc (required to circulate rated
primary current) in steps by adjusting the autotransformer and, at each step, note down the
4. Bring back the autotransformer to the zero output voltage position, and then switch off the
A.C. supply.

Observation Tables:
a) O.C. test
Sl. No. Voltage applied (V) Current drawn (A) Power input (W) Secondary o.c.
voltage (V)
1.

b) S.C. test
Sl. No. Voltage applied (V) Current drawn (A) Power input (W) Secondary s.c.
current (A)
1.

Precaution: -
1. The open circuit test must be performed at rated voltage &
2. The short circuit test must be performed at rated current.
3. Low power factor wattmeter should be used.

27
EXPERIMENT – 12

## Name: - Load test on a single phase transformer

Aim: -
1. To perform load test at unity power factor.
2. To calculate voltage regulation and efficiency
Theory: -
The voltage appearing across the secondary terminal of a transformer depends upon the load
connected. Ideally the secondary voltage must be independent of the load. The figure of merit which
determines the voltage drop characteristics of a transformer is the voltage regulation. It is defined as

Voltage regulation = �100%
Besides; the coils and the core of the transformer cause copper loss and core loss reducing the
efficiency of the transformer. It is defined as
Output
Efficiency = �100%
Input

Specification of transformer
Phase – Single
Power = 3KVA
Primary Voltage = 230V
Secondary Voltage = 115V
Frequency = 50Hz
Primary current = 13.2A
Secondary current = 26.1A

Apparatus required
1. Autotransformer (Single phase, 230V, 15A, 50Hz)
2. A.C. ammeter (0-15A) –1No.
3. A.C. ammeter (0-30A) – 1No.
4. Wattmeter (20A, 300V) – 1No.
5. A.C. voltmeter (0-250V) – 1No.
6. A.C. voltmeter (0-150V) –1No.
7. Load (200W, 110V) – 1No.

28
Circuit Diagram

Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the autotransformer to zero voltage output position. Keep the load switched off.
3. Switch on the 1-phase A.C. supply.
4. Apply, through the autotransformer, voltage to the primary winding at no load so that the
secondary terminal voltage is of rated value, and note down meters readings.
primary voltage constant. Note down the readings of ammeters, voltmeters and wattmeter at
6. Switch off A.C. supply at no-load.

Observation Table:

Sl. No. Primary voltage (V) Primary current (A) Input power (W) Secondary load Secondary load
current (A) voltage (V)
1.

Precaution: -
For measuring power at no load a wattmeter of low ampere rating and low power factor should be
used.

29
EXPERIMENT – 13

## Name: - Back-to-back test on two single-phase transformer

Aim: -
1. To determine the iron loss, full load copper loss and equivalent circuit parameters.
2. Draw
a) % efficiency Vs% load curve for 0.8 pf lagging, 0.8 pf. Leading, and unity power factor
b) % regulation Vs% load curve.
Theory: -
This test provides data to calculate regulation, efficiency, and heating and is done when two similar
transformers are available. Before performing this test, polarity test is carried out on both
transformers. One transformer is loaded on the other and both are connected to supply. The power
taken from supply is that necessary for supplying losses of both transformers. The secondary are so
connected that their potentials are in opposition to each other and its terminals are connected to
autotransformer which can be adjusted to give a variable voltage and hence current in the secondary
circuit. Flow of I1 is in the loop formed at primary side and it does not pass through W 2. Hence W1
continues to read the core loss, and W 2 reads full load copper loss and so the power taken is twice
the losses of a single transformer.
W1 = Core loss of both transformers
W2 = Full load copper loss of both transformers.

Specification of transformers :
3 KVA, Single-phase, 50 Hz
Primary 230 V, 13.2 Amps
Secondary 115 V, 26.1 Amps

Apparatus required
1. Two Single-phase transformer
2. A.C. ammeter (0-5 A) –1No.
3. A.C. ammeter (0-30 A) – 1No.
4. A.C. voltmeter (0-250 V) – 1No.
5. A.C. voltmeter (0-25 V) – 1No.
6. Wattmeter (5 A, 250 V) – 1No.
7. Wattmeter (30 A, 150 V) – 1No.

30
Circuit Diagram

Procedure: -
1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the autotransformers to zero output voltage position.
3. Connect the secondaries in phase opposition, the procedure for which is as follows:
Connect the terminals Sy1 and Sy1 together keeping switch K open. With the primary supply
on, note the voltage across Sy2 and Sy2. The voltmeter will read either zero or twice the
secondary voltage. If it is zero, the secondaries are in phase opposition; otherwise connect
Sy1 of transformer 1 and Sy2 of transformer 2 (the voltage now across S y2 of transformer 1 and
Sy1 of transformer 2 should be zero).
4. After checking whether the secondaries are in phase opposition connect them to a low
voltage supply as shown in the circuit diagram.
5. With the help of autotransformer in primary circuit, adjust the primary voltage to the rated vale
V1. With the help of autotransformer in the secondary circuit (switch K closed), adjust the

31
secondary injected voltage to the required value so that the circulating current I 2 is equal to
the rated secondary current.
6. Note down the voltage, current, and power of both the primary and secondary sides.

Observation Table: -
Sl. No. V1 (V) I1 (A) W1 (W) V2 (V) I2 (A) W2 (W)

1.

Precaution: -
1. The transformers used should be similar.
2. The secondary voltage should be increased carefully so that circulating current does not
exceed the rated secondary current.
3. The multiplying factor of the wattmeter should be noted.

32
EXPERIMENT – 14

## Name: - Scott Connection

Aim: -
1. To connect two single phase transformers to obtain balanced two-phase supply from
balanced three-phase supply.
2. To determine the 3-phase current for different values of 2-phase
and draw the corresponding phasor diagram.

Theory: -
Two-phase electric equipments such as electric furnaces or two-phase control motors may
need a two-phase supply whereas only three-phase supply may be available. This problem can be
solved with the help of Scott connected transformer which makes the three-phase to two-phase
transformation.
By means of a Scott connected transformer a three-phase system can be converted to a two-
phase one and vice-versa. For Scott connection two similar single-phase transformers, having N 1
number of turns in the primary and N 2 number of turns in the secondary, are required. One of the
transformers, called the main transformer, should have a tapping of N 1/2 in the primary winding while

the other, called the teaser transformer, should have a tapping of 3 N1/2 in the primary.
In the circuit diagram, the windings BC (N 1 turns) and AD ( 3 N1/2 turns) are, respectively,

the primaries of main and teaser transformers. One end of teaser primary is connected to mid point of
main primary.
Now if a balanced three-phase supply is connected to A, B and C then the voltages available
across the two secondary windings ab and bc will be of equal magnitude and in phase quadrature.
Hence these two voltages will constitute a balanced two-phase system.
Let V be the primary line voltage, then the secondary voltage will be VN 2/N1. Now the active

number of turns in one primary (teaser) is N 1 3 / 2 and in the other (main) N1. This makes volt / turn
the same both in primary of the teaser and that of the main transformer.

Specification of transformers:
Single phase, 3 KVA, 50 Hz
230/115 V
13/26.1 A

33
Apparatus required
1. A.C. voltmeter (0-250 V) – 1 No.
2. A.C. voltmeter (0-150 V) – 1 No.
3. Lamp loads (110 V, 200 W) – 2 No.
4. AC Ammeter (0-15 A) – 1 No.
5. AC Ammeter (0-30 A) – 1 No.
6. 3-phase Autotransformer

Circuit Diagram

R A

(110 V
Y 200 W

(110 V
3-Phase Autotransformer
200 W

Procedure:
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keeping the secondaries open, switch on 3-phase A.C. supply.
3. At no-load, apply 3-phase line voltage (25, 50 and 100 percent of the rated primary voltage of
the main transformer) to the primary of scott connected transformer by adjusting the 3-phase
autotransformer, and note down the primary line voltage, primary line current, and secondary
voltages Vab, Vbc and Vac.
4. Connect load to the secondaries, apply 3-phase rated line voltage (220 V) to the primary by
adjusting the 3-phase autotransformer, put balanced load on the secondaries in steps (upto
rated current) and at each load note down the primary and secondary voltages and currents.
The primary applied line voltage should be maintained constant at rated value.
5. Repeat step 4 for the unbalanced load.

Observation Tables:
Sl. No. Primary line voltage (V) Primary line current (A) Secondary Voltages (V)
Vab Vbc Vac
1.

34
Sl. No. Primary line Primary line Secondary Voltages (V) Secondary Current (A)
voltage (V) current (A) Vab Vbc Ia Ic
1.

Sl. No. Primary line voltage (V) Primary currents (A) Secondary Secondary
voltages (V) currents (A)
VAB VBC VCA IA IB IC Vab Vbc Ia Ic
1.

Precautions: -
1. The 3-phase line voltage applied to the primary of the Scott connected transformer should not
be more than the rated primary voltage of the main transformer.

35
EXPERIMENT – 15

## Name: - Load test on 3-phase induction motor.

Aim: - To obtain load characteristics of a 3-phase induction motor:
Percent speed, BHP, Efficiency, Torque, Power factor and Slip versus Percent normal full-load current
curves.

Theory: -
We know that as the induction motor is loaded the speed drops down, current increases and
the power factor improves. The purpose of the load test is to study the behaviour of an induction
Suppose the motor is running on no load. The slip is small and a small no load current flows.
As the mechanical load on the motor is increased, the speed drops due to its retarding effect, the
current and the rotor power output all increase. Thus, the motor adjust itself to the new load conditions
of increased output. Corresponding to which, the input current also increases and the speed drops a
little.
At the light load, the p.f. is lagging and poor and under rated load it is lagging but improves.

WN
The BHP is given by the relation BHP = .
5000
where W is the spring balance reading (lb), and N is the speed (r.p.m.)

Machine Specification:
3-Phase Induction Motor
400 / 440 V, 4.75 A, 3 HP
50 Hz, 950 r.p.m.

Apparatus required
1. A.C. voltmeter (0-500 V) – 1No.
2. A.C. Ammeter (0-10 A) – 1No.
3. Wattmeter (10 A, 500 V) – 2Nos.
4. Tachometer

36
Circuit Diagram

A
V (0 – 500 V)

Y -  Starter

Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the belt on brake drum in loose position, switch on 3-phase A.C. supply.
3. Start the motor using Y/∆ starter
4. Tighten the belt around the brake drum so that the ammeter reading becomes about 1.25
the rated current.
5. Note down the readings of voltmeter, spring balance, ammeter, wattmeter and speed and
enter them as the first set of readings in tabulation
6. Decrease the tension in the belt over brake drum so that the ammeter shows a reading
less than the previous value.
7. Note down the readings of voltmeter, spring balance, ammeter, wattmeter and speed and
enter them in tabulation as next set of readings
8. Repeat steps 6 & 7 till the belt tension is completely released i.e. motor run on no-load

Observation Table:
Sl. No. Input line Input line Spring balance
voltage (V) current (A) Input Power (W) reading (lb) Speed
W1 W2 W1 + W2 (rpm)

Precautions: -
1. The 3-phase induction motor should be started on no-load (Belt on brake drum in loose
position) using Star-Delta starter.

37
EXPERIMENT – 16

## Name: - No- load and blocked-rotor test on 3-phase induction motor

Aim: -
1. To determine equivalent circuit parameters
2. To draw circle diagram and calculate power factor, efficiency and slip at full load
3. To draw performance characteristics:
Percent , T, BHP, p.f. and s versus percent normal full-load current curves.

Theory: -
(a) Blocked Rotor Test
This is similar to the short-circuit test on the transformer, because the stand still condition
(obtained by holding or blocking the rotor and thus not allowing it to rotate with reduced voltage
applied) is like the short circuit on transformer. Hence the blocked-rotor test is also termed as short-
circuit test.
In the no-load test the motor is run at no load with the rated voltage applied, the slip is then
quite small and hence the total rotor resistance becomes quite large. Due to this, we can ignore the
rotor current and say that the rotor (secondary side of the machine) is open circuited. Hence the no-
load test is also termed as open-circuit test.

Machine Specification:
3-phase Induction motor
Stator Rotor
400/440 V, 4.95 A 300 V, 5.2 A
1400 rpm, 50 Hz winding: Y
BHP = 3
Apparatus required
1. 3-phase auto transformer – 1No.
2. A.C. ammeter (0-10A) – 1No.
3. A.C. voltmeter (0-500V) – 1No.
4. A.C. voltmeter (0-300V) – 1No.
5. Wattmeter (10A, 500V) – 2Nos.

38
Circuit Diagram

3-f autotransformer

Procedure: -
a) For blocked rotor test
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the autotransformer to zero output and switch on the 3-phase A.C. supply.
3. Apply a low voltage (holding the rotor shaft so as to disallow rotation) so that the stator
current does not exceed the rated value.
4. At the rated stator current, note down the ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings.

## b) For no load test

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the autotransformer to zero output and switch on the 3-phase A.C. supply.
3. Start the motor by applying the voltage gradually (for slip ring motors, cut off external
resistances)
4. Apply a voltage equal to the rated value and note down the reading of wattmeters, voltmeter
and ammeter.
c) Stator and Rotor winding resistance measurement
1. Measure d.c. resistance of stator and rotor (in case of wound rotor) by using ammeter-
voltmeter method.

Circle diagram
The circle diagram of an induction motor enables us to calculate its performance under different load
conditions.

39
Observation Tables:
a) Blocked-rotor test
Sl. No. Input line voltage Input line current Input Power (W)
W1 W2 W1 + W2
(V) (A)
1.

Sl. No. Input line voltage Input line current Input Power (W) Speed
W1 W2 W1 + W2
(V) (A) (r.p.m.)
1.

Precautions: -
1. Before switching on the mains, set the variac to zero output
2. In case of slip ring motor short-circuit the slip-rings before starting.
3. Blocked rotor test should be performed at rated current
4. No –load test should be performed at rated voltage

40
EXPERIMENT – 17

Aim: -
1. To study the behaviour of an induction motor under load
2. To plot the speed Vs output, efficiency Vs output, and torque Vs load graphs
Theory: -
As for a load test on any motor the supply voltage remains the constant quantity, the load put on the
the current, power and the speed are noted
Specification of Machines:
3 -Phase Induction Motor D.C. Shunt Generator
440V, 8.3 A, HP = 5.5 3 KW
50 Hz, 1450 r.p.m. 230 V, 13 A
1430 r.p.m.

Apparatus required
1. A.C. voltmeter (0-500V) – 1No.
2. A.C. ammeter (0-10A) – 1No.
3. D.C. voltmeter (0-300V) – 1No.
4. D.C. ammeter (0-20A) – 1No.
5. D.C. ammeter (0 – 1 A) – 1 No.
6. Rheostat (200 , 2.8 A) – 1 No.
7. Lamp load (200 W, 250 V) - 1No.
8. Wattmeter (10 A, 500 V) – 2Nos
9. Tachometer – 1No.

Circuit Diagram

3 phase
autotransformer

41
Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Put all the load switches off. Set the Generator field rheostat to its maximum. Set the variac to
zero output. Switch on 3-phase A.C. supply.
3. Start the motor (at no-load) by applying voltage through the variac gradually increasing to the
rated voltage and run to its normal speed.
4. Excite the D.C. shunt Generator to its rated voltage. Note the power input to the motor and
5. Put some load on the Generator and bring the D.C. Generator voltage to its rated value. Note
down the D.C. Generator voltage and current, induction motor input voltage, input current,
input power and speed.
d.c. generator voltage constant to its rated value and note down meters readings.

Observation Table
Motor side D.C. Generator side
Sl. No. Input line Input line Input Power (W) Speed Voltage (V) Current (A)
W1 W2 W1 + W2
Voltage (V) current (A)
1

Precautions: -
1. In case of wound-rotor induction motor, short-circuit the slip-rings before starting
2. Start the induction motor using a starter.

42
EXPERIMENT – 18

## Name: - O.C and S.C test on a single-phase induction motor

Aim: -
(A) Study that
1. The 1-phase induction motor does not develop starting torque without auxiliary windings
2. The starting torque in a 1-phase induction motor is developed by connecting capacitor either
in main or auxiliary winding. Note the direction of rotation in each case:
(B) Determine the losses and the equivalent circuit parameters
(C) Draw the equivalent circuit and mention the values of parameters.
(D) Determine the performance characteristics of the test machine using the equivalent circuit
parameters.

Theory: -
Single-phase induction motors have many applications such as driving fans, blowers,
compressors etc. Most of the fractional horse power motors are single-phase induction
motors.
The behaviour of a single-phase induction machine can be studied by (a) double revolving
field theory or (b) cross field theory. As the double revolving field theory is simpler and gives
a clearer physical concept, it is preferred for the analysis of single phase machines.
In double revolving field theory, a pulsating mmf produced by the stator (main) winding of a
pure single-phase machine can be resolved into two oppositely rotating mmf F f and Fb of
constant and equal magnitude which can be mathematically expressed by
NI
F= [cos (wt - q ) + cos (wt + q )]
2
= Ff + Fb
where N = effective number of turns for main winding
I = main winding current
However fluxes ff and fb produced by the mmf’s Ff and Fb respectively are of equal
magnitude only at standstill. Under running condition (at all speeds) ff > fb. Each component
of flux produces electromagnetic torque i.e. forward torque T f is produced by forward flux ff
and backward torque Tb by backward flux fb. Net torque produced by induction machines
being = (Tf – Tb), which is positive along the direction of rotation.

43
Thus once the motor is started using the starting winding mmf, it continues the rotation. The
torque-slip characteristic of a single-phase induction motor has been shown in the figure
below.

## Fig: Torque diagram of a single-phase induction motor

Specification of Machine
Single-phase Induction motor
230V, 5.4 Amps
R.P.M. – 1420
BHP - 1.5

Apparatus required
1. A.C. voltmeter (0-250V) – 1No.
2. A.C. voltmeter (0-150V) – 1No.
3. A.C. ammeter (0-5A) – 1No.
4. A.C. ammeter (0-10A) – 1No.
5. Wattmeter (5A, 300V) – 1No.
6. Wattmeter (10A, 150V) – 1No.
7. Single-phase autotransformer (10 A, 300 V) – 1 No.
8. Capacitor (10 F) – 1 No.

44
Circuit Diagram

Procedure: -
For O.C. Test
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Close switch S. Set the variac to zero output and switch on the single-phase A.C. supply.
3. Start the motor by applying the voltage through the variac gradually upto the rated voltage.
4. Open switch S.
5. At the rated applied voltage, note the reading of wattmeter, ammeter, voltmeter and speed.

## For S.C. Test

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Open switch S. Set the variac to zero output and switch on the single-phase A.C. supply.
3. Holding the rotor to disallow rotation, apply (through the variac) gradually a low voltage to the
motor so that the input current is of rated value.
4. At the rated current, note down the ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings.

45
For stator winding resistance measurement
Measure the D.C. resistance of the main and auxiliary windings by using Ammeter-voltmeter method
and find the effective A.C. value

Observation Tables:
(a) OC. Test

Sl. No. Input voltage (V) Input current (A) Input power (W) Speed (r.p.m)

1.

## (b) S.C. Test

Sl. No. Input voltage (V) Input current (A) Input power (W)

1.

Precautions: -
1. Before switching on the mains set the variac to zero output
2. O.C. Test should be performed at rated voltage
3. S.C. Test should be performed at rated current

46
EXPERIMENT – 19

## Name: - Voltage regulation of a single-phase alternator by direct loading method

Theory: -
In direct loading method the alternator is driven at synchronous speed and the terminal voltage is
adjusted to its rated value V. The load is varied until the voltmeter and ammeter indicated the rated
values. Then the entire load is removed while the speed and field excitation are kept constant.
If open circuit voltage in read as E0, then
E0 - V
% regulation = �100%
V

Specification of Machine

## D.C. Shunt Motor Single Phase Alternator

HP = 5 3 KVA, 50 Hz
230 V, 20 A 230 V, 13 A, cos f = 0.8
1500 r.p.m. 1500 r.p.m.

Apparatus required
1. A.C. voltmeter (0 – 250 V) – 1No.
2. A.C. ammeter (0 – 15 A) – 1No.
3. D.C. ammeter (0 – 1 A) – 1No.
4. Single barrel rheostat (290 Ω 1.5 A) – 2No.
5. Double barrel rheostat (200 Ω 2.8 A) – 1No.
6. Lamp load (200 W, 250 V)
7. Tachometer – 1 No.

47
Circuit Diagram

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR VOLTAGE REGULATION OF 1-PH ALTERNATOR BY DIRECT LOAING METHOD
Procedure: -
1. Make the connection as per the circuit diagram
2. Keeping D.C. motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position start the D.C. motor with the
help of starter and adjust the motor speed to synchronous speed with the help of motor field
rheostat.
3. Load the alternator to its rated current maintaining rated voltage and synchronous speed.
4. Note down the alternator load current, field current, speed and terminal voltage.
5. Throw off the entire load. Note down the no-load voltage after adjusting the speed and field
excitation to its rated value.

Observation: -
Sl. Terminal voltage Load Field Speed Terminal Field
Speed
No. (V) Current (A) current (A) (rpm) voltage (V) current (A)
(rpm)
1

Precautions: -
1. Before starting D.C. shunt motor, set the field rheostat to its minimum resistance value
position.
2. D.C. motor must be started using a starter.
3. Maintain synchronous speed through out the experiment.

48
EXPERIMENT – 20

## Name: - Voltage regulation of an alternator by synchronous impedance method.

Aim: -
1. Plot on the same graph
a. O.C. voltage Vs field current
b. Short circuit current Vs field current
c. Synchronous impedance Vs. field current
2. Plot percent voltage regulation Vs. percent load current.
3. Draw phasor diagram at rated armature current for 0.8 pf lagging.
Theory:
The terminal voltage of an alternator changes with load. However, the user’s voltage should
be maintained within pre-specified limits which demands proper voltage regulation. The voltage
regulation is an important characteristics of an alternator and its predetermination is necessary for its
normal operation (as well as for designing suitable excitation control schemes)
The voltage regulation of an alternator is the per unit voltage rise at its terminals when a given
load at a given power factor is thrown off, the speed and excitation current remaining constant.
Regulation is governed by the armature resistance, leakage reactance and armature reaction.
The synchronous impedance method is one of the experimental methods of determining voltage
regulation. This method is based on the simple equivalent circuit and the phasor diagram given in the
figure. The per phase impedance Zs = Ra + jXs is called the synchronous impedance, where R a
represents the armature resistance and X s = Xl + Xar (combination of leakage reactance and armature
reaction reactance) is the synchronous reactance. Determination of Z s requires the knowledge of O.C.
and S.C. characteristics. If the armature is short-circuited, then E = Z s Isc. Thus for a given field
current, the ratio of the O.C. armature voltage to the S.C. current gives Z s. From the nature of O.C.
and S.C. characteristics, it is seen that Zs is not constant but decreases as the saturation sets in.
Therefore, for proper application the value of Z s chosen should correspond to the degree of
saturation at which the machine is operating. In practice Z s is chosen corresponding to the rated value
of field current. However, for laboratory purpose Z s is chosen corresponding to the field current
corresponding to the rated value of open circuit voltage.

49
Specification of machines:

## 5 H.P., 230V, 19.3 A /y – 230 / 400 V

1500 r.p.m. 7.5 / 4.35 A
cosf = 0.8, 3 KVA
1500 r.p.m.

Apparatus required
1. Double barrel rheostat (200Ω 2.8A) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-1A) – 1No.
3. A.C. voltmeter (0-300V) – 1No.
4. A.C. ammeter (0-10A) – 1No.
5. Tachometer – 1No.
6. Rheostat (300Ω 1.5A) – 1No.

Circuit Diagram

3-point starter

50
3-point starter

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON A 3-f ALTERNATOR

Procedure: -
For O.C. Test
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set potential divider to zero output position and field resistance of the d.c. shunt motor to a
minimum value.
3. Switch on D.C. supply and start the d.c. motor with the help of 3-point starter.
4. Adjust motor speed to synchronous speed with the help of motor field rheostat.
5. Keeping the speed constant, starting from zero increase the field current of the alternator in
step till saturation region is achieved to a good extent.
6. Note the simultaneous readings of the field current and the O.C. armature voltage of the
alternator.
7. Switch off d.c. supply.

51
For S.C. Test
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the d.c. motor field rheostat in minimum resistance position and the potential divider
across the alternator field to give zero output.
3. Switch on d.c. supply. Start the d.c motor with the help of 3-point starter.
4. Adjust the speed of the motor to synchronous speed.
5. Keeping speed constant, gradually increase the alternator field current from its initial value of
zero until full load armature current is achieved.
6. Note the corresponding values of armature current and alternator field current.
7. Switch off d.c. supply .

## For measurement of armature resistance (per phase)

1. Measure the armature resistance Rdc by using the Ammeter-Voltmeter
method.
2. Take effective resistance as Ra = 1.5 Rdc

Observation Tables:
a)
Open Circuit Test Short Circuit Test
Sl. No. Field current (A) Terminal voltage (V) Field current (A) Short circuit current (A)
1

## b) Armature resistance measurement

Sl. No. Voltage (V) Current (A) Rdc = Voltage / current () Ra = 1.5 Rdc ()
1

Precautions:
1. Synchronous speed should be maintained throughout the experiment.
2. In case of s.c. test, low voltage should be generated so that s.c. current does not exceed
rated current.
3. Before starting d.c. shunt motor, its field rheostat must be set to minimum resistance position.

52
EXPERIMENT – 21

## Name: - V – curves of a three – phase synchronous motor

Aim: - (a) Draw the armature current versus field current curves for
(b) Draw the unity p.f. line on the above curves

Theory: -
In a power system majority of loads work at lagging power factors while for economic
operation it is essential that the system power factor be made as close to unity as possible. The
synchronous motor has the property that its power factor varies with the variation of excitation, and
this property can be used in improving the power factor of a system. Therefore, the study of variation
of armature current and power factor of a synchronous motor with its excitation is important.
For a synchronous motor the armature current phasor is given by
V -E
Ia =
Zs
where
V is the applied voltage phasor and is constant,
E is induced emf phasor and its magnitude depends on the d.c. excitation, and
Zs is synchronous impedance
From the above relation it is seen that the magnitude and angle of the phasor I a depend on
the value of d.c. excitation. The phasor diagrams (given below) show that a synchronous motor draws
lagging current when it is under-excited and leading current when over-excited. The excitation at unity
p.f. is known as the normal excitation. If the excitation is increased above the normal excitation, the
armature current increases and the p.f. is leading. Similarly if the excitation is reduced below the
normal excitation, the armature current increases again but p.f. will be lagging p.f. At normal excitation
the armature current will be minimum. Therefore, the curve showing the relationship between the
armature current and the excitation is of V-shape, hence called V-curve.
The objective of this experiment is to determine and plot the V-curves of a synchronous motor
under constant power output.

53
Specification of machines:
D.C. Shunt Motor 3-Phase Alternator

5 H.P,  / y - 230/400 V
230V, 19.3 A, 7.5 / 4.35 A
1500 rpm 3 KVA, cosf = 0.8
Exct. – 230 V

Apparatus required
1. A.C. ammeter (0-7.5 A) – 1No.
2. D.C. ammeter (0-1 A) – 1No.
3. A.C. voltmeter (0-500 V) – 1No.
4. Single barrel rheostat (200Ω 1.5 A) – 1No.
5. Double barrel rheostat (200Ω 2.8 A) – 1No.
6. Phase sequence meter – 1No.
7. Frequency meter – 1No.
8. Tachometer – 1 No.

Circuit Diagram

Synchronizing
Switch
L1
3-Ph
440 V
L2 50 Hz
supply

L3

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR DETERMINATION OF V CURVE OF A 3-f SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

54
Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the external resistance in the field circuit of the d.c. machine to the minimum value.
Switch on d.c. supply.
3. Start the d.c. machine as motor using 3-point starter and bring it to the synchronous speed.
4. Synchronise the alternator to the mains. Before two three-phase systems can be
synchronised the following conditions should be met:
a) Frequency of both the systems should be same.
b) Terminal voltages must be equal.
c) Phase sequence of both the systems should be same.
5. After fulfilling the synchronising conditions, synchronize the alternator to the 3-phase supply
by using null-voltmeter method.
6. Disconnect the d.c. machine armature by taking out the fuse connected in the armature
circuit.
7. Now the synchronous machine is working as a synchronous motor and d.c. machine as
separately excited generator.
8. With no load on the d.c. generator, adjust the synchronous motor field current to the minimum
such that the armature current is of rated value.
9. Now vary the synchronous motor field current in the increasing direction in steps up to a value
corresponding to rated armature current. Note the simultaneous readings of field current and
armature current at each step. (with increase in field current, the armature current will
decrease up to a minimum value and then increase giving V-shape curve)
11. Now load the synchronous motor by connecting load to the d.c. generator and repeat steps 8
and 9 for constant output of 25%, 50% and 100% of full load.

Observation Table:
Sl.No. Field current (A) Armature current (A)
1.

Precautions:
1. Synchronizing switch should never be closed unless (a) all the synchronizing conditions are
satisfied and (b) the needle of voltmeter (used as null voltmeter), connected between the
main and alternator supply terminals, comes to zero.

55
EXPERIMENT – 22

## Name: - Slip Test of a synchronous machine

Aim: - To determine Xd and Xq of a synchronous machine and draw the phasor diagram for 0.8 p.f
lagging.
Theory:
Several reactances have been defined depending upon the type of synchronous machine and
time of the transient in which one is interested. For salient pole machine there are two classes of
reactances pertaining to polar and interpolar axis (d-and q-axis) respectively. Determination of the
reactances of synchronous machines help in predicting short circuit currents from the point of view of
design of circuit breakers.
The direct and quadrature axis synchronous reactances X d and Xq can be determined by a
slip test. With the field open circuited, the salient pole alternator is driven by a prime mover at a speed
slightly less than the synchronous speed. The armature is connected to a reduced balanced three-
phase voltage (to limit armature current), which sets up mmf wave rotating in the same direction as
the rotor. The rotating armature mmf axis gradually changes, on account of the ‘slip’ between
coincidence with the d-axis and q-axis successively. When the d-axis and the armature mmf axis
coincide, the voltage applied to the armature is equal to the voltage drop caused by X d. Similarly when
the armature mmf axis is in quadrature with the d-axis, the applied voltage is equal to the voltage drop
caused by Xq. The reluctance of the magnetic circuit varies cyclically between an upper and a lower
limit, and the armature current consequently changes in the reverse sense. Therefore, the armature
current and voltage undergo variation at slip frequency. If the slip is small, the maximum and minimum
values of voltage and current can be read from an indicating voltmeter and ammeter. The values of X d
and Xq are given by:
Maximum value of armature voltage / phase
Xd =
Minimum value of armature current / phase

## Minimum value of armature voltage / phase

Xq =
Maximum value of armature current / phase
In the slip test the field winding should be open so that slip frequency current is not induced in
it.
In cylindrical rotor machines Xd and Xq are almost equal.

Specification of machines:
D.C. shunt Motor 3-phase alternator

## 5 H.P /y – 230 / 400 V

230 V, 19 A, 7.5 / 4.35 A
1500 r.p.m. 3 KVA, cos f = 0.8
1500 r.p.m.
Exct. – 230 V

56
Apparatus required
1. A.C. ammeter (0-7.5 A) – 1 No.
2. A.C. voltmeter (0-500 V) – 1 No.
3. A.C. Voltmeter (0-300 V) – 1 No.
4. Double barrel rheostat (200 Ω 2.8 A) – 1No.
5. Tachometer -1 No.
6. Phase sequence meter – 1 No.
7. Three phase variac – 1 No.

S +
K J
230 V
Circuit Diagram (0-500 V) V
200 
2.8 A DC Supply
-
3-point starter

200 
2.8 A (0-300 V)

3-Phase variac

## CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR SLIP TEST OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

Procedure: -
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the 3-phase variac output to zero. Switch on d.c. supply. Close switch S after setting
potential divider output to zero.
3. With minimum resistance in the field circuit, start the d.c. motor with the help of 3-point starter.
Adjust field rheostat for synchronous speed.
4. Increase alternator field current to generate about rated voltage.
5. Switch on 3-phase A.C. supply. Adjust the 3-phase variac output voltage nearly equal to
alternator generated voltage.
6. Check the phase sequence of alternator voltage and the variac output voltage using phase-
sequence meter. If they are not same, interchange any two of the variac output terminals and
check phase sequence again.
7. Switch off D.C. supply. Switch off 3-phase A.C. supply. Set the three-phase variac output to
zero and the D.C. motor field rheostat for minimum resistance value.
8. After ensuring the phase sequence, remove the alternator field excitation (open switch S) and
connect the UVW terminals of the alternator to the corresponding RYB output terminals of the
variac.

57
9. Following proper procedure, start d.c. motor and bring it near to synchronous speed. Switch
on the A.C. supply and apply a small voltage. The voltmeter reading connected across the
field winding terminals J K should fluctuate and remain within rated value if the slip is small
and direction of rotation is correct. The armature current reading should also fluctuate.
10. Increase the A.C. voltage applied to the armature from the variac such that maximum current
is nearly equal to the rated full load current of the armature.
11. Note the maximum and minimum values of armature applied voltage and current. Calculate
the applied voltage per phase (Vp = VL / 3).
12. Record the readings for different applied voltages.

Observation Table:
Sl. No. Speed (r.p.m.) Armature Voltage per phase (V) Armature current per phase (A)
Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum

Precautions: -
1. Ensure that the direction of rotation of the rotor is in the direction of rotating magnetic field.
2. Keep alternator field winding open.

58