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CHEM ACADEMY 1 Periodic Properties (Solution)

PERIODIC PROPERTIES
EXERCISE - I
Single Correct Type
Electronic Configuration
1. (a) & (b) are d block elements. E.C. (n – 1)d0–10ns1–2.
(c) is an s-block element E.C. ns1
Note* the last e– decides the black of the element.
Correct answer is (c)
2. (I)
(II) CHEM ACADEMY
CH3+ :
H3O+ :
(III) NH3 :
6 + 3 – 1 = 8 e–
8 + 3 – 1 = 10 e–
7 + 3 = 10 e–
(IV) CH3– : 6 + 3 + 1 = 10 e–
Thus, (II), (III) & (IV) are isoelectronic.
Correct answer is (d)
3. For the number of elements in nth period:
2
 n 1 
If n is odd, Ans:   2
 2 
2
n2
If n is even, Ans:   2
 2 
2
 10  2 
for n = 10, Ans.:    2  72
 2 
Correct answer is (b)
4. The orbitals that are filled for nth period are given by:
ns np (n – 1)d (n – 2)f (n – 3)g ................
If n = 9, the orbitals filled will be:
9s 9p 8d 7f 6g

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CHEM ACADEMY 2 Periodic Properties (Solution)
Total number of orbitals = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25
Number of electrons in each orbitals = 3
Number of elements in 9th period = 25 × 3 = 75
Hence, the correct option is (d)
1
5. Ionisation Potential  Metallic character

Thus, Q has the highest metallic character.


6. E.C.: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
Given element has Group number: 10 + 6 = 16
Period Number: 3
Atomic Number: 16
For element ‘X’ which is just below the above element in periodic table.
Group No.: 16
Atomic No.: 16 + 18 (there would be 18 element betweeen them)
= 34
Hence the correct option is (c) 34 and 16
7. Electronic configuration of the element would be:
[Rn]86 5f10 7s2

8. Element
CHEM ACADEMY
Thus, period no. = 7
E.C. e– (outermost shell) e– (Penultimate shell)
Al3+ 1s22s22p6 8 2
Ca2+ 1s22s22p63s23p6 8 8
F – 2 2
1s 2s 2p 2 8 2
N 3 2 2
1s 2s 2p 6 8 2
Hence the correct option is (b)
9. Atomic no. IUPAC Symbol
0 nil n
1 un u
2 bi b
3 tri t
4 quad q
5 pent p
6 hex h
7 sept s
8 oct o
9 enn e
 for 109 symbol une

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CHEM ACADEMY 3 Periodic Properties (Solution)
10. d-electron density is more diffused than P electron density. Thus, d-electron has less screening
effect than P electron.
11. Down the group, size of halide anions increases due to increase in number of shells. Hence
F– < Cl– < Br– < I–
For hydride ion (H–), Number of protons in nucleus = 1, Number of electrons = 2
The small nucleus cannot hold the negative charge density firmly. Thus, electron density expands
resulting in the size of H– being slightly smaller than I–. Hence the order (b) F– < Cl– < Br– < H– < I–
Correct answer is (b)
12. Reducing agent power is a resultant of subH + I.E.H + nydH
Li+ has a very high charge density which accounts for its highly negative hydration energy & hence
reducing agent power.
13. (a) is not possible because n  m (can’t be equal to)
(b) is not possible because. n   (can’t be equal to)
(d) is not possible because n = 4 for an electron in 4f orbital.
Thus (c) is correct.
14. (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) represent 1s, 2s, X, 3d, 3d orbitals respectively.
In absence of magnetic & electric field (iv) & (v) will have same energy as they have equal values of
n& .
15. n +  = 5. The feasible combinations are

i.e.
CHEM ACADEMY (n = 3,  = 2)
3d
(n = 4,  = 1)
4p
(n = 5,  = 0)
5s
No. of e – 10 + 6 + 2
Hence, the correct answer is (c) 18.
16. For n = 4,  = 0 to (4 – 1)
i.e. 0 to 3 maximum value of  = 3
17. Atomic number of M = 9 E.C. = 1s22s22p5
To have 8 e– in valence shell, it will form a uninegative ion, i.e. stable ion is represented by M–.
18. (i) I is an s-block element. It can’t show variable O.S.
(ii) II is not a d-block element but an f block element
(iii) Compound formed between I and III will be ionic
(iv) IV is a d-block element. It can show variable O.S.
Hence all the statements are false.
19. Down the group, electropositive character increases. Also, alkali metals are more electropositive
than alkaline earth metals. Hence, correct option is (b) [Xe] 6s1
20. Given element is a d-Block element
Group Number: No. of s e– + No. of d e– = 2 + 5 = 7
21. n = 4 (Period no.). Also P subshell as 2e– i.e. d-orbitals are fully filled.
Group No.: 2 + 10 + 2 = 14

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CHEM ACADEMY 4 Periodic Properties (Solution)
22. The general E.C. of alkali metal series is ns1, Hence, option (c) is correct.
23. (d) mL = –1 is not possible for an s-orbital as there is only one value of m for s-orbital i.e. m = 0.
24. The possible value of  are from 0 to (n – 1)
n = 3 &  = 3 are not possible. Hence option (d) is correct.
25. ml can have values ranging from  to  . Thus,  = 2 & mL = –3 are not possible.
26. (a) is not possible as n should be 4.
(c) is not possible as  should be 1 (P orbital)
(d) is not possible as  should be 1 (P-orbital)
Thus, option (b) is correct.
27. For Z = 92, E.C. [Rn]86 · 5f4 7s2
Thus, number of possible shells = 7.
28. The atomic radius gradually decreases from Sc to Mn and for Fe, Co, Ni, it remains constant. Then,
it gradually increases from Ni to Zn.
Hence statement (d) is incorrect.
29. (a) & (b) are d-block elements. (c) is an s-block element.
30. For isoelectronic species, more is the atomic number, smaller is the size. Thus, the order would be
(a) N3– > O2– > F– > Ne > Na+ > Mg2+
A.No. 7 8 9 10 11 12
31.
32. CHEM ACADEMY 2+
The given species are isoelectronic. Hence, the order would be Mg < Na < F . + –

Down the group, the size of atom increases. Also, the atomic size of anion is always larger than its
parent atom. Hence I– has maximum size.
33. Hg+2 has more positive O.S. So the nucleus, holds the electron density more firmly than in Hg+1.
Then, size: Hg+1 > Hg+2
34. Atomic size increases on going down the group & decreases along left to right in a period. Thus (c)
F < N < P < Si
35. Ca is a 4th period element. So it has maximum size. Also, size decreases on moving from left to
right in periodic table. Thus, Cl < Mg.
(b) Cl < Mg < Ca
36. O2– has maximum size, Al3+ has minimum size. (Refer to Question 30.)
37. Be is a 2nd period element while Mg & Na are 3rd period elements. Mg2+ & Na+ isoelectronic.
Since Mg2+(12) has higher atomic number, it will have a lower size than Na+
Hence Be2+ < Mg2+ < Na+.
38. The radius of cation is always samller than parent atom while the radius of anion is always larger
than parent atom.
Thus (b) option is correct.
39. Both Pm & PM of K will be greater than that of Na. (Down the group, atomic radius increase).
Also for a given element, metallic radius is always larger than covalent radius.
40. For largest cation & largest anion, there will be maximum distance between their centres
(b) Thus CsI is the correct option (Cs+ & I–)

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CHEM ACADEMY 5 Periodic Properties (Solution)

41. C  2s 2 2p1 O  2s2 2p3

N   2s2 2p 2 F  2s 2 2P 4

Half filled configurations are more stable than neighbours. Thus, O   F 


 N   C

Based on size
(smaller size,
more ionisation
potential)

42. Down the group, ionization potential decreases.


Along the period, ionization potential increases.
Hence Ca > Ba > K
43. Be  1s2 2s2. It has fully filled E.C. Thus, I.E. is maximum for this process.
44. There is not a significant gap between IE2 & IE1, Thus alkaline earth metals form dipositive ions.
45. Mg   [Ne]3s1

Na   [Ne]
Na+ has noble gas configuration while Mg+ is one electron extra of it. Thus (IE2) Mg < IE2(Na).
size size
46.
CHEM ACADEMY
C  Be  B  Li
EC

Li  1s 2 2s1 Be  1s2 2s2 (Fully filled)

B  1s 2 2s 2 2p1 C  1s2 2s2 2p 2


* Be has more IE1 than B & Li
* C has maximum I.E. due to smallest size.
47. In (c) after losing 2e–, noble gas configuration is attained. Thus, maximum difference between IE2
& IE3
48. Due to screening effect, the outermost electrons are held less tightly. So, I.E. decreases.
49. IE1 = 6000 kJ mol–1 IE2 : IE2 = 3 : 2
Let I.E2= 3s & I.E.3 = 2s
H M(g)  M2+(g) = 10000 kJ mol–1
6000 + 3x + 2x = 10000
x = 800 kJ mol–1
IE3 = 2x = 1600 kJ mol–1
50. (c) After the loss of 2e–, noble gas configuration is attained

51. H(atom)  H   e
(proton)

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CHEM ACADEMY 6 Periodic Properties (Solution)
52. IE2 is always greater than IE1 as it is more difficult to remove an e– from a unipositive cation than a
neutral atom.
53. Be2+  1s2 C2+  1s2 2s2 B  1s2 2s1
1s orbitals are more penetrated than 2s. So, more energy is required in Be2+
Order of IE3 : Be > C > B.
54. IE2 of M(g) is 200 eV
Thus, (d) is incorrect.
55. (b) After losing 1 e– it attains noble gas configuration. So, a high amount of energy is required to
remove second electron.
56. (c), Exactly half filled configurations are most stable.
57. (c) O–  O2–, this process requires energy to overcome the repulsions between incoming 2nd elec-
tron & outemost shell of O– ion.
58. Electron affinity increases along the period & decreases down the group. However O < S as O has
a small size and it is tough to accomodate an electron in relatively compact 2nd shell.
59. E.A. O (2nd period) < S (3rd period) F (2nd period) < Cl (3rd period)
(b) O < S < F < Cl
60. Electron affinity is attraction for incoming electron. Negative ions will not attract e–. Also, Na+ has
larger size than Li+. Thus Li+ has maximum E.A.
61. (b) Cl > Si > Na > Ar

62.
CHEM ACADEMY
(E.A. increases along the period Ar has stable configuration, So least electron affinity)
A+B– : For A  A+ & B  B–
(I.E.)A < (I.E.)B ... (1) (EA)A < (EA)B ... (2)
(a) (IE)A + (EA)A < (IE)B + (EA)B
EA  IE
63. On mulliken’s scale  m  (  m = electronegativity)
2
EA  E 2
i.e. E1 =
2
EA = 2E1 – E2
64. A(g)  A(g)  e clearly i.e. (A) =  eg H (A)  E.A.(A)

65. Be  Be 
1s 2 2s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p1
Fully filled configuration is disturbed. Hence Be– is most unstable.
66. Most electronegative element is flourine (F)
Outermost configuration : ns2np5
67. (a) 1s22s22p5  Hourine, which is the most electronegative element.
68. (b) O has the highest electronegativity after flourine.
69. Acidic strength of non metal oxides  Electronegativity (  ) as electronegativity increases along a
period
Order: Li2O < BeO < B2O3

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CHEM ACADEMY 7 Periodic Properties (Solution)
70. rC + rF = 1.33 Å ... (1)
rSi + rF = 1.54 Å ... (2)
rC + rSi = 1.87 Å ... (3)
On solving (1), (2) & (3) we get rF = 0.5 Å.
71. 1s22s22p1  B [He]2s22p4  O
[Ne]3s23p1  Al [Ne]3s23p5  Cl
O is the most electronegative.
72. (d) All the given orders are correct.
d CC 1.54Å d x  x 1.2
73 rCC    0.77Å rx  x    0.6A
2 2 2 2
XC = 2.0, XX = 3.0 Using Stevenson & Shoemaker equation,
dc – x = rC + rX – 0.09120 – 3.01 = 1.28 Å
74. rO(C) = 0.74Å  0 = 3.5
using allied Roschow scale of electronegativity
0.359  Z*
0  2
 0.744 (Z* = effective nuclear charge)
rO(C)

75.
CHEM ACADEMY
Z* = 4.20
1
Basicity of metal oxide  I.E. of metal

Thus, Na2O is most basic.


76.   Acidic strength of non metal hydride.
Thus (b) HF > H2O > NH3
77. CO = Neutral; BeO = Amphoteric; Na2O = Basic (Metal oxide); N2O5, Cl2O7 = Acidic (non metal
oxides)
(a) NPBAA (Hint: only NO, N2O & CO are neutral)
78. rC + rH = x ... (1)
rSi + rH = y ... (2)
rC + rSi = z ... (3)
(1) – (3)  rH  rSi  x  z ... (4)
(2) + (4) 2rH = x + y – z
xyz
rH 
2
79. O and F have higher electronegativities than S & Cl respectively. However, electron affinity: O < S,
F < Cl.
Thus statement (a) is incorrect.

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CHEM ACADEMY 8 Periodic Properties (Solution)
80.   the oxidation state of metal
Thus Mn (II) has lowest E.N. Value.
EXERCISE - II
Multiple Correct Type
1. Electron affinity increases along a period. However, N  2s22p3 is exactly half filled & stable
configuration
(a) Thus, order: N < C < O < F.
Electron affinity decreases down the group. However EA(Cl) > EA(F) as it is difficult to accomodate
an extra electron in relatively compact 2nd shell of E. Hence, correct order: (c) Cl > F > Ba > I.
2. (c) is incorrect because atomic size of Cl– < S2– (as Cl has higher nuclear charge)
3. (a) Boron is diagonally related to silicon & not Mg
(c) It will have atomic numbers 118 if discovered.
Thus, (a) & (c) are incorrect.
4. Atomic size of Mg ~ Li (Diagonal relationship). IN case of ions, atomic size Mg2+ < atomic size
(Li+) or we can say they are comparable.
Also IP of Na < Mg > Al ( Mg has fully filled 2s orbital) (c) & (d) are incorrect, (a) & (b) are
correct.
5. (a) In K, the 14th electron would have gone in 3d orbital & it would have been a d-block element &

CHEM ACADEMY
paramagnetic.
(b) Atomic number of Cu = 29, EC: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1 (Hypothetical)
Thus, it would have been an s-block element.
(c) Atomic number of Cr = 24, E.C.: 1s22s22p63s23p63d6
3d  (if hund’s rule is not followed)
Thus, we would have been diamagnetic.
(d) EC of Fe: 1s22s22p63s23p63d8

Fe3+ would then have 1 unpaired electron. Thus a, b, c are correct


6. (a) Ionisation energy & (b) Electronegativity increase from codine to fluorence.
7. (a) Al & Ga have same radii (due to poor screening of d electron in Ga)
2r & Hp have almost same size due to lanthanide contraction and relativistic effect.
Pt & Pd have almost same size due to lanthanide contraction and relativistic effect.
8. Metallic character increases down the group & decreases along a period.
Thus (c) & (d) are correct.
9. EA (O) < EA (S)
EA (F) < EA (Cl)
Out of all elements in periodic table EA(Cl) is most negative
10. (b) & (c) are favourable factors for formation of A+B–

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CHEM ACADEMY 9 Periodic Properties (Solution)
11. Second electron given enthalpy egH2 is always positive as there are high repulsions between electron
cloud of uninegative ion and incoming electron.
Only (b) is incorrect.
12. EA of S > EA of O. Only (b) is incorrect
13. Acidic strength  +ve oxidation state.
Al2O3  SiO2  P2O5  SO3
( 3) ( 4) ( 5) ( 6)

Thus, (b) is incorrect.


14. (a) Down the group ionic radii increases
(b)   acidic nature of oxide  oxidation state
Al2O3 < SiO2 < P2O5 < SO3
(c) Basic character  size of central atom.
15. 5d transition series elements have smaller screening effect (due to poor screening by f & d electron),
thus a higher effective nuclear charge  relatively smaller size of atoms  Higher ionization
energies.
Thus (a) & (b) are correct.
16. Mg+: [Ne]2s1 Al+  [Ne]2s2
IE2(Mg) < IE2 (Al)

CHEM ACADEMY
(c) Order of IE1: Zn  Cu  Ga
4s 2
 4s
1
4p1

fully penetration
filled effect of s
orbitals is
greater than
that of p
orbitals

17. (c) Vander Waal’s radius is always greater than covalent radius.
(d) The reactivity of non-metallic elements in periodic table decreases from top to bottom.
Thus, (c) & (d) are incorrect.
18. Order of egH
H 3  H 2  H1  H 4
(most negative) (least negative) (positive)

Thus, a, b & (c) are correct.


19. O2– < F– < Na+ < Mg2+
Zeff  Atomic number (in isoelectronic species)
Zeff  I.E.
Zeff  EA Hence the order.
20. (n, l, m, s)  (4, 3, –2, –1/2) Electron is in 4f orbital

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CHEM ACADEMY 10 Periodic Properties (Solution)
For both lanthanide (4f) & actinide (5f) series, 4f orbitals have electrons present in them
2nd T.S.  comes after lanthanide series
3rd T.S.  comes after Actinide series
Thus (a), (b), (c), (d) are correct.
21. Compare by size Compare by size
Be+  1s2 2s1 Be+ > B2+ F6+  2s1 C3+ > F6+
B2+  1s2 2s1 IE: Be+ < Be2+ C3+  2s1 IE: C3+ < F6+
Thus, (a) & (d) are incorrect.

EXERCISE - III
Subjective and Numerical Answer Type
1. dCl – Cl = 10 Å dH – H = 2Å Cl = 3.0 H = 2.1

d H H d Cl Cl 10
rH   1Å rCl    5Å
2 2 2
d H Cl  rH  rCl  0.09 | Cl   H | [Stevenson & shvemaker equation]
= 1 + 5 – 0.09 | 3.0 – 2.1 |
= 5.919 Å
2.

(a)
CHEM ACADEMY
dPt – Cl = 2.32 Å

dCl – Cl = 2dPt – Cl (b) dCl – Cl = 2(d Pt Cl )2


= 2(2.32) = 4.64 Å = 3.21 Å
(By pythagoras theorem)

I.E.  E.A.  4  13 
3. m     8.5
2  2 

 m 8.5
P    3.03 where m = E.N. value on Mulliken scale
2.8 2.8
P = E.N. value on pauling scale

4. |  H   F |  E H F  E HH  E FF  (0.208)


 

  (134.6)  104.2  36.2  (0.208)


 

  F  3.8752
5. Cl + e–  Cl–
Energy released in above process for 6.02 × 1023 atoms = 31050 kJ

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CHEM ACADEMY 11 Periodic Properties (Solution)
Cl  Cl+ + e–
Energy required for above process for 1 mol atoms = 1250 kJ.
1250 kJ = 1 mol
1 kJ = 1/1250 mol
1280 kJ = 1/1250 × 350 = 0.28 mole
Number of atoms = 0.28 NA = 0.28 × 6.022 × 1023 = 1.686 × 1023
6. EC of F : 1s2 2s2 2p5
 = 4 × 0.35 + 2 × 0.85 = 3.1
Zeff = Z –  = 9 – 3.1 = 5.9 = Z* = Zeff on periphery
0.359  Z*
AR  2 + 0.744
rcovalent (Å)

0.359  5.9
  0.744  4.1
(0.72) 2
7. Ca: 1s22s22p63s23p64s2
 = 1 × 0.35 + 8 × 0.85 + 10 × 1 = 17.15
8. n = 3 ms = –1/2.
3rd shell can have 3s, 3p & 3d orbitals i.e. 1 + 3 + 5 = 9 orbitals in total in which only one electron

9.
CHEM ACADEMY
each can have ms = –1/2. Thus Answer is 9e–.
n=2 l=2  3d e– = 10 e– in total
10. The orbitals that would be filled for nth period.
ns np (n – 1)d (n – 2)f
for n = 6 6s 6p 5d 4f
No. of orbitals 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16
No. of electron in each orbital = 3
Maximum number of elements in 6th period = 16 × 3 = 48
EXERCISE - IV
Previous Year Questions
IIT-JAM Previous Year
1. (a) NO and CO  7 + 8 = 15 and 6 + 8 = 14 respectively
(b) O2– and NO–  8 + 8 + 1 = 17 and 7 + 8 + 1 = 16 respectively
(c) NO+ and CO  7 + 8 – 1 = 14 and 6 + 8 = 14 respectively
(d) O2– and NO+  17 and 7 + 8 – 1 = 14 respectively
Thus (c) NO+ and CO is an isoelectronic pair.
2. Li  1s22s1 C  1s22s22p2
N  1s2 2s2 2p3 (exactly half filled) O  1s22s22p4
Thus N has first I.E. highest

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CHEM ACADEMY 12 Periodic Properties (Solution)
3. (a) the atomic size of element decreases
 of increase in Zefff.
(b) IE1 increases because of increase in Zeff
(c) the oxide of element becomes less basic & more acidic.
4. He  1s2 (Fully filled noble gas) Be  1s22s2
H  1s1 B  1s22s22p1
He > H > Be > B
charge
5. Extent of hydration  charge density 
size
2+
(b) Mg has maximum charge density
6. Xe = Fully filled noble gas conf.
As = ns2np3 (Half-filled conf.)
Be = 1s22s2 (fully filled conf.)
Al = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
Xe > As > Be > Al
7. Atomic size decreases on moving from left to right in a period. Hence size of d-orbitals also decrease
(d) Si > P > S > Cl
8. F  Most electronegative element

9.
CHEM ACADEMY
Amongst Li, K, Na  K is the least electronegative due to largest size
(b) K, F has largest E.N. diff.
E.N. increases along a period and decreases down the group
S > As > Al > Ca
  
non-metals metals
10. The size of cation is always smaller than parent atom while the size of anion will always be greater
than parent atom

S2  S  S2
 4
 S

Nuclear charge

11. For isoelectronic species, more is the nuclear charge, smaller is the size
(b) S2– > Cl– > K+ > Ca2+
12. Q. 31, Exercise - 1
13. B = 1s22s22p1 C = 1s22s22p2 N = 1s22s22p3 O = 1s22s22p4
N has exactly half filled configuration. So most stable.
Hence, it has highest I.P. (Ionisation potential).
14. Hydration energy  charge density. In the given options, Only Na+ has lesser charge density than
Mg2+
15. I.P. (N) < I.P. (O) [ N has stable half filled configuration]
(a) 14.6, 13.6

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CHEM ACADEMY 13 Periodic Properties (Solution)
16. rF < rNe (As Vander Waals radius of Ne are taken into account)
(a) 0.72, 1.60
17. E.N. Increases along a period & decreases down the group.
(c) Si < P < C < N
18. Mg  [Ne]2s2 (fully filled 2s orbital). So, it has higher I.E. than its neighbours Na & Al. Also I.E.
increases along a period.
Na < Mg > Al < Si
19. Given species are isoelectronic. Higher nuclear charge, smaller size. So Na+ is smallest in size.
20. Q.56, Exercise - 1
21. In d-block as atomic number increases electron in d-orbitals are filled but not monotonically because
in case of chromium copper electron in d increases due to extra stability of half-filled & fully filled
configuration.
22. Pb (has stable + 2 O.S. due to inert pair effect)
No. of unpaired electron E.C.
23. Mg2+ 0 [Ne]
Ti 3+ 1 [Ne]3d1
V3+ 0 [Ne]3d2
(d) Fe2+ 4 [Ne]3d6  Max unpaired electron
24. +
Na  [Ne] (configuration of nobal gas) Mg  [Ne]2s1
+

CHEM ACADEMY
IE2(Na) > IE2(Mg)
Thus (b) is incorrect.
25. Isoelectronic species  More nuclear charge, less size
(b) F– < O2– < N3–
26. I.E. decreases down the group due to increase in atomic size
Be > Mg > Ca
27. Q. 65, Exercise - 1
28. For solubility egH > H (lattice energy)
(a) & (b) are correct.
29. Ti+4 > Mn+7 (isoelectronic)  More Atomic number  less size
35Cl– = 37Cl– More no. of neutron  small size
K+ < Cl– (isoelectronic)  More atomic number  Less size

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