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Candidate’s Name: Bibi Fareada Khan

Candidate No: 090046


School: St. Rose’s High School
School Code: 090046
Teacher’s Name: Miss Liverpool
Territory: Guyana
CONTENT PAGE

CONTENTS PAGE

Acknowledgement 2

Introduction & Purpose of Research 3

Literature Review 4

Data Collection Sources 5

Presentation of data 6-9

Analysis of data 10-11

Discussion of findings 12

Conclusion 13

Limitations of the Research 14

Recommendations 15

Bibliography/Reference 16

Appendices 17-21

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The candidate would like to acknowledge the almighty for granting her the health, strength

and courage to complete this project. She would also like to express special gratitude to her

teacher who guided her along in this internal assessment and to her parents and friends

who assisted her in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.

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INTRODUCTION

This project is based on Brain drain. According to Hart (2006), brain drain is defined as the

migration of persons with increased levels of skill and education who, if they stay, could

contribute significantly to the development of the country.

However, this research seeks to examine underemployment, which is one of the most prominent

contributors to brain drain epidemic in Guyana. Pettinger (2013) defined underemployment as a

situation where individuals are working fewer hours than they wish and may also refer to the fact

that workers accept jobs that do not utilize their skills.

The researcher selected this topic because the country is presently affected by this issue. More

so, a lot of her close acquaintances are considering migrating due to underemployment. Thus, the

information gathered in this study will be of immense educational value. It will also provide a

comprehensible understanding of underemployment and highlight how these setbacks are

contributing to brain drain, and the impacts of brain drain on the country and solutions to

suppress this concern.

The objectives of this study are to:

 To determine the causes of underemployment in Guyana.

 To determine the impacts of brain drain in Guyana.

 To determine solutions to eradicate the impacts of brain drain epidemic in Guyana.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
When there is a recession, unequal supply and demand for workers, layoffs, or technological

change workers tend to be displaced. Thus, workers must find different jobs, and this often leads

to initially accepting low-paying, low-skilled, or part-time work to pay the bills. These jobs are

often preferable to no job (Winston 2004).

Based on previous studies, underemployment is one of the leading contributors to brain drain

epidemic. According to Francis (2010) brain drain is prevalent in developing countries, which

leads to loss of tax revenue, potential future entrepreneurs, a shortage of skilled workers, loss of

the country's investment in education and some other negative repercussions that can affect the

economy. Francis (2010) further stated that higher salaries, better medical facilities, access to

advanced technology, better standard of living and more stable political conditions are among

few of the things that attract professionals towards the developed countries.

Those points Francis put forward are of great value. However, he failed to put forward the

benefits of brain drain. The drawbacks of brain drain outweigh the benefits, so there are some

moves that governments can make to reduce the number of highly educated and skilled workers

that relocate to other countries. One way that governments can keep its skilled workers is to

ensure that citizens feel safe and to take steps to stimulate economic activity Sharma (2016).

According to Khan (2005), there are many ideas, theories and suggestions on eradicating brain

drain from Guyana. These possible solutions include providing better job opportunities

irrespective of caste, creed, nationality; providing attractive salaries to highly qualified personnel

based on their qualifications and experience; improving the quality of universities by bringing

them on par with universities in Europe and America; and providing adequate research facilities.

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DATA COLLECTION SOURCES

The primary instrument employed to gather the data was a twelve-item questionnaire. Thirty-five

individuals were selected using convenient sampling, whereby they were chosen based on their

proximity to the researcher and relevance to the study. They were approached individually and

asked whether they would like to participate in the study. All agreed. Then the questionnaire was

administered to the individuals on the 24th of March 2019, and it was retrieved on the subsequent

day. The questionnaire was used for several reasons, Chief of which are:

★ The instrument was confidential to both the respondent and the researcher, due to the

respondent having not to put their name; this allows for more accurate answers.

★ The results of the questionnaires were quickly and easily quantified by the researcher.

Secondary data collection instruments that were used include textbooks and the Internet.

Published information on underemployment and brain drain were retrieved from the internet,

which was useful for the Literature Review. Also, the textbook, written by Jennifer Mohamed

was used to obtain samples and format of Internal assessments, which were used as a guide to

compile this project.

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PRESENTATION OF DATA

FIGURE 1

Currently Undermeployed
77% 23% 23%
Not Underemployed

THE PIE CHART ABOVE SHOWS THE PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS WHO


CONSIDER THEMSELVES CURRENTLY UNDEREMPLOYED.

FIGURE 2

Reasons For Underemployment


50%
Percentage of respondents

45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
Not
Skills not employed
Underpaid Part time other
being used for more
than a year
Reasons For Underemployment 44% 13% 25% 10% 8%

THE COLUMN GRAPH ABOVE SHOW THE REASONS WHY RESPONDENTS CONSIDER
THEMSELVES UNDEREMPLOYED.

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FIGURE 3

Skill growth

THE INVERTED PYRAMID (FUNNEL GRAPH) ABOVE SHOW WAYS IN WHICH THE
RESPONDENTS ARE AFFECTED BY UNDEREMPLOYMENT.

TABLE 1

Options Tally Percentage

Not migrating llll 11%

Is migrating llll 14%

Considering Migrating llll llll llll llll llll 1 75%

THE TALLY CHART ABOVE SHOWS THE RESPONDENTS WHO IS CONSIDERING


MIGRATING TO LOOK FOR A BETTER JOB OPPORTUNITY.

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FIGURE 4

60%

50%

40%

30%
49%
20%

10% 25%
16%
10%
0% 0 0 0 0 0
Attractive jobs that are Opening of centres Open centers with Other
In high demands that find jobs suitale to trained persons in
you trainning technical and
vocational jobs

THE AREA GRAPH ABOVE SHOWS THE ROLE COMMUNITIES PLAY IN DECREASING
THE UNDEREMPLOYMENT RATE

FIGURE 5

40%

35% 35%
30%
30%
27%
25%

20%

15%

10% 8%
5%

0%
Increase Minimum Wage Invest in jobs that are highly Implementing programs to aid Other
demanded persons who are having
difficulty finding jobs
THE COMBO GRAPH ABOVE SHOWS THE ROLE GOVERNMENTS PLAY IN
DECREASING THE UNDEREMPLOYMENT RATE

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FIGURE 6

Effects of Brain Drain


4%

18%
Stunts development

Families are separated

Knowledge is not being passed down to


15% future generations
63%
other

THE DOUGHNUT CHART ABOVE SHOWS HOW BRAIN DRAIN AFFECTS THE COUNTRY

TABLE 2
Options Tally Total
Schools implementing more llll 4
and varying studies
Government lowering cost of llll 4
living
Providing more jobs that llll llll llll llll lll 23
utilize full skill and are paid
well
Other llll 4

THE TALLY CHART ABOVE SHOWS THE WAYS IN WHICH BRAIN DRAIN CAN BE
REDUCED IN GUYANA

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ANALYSIS OF DATA

Figure 1 shows that out of the thirty-five (35) respondents of the survey, 77% were currently

underemployed at their jobs while 23% were not. This portrays the prevalence of

underemployment in the country.

Figure 2 indicates that 44% were unpaid, while 13% skills were not utilized and 25% were not

employed for more than one year. This was because of the employer’s reluctance to pay their

employees and due to economic crisis in the country or a stand-still of the jobs.

Figure 3 indicates that majority of underemployed respondents suffer poverty levels and skill

growth, while minority suffers business growth. This was mainly due to the individuals being

unpaid, which lead to low income and not utilizing their full skill.

Table 1 illustrate 75% of the respondents considered migration while 14% are migrating. This is

mainly to widen their scope of job opportunities and to escape underemployment. While 11% did

not considered migration, perhaps because they are not underemployed.

Figure 4 illustrates that 49% of the respondents rated attractive jobs that are in high demand as the

most important role of communities, while figure 5 indicates that 35% of the respondents rated an

increase in minimum as the major role for government, followed by others. These are communities

and governmental approaches that would aid in suppressing the underemployment rate.

Figure 6 indicates 63% of respondents said that brain drain stunts development in the country.

However, when respondents were asked what forms of development are being stunted, many

singled out economic development, human development and social development. 15% of the

respondents believed that brain drain is one of the leading causes of the separation of families in

the country. The reason why brain drain could be causing separation in families is that many

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citizens forgo families for better opportunities overseas. The least chosen choice was 4 % and these

responses were not listed. Lastly, table 3 illustrates that 67% of the respondents believed that

providing payable jobs that utilizes full skills can help to reduce brain drain. This was the most

popular response because it will elevate the standard of living while eliminating underemployment

rate, which in turn will eradicate the brain drain

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DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

From the data collected, this research proved that underemployment is causing brain drain in

Guyana at an alarming rate, with most of the persons employed are seeking to the leave the country

to find a job that pays better, has more benefits and is within the range of their interest or uses the

skills they possessed.

As stated by Pettinger (2013), underemployment is a situation in which persons are working fewer

hours than they would prefer and having to accept jobs which do not utilize their skills. This

research highlights that majority of the respondents are currently underemployed with most of

them being unpaid for the services, working in jobs which do not utilize the skills they possessed,

and who currently cannot afford a decent standard of living which leaves them to be living below

the poverty line. This research has corroborated Tevjvan’s definition of underemployment.

However, Tevjvan did not mention that underemployment could be a person’s income not being

able to support them and their family. Underemployment can also cause citizens to turn to a life

of crime since they lack financial stability.

When respondents were asked if brain drain is becoming an epidemic in Guyana, majority of the

respondents responded yes. The reason for this is because of underemployment. Underemployment

is causing skilled workers to migrate. Due to this, many of our skilled individuals are leaving the

country and are migrating overseas to find other institutions which provide options for what they

are interested in and also can provide a stable job for these persons to use the skills they have

obtained.

Based on the data collected, underemployment can be overcome by having workplaces to increase

minimum wages; the government investing in jobs that are high in demand, and also implementing

programs which provide assistance to citizens who are seeking employment.

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CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the data collected showed that underemployment is the cause of migration in

Guyana. Contributing equally to these two main causes are the absence of incentives, promotions

and awards; expensive cost of education with little or no upgraded facilities, little technological

advancement in the workplace; and favorable salaries. These problems are causing citizens to

abandon their homeland to seek better paying and rewarding jobs and thus leaving the country

brain drained.

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LIMITATIONS

★ The sample size used for this experiment was too small to get accurate results on how

persons truly view the brain drain epidemic in Guyana and also to see the full extent of

how underemployment is actually leading to brain drain.

★ The data collection process was limited to questionnaires, which made it possible to only

collect limited observation on the issue of brain drain in Guyana.

★ Lastly, another limitation that could’ve caused inaccurate data collection was that

respondents were not being truthful in their responses to the questions being asked. Some

respondents might have felt it best to not fully address the topic of brain drain or they were

not interested.

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RECOMMENDATIONS:

Recommendations that can be made to reduce the overall rate of the brain drain epidemic in

Guyana are:

1. The government should invest in creating more jobs that are of high demand in the country

and also jobs which utilize the skills and training a person may have received. This would

cause less persons to leave the country looking for better job opportunities because the job

in which they are seeking are already here.

2. The government should implement programs that would provide assistance to citizens who

have difficulties securing jobs.

3. The government should raise the minimum wage so that citizens would be able to live

above the poverty line and have a decent standard of living.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY/ REFERENCE

The following are sources of information which provided data for this project:

 Nadja Johnson, Analysis and Assessment of the “Brain Drain” Phenomenon and its Effects

on Caribbean Countries – FLORIDA ATLANTIC COMPARATIVE STUDIES JOURNAL Vol. 11, 2008-2009

 Kasey Kissick, The “Brain Drain”: Migration of Healthcare Workers out of sub-Saharan Africa

 Kimberly Amadeo, Underemployment with its causes, effects and rates, (updated in 2018, March

22nd), at https://www.thebalance.com/underemployment-definition-causes-effects-rate-

3305519

 Winston(2004) https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-underemployment-definition-types-

causes-effects.html

 Francis(2010)https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-brain-drain-in-economics-definition-

causes-effects-examples.html

 Kimberly Amadeo, Underemployment with its causes, effects and rates, (updated in 2018,

March 22nd), at https://www.thebalance.com/underemployment-definition-causes-effects-rate-

3305519

 Azefar A Khan(2005) How to stop brain drain, at https://www.dawn.com/news/866601

 Sharma(2016)https://www.indiacelebrating.com/essay/brain-drain-essay/

 Jeniffer Mohammad, Caribbean Studies for CAPE Examinations – second edition

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QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondent,

This questionnaire is for a Caribbean Advanced Proficiency (CAPE) internal assessment.

The information given will be treated with the strictest confidentiality. The researcher is grateful

for the time you would have taken to complete this questionnaire. Thank you for your

participation.

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Instructions: Please read all instructions carefully before proceeding

Bio data:
Age: ( ) 16-20 ( ) 21-25 ( ) 26-30 ( ) Older than 30

Gender: ( ) Male ( ) female

1. What is your level of qualification?


( ) CSEC ( ) CAPE ( ) Diploma ( )Bachelor's Degree ( ) Master’s Degree
( ) Doctorate ( )Degree ( ) Other

2. Are you currently employed?


( ) Yes ( ) No

If “NO”, state why.


_____________________________________________________________________________________

3. Do you consider yourself underemployed?


( ) Yes ( ) No

If “YES” what’s the most appropriate reason?


( ) I am Underpaid
( ) My job isn't suitable for the training or education I received
( ) I am employed for no more than a year
( ) Part-time worker
( ) Other

If other, state it.


_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

4. How many hours are you employed for?


()1 ()2 ()3 ()4 ()5 ()6 ()7 ()8 ()9 ( ) 10 ( )11 ( ) 12

5. Do you get paid overtime?


( ) Yes ( ) No

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6. Which of the following do you think underemployment affects the most?
( ) Skill Growth
( ) Poverty Levels
( ) Business Growth
( ) Other

7. Have you ever considered or are you migrating to look for a better job
opportunity?
( ) I have considered migrating
( ) I am migrating
( ) No, I will stay

If no, why?
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

8. Which of the following is a major role community can play in decreasing the underemployment
rate?

( ) Attractive jobs that are high in demand


( ) Open centers where you can find jobs suitable for your training
( ) Open centers which train person in technical and vocational jobs
( ) Other
If other please specify

9. Which of the following is a major role the government can play in decreasing underemployment rate?
( ) Raise minimum wage
( ) Invest in jobs that are highly demanded
( ) Implement programs that would provide assistance to persons who have a hard time
getting a job
( ) Other

If other, please specify

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10. Do you think brain drain is a problem in Guyana?
( ) Yes ( ) No

11. How do you think this problem affects the nation the most?
( ) It stunts development
( ) Knowledge isn't passed down from generation to generation
( ) Families are separated
( ) Other
If other, please state.
______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

12. What do you think can be done to reduce the rate of brain drain?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

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