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Producto: LOAD HAUL DUMP


Modelo: R1600G LOAD HAUL DUMP 9PP
Configuración: R1600 G LOAD HAUL DUMP 9PP00001-UP (MACHINE)

Pruebas y Ajustes
R1600G LOAD HAUL DUMP POWER TRAIN
Número de medio -RENR7832-00 Fecha de publicación -01/11/2003 Fecha de actualización -23/03/2004

RENR78320002

Testing and Adjusting

Troubleshooting
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
SMCS Code: 3000-035

Sudden movement of the machine or release of oil under pressure can


cause injury to persons on or near the machine.

To prevent possible personal injury, perform the procedure that follows


before testing and adjusting the power train.

Personal injury can result from hydraulic oil pressure and hot oil.

Hydraulic oil pressure can remain in the hydraulic system after the
engine has been stopped. Serious injury can be caused if this pressure is
not released before any service is done on the hydraulic system.

Make sure all of the attachments have been lowered, and the oil is cool
before removing any components or lines. Remove the oil filler cap only
when the engine is stopped, and the filler cap is cool enough to touch
with your bare hand.

Personal injury or death can result from escaping fluid under pressure.

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Escaping fluid under pressure, even a very small pin-hole size leak, can
penetrate body tissue and cause serious injury and possible death. If
fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated immediately by a
doctor familiar with this type of injury.

Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during
performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair
of the machine. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling any component
containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Caterpillar Tools and Shop


Products Guide", for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain
fluids in Caterpillar machines.

Dispose of fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

NOTE: Permit only one operator on the machine. Keep all other personnel away from the machine
or in the operator's sight.

1. Move the machine to a smooth, horizontal location that is away from operating machines and
away from personnel.

2. Place the transmission direction and speed control in the NEUTRAL position and in any speed
position. Engage the steering and transmission lock lever.

3. Engage the parking brake. Place wheel locks in front of the wheels and behind the wheels.

4. When the work tool is raised for testing or for adjusting, make sure that the work tool is supported
correctly. Also, make sure that the work tool is fully in the DUMP position. The lift circuit has high
oil pressure when the lift circuit has high oil pressure when the lift arms raise the front of the
machine.

NOTE: Do not stop the machine with the front of the machine off the ground unless this is required
for a test. Lower the machine to the ground and stop the engine.

5. Stop the engine.

6. Install the steering frame lock.

7. Move the joystick control lever through the full range of travel. This will relieve any pressure that
may be present in the implement hydraulic system.

8. Move the steering control several times in both directions to release the pressure in the steering
system.

9. Release the braking system oil pressure.

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Reference: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing & Adjusting, Braking System, "System Pressure -
Release" for the machine that is being serviced.

10. Depress the breaker relief valve on the hydraulic tank to release the pressure in the hydraulic
tank.

11. The pressure in the hydraulic system has now been released. Lines and components can be
removed.

NOTE: During a diagnosis of the hydraulic system, remember that correct oil flow and correct
pressure are necessary for correct machine operation. The pump output increases as the engine speed
increases. Furthermore, the pump output decreases. Oil pressure is caused by resistance to the flow
of oil.

Troubleshooting Procedure

When defining a power train problem, the following procedure should be followed. First, perform
Visual Checks. If when complete the problem has not been identified, perform Operational Checks.
If the problem is not fully understood, perform Instrument Tests. This procedure will help identify
power train problems. As soon as the problem is defined, go to Troubleshooting. The
Troubleshooting section will list the probable causes of a known problem. Since there may be more
than one cause for a problem, the Troubleshooting section may suggest specific inspections or
instrument tests be done.

These inspections and tests will help identify which of the causes is most probable. This list cannot
give all possible problems and corrections. The service personnel must find the problem and its
source, then make the necessary repairs.

Visual Inspection
SMCS Code: 3000-035

Sudden movement or accidental starting of the machine can cause


personal injury or death to persons on or near the machine.

To prevent personal injury or death, perform the following:

Park the machine on a smooth level surface.

Lower the bucket and or attachments to the ground.

Stop the engine and engage the parking brake.

Block the wheels and install the steering frame lock.

Turn the battery disconnect switch to the OFF position and remove the
key.

Place a Special Instruction, SEHS7332, "Do Not Operate" tag at the


battery disconnect switch location to inform personnel that the machine

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is being worked on.

Personal injury can result from hydraulic oil pressure and hot oil.

Hydraulic oil pressure can remain in the hydraulic system after the
engine has been stopped. Serious injury can be caused if this pressure is
not released before any service work is done on the hydraulic system.

Make sure all of the attachments have been lowered, and the oil is cool
before removing any components or lines. Remove the oil filler cap only
when the engine is stopped, and the filler cap is cool enough to touch
with your bare hand.

Personal injury or death can result from Escaping fluid under pressure,
even a very small pin-hole size leak, can penetrate body tissue and cause
serious injury and possible death. If fluid is injected into your skin, it
must be treated immediately by a doctor familiar with this type of
injury.

Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during
performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair
of the machine. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling any component
containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Caterpillar Tools and Shop


Products Guide", for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain
fluids in Caterpillar machines.

Dispose of fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

Perform Visual Checks first when troubleshooting a problem. Make the checks with the engine
STOPPED and the parking brake ENGAGED. Put the transmission control in NEUTRAL and
engage the steering and transmission lock lever. During these checks, if necessary, use a magnet to
separate ferrous (iron) particles from nonferrous particles (O-ring seals, aluminium, bronze, etc.).

NOTE: If the machine will not move, check the transmission control circuit breaker on the circuit
breaker panel in the operator's station.

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Check 1:

Check the oil level in the differentials and final drives.

Check 2:

Check the oil level in the transmission. Look for air or water in the oil. Many problems in the
transmission are caused by low oil level or air in the oil. Add to the transmission if it is needed.

Reference: For the recommended oil grade and viscosity, refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual for the machine that is being serviced.

a. Air (bubbles) may be caused by a loose or damaged fitting that allows air to enter the suction side
of the system along with allowing oil to leak out. Air may also be the result of gears agitating oil in
the sump if the transmission oil level is too high (overfill).

b. Coolant in the oil can be caused by a leaking transmission oil cooler. Water may enter the system
if the filler cap or dipstick is not properly installed.

Check 3:

Inspect all oil lines, hoses and connections for damage or leaks. Look for oil on the ground under the
machine.

NOTE: If oil can leak out of a fitting or connection, air can leak in. Air in the system can be as
harmful as not enough oil.

Check 4:

Remove the drain plug in the bottom of the output transfer gear case and the torque converter
updrive housing. This will drain all of the oil out of the transmission system. Remove and clean the
suction screens. Inspect the oil and suction screens for foreign material. Remove and inspect (cup
apart if necessary) the transmission oil filter for foreign material.

NOTE: There is an oil filter bypass valve on the inlet side of the transmission oil filter. The oil filter
bypass will open and let oil bypass the oil filter element whenever the pressure difference between
inlet oil and outlet oil through the oil filter is above 248 ± 21 kPa (36 ± 3 psi). Any oil that does not
flow through the filter element flows directly into the hydraulic control circuit. This dirty oil may
cause restrictions in valve orifices, striking valves, etc.

a. Rubber particles indicate seal or hose failure.

b. Shiny steel particles indicate mechanical failure or gear wear of the transmission or pump.

c. A heavy accumulation of fibrous material indicates worn clutch discs in the transmission.

d. Aluminum particles indicate torque converter wear or failure, clutch piston wear, or worn control
valve body, selector spools, or load piston in the transmission control valve.

e. Iron or steel chips indicate broken components in transmission.

NOTE: If any of the above particles are found during any visual check, all components of the
transmission hydraulic system must be cleaned. Do not use any damaged parts. Any damaged parts

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must be removed and new parts installed.

Check 5:

The drive shaft(s) and universal joints must be free to rotate except when cold oil causes a resistance.
If the shafts are not free to turn, disconnect them and see if the transmission and the torque converter
updrive gears will turn.

Power Train Troubleshooting


SMCS Code: 3000-035

Transmission Hydraulic Controls (Neutral, Engine Stopped)

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(1) No. 2 clutch solenoid.


(2) No. 3 clutch solenoid.
(3) Oil cooler.
(4) Transmission lubrication passage.
(5) No. 6 clutch solenoid.
(6) No. 1 clutch solenoid.
(7) No. 5 clutch solenoid.
(8) No. 4 clutch solenoid.
(9) Torque converter outlet relief valve.
(10) Flow control orifice.
(11) Torque converter.
(12) Converter inlet ratio valve.
(13) Slug.
(15) Modulating relief valve.
(16) Direction selection spool.
(17) Transmission oil filter.
(18) Second and fourth speed selector spool.
(19) Oil pump.
(20) Pressure differential valve.
(21) Load piston.
(22) Orifice.
(23) First and third speed selector spool.
(24) Screen.
(25) Reservoir.
(A) Pressure tap for lubrication.
(B) Pressure tap for converter outlet.
(C) Pressure tap for converter inlet [P3].
(D) Pressure tap for speed clutches [P1].
(E) Pressure tap for pump.
(F) Pressure tap for direction clutches [P2].

Personal injury or death can result from sudden machine movement.

Sudden movement of the machine can cause injury to persons on or


near the machine.

To prevent injury or death, make sure that the area around the
machine is clear of personnel and obstructions before operating the
machine.

Personal injury can result from hydraulic oil pressure and hot oil.

Hydraulic oil pressure can remain in the hydraulic system after the
engine has been stopped. Serious injury can be caused if this pressure is
not released before any service is done on the hydraulic system.

Make sure all of the attachments have been lowered, and the oil is cool
before removing any components or lines. Remove the oil filler cap only
when the engine is stopped, and the filler cap is cool enough to touch
with your bare hand.

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Escaping fluid under pressure, even a very small pin-hole size leak, can
penetrate body tissue and cause serious injury and possible death. If
fluid is injected into your skin, it must be treated immediately by a
doctor familiar with this type of injury.

Always use a board or cardboard when checking for a leak.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during
performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair
of the machine. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling any component
containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Caterpillar Tools and Shop


Products Guide", for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain
fluids in Caterpillar machines.

Dispose of fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

Operational Checks

Operate the machine in each direction and in all speeds. Note the noises that are not normal and find
their source. If the operation is not correct, refer to the following problems and possible causes.

Troubleshooting Problem List

Transmission Problem List

Problem 1:The transmission does not operate in any speed or slips in all speeds.

Problem 2:Transmission gets hot.

Problem 3:Pump noise not normal.

Problem 4:Noise in the transmission that is not normal.

Problem 5:Transmission operates in FORWARD only.

Problem 6:Transmission operates in REVERSE only.

Problem 7:Transmission does not operate in FIRST SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Problem 8:Transmission does not operate in SECOND SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Problem 9:Transmission does not operate in THIRD SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

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Problem 10:Transmission does not operate in FOURTH SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Problem 11:Low pressure at pressure taps for P1 (speed) and P2 (direction) clutches in all speeds
and directions.

Problem 12:Low pressure at P2 clutch pressure tap in REVERSE speeds.

Problem 13:Low pressure at P2 clutch pressure tap in FORWARD speeds.

Problem 14:High pressure at pressure taps for P1 (speeds) and P2 (direction) clutches in all speeds
and directions.

Problem 15:Pressure differential between P1 and P2 not correct.

Problem 16:Clutch engagement is sudden (rough shifts).

Problem 17: Clutch engagement is slow (slow shifts-all gears).

Problem 18:Clutch engagement is slow (slow shifts-all FORWARD or all REVERSE gears or any
one gear in both FORWARD and REVERSE.

Problem 19:Transmission stays engaged when the neutralizer is actuated.

Problem 20:Transmission engages but the machine does not move and the engine lugs down.

Problem 21:With the engine running and the parking brake "ENGAGED", the alarm does not sound
when the transmission selection lever is put into either a FORWARD or REVERSE direction.

Problem 22:Backup alarm does not sound when transmission control is put in REVERSE.

Problem 23:Low stall speed.

Problem 24: High stall speed in both directions.

Problem 25:High stall speed in one speed or in one direction.

Torque Converter Problem List

Problem 26:High converter pressure.

Problem 27:Low converter pressure.

Problem 28:Torque converter gets hot.

Problem 29:Torque converter lockup speed incorrect.

Problem 30:Torque converter lockup clutch not engaged.

Differential Problem List

Problem 31:Constant noise in the differential.

Problem 32:Noise at differential intervals.

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Problem 33:Noise on turns only.

Problem 34:Leakage of lubricant.

Problem 35:Drive wheels do not turn (universal joint turns).

Troubleshooting

NOTE: In the following troubleshooting, the number in parenthesis refer to the transmission
hydraulic schematic.

NOTE: This machine is equipped with an Electronic Transmission Control. Electrical diagnostics
are performed by the Electronic Transmission Control.

Reference: Refer to Systems Operation Troubleshooting, Testing and Adjusting, "Power Train
Electronic Control System" for the machine that is being serviced.

Probable Causes of Power Train Problems

Transmission Problem List

Problem 1: The transmission does not operate in any speed or slips in all speeds.

Possible Causes:

1. Transmission control circuit breaker has tripped.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. Low system voltage.

4. Transmission shift control switch is defective.

5. Low oil pressure caused by:


a. Low oil level.
b. Restriction in the oil flow circuit such as a dirty oil strainer.
c. Oil pump failure.
d. Air leaks on the inlet side of the pump.
e. Leakage inside the transmission: Worn or damaged seals around the clutch piston.
f. Modulating relief valve (15) stuck open.

6. Torque converter failure.

7. Mechanical failure in the transmission.

8. Clutch discs and plates are worn too much.

9. Transmission neutralizer switch is open.

Problem 2: Transmission gets hot.

Possible Causes:

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1. Low coolant level in the engine radiator.

2. Wrong application for the machine. There is too much torque converter slippage caused by too
much load.

3. Incorrect transmission gear for load on machine. Shift to a lower gear.

4. Defective temperature gauge.

5. Incorrect (high or low) oil level.

6. Oil cooler or lines are restricted.

7. Clutch slips too much:


a. Low oil pressure. See Problem: Transmission does not operate in any speed or slips in
all speeds.
b. Damaged clutch.

8. Low oil flow caused by pump wear or leakage in the hydraulic system.

9. Air mixed in the oil. Air leaks on the intake side of the pump.

10. Magnetic pump inlet screen plugged.

11. Torque converter inlet relief valve (12) is stuck open, which causes low oil flow through the
torque converter.

12. Clutch or clutches not fully released (drag):


a. Warped plates or discs.
b. Broken or weak return spring.

Problem 3: Pump noise not normal.

Possible Causes:

1. A loud sound at short time periods indicates that foreign material is in the transmission hydraulic
system.

2. A constant load noise indicates pump failure.

3. Air at the inlet side of the pump.

Problem 4: Noise in the transmission that is not normal.

Possible Causes:

1. Transmission components are worn or damaged:


a. Damaged gears.
b. Worn teeth or clutch plates and/or clutch discs.
c. Slipping clutch plates and disc noise.
d. Other component parts that are worn or damaged.

Problem 5: Transmission operates in FORWARD only.

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Possible Causes:

1. Transmission REVERSE solenoid valve (6) is inoperative.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. REVERSE clutch not engaged (slips) because of:


a. Low oil pressure because of leaking seals on piston.
b. Discs and plates have too much wear.
c. Broken components.

4. Selector spool (16) is stuck.

Problem 6: Transmission operates in REVERSE only.

Possible Causes:

1. Transmission FORWARD solenoid valve (1) is inoperative.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. FORWARD clutch not engaged (slips) because of:


a. Low oil pressure because of leaking seals on piston.
b. Discs and plates have too much wear.
c. Broken components.

4. Selector spool (16) is stuck.

Problem 7: Transmission does not operate in FIRST SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Possible Causes:

1. FIRST SPEED solenoid valve (5) is inoperative.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. FIRST SPEED clutch not engaged (slips) because of:


a. Low oil pressure because of leaking seals on piston.
b. Discs and plates have too much wear.
c. Broken components.

4. Selector spool (23) stuck.

Problem 8: Transmission does not operate in SECOND SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Possible Causes:

1. SECOND SPEED solenoid (7) is inoperative.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. SECOND SPEED CLUTCH not engaged (slips) because of:


a. Low oil pressure because of leaking seals on piston.

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b. Discs and plates have too much wear.


c. Broken components.

4. Selector spool (18) stuck.

Problem 9: Transmission does not operate in THIRD SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Possible Causes:

1. THIRD SPEED solenoid (8) is inoperative.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. THIRD SPEED clutch not engaged (slips) because of:

a. Low oil pressure because of leaking seals on piston.


b. Discs and plates have too much wear.
c. Broken components.

4. Selector spool (23) stuck.

Problem 10: Transmission does not operate in FOURTH SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE.

Possible Causes:

1. FOURTH SPEED solenoid (2) is inoperative.

2. Problem in the electrical circuit.

3. FOURTH SPEED clutch not engaged (slips) because of:


a. Low oil pressure because of leaking seals on piston.
b. Discs and plates have too much wear.
c. Broken components.

4. Selector spool (18) is stuck.

Problem 11: Low pressure at pressure taps for P1 (speed) and P2 (direction) clutches in all
speeds and directions.

Possible Causes:

1. Modulating relief valve (15) stuck.

2. Low oil pressure. See Problem: Transmission does not operate in any speed or slips in all speeds.

3. Load piston (21) springs weak, damaged or missing. Spacers missing.

Problem 12: Low pressure at P2 clutch pressure tap in REVERSE speeds.

Possible Causes:

1. Too much leakage in the REVERSE clutch piston seals.

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Problem 13: Low pressure at P2 clutch pressure tap in FORWARD speeds.

Possible Causes:

1. Too much leakage in the FORWARD clutch piston seals.

Problem 14: High pressure at pressure taps for P1 (speed) and P2 (direction) clutches in all
speeds and directions.

Possible Causes:

1. Operation of modulating relief valve (15) sticky.

2. Load piston (21) stuck.

3. Wrong load piston springs. Too many spacers.

4. Worn slug (13) or worn modulating relief valve (15) bore.

Problem 15: Pressure differential between P1 and P2 not correct.

Possible Causes:

1. Operation of pressure differential valve (20) not correct:


a. Weak, damaged or wrong spring.

Problem 16: Clutch engagement is sudden (rough shifts)

Possible Causes:

1. Operation of pressure differential valve (20) not correct:


a. Weak, damaged or wrong spring.

2. Load piston (21) stuck.

3. Load piston springs are wrong or damaged.

Problem 17: Clutch engagement is slow (slow shifts-all gears)

Possible Causes:

1. Screen orifice for the load piston is dirty (plugged).

2. Low oil pressure. See Problem: Transmission does not operate in any speed or slips in all speeds.

3. Load piston springs are weak or have damage.

4. Modulating relief valve (15) is stuck.

Problem 18: Clutch engagement is slow (slow shifts-all FORWARD gears or all REVERSE gears or
any one gear in both FORWARD and REVERSE).

Possible Causes:

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1. Low clutch pressure because of leaking seals on the piston for the affected gear.

Problem 19: Transmission stays engaged when the left brake pedal is pushed.

Possible Causes:

1. Transmission neutralizer is faulty.

2. Problem in electrical circuit.

Problem 20: Transmission engages but the machine does not move and the engine lugs down.

Possible Causes:

1. Machine brakes are locked up.

2. Mechanical failure in a differential (front or rear).

3. Mechanical failure in a final drive.

4. Gears in transmission do not turn because of:


a. Mechanical failure in transmission.
b. Too many clutches engaged.

Problem 21: With the engine running and the parking brake ENGAGED, the action alarm
does not sound when the transmission control is put into either a FORWARD or REVERSE
direction.

Possible Causes:

1. Failure of the action alarm.

2. Failure in the wiring:


a. Loose or defective connector.
b. Broken wire.

3. Transmission control group problem.

Problem 22: Backup alarm does not sound when the transmission control is put in REVERSE.

Possible Causes:

1. Failure of backup alarm circuit breaker.

2. Failure of backup alarm.

3. Failure in the wiring:


a. Loose or defective connector.
b. Broken wire.

4. Transmission control group problem.

Problem 23: Low stall speed.

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Possible Causes:

1. Engine performance is not correct.

2. Cold oil.

Problem 24: High stall speed in both directions.

Possible Causes:

1. Low oil level.

2. Air in the oil.

3. Clutches are slipping.

4. Torque converter failure.

Problem 26: High stall speed in one speed or in one direction.

Possible Causes:

1. There is a leak in the clutch circuit.

2. There is a clutch failure in the speed or direction that the is high stall speed.

Torque Converter

Problem 26: High converter pressure.

Possible Causes:

1. A restriction inside the converter.

2. A restricted oil passage or oil cooler.

3. Converter inlet relief valve (12) is stuck closed.

Problem 27: Low converter pressure.

Possible Causes:

1. Converter inlet relief valve (12) is stuck open.

2. Low pump flow or pressure. See Problem: Transmission does not operate in any speed or slips in
all speeds.

Problem 28: Torque converter gets hot.

Possible Causes:

1. Wrong application for the machine. There is too much torque converter slippage caused by too
much load.

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2. Incorrect transmission gear for load on machine. Shift to a lower gear.

3. Incorrect (high or low) oil level in the transfer gear case.

4. Low coolant level in the engine radiator.

5. Restrictions in the oil cooler or lines.

6. Not enough oil to the converter because of:


a. Converter inlet relief valve (12) bypassing too much flow.
b. Low pump flow or pressure. See problem: Transmission does not operate in any
speed or slips in all speeds.

Problem 29: Torque converter lockup speed incorrect.

Possible Causes:

1. Fault in the electronic transmission control.

Problem 30: Torque converter lockup clutch not engaging.

Possible Causes:

1. Problem in the electrical circuit.

2. Lockup control valve has failed.

3. Mechanical damage or wear.

Differential and Drive Axle

Problem 31: Constant noise in the differential.

Possible Causes:

1. Lubricant above or below the proper level.

2. Wrong type of lubricant.

3. Wheel bearings are out of adjustment or are defective.

4. The ring gear and pinion do not have correct tooth contact.

5. The ring gear and pinion are damaged or worn.

6. There is too much or too little pinion to gear backlash.

7. Loose or worn pinion bearings.

8. Loose or worn side bearings.

Problem 32: Noise at different intervals.

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Possible Causes:

1. Ring gear does not run even:


a. Bolts on the ring gear are not tight.
b. The ring gear is warped.

2. Loose or broken differential bearings.

Problem 33: Noise on turns only.

Possible Causes:

1. The differential pinion gears are too tight on the retainer pins or the pinion shaft.

2. Side gears are too tight in the differential case.

3. Differential pinion or side gears are defective.

4. Thrust washers are worn or damaged.

5. Too much backlash between the side and pinion gears.

Problem 34: Leakage of lubricant.

Possible Causes:

1. Loss through axle shafts:


a. Lubricant above the proper level.
b. Wrong type of lubricant.
c. Axle housing breather is restricted.
d. Axle shaft oil seal is installed wrong or is damaged.

2. Loss at pinion shaft:


a. Lubricant above the proper level.
b. Wrong type of lubricant.
c. Axle housing breather is restricted.
d. Pinion oil seal worn or is not installed correctly.
e. Universal joint flange loose on the pinion shaft.

Problem 35: Drive wheels do not turn (universal join turns).

Possible Causes:

1. Broken axle shaft.

2. Ring gear teeth are damaged.

3. Differential pinion are broken.

4. Differential pinion shaft or retainer pins are broken.

Testing and Adjusting

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Torque Converter Hydraulic System-Test and Adjust


SMCS Code: 3133-025; 3133-081; 3073-025; 3073-081

Torque Converter Hydraulic Controls

(1) Oil filter.


(2) Lockup clutch and solenoid valve group.
(3) Torque converter lockup clutch.
(4) Torque converter.
(5) Transmission hydraulic controls.
(6) Body of relief valve for converter outlet.
(7) Relief valve for converter outlet.
(8) Oil pump.
(9) Screen.
(10) Oil reservoir.
(11) Lockup solenoid.
(12) Oil cooler.
(13) Torque converter scavenge pump.
(A) Pressure tap for oil pump (on filter).
(B) Pressure tap for lockup clutch pilot oil [RV].
(C) Pressure tap for torque converter lockup clutch [LU].
(D) Pressure tap for converter inlet [P3].

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(E) Pressure tap for relief valve.


(F) Pressure tap for converter outlet.
(G) Pressure tap for lubrication.

Torque Converter Inlet and Outlet Pressure Tests

Pressure Tap Locations

Transmission Hydraulic Controls

(D) Pressure tap for converter inlet [P3].

Torque Converter Outlet Relief Valve

(E) Pressure tap for converter outlet.

NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during
performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair
of the machine. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling any component
containing fluids.

Refer to Special Publication, NENG2500, "Caterpillar Tools and Shop


Products Guide", for tools and supplies suitable to collect and contain

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fluids in Caterpillar machines.

Dispose of fluids according to local regulations and mandates.

Sudden movement of the machine or release of oil under pressure can


cause injury to persons on or near the machine.

To prevent possible injury, perform the procedure that follows before


testing and adjusting the hydraulic system.

1. Move the machine to a smooth horizontal location. Move away from working machines and
personnel.

2. Lower the work tool to the ground.

3. Put blocks in front of and behind the wheels to prevent movement.

4. Install the steering frame lock.

5. Allow only approved personnel on the machine and keep other personnel off the machine and in
clear view of the operator.

6. Engage the parking brake.

NOTE: Make sure the engine is stopped, the parking brake engaged and all hydraulic pressure
released before any fitting, hose or component is loosened, tightened, removed or adjusted.

NOTE: All test and adjustments must be made with the oil in the transmission hydraulic control
system at normal temperature of operation.

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Outlet Relief Valve for Torque Converter

(6) Body of relief valve for converter valve.


(14) Relief valve for converter outlet.
(15) Spacers.

Lockup Clutch Tests

Make reference to the WARNING on the first page of Testing and


Adjusting section.

Test 1. Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve

This test will show if:

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* The electrical signal gets to the lockup solenoid.

* The lockup solenoid electrically activates.

Procedure:

Power Train ECM Location

(1) Power Train ECM.


(2) J-2 harness plug.
(3) J-1 harness plug.

1. Disconnect J-1 (3) and J-2 (2) cab harness plugs from the Power Train ECM (1). Put a jumper
wire from Socket 1 of J-1 harness plug (3) to Socket 13 of J-2 harness plug (2). This will supply + 24
Volts through the machine harness to actuate the lockup solenoid.

Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve

(4) Lockup solenoid connector.

2. Disconnect harness connector (4) for the lockup solenoid.

3. Turn the key start switch to the ON position but do not start the engine.

4. Touch the lockup solenoid plug to the harness receptacle at connector (4).

5. Each time the receptacle touches the solenoid plug a "click" and/or "buzz" must be felt and/or
heard.

Problem 1:

The "click" and/or "buzz" is not felt or heard.

Possible Cause:

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a. Faulty lockup solenoid.

b. Broken (open or grounded) wire or harness to the lockup solenoid.

Test 2. Lockup Clutch Pilot Pressure

This test will show if:

a. The pressure reduction valve is set correctly.

Procedure:

Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve Group

(B) Pressure tap for lockup clutch pilot oil [RV].

1. At pressure tap (B) (port marked [RV]), remove the plug and install a nipple.

2. With a coupler (and hose if necessary), connect a pressure gauge [4000 kPa (580 psi)] to the
nipple.

3. With the parking brake engaged, start and run the engine at LOW IDLE rpm in NEUTRAL. The
pressure on the gauge must be 1725 ± 100 kPa (250 ± 15 psi).

4. Stop the engine. After the pressure is set correctly, remove the test equipment.

Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve Group

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(5) Pressure reduction valve.


(6) Shims.

Before an adjustment is made, make sure that the valve spring is not weak or broken.

Problem 1:

Oil pressure is too low.

Probable Cause:

Shim adjustment incorrect. Add some shims (6). See Shim Chart for Pressure Reduction Valve.

Problem 2:

Oil pressure is too high.

Probable Cause:

Shim adjustment incorrect. Remove some shims (6). See Shim Chart for Pressure Reduction Valve.

Test 3. Lockup Clutch Leakage

This test will show if:

a. There are faulty seals in the lockup clutch.

Procedure:

Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve Group

(C) Pressure tap for torque converter lockup clutch [LU].

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1. Install a hose on pressure tap (C) (port marked [LU]).

2. Start and run the engine at LOW IDLE rpm in NEUTRAL.

3. Measure the amount of oil that comes out of pressure tap (C) in one minute. Install the protective
cover on the test nipple when this check is complete.

Problem 1:

More than 3.8 L/min (1 U.S. gpm) of oil comes out of pressure tap (C).

Probable Cause:

Failed seals in the lockup clutch.

Test 4. Lockup Clutch Maximum Pressure

This test will show if:

a. Maximum lockup clutch pressure is correct.

b. The operation of the modulation reduction valve is correct.

Procedure:

Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve Group

(4) Harness connector for lockup solenoid.


(7) Lockup solenoid.
(C) Pressure tap for torque converter lockup clutch [LU].

1. Disconnect electrical harness connector (4) from lockup solenoid (7).

2. Using a 2-pin sure seal connector, two alligator clips and two 16-gauge wires [approximately 4.5

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m (15 ft) long], make a jumper harness. Connect the clip ends of the jumper harness to the positive
(+) and negative (-) terminals of the machine battery. This will supply +24 Volts to activate the
lockup solenoid.

3. At pressure tap (C), use a coupler (and hose if necessary) and connect a pressure gauge [4000 kPa
(580 psi)] to the nipple.

4. With the parking brake engaged, start and run the engine at LOW IDLE rpm in NEUTRAL.
Connect the connector end of the jumper harness to the connector of the lockup solenoid. The
pressure on the gauge must be 1690 ± 70 kPa (245 ± 10 psi).

5. Remove the jumper harness connector from the lockup solenoid. The pressure on the gauge must
go back to 0 kPa (0 psi).

6. Stop the engine. After the pressure is set correctly, remove the test equipment.

Lockup Clutch And Solenoid Valve Group

(8) Cover.
(9) Selector piston.
(10) Load piston ring.
(11) Shims.

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(12) Outer spring.


(13) Load piston orifice.
(14) Inner spring.
(15) Shuttle valve.
(16) Spring.
(17) Selector piston plug.

Problem 1:

Oil pressure in Step 5 is NOT 0 kPa (0 psi).

Probable Cause:

a. Selector piston (9) is stuck (will not go back to its original position).

b. Weak or broken spring (16).

c. Lockup solenoid (7) is bad (leaking).

Problem 2:

OIl pressure in Step is 0 kPa (0 psi).

Probable Cause:

a. Little or no pilot oil. Perform Test 2.

b. Incorrect operation of chamber shuttle valve (15).

c. Weak or broken spring (12) and/or spring (14).

Problem 3:

Oil pressure in Step 4 does not increase above 965 kPa (140 psi).

Probable Cause:

a. Load piston plug (10) is not installed.

b. Load piston orifice (13) is plugged.

c. Selector piston (9) is stuck (will not move).

Problem 4:

Oil pressure in Step 5 decreases slowly or low pressure remains (stays) in the lockup clutch.

Probable Cause:

a. Incorrect operation of shuttle valve (15).

b. Selector piston (9) is stuck (will not move).

Problem 5:

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Oil pressure in Step 4 is too low.

Probable Cause:

Lockup clutch primary pressure incorrect. Perform Test 5.

Problem 6:

Oil pressure in Step 4 is too high.

Probable Cause:

Lockup clutch primary pressure incorrect. Perform Test 5.

Test 5. Lockup Clutch Primary Pressure.

This test will show if:

a. Lockup clutch pressure is adjusted correctly.

Procedure:

1. Disconnect electrical harness connector (4) from lockup solenoid (7).

2. Using a 2-pin sure seal connector, two alligator clips and 16-gauge wires [approximately 4.5 m
(15 ft) long], make a jumper harness. Connect the clip ends of the jumper harness to the positive (+)
and negative (-) terminals of the machine battery. This will supply +24 Volts to activate the lockup
solenoid.

3. At pressure tap (C), use a coupler (and hose if necessary) and connect a pressure gauge [2000 kPa
(290 psi)] to the nipple.

4. Remove cover (8) from the lockup clutch and solenoid valve group.

5. Remove load piston plug (10) and install cover (8) again.

6. With the parking brake engaged, start and run the engine at LOW IDLE rpm in NEUTRAL.
Connect the connector end of the jumper harness to the connector of the lockup solenoid. The
pressure on the gauge must be 620 ± 35 kPa (90 ± 5 psi).

7. Stop the engine. After the pressure is set correctly, remove the test equipment and reinstall load
piston plug (10).

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Before an adjustment is made, make sure that the valve spring is not weak or broken.

Lockup Clutch and Solenoid Valve Group

(8) Cover.
(9) Selector piston.
(10) Load piston plug.
(11) Shims.
(12) Outer spring.

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(13) Load piston orifice.


(14) Inner spring.
(15) Shuttle valve.
(16) Spring.
(17) Selector piston plug.

Problem 1:

Oil pressure is 0 kPa (0 psi).

Probable Cause:

Selector piston plug (17) is not installed.

Problem 2:

Primary pressure is too low.

Probable Cause:

Shim adjustment incorrect. Add some shims (11). See Shim Chart for Modulation Reduction Valve.

Problem 3:

Primary pressure is too high.

Probable Cause:

Shim adjustment incorrect. Remove some shims (11). See Shim Chart for Modulation Reduction
Valve.

Transmission Pressures - Test and Adjust


SMCS Code: 3030-025; 3030-081; 3073-025; 3073-081

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Transmission Hydraulic Controls (Neutral, Engine Stopped)

(1) No. 2 clutch solenoid.


(2) No. 3 clutch solenoid.
(3) Oil cooler.
(4) Transmission lubrication passage.
(5) No. 6 clutch solenoid.
(6) No. 1 clutch solenoid.
(7) No. 5 clutch solenoid.
(8) No. 4 clutch solenoid.
(9) Torque converter outlet relief valve.
(10) Flow control orifice.
(11) Torque converter.
(12) Converter inlet ratio valve.
(13) Slug.
(15) Modulating relief valve.
(16) Direction selection spool.

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(17) Transmission oil filter.


(18) Second and fourth speed selector spool.
(19) Oil pump.
(20) Pressure differential valve.
(21) Load piston.
(22) Orifice.
(23) First and third speed selector spool.
(24) Screen.
(25) Reservoir.
(A) Pressure tap for lubrication.
(B) Pressure tap for converter outlet.
(C) Pressure tap for converter inlet [P3].
(D) Pressure tap for speed clutches [P1].
(E) Pressure tap for pump.
(F) Pressure tap for direction clutches [P2].

Pressure Tap Locations

Right Hand Side of Transmission Case

(A) Pressure tap for transmission lubrication.

Transmission Hydraulic Controls

(C) Pressure tap for converter inlet [P3].


(D) Pressure tap for speed clutches [P1].
(F) Pressure tap for direction clutches [P2].
(G) Plug for load piston [LP].

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Transmission Oil Filter

(E) Pressure tap for transmission oil pump.

Sudden movement of the machine or release of oil under pressure can


cause injury to persons on or near the machine.

To prevent possible personal injury, perform the procedure that follows


before testing and adjusting the hydraulic system.

1. Move the machine to a smooth horizontal location. Move away from working machines and
personnel.

2. Lower the work tool to the ground.

3. Put blocks in front of and behind the wheels to prevent movement.

4. Install the steering frame lock.

5. Allow only approved personnel on the machine and keep other personnel off the machine and in
clear view of the operator.

6. Disengage the parking brake.

NOTE: Make sure the engine is stopped, the parking brake engaged and all hydraulic pressure
released before any fitting, hose or component is loosened, tightened, removed or adjusted.

NOTE: All tests and adjustments must be made with the oil in the transmission hydraulic control
system at normal temperature of operation.

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Transmission Selector and Pressure Control Valve

(21) Load piston.


(26) Spacers.

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NoSPIN Differential - Test

SMCS Code: 3265-081

After the NoSPIN differential has been assembled and before it is installed in the machine, make a
test of the operation of the differential as follows:

1. Install the NoSPIN differential in the case.

2. Put the case in a stand or a vice to keep it from rotating.

3. Install both axles in the case.

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Test Procedure for NoSPIN Differential

(1) Case.
(2) Axle.
(3) Axle.

4. Put a force in a clockwise direction on both axles.

5. Keep the force on axle (A) and turn axle (B) in a counterclockwise direction. A small noise will be
heard in the NoSPIN differential and axle (B) will turn freely.

NOTE: Make sure the force is kept on axle (A).

6. Keep the force on axle (A) and turn axle (B) in a clockwise direction. A small noise will be heard
in the NoSPIN differential and axle (B) will not turn any further.

NoSPIN Differential Test

7. Put a force in a counterclockwise direction on both axles.

8. Keep the force on axle (A) and turn axle (B) in a clockwise direction. A small noise will be heard
in the NoSPIN differential and axle (B) will turn freely.

NOTE: Make sure the force is kept on axle (A).

9. Keep the force on axle (A) and turn axle (B) in a clockwise direction. A small noise will be heard
in the NoSPIN differentiae and axle (B) will not turn any farther.

10. Perform Steps 4 through 9 again, except now hold axle (B) and turn axle (A).

If the NoSPIN differential does not have the correct action, inspect the components and check the
assembly procedure.

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Copyright 1993 - 2006 Caterpillar Inc. Sun Oct 15 11:38:27 EST 2006
Todos los derechos reservados.
Red privada para licenciados del SIS.

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