Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

1614 Y. V. Thien et al.

: Pre-breakdown Streamer Propagation and Breakdown Characteristics of Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm

Pre-breakdown Streamer Propagation and Breakdown


Characteristics of Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm
Oil under Lightning Impulse Voltage
Y. V. Thien1, N. Azis1,2, J. Jasni1, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir1 and R. Yunus3
1
Centre for Electromagnetic and Lightning Protection Research (CELP),
2
Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA),
3
Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

M. K. Mohd Jamil
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Universiti Sains Malaysia,
14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia.

Z. Yaakub
Hyrax Oil Sdn. Bhd,
Lot 4937 Batu 5 1/2, Jalan Meru, Mukim Kapar,
41050 Klang, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Vegetable oils are considered nowadays as a potential alternative to Mineral Oil (MO)
for dielectric insulation fluids in transformers due to its high biodegradability, non-
toxicity and high fire resistance. This paper presents an experimental investigation on
the streamer propagation and breakdown of Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Palm
Oil (RBDPO) under both positive and negative lightning impulse voltages. The
streamer shape, stopping length, velocity and breakdown voltage of 2 types of RBDPO
were examined. Needle-plane electrodes configuration with 50 mm gap was used in this
study and streamer images were captured by a high speed camera. It is observed that
the negative streamer shape patterns are thicker than positive streamer for both
RBDPO and MO. At the same applied voltage level and polarity, both RBDPO have
longer streamer stopping lengths and the streamers propagate faster than MO.
Index Terms — lightning impulse breakdown voltage, non-uniform field, palm oil,
streamer characteristics, transformers

1 INTRODUCTION of palm oil [9-12]. The information on the pre-breakdown and


breakdown characteristics of dielectric insulation fluids are
IN recent years, vegetable oils have been considered as crucial especially for the design of gap distance between windings
potential candidate to mineral oil (MO) for dielectric insulation in transformers [13, 14].
fluids in transformers. The performances of vegetable oils have
been well investigated at laboratory level and have been The pre-breakdown phenomenon also known as streamer is
successfully applied in-practice for medium and large power normally associated with the formation of bubbles and tree-like
transformers with voltage levels up to 420 kV [1, 2]. Different structures [15]. The initiation and propagation of streamer can
types of vegetable oils have been examined in previous studies lead to the occurrence of flashover or complete electrical
which include the palm oil [3-7]. Majority of palm oil originated breakdown. The streamers length can increase with the
from Southeast Asian countries [8]. Several studies have been increment of the applied voltage. Under high electric field,
carried out to investigate the electrical, physicochemical and streamers can propagate across the gap between 2 electrodes
ageing performances of palm oil [3-7]. Yet, only a few studies due to the high electrical conductivity as compared to the
have examined the lightning impulse breakdown characteristics surrounding fluid medium. This event can cause short-circuit
between 2 electrodes and leads to breakdown [15]. The
Manuscript received on 3 July 2017, in final form 9 February 2018, knowledge on the streamer processes is important for
accepted 10 February 2018. Corresponding author: N. Azis. identification of the electrical withstand stresses levels and

DOI: 10.1109/TDEI.2018.006894
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 25, No. 5; October 2018 1615

breakdown mechanisms of fluids [15, 16]. These mechanisms Table 1. Fatty acids, vitamin E/A contents of RBDPO.
depend on the chemical compounds compositions of
Samples
dielectric insulation fluids, direction/magnitude of electric Contents
fields and electrode geometries/configurations of tests [15]. RBDPO A RBDPO B
C12:Lauric 0.10 0.30
It has been found that under a non-uniform field, the C14:Myristic 0.90 0.90
lightning impulse pre-breakdown and breakdown Saturated fatty acid (%)
C16:Palmitic 39.3 39.0
performances can be affected by the chemical compositions C18:Stearic 4.20 4.20
of insulation fluids [17]. Vegetable oils mainly consist of Monounsaturated fatty acid (%) C18:Oleic 41.1 43.0
C18:Linoleic 12.2 10.4
fatty acid triglyceride, which are different in chemical Polyunsaturated fatty acid (%)
C18:Linolenic 0.30 0.20
composition to that of Mineral Oil (MO) [10, 18]. The Others fatty acid (%) 0.10 0.10
presence of electronegative oxygen molecules in vegetable Vitamin E (mg) 75.0 4.40
oils result in lower breakdown voltage values compared to Vitamin A (µg) - 264
those of a hydrocarbon based MO [10, 18]. Furthermore,
several studies have reported that streamers propagate easily 2.2 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE
in natural esters such as canola oil and rape-seed oil, compared The schematic setup for lightning impulse test is shown in
to MO, resulting in longer streamer stopping lengths and Figure 1. A standard lightning impulse voltage with 1.2/50 µs
lower impulse breakdown voltages than MO [18-22]. These was applied by a 2-stage Terco test unit. This unit can generate
phenomena are related to the differences in the fluids chemical a maximum of 280 kV lightning impulse voltage with 980 kJ
compositions. stored energy. A cubic test cell with 10 litres volume was
Under a non-uniform field, the streamer propagations and fabricated and a needle-plane electrodes configuration was
breakdown performances of dielectric insulation fluids can used in the test. The copper needle tip radius curvature is 50±5
also be affected by the polarity of the lightning impulse µm while the ground plane electrode diameter is 200 mm with
voltage. It is known that the positive breakdown mechanism in an edge radius of 3 mm as shown in Figure 2. The needle tip
dielectric insulation fluid is based on the ionization process of radius was measured by a BA310Met-T metallurgical
the fluid molecules while the negative breakdown mechanism microscope. The gap distance between needle-plane electrodes
depends on the interaction between injected electrons and was set to 50 mm.
fluid molecules [15]. Previous study in [23], has observed that
the streamer stopping lengths of MO, synthetic and natural
esters under negative polarity are lower than positive polarity.
Several studies have also reported that the impulse breakdown
voltages of MO and different types of vegetable oils under
negative polarity are higher than positive polarity [10, 15, 18,
24-26].
This paper presents an investigation on the streamer
propagations and breakdown performances of Refined, Bleached
and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) Olein under non-uniform
field. The streamer shape, stopping length and propagation Figure 1. Test setup for lightning impulse voltage.
velocity are examined based on images obtained by a high speed
camera. The comparison of pre-breakdown and breakdown
characteristics between RBDPO and MO is also carried out.

2 EXPERIMENTAL DESCRIPTION
2.1 PREPARATION OF SAMPLES
Two types of RBDPO Olein were investigated and MO was
used as benchmark. RBDPO was obtained from readily
available cooking products in the market. The pre-processing Figure 2. Detail configurations of needle-plane electrodes.
procedure was not carried out for all samples. The particle
count and moisture were not measured prior to the current test. A high speed camera Phantom version 7.3 with a 14-bit
Table 1 shows the fatty acids and vitamin E/A contents of image depth and maximum resolution of 800 × 600 pixels
the RBDPO. The fatty acids composition of RBDPO were CMOS sensors was used to capture the streamer images. Each
determined via Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis according image exposure time was set to 2 µs. The inter-frame setting
to the Malaysia Palm Oil Board (MPOB) test methods was set to 90,000 fps. The streamer images were captured
p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004 [27]. Both RBDPO contain mainly based on shadowgraph technique where the streamer shape
of saturated fatty acid (C16: palmitic) and monounsaturated characteristics were obtained with the help of back flashlight.
fatty acid (C18: oleic). RBDPO A has the highest vitamin E The measurements of lightning breakdown voltages were
while only RBDPO B has vitamin A. carried out based on 1 shot per step rising voltage method
1616 Y. V. Thien et al.: Pre-breakdown Streamer Propagation and Breakdown Characteristics of Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm

according to IEC 60897. The increment voltage was set to 10 propagation length was defined as the distance from the
kV with the initial voltages of 70 kV and 120 kV for positive needle-point electrode to the farthest tip point of the streamer.
and negative impulses voltages. These initial voltages were A public domain software, “ImageJ” was used to analyse the
determined based on the recommendation in IEC 60897 where streamer image as shown in Figures 5a and 5b. Based on the
the breakdown voltage of RBDPO was taken as the reference measurement by the software, the actual streamer length, l can
[28]. The test was repeated after breakdown where the be calculated using Equation (1) where a is the image streamer
withstanding time intervals were set between 3 and 5 minutes. stopping length, b is the image gap distance measured from
A total of 10 lightning breakdown voltages were recorded for the needle tip to plane electrode.
each sample. The needle electrode and sample were changed
after 10 breakdowns. In addition, the needle tip radius was l   a / b   50 (1)
also monitored after each breakdown and re-sharpened to
50±5 µm once a significant change on the needle tip radius
was observed. The average lightning breakdown voltage,
streamer length and velocity for all samples were analysed
under both positive and negative polarities.
(a) RBDPO A
3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 STREAMER SHAPE
The positive streamer shapes of RBDPO and MO at
different applied impulse voltage levels are presented in
Figures 3a, 3b and 3c. Macroscopically, the streamers for all (b) RBDPO B
samples appear in tree-like structures. The streamer under
positive lightning impulse voltage is quite difficult to obtain
since the branches are thin and the diameters are small. On the
other hand, the negative streamer channels are much thicker
and filamentary as shown in Figures 4a, 4b and 4c. The (c) MO
negative streamer shapes of RBDPO have more branches and Figure 4. Streamer shapes under negative applied impulse voltage,
tend to propagate in lateral directions while MO has either 1 or propagation time 33 µs; d = 50mm.
2 main branches with several small offshoots.

(a) RBDPO A

(a) Positive applied voltage (b) Negative applied voltage


(b) RBDPO B = 90 kV = -110 kV
Figure 5. Measurement of streamer length for RBDPO A.

Figures 6a and 6b illustrate the negative streamer propagation


length and images for RBDPO A at the applied voltage of 219
(c) MO
kV and 50 mm gap distance. The negative streamer propagates
and stops at 44 µs. The length of the streamer is 33.9 mm and it
Figure 3. Streamer shapes under positive applied impulse voltage, is defined as the streamer stopping length.
propagation time 33 µs; d = 50mm.
The average streamer stopping lengths at different positive
and negative applied impulse voltages are shown in Figures 7
3.2 STREAMER STOPPING LENGTH and 8. Each point represents an average of 10 measurements.
Streamer will start to initiate and propagate once an impulse It is observed that the stopping lengths of both RBDPO and
voltage is applied. It will stop at a certain distance from the MO increase almost linearly. The highest percentage of
needle tip if there is no breakdown. The streamer propagation difference between positive and negative streamer stopping
process was recorded by a high speed camera. The time lengths of both RBDPO is less than 16%. At the same applied
interval between each frame was set to 11 µs. The streamer impulse voltage level, the positive streamer stopping lengths
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 25, No. 5; October 2018 1617

both polarities. The streamer increasing rates of MO under


positive and negative polarities are 0.16 mm/kV and 0.12
mm/kV which are slightly lower than RBDPO.
3.3 STREAMER VELOCITY
The average streamer velocity, va before breakdown can be
calculated based on streamer stopping length, la and
propagation time, ta according to Equation (2). The average
streamer velocity, vb after breakdown can also be calculated
based on Equation (3) where d is the gap distance and tb is the
time to breakdown,
va  la / t a (2)
(a) Streamer propagation length versus time
vb  d / tb (3)

Streamer velocity from 1 to 2 km/s is classified as 2nd


modes streamer propagation [30]. It is the most common
streamer that leads to the breakdown in fluids [30]. The 2nd
(b) Streamer propagation images modes streamer propagation is also observed in this study.
Figure 6. Negative streamer propagation of RBDPO A, negative applied
Figures 9 and 10 show the positive and negative streamer
voltage = -219 kV, d = 50 mm. velocities of all samples. Generally, the velocities of all
samples increase as the voltage increases. Significant
increment of positive streamer velocities for RBDPO A and
RBDPO B are observed at 95 kV and MO at 115 kV. The
highest positive streamer velocities for RBDPO A, RBDPO B
and MO are 3.5, 3.6 and 2.0 km/s. The rates of negative
streamer velocity increments for all samples are much lower
than the positive streamer as shown in Figure 10. The negative
streamer velocities of all samples remain lower than 2.0 km/s.

Figure 7. Streamer stopping length versus positive applied impulse voltage


for all samples.

Figure 9. Streamer propagation velocity versus positive applied impulse


voltage for all samples.

3.4 BREAKDOWN VOLTAGES


The time to breakdown of all samples are recorded in order
to obtain the streamer velocity during breakdown. The
breakdown voltages, time to breakdown and streamer
velocities of all samples are shown in Table 2. It is observed
Figure 8. Streamer stopping length versus negative applied impulse voltage
for all samples. that the positive and negative breakdown voltages of MO are
higher than both RBDPO. There are no significant differences
of all samples are higher than the negative streamer. The on the breakdown voltages under both polarities between
streamer increasing rates of RBDPO A under positive and RBDPO A and RBDPO B. All samples show higher time to
negative polarities are 0.19 mm/kV and 0.18 mm/kV. RBDPO breakdown under negative polarity than positive polarity.
B has the same streamer increasing rate of 0.16 mm/kV under Overall, the negative breakdown voltages of all samples are
1618 Y. V. Thien et al.: Pre-breakdown Streamer Propagation and Breakdown Characteristics of Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm

dominant role on the streamer propagation characteristics. The


electronegative oxygen atoms in triglycerides molecules of
RBDPO could affect the swift propagation which lead to the
increment of branches for the negative streamer [22].
The chemical structure of palm oil is based on a glycerol
backbone that consists of 3 fatty acid groups. These groups
consist of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as shown in
Figure 12 [36]. Palm oil has almost 50% of C=C double bonds
in the oleic and linoleic acid side chains [40]. The presence of
conjugated double bonds can cause low ionization potential
[15]. This event leads to higher streamer propagation velocities
and lower lightning impulse breakdown voltages of both
RBDPO as compared to MO as shown in Figures 9, 10 and 11.
Figure 10. Streamer propagation velocity versus negative applied impulse
voltage for all samples.

higher than the positive breakdown voltages as shown in


Figure 11. Both RBDPO have higher positive and negative
streamer velocities than MO. The positive streamer velocity of
RBDPO B is close to RDBPO A. On the other hand, the
negative streamer velocity of RBDPO A is higher than
RBDPO B.

Table 2. Breakdown voltage, time to breakdown and velocity for all samples.
Positive Negative
Samples
Vb (kV) tb (µs) va (km/s) Vb (kV) tb (µs) va (km/s)
RBDPO A 94.7 14.4 3.5 144.2 27.5 1.8
RBDPO B 96.7 14.0 3.6 145.0 38.1 1.3 (a) Chemical structure (b) Fatty acids structure in palm oil
MO 115.5 24.6 2.0 231.4 43.7 1.1
Figure 12. The chemical structure of fatty acids in palm oil [36].

The breakdown voltages under negative polarity for all


samples are higher than positive polarity and it is in line with
previous studies on vegetable oils at gap distances between 2
mm and 200 mm [39]. It is due to the differences on the
positive and negative breakdown mechanisms as illustrated in
Figures 13a and 13b [24, 40]. Under positive polarity, the
electrons are not injected from the needle tip, instead the
electrons are liberated from the fluid under critical ionization
potential [15]. These electrons will accelerate toward positive
electrode and collide with the molecules of the fluid in order
to cause further ionization to liberate more electrons thus
finally form an electron avalanche and streamer propagation
[15, 24]. The energy that is required for the ionization of the
Figure 11. Average breakdown voltages for all samples under positive and molecules (ionization potential) will affect the speed and
negative polarities. length of streamer [15]. The ionization potential for fluid
molecules with conjugated double bonds is lower than
4 DISCUSSION saturated molecules [15]. The presence of low ionization
potential molecules in dielectric insulation fluids can form
The findings on streamer shapes in this study are consistent stable ions more readily and increase the streamer propagation
with the previous studies where the negative streamers are velocity [15, 41].
thicker than positive streamers [32]. The streamer lengths,
Under negative polarity, high mobility electrons are injected
velocities and breakdown characteristics of both RBDPO are
by the needle tip at high electrical field to initiate the streamer
found to be in line with the previous studies on vegetable oils
[24]. These electrons accelerate and create new space charge
where the rates of streamer velocity increments are higher than by rapid energy injection [42]. The space charge is created
MO. Meanwhile, the lightning breakdown voltages of both through the interaction between injected electrons and fluid
RBDPO are lower than MO [18, 22, 23]. molecules [24]. Electrons will acquire more energy to travel
According to [13, 15, 22, 33], the chemical compositions through the fluid due to the presence of the space charge
and electrons affinity of dielectric insulation fluids play a resulting in higher voltages to cause the breakdowns [24, 42].
IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Vol. 25, No. 5; October 2018 1619
[3] N. A. Mohamad, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T.
Ishak, and Z. Yaakub, "A study on the dielectric properties of Palm Oil
and Coconut Oil," IEEE Int. Conf. Power and Energy, 2014, pp. 109-112.
[4] N. A. Mohamad, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. A. Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T.
Ishak, and Z. Yaakub, "Investigation on the Dielectric, Physical and
Chemical Properties of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil under Accelerated
Thermal Ageing," J. Electr. Eng. Tech., vol. 11, pp. 709-718, 2016.
[5] U. U. Abdullahi, S. M. Bashi, R. Yunus, Mohibullah, and H. A. Nurdin,
"The potentials of palm oil as a dielectric fluid," Proceedings National
Power and Energy Conf., 2004, pp. 224-228.
[6] K. Azmi, A. Ahmad, and M. Kamarol, "Study of Dielectric Properties
of a Potential RBD Palm Oil and RBD Soybean Oil Mixture as
Insulating Liquid in Transformer," J. Electr. Eng. Techn., vol. 10, pp.
709-723, 2015.
[7] A. A. Suleiman, N. A. Muhamad, N. Bashir, N. S. Murad, Y. Z. Arief,
(a) Positive polarity and B. T. Phung, "Effect of moisture on breakdown voltage and
structure of palm based insulation oils," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr.
Insul., vol. 21, pp. 2119-2126, 2014.
[8] Norhafiz Azis, Jasronita Jasni, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir, and M.
N. Mohtar, "Suitability of Palm Based Oil as Dielectric Insulating Fluid
in Transformers," J. Electr. Eng. Techn., vol. 1, 2013.
[9] Y. V. Thien, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T.
Ishak, and Z. Yaakub, "Investigation on the lightning breakdown
voltage of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil under non-uniform field,"
Proceedings IEEE Int. Conf. Power and Energy, 2014, pp. 1-4.
[10] Y. V. Thien, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T.
Ishak, and Z. Yaakub, "The effect of polarity on the lightning
breakdown voltages of palm oil and coconut oil under a non-uniform
field for transformers application," Industrial Crops and Products, vol.
89, pp. 250-256, 10/30/ 2016.
[11] Y. V. Thien, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. A. Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T.
Ishak, and N. R. Hamzah, "A Study on the Lightning Impulse
(b) Negative polarity Breakdown Voltages of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil by Different
Methods," Appl. Mech. Mat., vol. 793, pp. 9-13, 2015.
Figure 13. Non-uniform breakdown mechanism. [12] Y. V. Thien, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. A. Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T. Ishak,
and Z. Yaakub, "Evaluation on the Lightning Breakdown Voltages of
Palm Oil and Coconut oil under Non-uniform Field at Small Gap
5 CONCLUSION Distances," J. Electr. Eng. Techn., vol. 11, pp. 184-191, 2016.
[13] A. Beroual, M. Zahn, A. Badent, K. Kist, A. J. Schwabe, H. Yamashita,
Under positive polarity, both RBDPO have almost the same K. Yamazawa, M. Danikas, W. G. Chadband, and Y. Torshin,
streamer shapes with MO. At the same applied impulse "Propagation and structure of streamers in liquid dielectrics," IEEE
voltage level and polarity, the streamer stopping lengths and Electr. Insul. Mag., vol. 14, pp. 6-17, 1998.
[14] O. Lesaint and G. Massala, "Positive streamer propagation in large oil
velocities of RBDPO are higher than MO where the highest gaps: experimental characterization of propagation modes," IEEE
percentage of difference is 67.9%. Both RBDPO have slightly Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 5, pp. 360-370, 1998.
lower breakdown voltages than MO. Under negative polarity, [15] P. Wedin, "Electrical breakdown in dielectric liquids-a short overview,"
MO has higher breakdown voltages than RBDPO where the IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., vol. 30, pp. 20-25, 2014.
[16] A. Sun, C. Huo, and J. Zhuang, "Formation mechanism of streamer
highest percentage of difference is 60.5%. The negative discharges in liquids: a review," J. Instit. Eng. Techn., High Voltage,
streamers of both RBDPO have more branches and propagate vol. 1, pp. 74-80, 2016.
faster than MO. There is no effect of vitamin A and E in [17] R. Bartnikas, Engineering Dielectrics - Electrical Insulating Liquids vol.
RBDPO A and RBDPO B on the streamer stopping length, III. Varennes, Canada: ASTM 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, 1994.
[18] Q. Liu and Z. D. Wang, "Streamer characteristic and breakdown in
velocity and breakdown voltage. synthetic and natural ester transformer liquids under standard lightning
impulse voltage," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 18, pp. 285-
ACKNOWLEDGMENT 294, 2011.
[19] C. T. Duy, O. Lesaint, A. Denat, and N. Bonifaci, "Streamer
The authors would like to thank Ministry of Education and propagation and breakdown in natural ester at high voltage," Trans.
Universiti Putra Malaysia for the funding under PUTRA IPS Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 16, pp. 1582-1594, 2009.
[20] M. Hemmer, Y. Julliard, R. Badent, and A. J. Schwab, "Streamer
and IPB schemes (GP-IPS/2016/9498800), (GP- inception and propagation in rape-seed oils and mineral oils," in Annu.
IPB/2014/9440801). Special thanks to Hyrax Oil Sdn. Bhd Rep. Conf. Electr. Insul. Dielectr. Phenom., 2001.
and Malaysia Transformer Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. for the [21] M. N. Ngoc, O. Lesaint, N. Bonifaci, A. Denat, and M. Hassanzadeh, "A
technical support. comparison of breakdown properties of natural and synthetic esters at
high voltage," in Annu. Rep. Conf. Electr. Insul. Dielectr. Phenom., 2010.
[22] M. I. Qureshi, A. Beroual, and E. A. Al-Ammar, "Optical observation
REFERENCES of streamer propagation and breakdown in seed based insulating oil
[1] R. Fritsche and G. J. Pukel, "Large Power Transformers using under impulse voltages," Int. J. Phys. Sci., vol. 9, pp. 292-301, 2014.
Alternative Liquids Experience in the range of 420 kV transmission [23] V. Dang, A. Beroual, and C. Perrier, "Comparative study of streamer
level," presented at the CIGRE, Paris, 2016. phenomena in mineral, synthetic and natural ester oils under lightning
[2] P. Hopkinson, L. Dix, C. P. McShane, H. R. Moore, S. Moore, J. impulse voltage," Proceedings of the Int. Conf. High Voltage
Murphy, T. Prevost, and S. D. Smith, "Progress Report on Natural Engineering and Application, 2010, pp. 560-563.
Esters for Distribution and Power Transformers," presented at the IEEE [24] D. J. P. Holtzhausen and D. W. L. Vosloo, High Voltage Engineering
PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition, 2006. Practice and Theory. Stellenbosch 2011.
1620 Y. V. Thien et al.: Pre-breakdown Streamer Propagation and Breakdown Characteristics of Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm
[25] S. Yanchao, Z. Yuanxiang, N. Dexin, W. Zhirong, and D. Jiangang, "A His research interests are in-service ageing of transformer insulation,
study on electric conduction of transformer oil," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. condition monitoring, asset management and alternative insulation materials
Electr. Insul., vol. 21, pp. 1061-1069, 2014. for transformers.
[26] E. O. Forster, H. Yamashita, C. Mazzetti, M. Pompili, L. Caroli, and S.
Patrissi, "The effect of the electrode gap on breakdown in liquid
dielectrics," IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 1, pp. 440-446, Jasronita Jasni received B. Eng degree in Electrical
1994. Engineering (1998) and M. Eng. in Electrical
[27] A. H. A. Tarmizi, S. W. Lin, and A. Kuntom, "Development of Palm- Engineering (2001) from Universiti Teknologi
Based Reference Materials for the Quantification of Fatty Acids Malaysia. She received the PhD degree in Electrical
Composition," J. Oleo Science, vol. 57, pp. 275-285, 2008. Power Engineering from Universiti Putra Malaysia in
[28] Methods for the determination of the lightning impulse breakdown 2010. Currently she is a Senior Lecturer in the
voltage of insulating liquids, IEC 60897, 1987. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
[29] Q. Liu and Z. D. Wang, "Breakdown and withstand strengths of ester Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. She is an IEEE
transformer liquids in a quasi-uniform field under impulse voltages," member. Her research interests include power system
IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 20, pp. 571-579, 2013. analysis for static and dynamics, load flow analysis, embedded generation and
[30] O. Lesaint, "Streamers in liquids: Relation with practical high voltage renewable energy.
insulation and testing of liquids," Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf.
Dielectr. Liquids, 2008, pp. 1-6.
[31] H. B. H. Sitorus, A. Beroual, R. Setiabudy, and S. Bismo, "Pre- Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir received the B. Eng
breakdown phenomena in new vegetable oil - based jatropha curcas degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from
seeds as substitute of mineral oil in high voltage equipment," IEEE Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2000 and PhD degree in
Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul., vol. 22, pp. 2442-2448, 2015. High Voltage Engineering (2006) from The Universiti
[32] N. V. Dung, H. K. Hoidalen, D. Linhjell, L. E. Lundgaard, and M. of Manchester in UK. Currently, he is a Professor in
Unge, "A study on positive streamer channels in Marcol Oil," Annu. the Department of Electrical and Electronics
Rep. Conf. Electr. Insul. Dielectr. Phenom., 2012, pp. 365-370. Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra
[33] W. G. Chadband and T. M. Sufian, "Experimental Support for a Model Malaysia. His research interests include high voltage
of Positive Streamer Propagation in Liquid Insulation," IEEE Electr. engineering, insulation coordination, lightning
Insul. Mag., vol. 20, pp. 239-246, 1985. protection, EMC/EMI, kerauna-medicine and power system transients.
[34] C. A2-35, "Experiences in Service with New Insulating Liquids,"
United Kingdom2010.
[35] C. P. McShane, "Vegetable-oil-based dielectric coolants," IEEE Ind. Robiah Yunus received the B. Eng degree in
Appl. Mag., vol. 8, pp. 34-41, 2002. Chemical Engineering (1986) from University
[36] R. Zamiri, A. Zakaria, H. A. Ahangar, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, and M. A. Alabama in USA and M. Eng. in Integrated Design of
Mahdi, "Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Dispersed in Palm Oil Chemical Plant (1989) from University of Leeds,
Using Laser Ablation," Int. J. Mole. Sci., vol. 11, pp. 4764-4770, 2010. UK. She received the PhD degree in Chemical
[37] C. T. Duy, O. Lesaint, A. Denat, N. Bonifaci, and Y. Bertrand, Engineering from Universiti Putra Malaysia in 2003.
"Streamer propagation and breakdown in rape-seed oil at high voltage," Currently she is a Professor in the Department of
in Proceedings IEEE Int. Conf. Dielectr. Liquids, 2008, pp. 1-4. Chemical Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia.
[38] L. Rongsheng, C. Tornkvist, V. Chandramouli, O. Girlanda, and L. A. Her research interests are renewable energy, reaction
Pettersson, "Ester fluids as alternative for mineral oil: The difference in engineering and process engineering.
streamer velocity and LI breakdown voltage," in Annu. Rep. Conf.
Electr. Insul. Dielectr. Phenom., 2009, pp. 543-548.
[39] D. Vukovic, S. Tenbohlen, J. Harthun, C. Perrier, and H. Fink, Mohamad Kamarol Mohd Jamil received his
"Breakdown strength of vegetable-based oils under AC and lightning B.Eng (Hons) in Electrical Engineering from
impulse voltages," Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. Dielectr. Universiti Technology Mara, Malaysia, in 2000. He
Liquids, 2011, pp. 1-4. received the M.Eng. and D.Eng. degrees from
[40] C. Hosticka, "Dependence of Uniform/Nonuniform Field Transformer Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan in March
Oil Breakdown on Oil Composition," IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag., vol. 14, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Currently, he is
pp. 43-50, 1979. Associate Professor at USM. His research interest
[41] O. Lesaint, A. Denat, and F. M. Cluskey, "Positive streamers in short and includes the insulation properties in oil palm and
large gaps in hydrocarbons of various chemical natures," Proceedings of solid dielectric material, insulation properties of
the IEEE 18th Int. Conf. Dielectr. Liquids, 2014, pp. 1-4. environmentally benign gas, PD detection technique for insulation diagnosis
[42] W. F. Schmidt and D. R. Pugh, "On the polarity effect of the of power apparatus and electrical machine. He is also involved in temperature
breakdown voltage for dielectric liquids in an inhomogeneous field," J. rise and short circuit electromagnetic study of busbar system. He is a C.Eng.
Appl. Phys., vol. 10, p. 1139, 1977 and a member of IEEE, IET, BEM and IEM.

Yee Von Thien received B. Eng degree in Electrical Zaini Yaakub received the degree of Applied
and Electronic Engineering (Power) (2013) from Chemistry with Honours from Sheffield Hallam
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia and M. Eng in University, United Kingdom in 1993. He joined
Electrical Power Engineering from Universiti Putra Caleb Brett Malaysia in the same year as a chemist
Malaysia in 2016. Currently she is studying for her before joining Hyrax Oil in 1994. Currently, he is an
PhD in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Assistant General Manager at Hyrax Oil after having
Engineering, University of Putra Malaysia. had a working experience for more than 20 years on
various responsibilities and roles. His research
interests are in the field of electrical insulating oils
and currently doing his Ph.D degree at UPM.
Norhafiz Azis received B. Eng degree in Electrical
and Electronic Engineering (2007) from Universiti
Putra Malaysia and PhD degree in Electrical Power
Engineering (2012) from The University of
Manchester in UK. Currently he is a Senior Lecturer
at the Department of Electrical and Electronic
Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.