Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Appendix :A ABAP List Viewer (ALV)

In this chapter you will learn:


Contents
 Why the ABAP List Viewer
(ALV) is useful

Overview................................................................................................................. ....2  Some of the time-saving


features of ALV, as well as its
What Is The ABAP List Viewer?............................................................................. ...2 ability to enhance information
ABAP List Viewer: Cost Versus Benefit Analysis............................... ....................3 display

Report Lists Without ABAP List Viewer ........................................................... .......4  The differences between
reports written with and
Report Lists With ABAP List Viewer ................................................ .......................5 without the ALV
Technical Notes................................................................................ .........................9  Technical information (sample
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)...................................................... ..........10 code) to help you build
reports with ALV
Review................................................................................................. .....................15 “functionality”
Where to Learn More................................................................................ ...............15

Report Development Tools 1


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

Overview

If it becomes necessary to write ABAP code to create your reports, then consider using the
ABAP List Viewer (ALV) to simplify your development. Available in the R/3 System since
Release 3.1, the ABAP List Viewer supports many of the standard R/3 reports. The ALV
provides additional program code you can quickly add to any custom report for any SAP
module.
Many reports developed for Release 4.0 (and later) utilize the ABAP List Viewer.
Additionally, many older standard R/3 reports (and reporting tools) have been modified to
include the ABAP List Viewer.
The ABAP List Viewer can be used with any application component or module in the R/3
System. We recommend that developers should adopt ABAP List Viewer as a design
principle in all report development activities that occur in your organization.

Note: At the time of press, limited technical support is available for the ABAP List
Viewer. However, we believe that support limitations should not prevent you from
taking advantage of the functionality offered by ALV.

What Is The ABAP List Viewer?

The ALV is a set of function modules that are added to program code. Programs created
before Release 3.1 can be enhanced with the ALV by adding links to the function modules.
Developers can use the functionality of the ALV when creating new reports, thus saving
time which might otherwise have been spent on report enhancement. Using the ALV also
provides a uniform user-interface and list format for ABAP reports. This standardization
helps eliminate redundant functions.
The ABAP List Viewer enables both simple and sequential (hierarchical) report lists. Simple
lists contain a number of non-hierarchical, user-defined columns. Sequential lists contain
columns that consist of column headings and their subordinate rows.

The primary goals of the ABAP List Viewer are to provide:


Goals of
ALV  Users with a consistent, user-friendly, and functional method of manipulating the
data which appears on report lists.
 ABAP developers with an efficient and consistent method of programming functions
that are commonly needed or requested in reports.

2 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

ABAP List Viewer: Cost Versus Benefit Analysis

Before taking advantage of the features of ALV, developers may want to consider the
benefits gained versus the “extra time” taken to include ALV in report development. The
following table shows estimates of time expenditures in report development. Note that an
estimated 50% of report developers’ time is consumed by building “fancy” features and
enhancing the look-and-feel of custom reports.

ABAP Report Development Activity Percentage of Time Taken


Without ALV to Complete

Finding the right tables and table relationships that 50%


need to be included in order for the program to be
written
Providing “fancy” features, such as sorting, 30%
subtotals, and interactivity
Enhancing the look of the report with column 20%
headings, vertical lines, and color
Total 100%

SAP developed the ABAP List Viewer to help reduce the time and effort spent on some of
the report development activities. By using the ALV in the programming of custom reports,
you could reduce the development time by an estimated 40% (see table below).

ABAP Report Development Activity With Percentage of Time Taken


ALV to Complete

Finding the right tables and table relationships that 50%


need to be included in order for the program to be
written

Preparing field catalog and sort sequence for ALV 1%


Providing “fancy” features, such as sorting, 9%
subtotals, and interactivity
Enhancing the look of the report with column 0%
headings, vertical lines, and color
Total 60%

Although, the use of ALV adds one more development activity (that is, preparation of the
field catalog), the development time spent on other activities is either eliminated or vastly
reduced.

Report Development Tools 3


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

Report Lists Without ABAP List Viewer

When a report is written, the report list (output) depends almost entirely on how the
developer programmed the report.
Shown below is a sample report list where the programmer did not to use the ABAP List
Viewer. For illustration purposes, consider a report that was simply written (using the
WRITE command) to the screen. The output of a report created with just the WRITE
statement is shown below:

Function bar is blank

No column headings

List data is “dead.” It is


simply a so-called “data
dump”

A key point to note is that the function bar is blank. In addition, the data in the list is “dead”
which means that data listed cannot be used for any further data retrieval. It is essentially a
“data-dump.” Among other things, there are no headings for the columns. Any additional
functionality would have to be programmed. In short, the interface between the data you
see on the screen and the user’s eyes (the GUI) is limited and bland.
Report users routinely ask for additional features in their reports. Often they are looking for
the ability to:

Hint:  Sort
These  Resize rows
function  Double-click on one information element to jump to another information element
s are all
available  Perform basic calculations
in ALV  Download “stylized” spreadsheets
 Display several colors
 Visually separate various pieces of information on the screen

4 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

However, for the most part, these features need to be programmed into the list as added
functionality to the output of the report. While some of these added functions are relatively
easy to program, the manner in which this added functionality works may vary greatly. For
example, one programmer may decide to enable a single-click as sufficient user input to
jump to a next level of information, while another programmer requires a double-click.
Similarly, one programmer may set the output of a field at 10 characters long, but another
programmer may program it as 20 characters.

Report Lists With ABAP List Viewer

When you insert the ALV code in your ABAP report program, the report list comes “alive.”
Compare the ALV-enabled list shown on page A-6 with the list shown on the previous page.
Although the data is the same, the program has been changed to incorporate the ALV
function modules.
With the ALV, the user is presented with a standard interface which, from the outset,
includes:
 Headers for the columns that appear on the list.
 Colors that correspond to indented key information
 Buttons that appear on the function bar (some of whose functions will be introduced in
the pages that follow)

A feature-rich function
bar gives the user
commonly requested
Function bar is blank
functionality
Column headings make
data easier to
understand

List data is “alive”

As you review the additional functionality shown above, remember that without the ALV
each function would have to be programmed into the report.

Report Development Tools 5


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

Note: This appendix introduces you to some of the functions that the ALV makes
possible. However, this appendix does not cover the full breadth of ALV functionality.
For more information, refer to the ALV documentation in the R/3 online documentation:

R/3 Library → CA-Cross-Application Components → General Application Functions → ABAP


List Viewer

Guided Tour

This guided tour shows possible ways a user could interact with an ALV-enabled report list.

In an ALV-enabled report list, a user can


select a particular column and execute a
subsequent function, if desired. 2

1. Select the column for Sales doc. With 1


ALV’s added functionality the color
of the selected column can be
changed, making it easy for the
report user to know which column
has been selected.
2. Choose Filter. With the filter option,
a user can call up a desired subset of
information on the output list.

3. Set the filter for the sales documents


to be viewed. In this instance, the
user only wants to views sales 3
documents that are between the
numbers 1000 and 2000.
4
4. Choose Copy to invoke the ALV to
filter the list.

6 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

5. The resulting filtered list is shown to


the right. To return to the previous
list, a user can simply click the
5 6
arrow buttons without having to exit
and re-execute the report.
6. If not all columns of the report are of
interest to the user, the unwanted
columns can be hidden. This can be
accomplished by setting the current
variant to include only the desired
columns. To hide (or to view
previously hidden columns), choose
Display variant.

In the popup window, the columns that


currently appear in the list are shown in
the left section. Hidden fields (if any)
appear on the right section. In this
example, all fields appear.
7
7. To make one column disappear,
select the row which lists the column 8
you want to hide. In this example,
we select Material Group.
8. Then, click the single right-arrow
button to move the selected column
(Material group) to the hidden fields
section.

Report Development Tools 7


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

The Material Group is now one of the


hidden fields.
9. For this change to take effect, choose
Copy.

The “new” output list appears. The


original list may be revisited by simply
choosing the current variant.

8 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

Technical Notes

In order for the reports to provide the consistency, flexibility, and user-friendliness of the
ALV, it is necessary to include certain statements in the report’s program code. This section
is intended for those who actually write the code for reports.
To include the ALV in a report, the following basic steps must completed:
1. Declare data areas for List Viewer.
2. Declare the internal table to store selected data.
3. Select data into internal table.
4. Build the field catalogs.
5. Build event catalogs.
6. Start ABAP List Viewer using SAP’s standard delivered function modules (see TechTalk
below).
7. Process call back events.

In the standard R/3 System, SAP delivers several function modules related to the ALV.
Use the following function modules with Release 4.0: REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY (this
is the primary function module) or other function modules that begin with the name
REUSE_ALV*.

K_KKB_LIST_DISPLAY is still available but should no longer be used!

Review the sample program on page 10 which shows the coding related to each of steps
listed above.

Note: The source code that appears on page 10 was used to create the sample ALV-
enabled report list presented in this appendix. You will find the source code
(ZFIGALV.txt) on the companion CD supplied with this guidebook series.

Report Development Tools 9


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

**************************************************************
REPORT ZFIGALV .

********Declare Data Areas for List Viewer (Begin)************

TYPE-POOLS: SLIS.

DATA: FIELDCAT TYPE SLIS_T_FIELDCAT_ALV,


FIELDCAT_LN LIKE LINE OF FIELDCAT,
SORTCAT TYPE SLIS_T_SORTINFO_ALV,
SORTCAT_LN LIKE LINE OF SORTCAT,
EVENTCAT TYPE SLIS_T_EVENT,
EVENTCAT_LN LIKE LINE OF EVENTCAT.

DATA: COL_POS TYPE I.

*******Declare Data Areas for List Viewer (End)***************

*******Declare Internal Table to Store Selected Data (Begin)**

DATA: BEGIN OF IVBAP OCCURS 0,


VBELN LIKE VBAP-VBELN,
POSNR LIKE VBAP-POSNR,
MATNR LIKE VBAP-MATNR,
MATKL LIKE VBAP-MATKL,
CHARG LIKE VBAP-CHARG,
KWMENG LIKE VBAP-KWMENG,
VRKME LIKE VBAP-VRKME,
ARKTX LIKE VBAP-ARKTX,
END OF IVBAP.

*******Declare Internal Table to Store Selected Data (End)****

*******Select Data into Internal Table (Begin) ***************

SELECT VBELN POSNR MATNR MATKL KWMENG VRKME


INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE IVBAP
FROM VBAP WHERE VBELN NE 0.

10 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

******* Select Data into Internal Table (End) ****************

******* Build Field Catalogs (Begin)**************************

PERFORM BUILD_FIELDCAT.
PERFORM BUILD_FIELDCAT2.
PERFORM BUILD_FIELDCAT3.
PERFORM BUILD_SORTCAT.
PERFORM BUILD_SORTCAT2.

*******Build Field Catalogs (End)******************************

*******Build Event Catalog (Begin)*****************************

PERFORM BUILD_EVENTCAT.

*******Build Event Catalog (End)*******************************

*******Start List Viewer (Begin)*******************************


PERFORM START_LIST_VIEWER.
*******Start List Viewer (End)*********************************

***************************************************************
***************************************************************
*********FORM ROUTINES (Begin)*********************************

FORM BUILD_FIELDCAT.
ADD 1 TO COL_POS.
FIELDCAT_LN-REF_TABNAME = 'VBAP'.
FIELDCAT_LN-FIELDNAME = 'VBELN'.
FIELDCAT_LN-KEY = 'X'.
FIELDCAT_LN-DO_SUM = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-COL_POS = COL_POS.
FIELDCAT_LN-NO_OUT = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-QFIELDNAME = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-HOTSPOT = 'X'.
APPEND FIELDCAT_LN TO FIELDCAT.
ENDFORM.

FORM BUILD_FIELDCAT2.
ADD 1 TO COL_POS.
FIELDCAT_LN-REF_TABNAME = 'VBAP'.
FIELDCAT_LN-FIELDNAME = 'MATNR'.
FIELDCAT_LN-KEY = SPACE.

Report Development Tools 11


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

FIELDCAT_LN-DO_SUM = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-COL_POS = COL_POS.
FIELDCAT_LN-NO_OUT = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-QFIELDNAME = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-HOTSPOT = SPACE.
APPEND FIELDCAT_LN TO FIELDCAT.
ENDFORM.

FORM BUILD_FIELDCAT3.
ADD 1 TO COL_POS.
FIELDCAT_LN-REF_TABNAME = 'VBAP'.
FIELDCAT_LN-FIELDNAME = 'MATKL'.
FIELDCAT_LN-KEY = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-DO_SUM = 'X'.
FIELDCAT_LN-COL_POS = COL_POS.
FIELDCAT_LN-NO_OUT = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-QFIELDNAME = SPACE.
FIELDCAT_LN-HOTSPOT = SPACE.
APPEND FIELDCAT_LN TO FIELDCAT.
ENDFORM.

FORM BUILD_SORTCAT.
SORTCAT_LN-SPOS = '1'.
SORTCAT_LN-FIELDNAME = 'MATNR'.
SORTCAT_LN-UP = 'X'.
SORTCAT_LN-DOWN = SPACE.
SORTCAT_LN-SUBTOT = 'X'.
APPEND SORTCAT_LN TO SORTCAT.
ENDFORM.

FORM BUILD_SORTCAT2.
SORTCAT_LN-SPOS = '2'.
SORTCAT_LN-FIELDNAME = 'VRKME'.
SORTCAT_LN-UP = SPACE.
SORTCAT_LN-DOWN = 'X'.
SORTCAT_LN-SUBTOT = SPACE.
APPEND SORTCAT_LN TO SORTCAT.
ENDFORM.

FORM BUILD_EVENTCAT.
EVENTCAT_LN-NAME = 'TOP_OF_PAGE'.
EVENTCAT_LN-FORM = 'PAGE_HEADER'.
APPEND EVENTCAT_LN TO EVENTCAT.

12 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

ENDFORM.

FORM START_LIST_VIEWER.
DATA: PGM LIKE SY-REPID.
PGM = SY-REPID.

CALL FUNCTION 'REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY'


EXPORTING
* I_INTERFACE_CHECK = ' '
I_CALLBACK_PROGRAM = PGM
* i_callback_pf_status_set = ' '
I_CALLBACK_USER_COMMAND = 'USER_COMMAND'
* I_STRUCTURE_NAME =
* IS_LAYOUT =
IT_FIELDCAT = FIELDCAT
* IT_EXCLUDING =
* IT_SPECIAL_GROUPS =
IT_SORT = SORTCAT
* IT_FILTER =
* IS_SEL_HIDE =
* I_DEFAULT = 'X'
I_SAVE = 'A'
* IS_VARIANT = ' '
* IT_EVENTS =
* IT_EVENT_EXIT =
* IS_PRINT =
* I_SCREEN_START_COLUMN = 0
* I_SCREEN_START_LINE = 0
* I_SCREEN_END_COLUMN = 0
* I_SCREEN_END_LINE = 0
* IMPORTING
* E_EXIT_CAUSED_BY_CALLER =
* es_exit_caused_by_user =
TABLES
T_OUTTAB = IVBAP
EXCEPTIONS
PROGRAM_ERROR = 1
OTHERS = 2.
ENDFORM.

********Process Call Back Events (Begin)***************************

FORM USER_COMMAND USING UCOMM LIKE SY-UCOMM


SELFIELD TYPE SLIS_SELFIELD.

Report Development Tools 13


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

READ TABLE IVBAP INDEX SELFIELD-TABINDEX.


CHECK SY-SUBRC = 0.
CASE UCOMM.
WHEN '&IC1'.
CASE SELFIELD-SEL_TAB_FIELD.
WHEN 'IVBAP-VBELN'.
SET PARAMETER ID 'AUN' FIELD IVBAP-VBELN.
CALL TRANSACTION 'VA03' AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN.
WHEN 'IVBAP-MATNR'.
SET PARAMETER ID 'MAT' FIELD IVBAP-MATNR.
CALL TRANSACTION 'MM03' AND SKIP FIRST SCREEN.
ENDCASE.
ENDCASE.
ENDFORM.
********Process Call Back Events (End)******************************

***********FORM ROUTINES (END)**************************************

14 Reporting Made Easy


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Review

Review

 The ABAP List Viewer (ALV) functionality provided within ABAP can enhance reports
in the R/3 System, and was first made available with Release 3.1. The ALV is a set of
function modules added to program code. Programs created before this release can be
enhanced with the ALV by adding links to the function modules.
 Using the ALV provides a uniform user-interface and list format for ABAP reports. This
standardization helps eliminate redundant functions.
 Using the ALV enhances the functionality provided with reports while decreasing the
development time by roughly 40%.
 The ALV provides the following features:
 Sorting
 Resizing of rows
 Double-clicking on one information element to jump to another information element
 Performing basic calculations
 Downloading of stylized spreadsheets
 Displaying several colors
 Visually separating various pieces of information on the screen
 To include the ALV in a report, the following basic steps must completed:
1. Declare data areas for List Viewer.
2. Declare the internal table to store selected data.
3. Select data into internal table.
4. Build field catalogs.
5. Build event catalogs.
6. Start the ABAP List Viewer using SAP’s standard delivered function modules.
7. Process call back events.

Where to Learn More

For more information, refer to the R/3 Library (online documentation).


In the HTML help documentation, go to:
R/3 System Library → CA-Cross-Application Components → General Application Functions →
ABAP List Viewer

Report Development Tools 15


Appendix A: ABAP List Viewer (ALV)
Sample Code Using ALV (Release 4.0B)

16 Reporting Made Easy