Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32

STUDY OF LACTATION EFFICIENCY OF GADDI BUFFALO IN MID-WESTERN

HILL OF NEPAL
STUDY OF LACTATION EFFICIENCY OF LIME BUFFALO IN MID-WESTERN HILL OF NEPAL.

JAGDISH NATH YOGI


TU Registration number: 1-2-44-28-2013
JAGDISH NATH YOGI 2018

RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO


TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE
LAMJUNG CAMPUS, LAMJUNG, NEPAL

IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE

PRACTICUM ASSESSMENT OF

BACHELORS OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE

JUNE 2018
STUDY OF LACTATION EFFICIENCY OF GADDI BUFFALO IN MID-WESTERN
HILL OF NEPAL
STUDY OF LACTATION EFFICIENCY OF LIME BUFFALO IN MID-WESTERN HILL OF NEPAL.

JAGDISH NATH YOGI


TU Registration number: 1-2-44-28-2013
JAGDISH NATH YOGI 2018

RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO


TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL SCIENCE
LAMJUNG CAMPUS, LAMJUNG, NEPAL

IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE UNDERGRADUATE

PRACTICUM ASSESSMENT OF

BACHELORS OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE

JUNE 2018

I
This research report here to, entitled “STUDY OF LACTATION EFFICIENCY OF
GADDI BUFFALO IN MID-WESTERN HILL OF NEPAL” prepared and submitted by
MR JAGDISH NATH YOGI (Exam Roll No:135 ), in the fulfillment of the requirements
of the Undergraduate Practicum Assessment for the Bachelors of Science in Agriculture,
is hereby accepted.

………………….....................……… ………………………………..
Assistant. Prof. Surya Prasad Sharma Prof.Shree Kanta Poudel

Advisor, Advisory Committee Member, Advisory Committee

Date: Date:

……………………………………….
Assoc. Prof. Bishnu Bilas Adh kari . PhD
Campus Chief, Lamjung Campus
Date:

Accepted as the fulfillments of the Undergraduate Practicum Assessment for the degree
of Bachelors of Science in Agriculture
Date:

………………………………..
Prof .Gopal Bahadur K.C.,PhD
Assistant Dean (Academics )
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science

I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I want to express deep sense of gratitude to my respected Advisor Mr. Surya Prasad

Sharma Assistant Professor, Department of Animal Science, Institute of Agriculture

and Animal Science, Lamjung Campus for his unstinting support and invaluable

contribution throughout research time and also during the accomplishment of

manuscript .

I would like to thank my brother Sabin Devkota for his help in data taking. Special

thanks are owed to my colleagues including ,Mukunda Sharma ,Sandip Adhikari ,Bipin

Aryal, ,Prabhat Adhikari Bharat Basnet for their encouragement and help throughout

Research period .

At last I am very awfully grateful to my parents who provided me continuous emotional

and financial support and encouraged me to accomplishment research.

JAGDISH NATH YOGI

II
III
TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLE

5
ABSTRACT

A study was executed during September, 2017 to May, 2018 to evaluate the lactational

efficiency of indigenous Gaddi (Bubalus bubalis) buffaloes at Raskot Municipality Ward

number 3,4 &5 of Kalikot district, Nepal. A total of 103 buffaloes were considered by

purposive sampling and data were collected using the semi structured questionnaire and

Farmers record. Collected data were analyzed using “R” statistical tool and “DMRT” was

used to compare the least square means. The least square means for Colostrum period, Days

to reach peak milk yield, Peak Milk Yield, Lactation length, Dry period, Total Milk Yield in

Current Lactation were 3.38±0.20, 105±8.45, 3.11±0.20,452.57±32.65, 228.64±17.38,

697.42±71.62 respectively. “White mark/Spot Variation” had non-significant effect on

lactational traits considered. Season of calving had significant effect on all the lactational

traits except Dry period and Peak milk Yield. Parity had non-significant effect on all

lactational traits whereas its was near to significant with Lactation length and Total milk yield

on current lactation. Among all non-genetic factor season of calving should be undertaken for

the absolute management of Gaddi buffalo.

Keywords: breed, Gaddi, lactational efficiency, parity, Colostrum

6
1. INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND

Introduction

Livestock is an integral component of Nepalese farming system that contributes more than

one-third of the total agricultural gross domestic production (AGDP). Buffaloes are raised for

supply of animal protein, draft power, and manure. Buffalo enterprise contributes 52.9% of

the livestock share in the national GDP. Buffaloes are multi-purpose and most valuable

livestock species in smallholder mixed farming system in most part of Nepal. In term of

household income, Farmers of Western (Rasali et al., 1997) and Eastern (Gatenby et al.,

1990) hills perceive buffaloes as the first rank animals among livestock species raised. Due

to its salvage value and the prestigious possession of farming households in the villages of

the country it is preferred over cattle. Buffaloes alone contribute about 52.0% of the livestock

share in the national GDP (APP, 1995). Buffaloes are main sources of milk and milk products,

meat, draft power (pulling cart and ploughing field), manure and hides in plain area .However,

in the hilly and mountain region buffaloes are not used for draft purpose because of the hilly

terraces .majority of houses in hilly area raise at least single buffalo with the single sell male

calf or mature calf. Buffalo population in some districts is more than 120,000 heads, whereas

there are some mountain districts which possess less than hundred heads. In general, districts

in Terai and hill regions have more buffalo population compared to mountain districts.

Manang and Mustang districts, also known as districts beyond the Himalayas have almost no

buffalo population.

During the last 10 years (2001-2011) period, the trend of buffalo rearing is increased steadily.

The average annual growth rate in total buffalo population was 3.77 percent, and similar

increment in the number of milking animals was also observed. The proportion of milking

buffaloes to total buffalo has been found to be 25.8%. Buffaloes have been raised under

7
farming systems of Nepal throughout the known history. Domestication of buffaloes was

started from pouranik Era .Some of hindu religious book consider buffaloes as the giant

animal. Most people in Nepal prefer buffalo milk over cattle due to its appealing white color

and richness in fat and solid not fat (SNF) content which fetches higher price per liter of milk.

Buffaloes have been rearing by smallholder farmers across all physiographic and ecological

zones of Nepal. About 58% of the households in hills of Nepal have been reported to keep

buffaloes. In the formers Extension Command Areas (ECA) of Lumle, 11 836 HH out of

15447 HH (76.6%) were found keeping at least one buffalo (Gurung et al., 1995). The

estimated buffalo population in the country is 4.99 million which are found across all Agro-

ecological regions of the country though the distribution is highest in the hill region (52.4%

of the total population) and lowest in the mountain region (8.6%). Development region- wise,

the buffalo population is highest in central (25.6%) and western development regions (25.2%)

and lowest in far western development region (10.6%). Lactation milk yield and lactation

length are two important parameter of dairy buffaloes. (chaudhry,1992).Both genetic and non

genetic factor affect milk yield .The environmental factors or non genetic factors like feeding

habit ,management practice are also closely related with the animals health and

productivity .(kamble et al., 2014).The milk yield traits of buffaloes are influenced by

numerous environmental factors (zakariyya et al .,1995),for example calving age and calving

season(Raza et al .,1999;khosroshahi et al .,2011;sahin and Ulutas ,2015).It is necessary to

develop an understanding of the factors effecting its milk productivity to enhance

productivity of dairy cow buffalo .(Afzal et al .,2007;Pawar et al .,2012). However, there are

still less than 12% improved buffaloes (Murrah and its crosses) in the country. There have

been only limited studies relating to their production potentialities. Except milk and meat,

they are used for draught and pack purpose, hides and bones, and for manure. They also have

cultural, social and religious values in the certain ethnic community. About 48.5% of the

8
households keep buffaloes for regular farm activities. Buffalo annually provides 70 % and

64 % of the total milk and meat respectively in the country (MoAC, 2005). Despite such a

great contribution to the rural economy, there is insufficient systematic approach for their

improvement.

In this context, a study was undertaken to identify and characterize Gaddi buffalo indigenous

to the far-western region of the country. Gaddi are located in the Dadeldhura, Baitadi, Doti

and Kalikot districts of Far-western Nepal. The breed is scattered in about 5482 sq. km. area

and found at an elevation between 1500 and 4500 masl and temperature between 18.8° C in

winter and 28° C in summer, and with an annual rainfall ranging from 860 to 1242 ml. The

buffalo population in Nepal can be broadly classified into three groups based on their breed

characteristics- Hill buffalo, Terai buffalo and Indian breeds. Lime, Parkote and Gaddi are the

three breeds of Hill buffalo reported in the literature (Rasali et al 1999) .Gaddi buffaloes are

found in the Far-western Development Region.

Gaddi buffaloes are quite distinct from the other indigenous buffaloes. They are bigger in size,

better in milk production and adaptable in harsh feeding system. This breed is docile in

temperament and well tractable. They are found predominantly black in coat color (92%), but

some time in brown and light brown color also (4% each). They have long face and flat head

with long curved horns. White big patch on forehead is the distinguished feature of this

animal. Horns of the Gaddi buffalo are long, flat and curved backwards to the neck. Ears are

in hanging position. They have tough dewlap and hump is absent. This breed has

comparatively short and strong legs with broad hoofs. Tail and switch are reasonably long

and extended below hock. Udder is tough, teats are cylindrical in shape and equal in

placement. is estimated that out of 101,500 buffaloes found in this area, approximately 16

thousand are purebred Gaddi and remaining are their crosses. “Gaddi” are the tribe living in

the plains of far-western region of Nepal and adjoining terri- tories of India. They were

9
traditionally buffalo raisers in trans-migratory system. Although, no document is available

about the origin of Gaddi buffaloes, it has been said that in those days, hills of Dadeldhura,

Baitadi Doti and Kalikot districts were covered with abundant amount of highly lustrous and

nutritious fodder and grasses. Gaddi used to bring their animals to these areas for grazing. As

the Gaddi buffalo looked attractive and were good milkers com- pared to the local ones,

people got interest on the breed and requested “Gaddi" for buffaloes, heifers or even calves.

Gaddi used to give them the buffaloes in exchange of food, cloth or money. The purchased

animals were hence renamed after the tribe “Gaddi” - Gaddi buffalo. The breed “Gaddi” was

established in this region at least three centuries ago.

Growth and production characteristics of this breed seem to be better compared with other

indigenous buffalo’s breeds. The average body length, height at wither, chest girth and height

at hip bone of she Gaddi buffalo were found to be 141.2±1.63, 131.3±1.1, 194.98±1.8 and

122.69±1.07 cm. respectively, which are significantly (P < 0.01) higher than Lime and Terai

buffaloes.

1.2 PROBLEM OF STATEMENT

Indigenous breed of buffalo are in danger of extinction due to injudicious use of cross

breeding program .Superiority of cross bred buffalo compared to local breeds drawing

attention toward keeping those cross bred animal. Due to Lack of proper genetic

improvement program and breeding plan the number of indigenous breed is decreasing

gradually. There are several factors that have contributed to decline in population size of

these breeds;

 national crossbreeding program through artificial insemination;

 lack of awareness by farmers on the importance of these breeds;

 lack of knowledge by the policy makers regarding the value of these types of cattle;

10
 unwillingness by farmers to retain mature bulls due to their economic degeneration;

 changes in production system; and

 lack of sound conservation through a utilization program.

1.3 RATIONALE OF STUDY

Limited research and study has been carried out in the indigenous breed of Nepal i.e. (Gaddi).

Therefore, this study has been carried out to understand the effect of various factor like coat

color, parity, breed, location etc on the production parameter. There have been only limited

studies relating to their production potentialities. This study was conducted to explore the

problem that have been hindering for improved buffalo farming and to find out the measures

to improve the performance of the indigenous buffaloes in Nepal.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

Broad

Productive trait evaluation of Gaddi buffalo in western in hill of Nepal.

Specific

To study the quantitative traits of Gaddi buffalo.

To know about the actual situation of Gaddi buffalo in western hill.

Comparative study of Gaddi buffaloes in two district of western hill of Nepal.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 BACKGROUND

Nepal is country of High Mountain to hills and low land. According to the ecological regions,

different types of buffaloes are being raised; swamp type and crossbed with high production

11
are raised in mountains, swamp type and crossbred with murrah in hills and crosses with the

murrah or riverine type in plain (Neopane et al .,1999). The buffalo population in Nepal can

be broadly classified into three groups based on their breed characteristics- Hill buffalo, Terai

buffalo and Indian breeds. Rasali (1999) reported that Lime, Parkote and Gaddi are the three

indigenous breeds of Hill buffalo. Gaddi buffalo has been characterized to the extent of being

phenotypically recognizable.

2.2 DISTRIBUTION OF GADDI ( INDIGENOUS BREED) IN NEPAL

Gaddi buffalo indigenous to the far-western region of the country and are located in the

Dadeldhura, Baitadi, Doti and Kalikot districts of Far-western Nepal. The breed is scattered in

about 5482 sq. km. area and found at an elevation between 1500 and 4500 masl .They are

bigger in size, better in milk production and adaptable in harsh feeding system. They have long

face and flat head with long curved horns. White big patch on forehead is the distinguishing

feature of this animal. They have tough dewlap and hump is absent and has comparatively short

and strong legs with broad hoofs. The Average milk yield and Average lactational length of this

breed is 3.5lt/day and 14-22 months respectively. Three indigenous breeds of buffalo in the

country have been identified and characterized so far. They are Lime, Parkote and Gaddi.Lime

and Parkote are found in the central and western regions of the country and are easily

accessible, whereas, Gaddi is found in the far-western regions, most of which in hills and

mountains (Pokharel & Neupane, 2007). Sherchand (2001) reported that 64.1% of the total

buffalo population was indigenous. From the total population, buffalo is distributed throughout

the development regions, the eastern region possess 22.6%, central 24.5%, western 26.8%,

mid-western 14.2% and far-western 11.9%. Official statistics (CBS, 1997) shows that Nepal

has currently a population of 3.34 million buffalo which are distributed throughout the

country's Agro-eco zones or the administrative development regions. According to statistics,

12
the buffalo number is highest in Western Development Region (28.2%), followed by Central

(24.3%) and Eastern (20.7%) regions. Overall across the Agro-eco zones, 57% of the buffalo

populations are found in the middle hills, followed by Terai plains (33.1%) in the South and

Mountains (9.1%) in the North. Moioli (1996) reported that Nepal ranked seventh in total

number of buffalo among the countries world over, while there has been the trend of increase

in the population between 1979 and 1993 by 28%.

2.3 LACTATION

When estimating genetic parameters, the influence of environmental effects on milk yield is

generally accounted for by using previously calculated correction factors or by including

these effects directly in the model. These procedures decrease environmental variation and

allow more reliable comparisons among animals raised in different environments (Miller,

1973). According to Bhat and Batro (1978), a large portion of the variability in milk yield in

milking buffaloes is explained by lactation length.The lactation performance of indigenous

buffalo of mid-western hilly region of Nepal has been reported by several authors .They

found the overall least square means of 305 days standard lactation yield of indigenous breed

of buffaloes is 1006 liter (shrestha et al., 2005). Further Rasli et al.,(1998) had reported the

lactation yield of buffaloes increased with the increasing blood level of Murrah buffalo .The

Murrah crossbred buffaloes with 25%-49%,50%-74% and>75% Murrah blood level produced

1013 lit,1190 lit, and 1440 lit of milk per lactation respectively.Shah et al., (2010) studied the

productive performance of indigenous Lime buffaloes .The performance of indigenous breed

on various factors like lactation length (days), lactation yield (lit), Average daily milk yield

(lit), maximum milk yield per lactation (lit), minimum milk yield per lactation (lit), peak

yield per day (lit) and time of peak yield after calving (days) were found as 303.65±71.59,

963.3±256.8, 3.226±0.7, 1778.2, 379.7, 6.054±1.432 and 36.77±28.92 respectively.

13
The average lactation yield of pure Murrah buffaloes kept at main campus Hisar has been

reported to be 1879±51 lit (CIRB, 1996/97) Joshi et al., (1992) and Rasali, (1998) has

reported the lactation yield of indigenous buffaloes 874-995 lit. Shrestha et al.,reported that

the average milk yield of indigenous buffaloes is 833±94.6 kg /lactation.This result are

considerably above those of 255 kg for buffaloes reported from livestock station (keshary and

shrestha ,1980) The average lactation yield has been found to be 1543 lit in a standard

lactation of 305 days of Murrah buffaloes in Livestock Development Farm, and government

owned farm . The Lactation performance of buffaloes in their 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th

lactations were 1279±288 lit, 1556±318 lit, 1520±305 lit, 1562±283 lit and 1578±192 lit.,

respectively in 305 days (LDF,2064/65).In Chitwan (inner Terai), Kolachhapati et al., (1993)

reported the average lactation milk yield of crossbred buffaloes was 1927.95±76.618 lit in

10.42 months. Milk yield of Crossbred buffalo was nearly 50% higher and the age at 1st

calving was shorter (4.69±0.07 years) when compared to local buffaloes (4.91±0.08 years).

2.3.1. EFFECT OF BREED IN LACTATION YIELD AND LACTATION LENGTH

In line with the lactation yield, the lactation length of Parkote buffaloes was slightly longer

(285 days) than those of Lime buffaloes (276 days). The lactation length of Murrah cross

buffaloes was shortest (269 days), Average lactation period of Gaddi buffaloes was found to

be 452.57 days which was in accordance to result of P.P Kumar & T.M. Raj (2007) who

reported that average LL for Gaddi was 14-22 month. but the difference in lactation length

among different buffalo genotypes was not significant B .S. Shrestha et al./Nenal Journal of

Science and Technology 6 (2005) 12 1- 127

14
2.3.2 EFFECT OF PARITY IN LACTATION YIELD AND LACTATION LENGTH.

Shrestha et al., (2005) reported the lactation yield of buffaloes in the second (1022 lit), third

(994 lit), fourth (1044 lit) and fifth (1067 lit) parities are higher compared to first parity (948

lit).similar results have also been reported by Rasali (1996) and Amatya et al.,(2000).

Lathwal (2000) reported the significant effect of parity on 305 days or less milk yield of

Murrah buffaloes.The first parity was significantly different from the others (p<0.05).

(khosroshahi et al.,2011) in addition ,khosroshahi et al .,(2011) also found that the lowest

milk production was in the first calving. Thiruvenkadan et al.,(2014) reported that parity had

a highly significant (P<0.01) effect on all the traits of milk production. The first lactation

peak yield was significantly (P<0.05) lower than rest .The peak yield increased from first to

fourth parity and from there on it started declining .Whereas ,from first to fifth parity ,days to

attain peak milk was decreased followed by a moderate increase in sixth parity. The days to

attain peak yield in first lactation was found to be significantly higher (60.9 days ) than the

rest .The 305-day milk yield and lactation milk yield increased up to third parity,

was ,maintained at fourth parity and decline thereafter. Days to attain peak milk ,the lactation

length decreased with the increased parity. Sharp reduction in lactation length occurred in the

second parity followed by gradual decline .Significant result was obtained between the

lactation length between first and second parities .The milk yield per day of lactation

increased linearly with the advancement of parity up to 4th parity and then declined .

2.4 PEAK MILK YIELD

Few studies are done on buffaloes where peak milk yield has been reported. Zakariyaa (1995)

reported that the peak milk yield in Nili Ravi buffaloes is seen in the second calving month

with an average daily peak yield of 11.3 kg .Dahama and Malik (1991) reported that peak

milk yield in Indian buffaloes was 8.1±0.28 kg .Mansour et al.(1992) reported that average

15
peak milk yield in Egyptian buffaloes was 6.4 kg with season of calving significantly

affecting the trait.Bulgarian ,Murrah and their crossbred peaked in second month of calving

with yield ranging from 5.4 to 8.1 kg (Peeva et al .,1998) .Chhikara et al .(1998) reported

that peak milk yield of Murrah buffaloes was 11±0.15 kg in 63 days.

2.5 SEASON OF CALVING

Season of calving had no effect on lactation length; however, it had a significant (P<0.05)

effect on peak yield and lactation milk yield and a highly significant (P<0.01) effect on days

to attain peak yield, 305-day milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation. (Thiruvenkadan

et al.,2014) The peak yield of Murrah buffaloes calving in the south-west monsoon season

was the highest and it differed significantly (P<0.05) from that of north-east monsoon calvers.

However, there was no significant difference among the other seasons. Shrestha et al., (2005)

reported that the month of calving has also significant effect on the milk production trait

(p=0.001).They found the buffaloes which calved during month of june to semptember have

higher lactation yield and the lactation yield is lower in buffaloes ,which calved during latter

part of the calving season (oct to Dec).

3 MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1 STUDY AREA

Study was executed at Raskot municipality, Ward no 3,4 and 5 Kalikot district at an elevation

of 1900 masl. district at mid-Western Nepal. Information from DLSO staffs and key

informants was utilized for site identification and to obtain the list of indigenous buffalo

rearing farmer. A total of 103 buffaloes were purposively selected and data were collected

using semi-structured questionnaire and farmer’s record.

16
3.2 SAMPLING PROCEDURE

A total of 103 buffaloes were purposively selected and data were collected using semi-

structured questionnaire and farmer’s record.The site was selected after consultation with the

extension officer of district livestock service of Kalikot district .

17
3.3 DATA COLLECTION

Farmer were surveyed by visiting their farms, based on the standard

questionnaires .Qualitative and quantitative traits of Gaddi buffalo were collected from the

farmer of Raskot municipality of Kalikot district through recall method. Independent traits

like : coat colour ,parity ,age of buffalo ,breed ,sire breed ,Dams breed , were observed and

recorded .Milk production trait like :milk yield on first day ,colostrums days and day to reach

peak milk yield ,peak milk yield ,total lactation length ,total dry length, total milk yield in

current lactation were also observed and recorded .

Through semi structure questionnaire the data and information regarding the phonological

traits of buffalo were collected from farmer .Both the primary and secondary data were

consulted for this study .Interview ,questionnaires and opinion of farmer were sources of

primary data ,whereas secondary data such as geographical condition ,present status of

buffaloes in Nepal ,other characteristics of buffaloes were collected through the study of

article ,journal and other unpublished article and thesis .Internet surfing was also done for

collection of the secondary data and information .

3.4 DATA ANALYSIS.

Data generated for this study were first entered into MS-excel . Data were analyzed though

“ R” Studio.”DMRT” was used for comparison of least square means to study the main effect

of the non-genetic factors on productive and also to study the main cause of variation.

4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

On collected and analyzed data following result and discussion are made.

18
Table 1: LS Mean and standard error of CP, DPMY and PMY.

Factors No. of LS Mean±SE LS Mean±SE LS Mean±SE


Observation
of CP of DPMY of PMY

Overall 103 3.38 105 3.118932

Spot variation

Black 36 3.03a±0.20 131.92a±16.73 2.929715a±0.1591358

Furke 18 3.24a±0.29 108.68a±23.32 2.951902a±0.2217711

Tare 33 3.37a±0.21 147.07a±16.88 3.252211a±0.1605996

Tare-furke 16 3.05a±0.30 111.17a±24.52 3.297894a±0.2332097

Level Of Significance NS NS NS

Parity

First 32 3.14a±0.23 127.89a±19.18 2.997855a±0.1824792

Second 28 3.22a±0.22 109.27a±17.84 3.012011a±0.1697045

Third 27 3.30a±0.23 135.95a±18.67 3.104604a±0.1775572

Fourth and above 16 3.03a±0.31 125.73a±25.04 3.317252a±0.2381258

Level Of Significance NS NS NS

Season

Chaitra-Ashad 56 3.32ab±0.15 85.37b±12.49 3.099922a±0.1188640

Shrawan-Mangshir 38 3.61a±0.18 101.84b±14.94 3.310758a±0.1421443

Poush-Falgun 9 2.58b±0.38 186.92a±30.65 2.913111a±0.2915507

Level Of Significance * ** NS

CV% 32.54 84.041 26.90556

Note ***: significant at 0.001 level, NS: no significant

19
4.1. COLOSTRUM PERIOD

The least square mean of colostrums period was found to be 3.38.

4.2. DAYS TO REACH PEAK MILK YIELD

The average day to reach peak milk yield (DPMY) of Gaddi buffalo was found to be 105

days where as Lime buffalo was found 25-30 days according to findings of shah et.,

al(2011) .The Days to Reach Peak Milk Yield (DPMY) was highly significant (p=0.001)

between season which might be attributed to difference in management practice as well as

various environmental factors.

4.3 PEAK MILK YIELD (PMY)

The least square mean of Peak Milk Yield (PMY) was found to be 3.11 which was in

accordance to result of P.P Kumar & T.M. Raj (2007) who reported that average PMY for

Gaddi was 2.25-5.5 ltr.

Table 2: LS Means and standard error of LL,DP and TMYL.

Factors No. of Observation LS Mean±SE LS Mean±SE LS Mean±SE

of LL of DP of TMYL
Overall 103 452.5728 228.6408 697.42

Spot variation

Black 36 432.7921a±28.65059 236.46a±16.90 626.93a±67.33

Furke 18 447.5526a±39.92736 234.92a±23.55 659.06a±93.84

Tare 33 448.3445a±28.91413 225.64a±17.05 729.37a±67.95

20
Tare-furke 16 440.9962a±41.98675 210.11a±24.77 681.71a±98.68

Level Of Significance NS NS NS

Parity

First 32 439.2990ab±32.85330 229.78a±19.38 645.98ab±77.21

Second 28 403.0826b±30.55336 233.24a±18.02 568.16b±71.80

Third 27 428.5800ab±31.96715 217.45a±18.85 684.78ab±75.13

Fourth and above 16 498.7239a±42.87185 226.65a±25.29 798.16a±100.76

Level Of Significance . NS .

Season

Chaitra-Ashad 56 446.2673ab±21.40011 223.27a±12.62 660.95ab±50.29

Shrawan-Mangshir 38 498.3092a±25.59146 231.70a±15.09 835.01a±60.14

Poush-Falgun 9 382.6876b±52.49039 225.37a±30.96 526.85b±123.36

Level Of Significance * NS *

CV% 33.38235 98.98 50.91

***: Significant at 0.001 level, **: Significant at 0.01 level ,*:Significant at 0.05 level

4.4. LACTATION PERIOD

Average lactation period of Gaddi buffaloes was found to be 452.57 days which was in

accordance to result of P.P Kumar & T.M. Raj (2007) who reported that average LL for

Gaddi was 14-22 month.

21
4.5 DRY PERIOD

The overall mean dry period (DP) of Gaddi was found to be 228.64 days where as that of

Murrah was found to be 45-50days. Verma and Yadav (1989) reported DP of Lime to be 120

days.

4.6 TOTAL MILK YIELD IN CURRENT LACTATION

In this study the least square mean of total milk yield(TMY) was found to be 697.42 ltr where

as that of Lime and Parkote buffaloes were 962 lit and 1022 lit respectively, Pakistan Vet. J.,

2007, 27(3): 113-117.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Buffalo is a major livestock commodity for milk and meat production and scattered

throughout the country from Terai plain land of southern border to high mountains of

northern hills. Parkote buffalo are the typical buffalo of the mid hill and river valleys of

Nepal. Lime buffalo are found more towards the higher altitude of the hills in the

country. Gaddi buffalo are good milkers that utilize the pasture land in the slopes of mid-

hills and high mountains. Unavailability of sufficient and nutritious fodder in the forest round

the year and improper nutritional management of buffalo restricted the utilization of full

genetic potential of the breeds. Due to improper management practices and lack of awareness

their productivity and number of pure bred animals is declining gradually. Introduction of

imported sires from abroad for cross breeding program without evaluating adaptability and

acclimatization creates the threats an existence of the breed. Relying on their importance in

the region and in the country a systematic approach for conservation and improvement need

to be identified and implemented of productivity and to control the dwindling population on

awareness and training program among farmers seems essential. Appropriate selection

22
program within the breed, literacy and consciousness on overall buffalo management,

exploitation of advance breeding tools as AI in the areas and a conservation plan are some of

the activities which certainly resolve the problem.

A study was conducted in Gaddi buffaloes of mid- western hilly with aim to reveal the effect

of non –genetic factors on the milk production traits Data were collected by using semi-

structured questionnaire and record kept in farm. Coat color ,Parity, location were considered

as the non genetic factor affecting colostrums period (CP), peak milk yield(PMY), days to

reach peak milk yield(DPMY), total lactation period(TLP), ,total dry period(TDP) and total

milk yield(TMY).Data were entered in MS –XCEL and analyzed through” R” Statistical

tool .”DMRT” was used for comparison of least square mean.

The least square means for Colostrum period, Days to reach peak milk yield, Peak Milk Yield,

Lactation length, Dry period, Total Milk Yield in Current Lactation were 3.38±0.20,

105±8.45, 3.11±0.20,452.57±32.65, 228.64±17.38, 697.42±71.62 respectively. “White

mark/Spot Variation” had non-significant effect on lactational traits considered. Season of

calving had significant effect on all the lactational traits except Dry period and Peak milk

Yield. Parity had non-significant effect on all lactational traits whereas its was near to

significant with Lactation length and Total milk yield on current lactation. Among all non-

genetic factor season of calving should be undertaken for the absolute management of Gaddi

buffalo. Also, Coat color had not significant effect on all productive traits considered in the

study Based on all result and finding obtained from above study,

following conclusion could be made:

• Spot Variation had non-significant effect on lactational traits.

23
• Season of calving had significant effect on all the lactational traits except Dry period

and Peak milk Yield.

• Parity had non-significant effect on all lactational traits whereas its was near to

significant with Lactation length and Total milk yield on current lactation.

• Among all non-genetic factor season of calving should be undertaken for the absolute

management of Gaddi buffalo as the effect of the parity may be due to the

environmental stresses and the availability of the fodder which is influenced by

season.

Approaches for improvement

A study on indigenous Gaddi buffalo of far-western region of Nepal was conducted to

understand the production parameters and husbandry practices intending to make future

strategy for improvement. The breed is well known in the far-western districts of Nepal and

adapted in hills and mountains of the region with diverse climatic conditions. Among 3

identified buffalo breeds (Gaddi, Lime and Parkote) and one under study (Gaddi), Gaddi was

found morphologically larger and docile in temperament as well as higher milk producer.

24
Reference

Thiruvenkadan, A.K., S. Panneerselvam, N. Murali, S. Selvam and V. Ramesh

Saravanakumar . Milk Production and Reproduction Performance of Murrah

Buffaloes of Tamilnadu, India ,buffalo bulletin semptember 2014.33:3.

ABPSD. 2002. Statistical Information on Nepalese Agriculture. Agri- Business Promotion

and Statistics Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operative,minister of

agriculture and perspective .

Afzal, M., M. Anwar and Mirza M.A. 2007. Some factors affecting milk yield and lactation

length in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Pakistan Vet. J. 27(3):113-117.

Amatya, N. Rasali, D.P. and R.S. Rana. 2000. Evaluation of phenotypic and production

characteristics of indigenous buffalo types in the western hills of Nepal. Lumle

Technical Paper No 2000-11. Kaski, Nepal. Agriculture Research Station, Lumle.

APP. 1995. Agriculture Perspective Plan of Nepal. NPCI APROSCI JMA, Kathmandu.

Shrestha, B.S., N. Amatya, R.M. Singh, P.K. Jha, B.R. Acharya and K.B. Gurung.

2005.Production Performances of Indigenous Buffaloes in the Western Hills of Nepal.

Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. National Agriculture Research and

Council ,lumle ,kaski 6 :121-127.

Calub .1987. smallholder cattle raising in phillipians .prospect and problem .production

techonology .

25
CBS. 1997. Agricultural statistics Nepal. 1996-97. Central Bureau of Statistics. National

Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal. pp. 17-21.

Chaudhry M.A., 1992. Factors affecting the lactation length and milk yield in Nili-Ravi

buffaloes. AJAS, 5(2):375-382.

CIRB. 1996/1997. Annual Report. Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes. Hisar

(Hariyana),India.

Cockrill, W.R. 1974. The Husbandry and Health of the Domestic Buffalo. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Dahama, R.S. and P.S. Malik, 1991. Inheritance of peak yield in Indian buffaloes. Indian Vet.

Med. J., 15: 202–6.

Dev, Raj and J.N. Gupta. 1994. An economic analysis of milk production in Churu district in

Rajasthan. Indian J. Diary Sc., 47(4):

Epstein, H. 1977. Domestic Animal of Nepal. Holmes and Meier Publishers,Inc, New

York/London.

Gatenby, R.M., Shrestha, N.P., and Joshi, Y.R. 1990. The Benefits of Animal Keeping In The

Koshi Hills of Nepal. PAC Technical Paper. Pakhribas Agriculture Research Center,

Dhankuta, Nepal.

Gurung, H.B., D.P. Rasali, A.K. Vaidyaand Rana, R.B. 1995. Adoption of improved large

ruminant breeds in Lumle Agriculture Research Center's Extension Command Area:

A logistic regression analysis. Lumle Agriculture Research Center. Kaski ,Nepal .

LARC Seminar Paper :95-120

Kamble S.S., Bhise B.R., Chaunhan D.S., 2014. Impact of climatic parameters on milk

production in Murrah buffaloes. Journal of Crop and Weed, 10(2):71-76. Khalil M.H.,

Afifi E.A., Bedeir L.H., Zeidan S.M., 1992.

26
Keshary ,K R and N. P.Shrestha .1980.Animal genetic resources in Nepal .In: Animal genetic

resources un Asia and Occania ,Tropical Agriculture Research Centre ,Tsukaba ,Japan

pp .423-433

Kolachhapati, M. R., N. R. Devkota and D. B. Nepali. 1993. Performance Evaluation of

Farmers'.

LDF. 2064/65. Annual Report, Livestock Development Farm, Pokhara, Kaski, Nepal.

Shah, M.K.,B.R .Acharya ,Y.K,Shrestha ,K.P ,Dhunghana and R U Mahato .2010. Study on

the Production and Reproduction Performance of Indigenous GADDI Buffaloes in the

Western Hills of Nepal. Regional Agriculture Research station ,Lumle.

Mansour, H., A.I. Soliman and G.A. Abd. El-Hafiz, 1992. Factors affecting lactation curve of

buffaloes in upper Egypt. Proc. Int. Symp. Prospects of Buffalo Production in

Mediterranean/Middle East, Cairo, Egypt. Eaap Publication. 62: 234–7.

Moioli, B.M. 1996. An analysis of recent statistics on buffalo milk production and use in the

world. Buffalo Journal. 2:115-126.

N.P Shrestha ,K.P Oli and R M Gatenby . Milk Production of Local and Murrah Crossbed

Buffaloes and Local and Jersy crossbred cows on farms in the hills of eastern Nepal .

Pakhribas Agricultire Centre ,Dhankuta .

Neopane, S.P., S. Shrestha and P. K. Pokhrel. 1999. Evaluation of Native Buffalo (Gaddi) for

Phenotypic Characteristics and Production Performances. Proceedings of third

national workshop on livestock and fisheries research in Nepal. Pp 237-240.

Paudel, L.N., U.ter Meulen, C. wollny, H. Dahal and M. Gauly. 2012. Comparative analysis

of the performances of indigenous buffaloes in the western hills of Nepal. Nepal J. Sci.

Tech. 6:production performance of indigenous and Murrah cross breeds of buffaloes

27
in mid hills of Nepal. In: Proceeding of the 6th National Animal Science Convention.

Nepal Animal Science Association. 25-26 Sept, 2011, pp 164-176.

Rao, B.D. and C.B. Singh. 1995. Impact of Operation Flood on economics of the buffalo milk

production in Guntur district. Anadhra Pradesh. Indian Dairyman, 7(4): 47-50.

Rasali D.P. and B.R. Joshi. 1996. Potential for Utilization of Indigenous Genetic Resource in

the Improvement of Buffalo in the Hills of Nepal. Proceeding of 1st National

Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal. NARC. PP 104-115.

Rasali, D.P. (1998). Present status of indigenous buffalo genetic resources in the western hills

of Nepal. Proceedings of the 4th Global Conference on Conservation of Domestic

Animal Genetic Resources. Rare Breeds International: 168-170.

Rasali, D.P. 1996. Effect of altitude, management system and parity on the production

performance.

Rasali, D.P. 1998. Present status of indigenous buffalo genetic resources in the western hills

of Nepal. Proceeding of the Fourth Global Conference on Conservation of Domestic

Animal Genetic Resources. NARC and RBI.

Rasali, D.P. and Crow, G.H. 1999. Production of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the

mountains and hills of Nepal: Constraints and opportunities. FAO/ILRI/ICIMOD/CIP

Livestock in Mountain/Highland Production Systems E-Conference (Nov.-Dec.

1999)

Rasali, D.P., Joshi, H.D., Patel, R.K. and Harding, A.H. 1998b. Phenotypic clusters and

karyotypes of indigenous buffaloes in the Western Hills of Nepal. Lumle Agricultural

Research Station, Pokhara, Nepal.

Raza, S., K.Z. GondalArshadEqbal and A. Shafi 1999. A study on effect of seasonsonmilk

production and calving pattern in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Buffalo Bull., 18(1):16-19.

28
Sethi, R.K. 1996-1997. Production performance of Murrah buffaloes. Annual Report, 1996-

1997, CIRB, Hisar, India.

Sherchand, L (2001). Herd Composition of Cattle, Buffalo, Goat and Sheep in Nepal. Proceedings

of the 4th National Animal Science Convention. Nepal Animal Science Association

(NASA), November 29–December1, 2000. Kathmandu, Nepal, G P O Box 8975 EPC 1566.

Pp 161-166.

Shrestha, B.S.,2004,Breeding strategy for genetic improvement of indigenous buffaloes in the

water hills of Nepal.procceding of the 5th national animal science convention .PP197-

204

Shrestha, N.P. and Sherchand, L. 1988. Role of livestock in Nepalese farming systems. Paper

presented at VI World Conference of Animal Production, Helsinki, Finland .

Shrestha, B.S., N.Amatya, R.M.Singh, P.K.Jha, B.R.Acharya and K.B.Gurung.2005.

Production Performances of Indigenous Buffaloes in the Western Hills of Nepal.

Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. Regional Agriculture Research Station

Nepal Agriculture Research Council . Lumle,Kaski . 6 :121-127.

Sinha, R.K. 2006. Characterization of buffalo genetic resources in Tal and Diara areas in and

around Barh (Patna). M.V. Sc. Thesis, RAU, Pusa (Samastipur), Bihar, India.

Yadav, B.S., M.C. Yadav, A. Singh and F.H. Khan. 2003b. Factors affecting calving interval

Yadav, B.S., M.C. Yadav, A. Singh and F.H. Khan. 2003b. Factors affecting calving interval

and dry period in Murrah buffalo. Indian Vet. Med. J., 27: 145-146.

29
Zakariyya, M., M.E. Babar, M.Yaqoob ,M. Lateef ., T.Ahmad , and Q.Bilal.1995.

Environmental factors affecting persistency of lactation and peak milk yield in Nili-

Ravi buffaloes. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 32(2- 3):249-255.

Zakariyya, M., 1995. Studies on the factors affecting persistency oflactation in Nili-Ravi

buffaloes. M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. Livest. Manag., Univ. Agric., Faisalabad.

Shrivastava, A.K., C.S.P. Singh and S.K. Verma.1998. A study on the effects of various

factors on production traits in Zebu x Friesian crossbred cows maintained under un-organized

farming system. Indian Vet.Med. J., 22(1): 19-22.

Sundaram, M. and Harharan, G. (2013). Preliminary study on Evaluation of Effect of

Lactation number on Milk yield and Milk composition in Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) Buffaloes.

Reseasrch Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Science, 1: 21-23.

Pawar, H. N., Kumar, Ravi and Narang, R.( 2012). Effect of Year, Season and Parity on Milk

Production Traits in Murrah

Buffaloes. Journal of Buffalo Science, 1: 122-125.

Verma K and Yadav M C 1989 Genetic studies on dry period in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Indian

Journal of Dairy Science, 42: 627-629.

Govindaiah M G and Raj A V 1987 Effect of month of calving on lactation parameters in

Surti buffaloes. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 39, 226.

30
Photo taken during survey

31