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VISVESVARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

JNANASANGAMA, BELAGAVI-590018

An Internship Report
“A Study on Manufacturing of Aircraft”
Submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of degree of
Bachelor of Engineering
In
Mechanical Engineering
Submitted by
RAHUL J
1KG15ME033
Internship Carried Out at
HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED
AIRCRAFT DIVISION
BANGALORE COMPLEX
VIMANAPURA POST BANGALORE-560017

Internal Guide External Guide


Mr. VIJAY CHANDAN Mrs. B AROCKIA JYOTHI
Asst. Professor Senior Manager (HR)
KSSEM, Bengaluru AIRCRAFT DIVISION HAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


K S SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
# 15, Mallasandra, Off. Kanakapura Road,
Bengaluru-560109
2018-19

i
K S SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
Bengaluru-560109
Department of Mechanical Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the internship work entitled “A Study on Manufacturing of Aircraft” is
a bonafide work carried out by
RAHUL J 1KG15ME033

In partial fulfilment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering


of the Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi during the year 2018-19. It is
certified that all corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been
incorporated in the Report deposited in the departmental library. The internship report has
been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of internship work
prescribed for the said Degree.
. .
Signature of the Guide Signature of the Guide (External)
Mr. VIJAY CHANDAN Mrs. B Arockia Jyothi
Asst. Professor Senior Manager (HR)
Dept. of Mechanical Engg. Aircraft Division HAL
KSSEM, Bengaluru – 109 Bangalore – 560 017

. .
Signature of the HOD Signature of the Principal
Prof. Balaji. B Dr. K. Ramanarasimha
Assoc. Professor and Head Principal/Director
Dept. of Mechanical Engg. KSSEM, Bengaluru –109
KSSEM, Bengaluru – 109

External Viva
Name of the Examiners Signature with date
1.
2.

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K S SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
# 15, Mallasandra, Off. Kanakapura Road,
Bengaluru-560109

DECLARATION
I, Student of Mechanical Engineering, K. S. School of Engineering and Management,
hereby declare that the internship report entitled “A Study on Manufacturing of Aircrafts”
embodies the record of the internship carried out at Aircraft Division HAL, Bangalore Complex
under the guidance of Mr. Vijay Chandan and Mrs. Arockia Jothi, for the fulfilment of the
requirement of the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering.

RAHUL J 1KG15ME033 SIGNATURE OF STUDENT

Place: Bengaluru
Date:

ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The successful completion of any task would be incomplete without the mention of the
people, whose constant guidance and encouragement crowned our efforts with success. I
consider it as a privilege to express my gratitude and respect to all those who guided me in
the successful completion of this project.
First of all, I am thankful to our college K S SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND
MANAGEMENT for providing support guidance and a platform to work.
I express my gratitude to AIRCRAFT DIVISION HAL for providing opportunity and
guidance to carry out internship work.
I take this opportunity to express my deep regards to Dr. K. Ramanarasimha,
Principal/Director, K S School of Engineering and Management for providing an
opportunity to do this Project Work as a part of my curriculum in the partial fulfilment of
the degree course.
I express my gratitude to Prof. Balaji. B, HOD, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
K.S. School of Engineering and Management for providing valuable insights, making the
resources available at right time and all the encouragement for the completion of my project.
I owe my profound gratitude to our project guide Mr. Vijay Chandan, Asst. Professor,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, K S School of Engineering and Management,
Bengaluru & Mrs. Arockia Jothi, Senior Manager (HR), AIRCRAFT DIVISION HAL
BANGALORE, who took keen interest in the work and guided all along and for providing
all the necessary information.
I extend my profound gratitude to my internship coordinator Mr. Prabhu K S, Assistant
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, K. S. School of Engineering and
Management, who took keen interest in the work and guided all along and for providing all
the necessary information.

I also wish to thank all the staff of Department Mechanical Engineering for providing all the
support whenever needed. I would like to thank my parents for supporting and helping in
the completion of the project work. Last but not the least I would like to thank all my friends
without whose support and co-operation the completion of project would not have been
possible.

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CONTENTS

1.INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 BREIF HISTORY ................................................................................................... 1
1.2 DIVISIONS OF H.A.L ............................................................................................ 2
1.3 PRODUCTS OF H.A.L ........................................................................................... 3
1.4 AIRCRAFT DIVISION ........................................................................................... 4
1.5CUSTOMERS OF HAL ........................................................................................... 5
2 DEPARTMENTS VISITED AT AIRCRAFT DIVISION .............................................. 6
2.1 CUSTOMER SERVICES DEPARTMENT ............................................................. 6
2.2 METHODS AND PROGRAMMING ENGINEERING ........................................... 6
2.3 EXPORT MACHINE SHOP ................................................................................... 9
2.4 EXPORT ASSEMBLY SHOP ............................................................................... 11
2.5 NC SHOP AND NC PROGRAMMING ................................................................ 14
2.6 SHEET METAL AND WELDING ........................................................................ 15
2.6 HEAT TREATMENT DEPARTMENT ................................................................. 17
2.7 PROCESS SHOP................................................................................................... 19
2.8 PLASTICS DEPARTMENT ................................................................................. 21
2.9 HONEYCOMB WORKSHOP ............................................................................... 23
2.10 DROP TANK ...................................................................................................... 25
2.11 WORK TEST LAB.............................................................................................. 26
2.12 HAWK WING ASSEMBLY ............................................................................... 27
2.13 HAWK FINAL ASSEMBLY .............................................................................. 28
3 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................ 30
4 REFERENCE .............................................................................................................. 31

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: -Airbus Door Assembly ................................................................................... 12


Figure 2: -Boeing 777 uplock Assembly ......................................................................... 14
Figure 3: - CNC Machine MACHINE ............................................................................. 15
Figure 4: - Stretch Forming Machine .............................................................................. 16
Figure 5: -Chromic acid Anodiding ................................................................................. 20
Figure 6: -Canopy ........................................................................................................... 23
Figure 7 A wing leading edge formed from honeycomb material bonded to the aluminium
spar structure .................................................................................................................. 24
Figure 8: -Honey comb Structure Process........................................................................ 25
Figure 9: -Drop Tank ...................................................................................................... 25
Figure 10: -Final Assembled Hawk MK132 .................................................................... 29

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A Study on Manufacturing of Aircraft 2018-2019

1.INTRODUCTION
Hindustan Aeronautic Limited [HAL] a premier Aerospace Company in Asia is engaged
in design, development and manufacture of military and civil aircraft for over 75 years. The
product r a n g e covers basic piston engine trainer aircraft to helicopters to sophisticated state
of the art deep penetration strike aircraft. Hindustan Aeronautic Limited is an organization
where integrated air borne weapons platforms are conceived, developed, manufactured and
serviced. It is one of the few corporate giants in Asia whose capabilities span the entire range
of activities from product conception to after sale support. HAL is also involved in the
manufacture and assembly of structures required for India's space programs.

1.1 BREIF HISTORY


The Company which had its origin as the Hindustan Aircraft Company was incorporated on
23 Dec 1940 at Bangalore by Shri Walchand Hirachand a farsighted visionary in association
with the Government of Mysore with an Authorized Capital of Rs.4crores (Paid up capital
Rs.40 lakhs) and with the aim of manufacturing aircraft in India. In March 1941, the
Government of India became one of the shareholders in the Company holding 1/3 of its paid-
up capital and subsequently took over its management in 1942.
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. The
Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with Aeronautics India
Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. HAL is a fully owned Government of
India undertaking under the administrative control of Ministry of Defense, Department of
Defense Production. H.A.L is the largest Public Sector Unit (PSU) under the department of
Defense production and is a Navaratna Company.
The Company takes up maintenance and overhaul services to cover the life cycle requirement
of all the old and new products. Presently, 13 types of aircraft/ helicopters and 17 types of
engines are being overhauled. In addition, facilities exist for repair/ overhaul of various
accessories and avionics fitted on aircraft of Russian, Western and Indigenous designs.
HAL is currently meeting the requirements of structures for aerospace launch vehicles and
satellites of ISRO t h r o u g h its dedicated Aerospace Division. Infrastructure has also been
set up to undertake completed assembly of the strap-on L-40 stage booster. Structures for
GSLV Mk III have been produced. HAL has also contributed to Mars mission by supplying

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riveted structural assemblies and welded propellant tankages for the Polar Satellite Launch
Vehicle (PSLV-C25). Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design
Centers in 7 locations in India. The Company has impressive product track record-12 types
of aircraft manufactured with in-house R&D and 14 types produced under license. HAL
has manufactured 3550 aircraft (which includes 11 types designed indigenously), 3600 engines
and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engines.
HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both defense and
Civil Aviation sectors.
HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects:

1. Dhruv- Advanced Light Helicopter – Weapon System Integration (ALH-WSI)


2. Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA)
3. Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT)
4. Light Combat Helicopter (LCH)
5. Various military and civil upgrades.

1.2 DIVISIONS OF H.A.L


There are several divisions under Hindustan Aeronautical Limited. They are as under:
Bangalore complex
1. Aircraft Division Bangalore.
2. Overhaul Division Bangalore.
3. Aerospace Division Bangalore.
4. Engine Division Bangalore.
5. IGMT Division Bangalore.
6. Aircraft Services Bangalore.
7. Foundry and Forge Bangalore.
8. Facilities Management Bangalore.
Mig complex
1. Aircraft Division Nasik.
2. Engine Division Koraput.
3. Aircraft Overhaul Division Nasik.
4. Sukhoi Engine Division Koraput.
Accessories complex
1. TAD-Kanpur Division.

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2. Accessories Division Lucknow.


3. Avionics Division Hyderabad.
4. Avionics Division Korwa.
Helicopter complex
1. Helicopter Division Bangalore.
2. Helicopter MRO Division Bangalore.
3. Barrackpore Division.
4. CMD Division Bangalore.

1.3 PRODUCTS OF H.A.L


Fighter aircrafts
1. HF-24 Marut: Mk1 and Mk2
2. Tejas: Light Combat Aircraft.
3. Su-30MKI: a derivative of the Sukhoi Su-27, co-developed with Sukhoi
Corporation.
4. FGFA: under joint development with Sukhoi Corporation.
5. AMCA: India's indigenous stealth fighter (under development).
6. MIG series.
7. Jaguar.
8. MIRAGE 2000.
Passenger aircraft
1. Dornier 228
2. Indian Regional Jet
Trainer aircraft
1. HT-2 - First company design to enter production.
2. HPT-32 Deepak - Basic trainer in service for more than three decades.
3. HJT-16 Kiran — Mk1, Mk1A and Mk2 - Turbojet trainers scheduled to be
replaced with IJT like HJT-36 Sitara
4. HTT-34 - Turboprop version of HPT-32 Deepak
5. HTT-35 - Proposed replacement for HPT-32 basic trainer in early 1990s; not
pursued
6. HJT-36 Sitara — Intermediate jet trainer (under development).
7. HAL HTT-40 Basic trainer first prototype flew the first flight on 31May 2016.

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8. Hawk Mk 132- Advanced Jet Trainer.


Helicopters
1. Dhruv (ALH).
2. Cheetah.
3. Chetak.
1.4 AIRCRAFT DIVISION
Aircraft Division was established in the year 1940. Since inception, the Division has
manufactured a variety of Aircraft both license as well as indigenously designed and
developed.
The Division is equipped with modern infrastructure in Plant and Equipment like CAD-CAM
Manufacturing Engineering, Quality Assurance and Customer support System with 2179
highly skilled personnel including more than 511 officers working in a covered area of
2,25,000sq.m.
The Division has so far manufactured over 2010 aircrafts of various types. With
experience and capabilities built over past seven decades, the Aircraft Division is bidding for
substantial share in the International Aeronautical market. Apart from 1st of Hawk Mk 132
Aircraft (66 Nos.), the division has signed contract with Indian Air Force and Indian Navy to
supply additional 57 Hawk Aircraft (40 Hawk for Indian Airforce and 17 Hawk for Indian
Navy).
Components manufactured

1. Structural sub-assemblies such as Doors, Pylons, Fairings, Drop Tanks, Control


Structures, etc.
2. Precision sheet metal forming (Cold or Hot Forming) of Aircraft components out of
Light alloys.

3. Honeycomb Sand witch bonded structures, metal-to-metal bonded


components, Composite components in Carbon, Kevlar, etc.
4. Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic components like Fairings, Ducts, Pipes, etc.
5. Aircraft Transparencies like Windshields, Canopies, Helicopters Panel, etc.
6. Electrical Cable Looms (Harnesses).
7. Landing Gears.
Products
1. Hawk Mk 132- Advanced Jet Trainer.

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2. HJT-Kiran Mk I, Mk II (IJT).
3. Jaguar.
4. HJT-36 Sitara - Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT).
5. LCA- Tejas.

1.5CUSTOMERS OF HAL
Major customers
DEFENCE & SPACE CIVIL
Indian Air Force Border Security Force
Indian Army Govt. of Karnataka
Indian Navy Govt. of Jharkhand
Indian Coast Guard Govt. of Maharashtra
Indian Space Research Organization Geological Survey of India
Defense Research & Development Oil & Natural Gas Cooperation of India
Organization
Ordnance Factory Board Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.

Minor customers
1. Airbus Industries, France.
2. Boeing, USA.
3. GE Aviation, USA.
4. Israel Aircraft Industries, Israel.
5. Nepal Army, Nepal.
6. Rolls Royce Plc, UK.
7. Royal Malaysian Air Force, Malaysia.
8. Roseboro export, Russia.
9. Vietnam Air Force, Vietnam.
10. Honeywell International, USA.
11. Mauritius Police Force, Mauritius.

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2 DEPARTMENTS VISITED AT AIRCRAFT DIVISION


I have done my internship training in Aircraft division HAL, Bengaluru.
2.1 CUSTOMER SERVICES DEPARTMENT
HAL receive the orders from various domestic and international customers. The orders may
the Manufacture of aircrafts, modifications of aircraft parts and Repairs, Major Servicing and
Supply of Spares. As part of Customer service, Technical and Logistic supports
including training are provided.
Technical support
Technical support is rendered to the Customer in the following areas: -
1. Maintenance and Repair of Aircraft.
2. Compliance of Modification and Technical Instructions.
3. Accident and Incident Investigations.
4. Priority demands.
5. Field Representations.
6. Training of Customer's Personnel.
Logistic support
On the Logistic side, the support is rendered in the following areas:
1. Supply of spares and Ground Handling and Ground Service Equipment.
2. Supply of items against priority demands like AOG, USR / URR demands.
3. Repair of Rotables.
4. Landing Gears / Retraction Jacks - Repair and Overhaul.
5. Forecasting spares requirement.
2.2 METHODS AND PROGRAMMING ENGINEERING
Methods department
Method department engineering department receives the design of each and every part
from customers, ARDC, ADA or prepare the design as per customer requirements.
1. Prepares the design drawings and drawing break down (individual component
drawings)
2. After this, study about each component and make the list of departments into which
the components have to be undergone like- machining shop, sheet metal, heat
treatment shop, plastics, etc.
3. As per design, Engineers prepares the root book after communicating with Tool

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Design and planning, IMM, MSD and by Considering the capacity of the machining
equipment and the technology available the methods department.

4. This route book contains detailed steps of what processes It contains the raw material
detail, CAD drawing of parts, processes, sequential operations into which the raw
material has to undergo to produce a finished product.

A Sample ROUTE BOOK


Work order Part number Quantity Department

Part name: Bolt Outsource details

Next assembly part number


1.

2.

Raw material detail Alternate material Manufacturing inspection

Metal code: Batch no-

Spec: 35NCD16UTS-1230/1380MPa

Nom: 25mm diameter steel rod inspection Sign

Size:

Operation
no/dept
Tool no/Operation description quantity shop inspection

Inspect material (35 NCD16 UTS-1230/1380


MPa) HRC: 38.3 – 42.3
Actual hardness HRC: 40 – 41

Caution: material is prone to corrosion, protect with


oil between operations

Machining operations- Tools

Turning, facing, step turning

Inspection

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Grind the shank to required diameter (cadmium


plating allowance added on shank diameter)

Thread rolling

Thread rolling

Chamfer for Thread rolling

De-burring, remove sharp edges

Stress relieve at 1900±100 C, 1-3 hrs.


Date: Time in: Time out:

Inspection

Vapor degrease – cadmium plating – De-


embrittlement at 1900C

Inspection

Magnetic particle inspection and demagnetize

Degrease, clean thoroughly, ultrasonic clean

Dichromate passivation

Inspection and issue tag

Stock in stores in polythene bag Serial no:


date:

Program engineering
Supervising project engineering related tasks including planning, control & troubleshooting for
achieving the planned periodic schedules and process control. Coordinating with the other
departments for smooth functioning and accomplishing production as per customer’s
requirement & organizational guideline.

Functions
1. It plans the targets on the basis of tasks from customers and finalizes the production plan
and involves production control.
2. Prepares the schedules for sequential operations to produce a finished product.
3. Loading of raw materials, fabricating the products.

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4. Dispatching- sending the fabricated parts to customers.


5. Status reporting and problem tracking of parts.
2.3 EXPORT MACHINE SHOP
This shop manufactures detailed components for export products. In this shop,
International airbus and jet fighters small and big parts manufactured.
HAL manufactures components and parts for some aircraft manufacturers and exports
them to following counters:
1. USA (boing up lock box)
2. France (airbus)
3. Israel (boing 737 cargo doors) etc.
The current undergoing projects is
1. Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors
HAL remains one of the major suppliers to Airbus and its manufactured door is fitted
on every alternate Single Aisle (SA) aircraft. and one HAL door is in operation every five
seconds, globally, HAL said in a statement.
Some of the airbus components are – bell crank, lever, handle, pin, spacer, kook aft, butter
tripod, lock plate, fitting hoist forward, aft inboard and outboard chord, forward inboard and
outboard chord, fork fitting, handle etc.
The raw materials are procured from the store department. Components are machined in this
shop as per given design drawings using following machines: -
General capston and turret lathe machines
Capston Lathe: - It is general turning operations in which a material removal takes place by
radial approaching the single point cutting tool against the rotating object.
Turret Lathe: - It is similar to center, except that a longitudinally feedable hexagon turret (six-
sided block) replaces the tailstock and tool post-compounded assembly. It holds six tools with
straight shank. Different types of turret lathe: -
1. Horizontal turret lathe.
2. Vertical turret lathe.
3. CNC turret lathe.
The operations performed on turret lathe are similar to those performed on center lathe,
except that two or more operations may be carried out simultaneously on turret lathe, and also
special types of tool holders and cutting tools are employed in the process.
The various operations carried out on lathes are: -

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1. Turning.
2. Facing.
3. External threading.
4. Knurling.
5. Drilling.
6. Boring.
7. Tapping.
8. Reaming.
9. Counter boring.
10. Chamfering.
Drilling machines
1. Bench or sensitive drilling machines.
2. Radial drilling machines.
The various drilling operations carried out are: -
Drilling, reamingBoring, Tapping, Reaming, Counter boring, counter sinking, Parting-off, spot-
facing, trepanning.
Milling machines
1. Vertical milling machine (6 m/c).
2. Horizontal milling machine (6 m/c).
3. Heavy duty milling machine (7 m/c).
4. Copy milling machine:
i. 2D copy milling (1 m/c).
ii. 3D copy milling (4 m/c).
The various milling operations carried out are: -
Plane or slab milling, Face milling, End milling, slot milling, angular milling, straddle milling, gang
milling, gear cutting, form milling, gang milling, saw milling, key way milling, thread milling.
Grinding machines
1. Surface grinding machine.
i. Horizontal spindle type with reciprocating table.
ii. Vertical spindle type with reciprocating table.
2. Center type cylindrical grinding machine.
3. Centerless type cylindrical grinding machine.

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4. Internal grinding machine.


5. External grinding machine.
CNC machines
1. CNC turn mill Centre

2.4 EXPORT ASSEMBLY SHOP


HAL’s cost-effective and widespread skills are available to the International Aerospace
Community. HAL has proven capabilities and offers collaborative arrangements in the areas
of manufacturing of machine components, design and development tasks (Structural
analysis, 3D modeling and testing). Parts manufactured in export shop are assembled in this
shop with help of nut &bolt, rivets & PRC (used to avoid leakage).
The current undergoing projects are: -
1. Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors.
2. Boeing 777 Up lock Box Assembly.
AIRBUS A320 forward passenger door assembly
The single aisle (SA) passenger door is precision ICY item, which is suited to an ICY media
and fitted on aircraft directly. This door is common for fall range of single aisle aircraft family
i.e. A318, A319, A321. Components of door includes 7 NC machined beams and cross
members which are joined to build the box type structure and finally wrapped with outer skin
with precisely controlled counter sinking and riveting to form the complete structure. The door
is equipped with precision mechanism for controlling effortless though fully equipped door
weighs about 89 kgs.
Division has equipped with capacity and knows how to supply customized doors,
customization means supplying doors to airlines requirement by directly accessing airbus
data base and configuring the doors to the airlines predefined customization. Doors are
directly being delivered to final assembly line at station Nazaire France. Airbus has
recognized HAL as a ―major subcontractor.
Steps for airbus a320 passenger door assembly
1. Sub assembly forward and after edge member assembly, Upper, lower and cross beam
assembly.
2. Build structure by joining these sub-assemblies on the door skin by rivets, apply the PRC
and painting is to be done.

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3. Mechanical installation: gear box, clamp assembly, plate assembly, fitting hinge lower &
upper, fitting hook, handle assembly, bearings etc.
4. Equipping: electrical wire connections.
5. Icy check: check whether all the components are settled, sufficient gap between parts, no
misplaces, distance between rivets etc.
6. Furnishing, packing and dispatch as shown in figure 1.
Special process approvals
1. Installation of bearing and ball joints.
2. Sealant application
3. Installation of tight fit bushes.
4. Riveting(manual).
5. Bonding of bushes and ball bearings.
6. Raw material procurements.
7. Silver plating.
8. Cadmium plating.
9. Hard chrome plating.
10. Magnetic particle inspection.
11. Die penetrant inspection.
12. Chromic acid anodizing.
13. Heat treatment of Al and solid rivets.
14. Allochromatic touch-up.

Figure 1: -Airbus Door Assembly (source:

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BOEING 777 uplock box assembly


Uplock box assembly is attached to main landing gear wheel well and is used to secure the
main landing gear of being 777 aircraft in closed position. Components of box include web
assemblies, stiffness, fittings and brackets made out of aluminum sheets, extrusions and plates.
Landing gear hook and latch into the up-lock box when landing gear is up and door are
closed for flight. It carries weight of the closed landing gear door during flight.
In addition to supporting the closed gear door, the up lock also has two emergency
functions: -
1. The box has to be strong enough to support the weight of the landing gear, if the gear
control system should loose hydraulic pressure and the landing gear releases in the
closed wheel well.
2. If there is a tire burst in the wheel well, the support box has to be robust enough to
resist damage and to retain function after side, bending, and bursting loads.
One ship set contains 2 up lock boxes (LH & RH). Over all dimension: 21× 13× 45 in
inches. Weight: 18 kgs
Fabrication of tools, assembly jigs and detail components as well as inspection have been
accomplished through NC data supplied by Boing. HAL is the single source for boing for
supplying this structure assembly as shown in figure 2.
Special process approvals
1. Heat treatment of Al alloys
2. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) anodizing (for aluminum type II)
3. Chromic acid anodizing of Al type I
4. Chromic acid anodizing of Al class 1&3
5. Chemical conversion coatings on Al (immersion alloy)
6. Cadmium plating type I & type II
7. Magnetic particle inspection
8. penetrant inspection
9. chemical milling of Al type I & II
10. Mechanical testing
11. Metallurgical testing
12. Process solution control
13. Salt spray testing
14. Anodizing aluminum

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Figure 2: -Boeing 777 uplock Assembly (source: -https://goo.gl/images/Ey27UA)

2.5 NC SHOP AND NC PROGRAMMING


Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by precisely
programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually
via hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone. Most NC today is
computer numerical control (CNC), in which computers play an integral part of the control.
Machining operations like drilling, milling is done using NC programing as shown in figure-
3.NC is not run by codes but instructions are entered by manual.
1. Parts are designed using software CATIA & UNIGRAPHICS. To program the CNC
machines, we use APT (Automatic Programmed Tool) source. It is used to calculate the
path which the tool must follow in order to generate the desired part.
2. The resulting compiled file (in the form of G codes and M codes) is then run by the
machine to move the tool accordingly in space. IFS software is used for NC
programming, which is supplied by SAP Labs.
3. 3 axes (the tool holder gives 3 degrees of freedom to the tool) and 5 axes (the tool
holder gives 5 degrees of freedom to the tool) CNC (Computer Numeric Control)
machines are used to machine the components.
There are three parts to be specified for any NC machine, to produce a part:
1. Tool geometry- the type and specifications of the tool to be used.
2. Part geometry- the geometry of the end product.
3. Methods-The instructions fed into the machine for the tool to move in space
and produce the desired part.

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Figure 3: - CNC Machine MACHINE (source: -https://goo.gl/images/cF83Sp)

2.6 SHEET METAL AND WELDING


Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces. It is one of the
fundamental forms used in metalworking and it can be cut and bent into a variety of shapes.
Countless everyday objects are constructed with sheet metal. Various aircraft parts require
sheet metal as they are light. In this shop sheet metal are cut to desired geometry, stretched
and formed.
The cutting operations are done by using Shearing machines or more advanced CNC
routing machines. The edges of the sheet metal are deburred, to avoid sharp edges.
Upper, lower, cross beam assembly and edge member of airbus, Leading edges, Frames and
ribs of wings, frames of fuselage are manufactured in this shop by using following forming
processes: -
1. Shearing
2. Bending
3. Curling
4. Deep drawing
5. Expanding

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6. Ironing
7. Press brake forming
8. Stretching
9. Punching
10. Roll forming
11. Rolling
12. Spinning
13. Water jet cutting
14. Fastener
In this shop different machines are there for forming process: -
Stretch forming machine
Type of machine: Hydraulic sheet metal stretcher press (ecru)
Capacity : Operating pressure- 2000p s i
Grab length- 96 inch
Tonnage- 300 tons
Table size- 17 x 98 inch2
Basic functions:
1. To form double curvature skins
2. Angular adjustment of cross beams on carriages is 150 or included angle of 300
3. Length of cross beam 134inch
4. Distance between clamps when set aircraft beam ends 122 inches
Stretch forming simultaneously stretches and bends a piece of sheet metal to form a large
contoured shape as shown in figure 4. Auto manufacturers use the process to produce outer

Figure 4: - Stretch Forming Machine


(source: -https://goo.gl/images/Zn8iVB)

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body panels; aircraft manufacturers stretch form fuselage skin sections. Benefits of the
process include a lack surface marring, distortions and ripples, and accurate alignment of
complex profiles. Stretch forming occurs in a stretch press, with the Sheet metal securely held
along its edges by gripping jaws. The gripping jaws, attached to a carriage, are pulled by
pneumatic or hydraulic force to stretch the sheet as shown in figure. The tooling used-a
stretch form block - comprises a solid contoured piece against which the sheet metal is pressed.
As the form die drives into the sheet, tensile forces increase until the sheet plastically deforms
into its new shape.
Hydraulic press
Type of machine: Hydraulic rubber press
Capacity: Tonnage-1000 tons, bed size- 60 x 144 inch2, Stroke length- 60
inch, Shut height-12 inch
Functions: It used for vertical stretch forming leading edge skins using special gripping
jaws, also can be used for forming sheet metal components using double action male &
female tools for draw forming operation. Also, can be used to form straight and curved
flanges keeping routed blanks on the forming dies by application of moving ram,
Hydraulic gripping attachments to form leading edge skins.
Power brake machine
Type of machine: Mechanical press brake
Capacity: Shut height- 150 mm, stroke length- 70 mm, bed length- 3000 mm.
Functions: straight bending of various sections of flanges from flat sheets using
different types of die such as air brakes, bottoming and goose neck dies, also gang
punching, forming and bending for contoured parts using special dies.

2.7 HEAT TREATMENT DEPARTMENT


Heat treatment is defined as controlled heating and cooling of a metal component in order to
alter the physical and mechanical properties of metal without changing its shape. They are
essential processes in metal manufacturing which increase desirable characteristic of metal,
while allowing for further processing to take place. so that the metal will be more useful,
serviceable and safe for a definite purpose.
Purpose
1. To improve mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact resistance,

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ductility in metal and their alloys.


2. To increase resistance of metal to wear, heat and corrosion.
3. To improve machinability.
4. To refine the gran structure after hot working a metal.
5. To relieve the internal stresses set up during cold working, casting, welding and forging etc.
Equipments
Various equipment those are required for heat treatment of steel and Al alloys: -
1. Furnaces
a. Air furnace operating between 5000 to 12000 C
b. Air circulating furnace operating between 250 to 6000 C
c. Special furnaces like- Nitriding, Cyaniding salt bathes
2. Quenching tanks
a. Water tanks
b. Salt brine tank
c. Oil tank
d. Glycol tank
3. Temperature controlling and recording: - Automatic temperature controller through feedback
(servo mechanism) system using potentiometric, electronic, thyristor output instruments and
thermocouples or pyrometers. The various thermocouples used are iron-constanun, copper-
constanun, chrome- alumic. Time temperature automatic recorders using graduated chart
papers.
4. Fixtures: - Loading baskets, fixtures trays made of mild steel/stainless
steel welded construction.
5. Tools: -Tongs, hooks, slings, asbestos hand gloves, heat protection clothes, barrier
creams, helmets, goggles, face shields etc.
6. Cold storage: -Cold storage chamber operating between -500 to -200 C
7. Vapor degreasing plant using trichloro ethylene.
Heat treatment of ferrous materials
Annealing
1. Heating the steel above its critical temperature to form austenite.
2. Transformation of austenite by slow cooling (at the rate of 250 C to 300C per
hour) to room temperature to form coarse pearlite.

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Normalising
1. The components are put into the furnace maintained at the required temperature
and heated to about 500C above the upper critical temperature of steel and
2. Holds at this temperature for sufficient time.
3. Then parts are removed from the furnace and cooled in the surrounding air to room
temperature.
4. The resultant strength of material would be more than the annealed condition.

Hardening
It is carried out to increase the hardness of steel. The hardening of steel requires the formation
of martensite, because martensite has the strongest microstructure than pearlite and austenite.
1. Steel specimen is heated to about 300 to 500C above the critical temperature and
held at this temperature for 15-30 min
2. Rapidly cooling by quenching in oil, water, salt brine or salt bath etc.
3. This results in the transformation of austenite to martensite that is responsible for
increasing the hardness of steel.
Tempering
It is the process that reduces the brittleness of steel without lowering its hardness and
strength.
1. Reheating the hardened steel to a temperature below the lower critical temperature
fallowed by a slow cooling in still air.
2. Reheating permits partial transformation of martensite, and relieving of internal
stresses. With increase in tempering temperatures, transformation of martensite
occurs at a faster rate.

2.8 PROCESS SHOP


In this shop electroplating and anodizing for aircraft components are conducted.
Electroplating
It is the process of plating one metal onto another by hydrolysis, most commonly for
decorative purposes or to prevent corrosion of a metal. There are also specific types of
electroplating such as copper plating, silver plating, and chromium plating.

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Anodising
It is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable,
corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally s united to anodizing, although
other non-ferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized.
Example: Airbus A320- fitting hoist aft, jaguar- ribs, hawk – wing frames wing skin,
bracket.
Chromic acid anodising
The Flow process of Chromic acid anodising is shown in figure 5. The surface treatment
process is done to avoid rusting or corrosion while aircraft in at high altitude.

Figure 5: -Chromic acid Anodising (source: -https://goo.gl/images/wkhVid)

Following are the Steps involved in the process: -


1. Vapor degreasing: it takes place in a closed working chamber of a chlorinated or non-
halogenated hydrocarbon cleaning system. It is suitable for cleaning oils, greases,
emulsions, etc. from lightly contaminated components.
The solvent (Tri chloro-ethylene) is heated to about ≤ 900C for 2-3 min and the resulting
solvent vapour directed onto the components to be cleaned. The temperature difference
between the hot vapour and the cold components causes the solvent to condense on the
surface of the work pieces, which results in a rinsing action by the pure solvent
condensate.
2. Alkaline cleaning tank: Alkaline cleaning agents contain strong bases like
sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Bleach and ammonia are common
alkaline cleaning agents. these are used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad
smells, and clutter on surfaces. Tank is heated to 500 – 600C for 5-10 min and gives
fully cleaned component.

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3. Cold water swill: dip the component in cold water for 3-5 min at ambient temperature.
4. De oxidize tank: Dip the part for 0.5-10 minutes into the pre-mixed solution at ambient
temperature. Sulpho-chroming is used to remove oxide layer using de-oxidizer. See the
section on Aluminum De-oxidizer.
5. Cold water rinse: Rinse work thoroughly in clean water for 3-5 min.
6. Anodize: The aluminum is immersed in an electrolyte consisting of chromic acid
solution. The temperature (330C-370C) of the solution is controlled to give the desired
properties. A DC (direct current) electric current is passed between the aluminum that is
made the anode (positive terminal), the electrolyte and a cathode (often lead). When the
current is applied, the water in the Electrolyte breaks down and oxygen is deposited at
the anode. This oxygen combines with the aluminum to form oxide and thus builds on the
oxide film always present on the surface. The acid in the electrolyte tries to dissolve this
oxide and produces a porous oxide film on the aluminum surface. Coating thickness up to
25 microns is recommended for external use.
7. Cold water rinse: Once the required thickness of anodic film is obtained, the aluminum
is removed from the electrolyte and rinsed in the water thoroughly to remove the acids
from the pores in the film. The anodic film produced is now ready for coloring, if required.
8. Di chromate seal: Sealing is the process in which the pores at the surface of the oxide
layer are closed off. It is affected by placing the anodized object in boiling water for a 15
- 20-minute period or in chemically enriched water at room temperature.
9. Drying: the coated component is kept for drying for required time at temperature from
ambient to 700C. after that process ice completed.

2.9 PLASTICS DEPARTMENT


Plastics are used in many applications throughout modern aircraft. These applications range
from structural components of thermosetting plastics reinforced with fiberglass to
decorative trim of thermoplastic materials to windows, wind screen and canopies.
In this shop, Canopy and wind screen are manufactured for aircrafts and helicopters for
domestic and international customers as shown in figure 6.
Canopy for cheetah and chetak helicopters and tejas, kiran, jaguar fighter aircrafts are
manufactured in this shop.

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Type of sheet
Cast acrylic and Stretch acrylic plastic sheet is used to produce canopies and wind screens.
Cast acrylic
Cast Acrylic is a form of Poly methyl methacrylate, the polymerized methyl ester of
methacrylic acid, is thermoplastic.
Strectch acrylic
Stretched acrylic is obtained by stretching cast acrylic sheets, a process which re-orients the long
polymer chains. This drastically increases the material properties. And shows an improved craze
resistance as well as a far better stress, c r a c k propagation and solvent resistance than acrylic.
It is therefore suitable for bird resistant wind shields, canopies, outer cabin window panes and
other transparencies for pressurized aircraft.
Vaccum forming
1. Vacuum forming process is used to manufacture the canopies and wind screens.
2. First, a wooden mould is made. This is made in the shape to which the acrylic sheet will
form around. Often where possible, the mould should have angled edges, in order to
allow the tooling to pop out of the plastic when made.
3. The mould is then placed into the vacuum former oven. An acrylic sheet is then clamped
above but not on the mould.
4. In the oven, the heater is positioned above the plastic. This will heat up about temperature
1650C, warming the plastic & allowing it to become flexible and moldable.
5. After a few minutes, the plastic should be at a temperature to allow moulding.
6. The shelf on which the wooden mould is sat on, is moved upwards and into the flexible
plastic using a handle.
7. The vacuum is then switched on, removing all air from the oven. This allows the plastic to
form to the shape of the mould.
8. Once cooled, the sheet is then removed from the oven, the mould is removed & any excess
trimmed.
9. Clean the canopy and use emery paper to remove if any tool marks are there. Cut to required
shape and attach the one glass cloth layer on that by using acrifix gel to make the holes on it. If
holes are done directly on canopy, the crack propagation occurs. So that glass cloth is used.
But drilling is done directly on stretched acrylic sheet cracks are not appeared while drilling
because it has good material properties than acrylic sheet.
10. After that sent to next process- fastening, inspection and assembly line.

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Figure 6: -Canopy (source: - https://goo.gl/images/Zn9aSd2)

2.10 HONEYCOMB WORKSHOP


The most important characteristics for sandwich structures are: -
1. They are lightweight compared to metallic
2. Have high stiffness, better strength and better flexibility
3. Cost effective compared to other composite structures.
Lightweight and stiff, sandwich panels as shown in figure 7 are a vital element of many
modern aircraft interior designs. Reinforcing and edge finishing of such panels can be costly
and time consuming, but it is essential. The ailerons and rudder are fabricated from aluminum
honeycomb. Honeycomb panels have a variety of uses on the aircraft, such as floor panels,
bulkheads, and control surfaces, as well as wing skin panels.
Interior components, including flooring, are typically formed from composites or laminates
of thin but rigid outer layers over a honeycomb interior. Composite materials are laid up (put
into carefully arranged and shaped overlapping layers) by hand or machine and then cured in
an oven or autoclave.
A honeycomb panel can be made from a wide variety of materials. Aluminum
core honeycomb with an outer skin of aluminum is common.

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Figure 7 A wing leading edge formed from honeycomb material bonded to the aluminium spar structure (source: -
https://goo.gl/images/Zn8iVB)

The processes carried out in this shop are:


1. Pinning: Process of suiting up the aluminium parts as per bonding tool. It has
been used to produce high performance honeycomb structure
2. Anodizing: Protective coating Aluminium parts. Since aircrafts are prone to
corrosion, as it flies in different weather conditions anodizing is carried out.
3. Priming: Spray Coating of primer to facilitate Aluminium bonding.
4. Bonding: Can be categorized to into two types:
a. Sandwich bonding: Sandwiching honeycomb core with two Al foils.
b. Lay-up bonding- Layers of polymers such as Kevlar fabric are laid up on
each other using suitable adhesives to get required thickness.
5. Autoclave curing: The set component is sent to curing in vacuum chamber. The
component is heated to 135°C by applying pressure. The honeycomb structure
is shown in figure 8.

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Figure 8: -Honey comb Structure Process (source: - https://goo.gl/images/8xc5De4)

2.10 DROP TANK


1. In aviation, a drop tank (external tank, wing tank, or belly tank) is used to describe
auxiliary fuel tanks externally carried by aircraft. A drop tank is expendable and often
jettison able as shown in figure 9.
2. External tanks are commonplace on modern military aircraft and occasionally found
in civilian ones, although the latter are less likely to b e discarded except i n the event of
emergency. The primary disadvantage with drop tanks is that they impose a drag penalty
on the aircraft carrying them.
3. Drop Tanks are additional fuel tanks. The drop tanks are manufactured and they are
tested for leakage.

Figure 9: -Drop Tank(source: - https://goo.gl/images/Zn8iVB)

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The testing is done in three stages


1) Checking for leakage using uncompressed air
2) Checking for leakage using compressed air (higher than designed pressure).
3) Flow rate test-Time taken to fill and empty the drop tank.

2.11 WORK TEST LAB


Non-destructive test
During aircraft maintenance 'NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING’ (NDT) is the most
economical way of performing inspection and this is the only way of discovering defects.
In simply we can say, NDT can detect cracks or any other irregularities in the airframe
structure and engine components which are obviously not visible to the naked eye.
Use of NDT: -
Flaw detection & evaluation, Leak Detection, Location Determination.
In the present trend of NDT application on aircraft 70-80% of NDT is performed on the
airframe, structure, landing gears and the rest carried out on engine & related components.
In order to maintain the aircraft defects free and ensure high degree of quality & reliability
and as a part of inspection programme, usually following NDT methods are applied.

Liquid penetrant test


Penetrant Examination is performed with a dye solution. Once applied to the surface, the dye
will effectively penetrate any surface-breaking cavity. Excess solution is removed from the
object. A developer is then applied to draw out any penetrant that remains unseen. With
fluorescent dyes, ultravio let light is used to make the bleed-out fluoresce brightly,
allowing imperfections to b e readily seen. With visible dyes, a color contrast between the
penetrant and developer makes the "bleed-out" easy to see. Example: Hawk Mk132 –
canopy – lever, crank shaft, handles.

Magnetic particle detection


Magnetic Particle Examination is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field into a
ferromagnetic material and applying iron particles to the surface of the item being examined.
Surface and near-surface discontinuities affect the flow of the magnetic field within the part
causing the applied particles to gather at locations of flux leakage, thus producing a visible
indication of the irregularity on the surface of the material.

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Example: Airbus A320 components – bush, threaded bush etc.


Ultrasonic inspection test
Ultrasonic inspection operates on the principle of 'transmitted' & 'reflected' sound wave.
Sound has a constant velocity in a given substance; therefore, a change in the acoustical
impedance of the material causes a change in the sound velocity at that point producing
an echo. The distance of the acoustical impedance (flaw) can be determined if the velocity of
the sound in the test material, and the time taken for the sound to reach & return from the flaw
is known.
Ultrasonic inspection is usually performed with two techniques (i) Reflection (Pulse echo)
technique (ii) Through transmission technique. 'Pulse echo' technique is most widely used in
aircraft maintenance inspection.
Equipment: The ultrasonic flaw detection equipment comprises with the following basic
elements: (i) Cathode ray oscilloscope (ii) Timing Circuit (iii) Rategenerator (iv) RF pulser
(v) Amplifier & (vi) Transducer (search unit).

2.12 HAWK WING ASSEMBLY


The wings are the primary lifting surfaces for the aircraft. A wing is a type of fin with a surface,
which produces aerodynamic force for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere. The
airflow over the wing is what generates the vast majority of lifting force necessary for flight. In
the event that the wings are not functioning properly during the aircraft’s pre-flight inspection, a
skilled aircraft dispatcher will delay the flight until the wing is properly fixed and functioning.
The parts of wings of hawk are assembled here. They are either individual parts or sub-
assemblies.
Wing May be attached at the top, middle, or lower portion of the fuselage. Hawk wing is
made up of three major components.
Spars: This structure running parallel to the length of the given wing. In a fixed-wing aircraft, the
spar is often the main structural member of the wing, running spanwise at right angles (or
thereabouts depending on wing sweep) to the fuselage. The spar carries flight loads and the
weight of the wings while on the ground.
Ribs: structures perpendicular to the length of the wing. There are 16 Ribs for the Hawk
wing out of which 3 are machined and rest of them are made by sheet metal process.
Wing skin panel: this machined by twin spindle 5 axis CNC profiler in hawk machine shop.

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Assembly process steps


Currently, this is a labor-intensive process using manual drilling and fastening methods with
dedicated jigs and fixtures. Wing assembly is particularly intensive, requiring a large number
of holes to be precisely drilled and counter-sunk in the skins, through which rivets are later
driven.
1. The structure of the wing takes its shape in assembly Jigs and fixtures.
2. Ribs and spars are loaded in a set sequence. Those are fixed to wing skin by fasteners
and riveting. The joints are sealed using Polymerized Rubber Compound (PRC).
3. Drill the holes on wing skin and inserts the fasteners to attach stringers to the skin panels
in a continuous operation.
4. Wings can also be used to store fuel. To avoid leakage of the fuel the joints are sealed
using Polymerized Rubber Compound (PRC).
5. Aileron and flaps are hinged to the trailing edge of wing structure. After both ailerons and
flaps are securely hinged, firmly grasp the wing panel and aileron to make sure the hinges
are securely glued and cannot be pulled out. Do this by carefully applying medium
pressure, trying to separate the aileron from the wing panel. Use caution not to c r u s h
the wing structure.
6. The hinge is constructed of a special material that allows the C/A glue to wick or
penetrate and distribute throughout the hinge, securely bonding it to the structure of the
wing panel and aileron.
7. The finished wing is cleaned and sealed from the inside to ensure a leakproof fuel
compartment.
8. Pylons are attached under wings to carry the payload.

2.13 HAWK FINAL ASSEMBLY


On completion, the various subassemblies are brought together for final assembly.
1. During final assembly, the fuselage sections are riveted together around a supporting
structure. Floor beams and stringers are installed and the interior coated with a corrosion
inhibiting compound.
2. Cockpit assembly is joined to forward (fore) fuselage. Fore and aft fuselage sections are
joined to the wings and wing stub (a boxlike structure that serves as a main fuel tank and
the structural center of the aircraft).
3. The wing is attached to the fuselage through reinforced fuselage frames, frequently by

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bolts. In some aircraft, the wing spars are continuous through the fuselage depending on
the demands of space.
4. The tail plane is attached to pick up points on the relevant fuselage frames. vertical
stabilizer is generally mounted on aft fuselage with joint. the front and rear spars are
attached to aft fuselage bulkheads by either permanent joint or fittings.
5. Power plants and landing and nose gear are mounted, and avionic components are installed.
6. The functioning of all components is thoroughly tested prior to towing the completed
aircraft to a separate, well ventilated paint hanger, where a protective primer coat
(normally zinc chromate based) is applied, followed by a decorative topcoat of urethane
or epoxy paint as shown in figure10.
7. Prior to deliver the aircraft is put through a rigorous series of ground and flight tests.

Figure 10: -Final Assembled Hawk MK1322(source: - https://goo.gl/images/Ln2vDU)

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3 CONCLUSION

Since its inception in 1940, the company has grown into a giant aviation complex spread all
over India and employing a versatile work f o r c e of trained, highly skilled & experienced
persons. It enjoys a monopoly in India.
Recently a light combat aircraft (LCA) has been designed indigenously in the country with the
advancement of new technology & highly skilled scientists and with the cooperation of various
agencies. It is double that of MIG-21. A time will come when India too will have stood in the
world market of aircraft.
I am grateful to have been able to get the opportunity to pursue my industrial training at
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited. I had a good learning experience at HAL. I was introduced
some state of technologies that are used to manufacture our defence aircrafts. I learnt
various manufacturing techniques that are used in production, how materials are treated based
on their role and finally how assemblies of aircraft are done.

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4 REFERENCE

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindustan_Aeronautics_Limited
2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BAE_Systems_Hawk
3. http://aermech.in/hal-hawk-mk-132-bae-hawkadvanced-jet-trainer-ajt-
indian-armed-forces/

4. http://www.experimentalaircraft.info/articles/aircraft-construction
5. Welcome to Hindustan Aeronautics Limited | India

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